WorldWideScience

Sample records for premature aging disorders

  1. Progeria: a rare genetic premature ageing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Shampa; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-05-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs). As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent 'drug of hope' for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  2. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of a number of clinically heterogeneous rare genetic disorders that come under the umbrella of progeroid syndromes (PSs. As per the latest clinical trial reports, Lonafarnib, a farnesyltranferase inhibitor, is a potent ′drug of hope′ for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS and has been successful in facilitating weight gain and improving cardiovascular and skeletal pathologies in progeroid children. This can be considered as the dawn of a new era in progeria research and thus, an apt time to review the research developments in this area highlighting the molecular aspects, experimental models, promising drugs in trial and their implications to gain a better understanding of PSs.

  3. Progeria: A rare genetic premature ageing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Kumar Sinha; Shampa Ghosh; Manchala Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Progeria is characterized by clinical features that mimic premature ageing. Although the mutation responsible for this syndrome has been deciphered, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. Progeria research has gained momentum particularly in the last two decades because of the possibility of revealing evidences about the ageing process in normal and other pathophysiological conditions. Various experimental models, both in vivo and in vitro, have been developed in an effort to understand...

  4. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); M. Alanazi; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past decades, the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as 'disease of the genes' has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer, recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair

  5. Premature aging syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  6. Radiological Diagnosis of a Rare Premature Aging Genetic Disorder: Progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Mohammed Nazir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is a rare disease with a combination of short stature, bone abnormalities, premature ageing, and skin changes. Though the physical appearance of these patients is characteristic, there is little emphasis on the characteristic radiological features. In this paper, we report a 16-year-old boy with clinical and radiological features of this rare genetic disorder. He had a characteristic facial appearance with a large head, large eyes, thin nose with beaked tip, small chin, protruding ears, prominent scalp veins, and absence of hair.

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases. PMID:23257959

  8. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases.

  9. Transformation Resistance in a Premature Aging Disorder Identifies a Tumor-Protective Function of BRD4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernandez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced age and DNA damage accumulation are prominent risk factors for cancer. The premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS provides a unique opportunity for studying the interplay between DNA damage and aging-associated tumor mechanisms, given that HGPS patients do not develop tumors despite elevated levels of DNA damage. Here, we have used HGPS patient cells to identify a protective mechanism to oncogenesis. We find that HGPS cells are resistant to neoplastic transformation. Resistance is mediated by the bromodomain protein BRD4, which exhibits altered genome-wide binding patterns in transformation-resistant cells, leading to inhibition of oncogenic dedifferentiation. BRD4 also inhibits, albeit to a lower extent, the tumorigenic potential of transformed cells from healthy individuals. BRD4-mediated tumor protection is clinically relevant given that a BRD4 gene signature predicts positive clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer. Our results demonstrate a protective function for BRD4 and suggest tissue-specific roles for BRD4 in tumorigenesis.

  10. [The relationship between metabolic disorders and small for gestational age with idiopathic premature adrenarche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejorado Molano, Francisco Javier; Andrés Zallo, Laura; Fornos Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez Segura, Pilar; Gavela Pérez, Teresa; Sanz Calvo, María Luisa; Soriano Guillén, Leandro

    2016-11-09

    There is still controversy on the relationship between idiopathic premature adrenarche (IPA) and a history of small for gestational age, as well as the concomitant presence of obesity and other metabolic disturbances. An attempt is made to study these potential associations in a cohort of girls with IPA from our hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted that included girls with a diagnosis of IPA from the Paediatric Department of the Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Madrid, Spain) between January 2007 and May 2015. A record was made of family and personal history with perinatal data, as well as anthropometric data and biochemical values at the time of diagnosis. Out of a total of 76 girls with IPA, 2.7% had a history of small for gestational age. When body mass index was analysed according to modified criteria of WHO 2007/Cole 2000, 11.8% were overweight, and 11.8% were obese at diagnosis. Using the criteria set by the Spanish Ministry of Health, 6.6% were overweight and 18.4% obese, with 21.2% of the girls being insulin resistance, and 13.95% having dyslipidaemia. None of them had hypertension. From a comparative analysis between normal and overweight and obesity IPA girls, the latter had significantly higher levels of triglycerides and insulin, a higher HOMA index, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. IPA girls included in the study do not have a higher prevalence of small for gestational age compared to the general population. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls with IPA is not higher than the prevalence in the normal population. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Premature birth as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Rachel L; Matson, Johnny L

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is common, life-long in nature, and can be very debilitating. Thus, an intensive search is on to identify the potential risk factors for the disorder. Premature birth has been identified as one potential factor that could influence potential symptoms of ASD. The sample for this study consisted of 1655 at risk children for developmental delays who were 17-37 months of age. Participants were divided into those diagnosed with ASD (n = 916) and children with atypical development only (n = 739). Premature births were almost twice as common for the atypical development group versus the ASD group. Implications of these data are discussed.

  12. Cloned Sheep May Age Prematurely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; B.Verrengia; 孙颖

    1999-01-01

    1996年的头条科技新闻之一是:多利羊被克隆成功。世人曾为消息雀跃,以为克隆技术马上可以造福人类了,而且科幻作家也开始忙碌起来。而今,当多利羊过3岁生日时,人们却伤感地发现: In Dolly’s case,she is 3,but her genetic material is aging at the rate of the6-year-old sheep from which she was cloned. 这就是所谓aging prematurely。这则消息给人们带来的忧虑有两条。一是:被克隆的动物的预期寿命比人们想象的要短;二是:人们是否能够有效利用克隆的人体细胞去治疗疾病。目前,科学家们的担心还是集中于后者。本书收入的另一篇有关克隆的文章(It’s A Boy!Scientists Clone First Male Mammal)和本篇构成了强烈的对照,可谓一喜一忧。然而,无论喜忧,人类在克隆技术方面正在以坚实的步伐向前迈进。

  13. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  14. The epidemiology of premature aging and associated comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppedè F

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Coppedè Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome and Werner syndrome, also known as childhood- and adulthood-progeria, respectively, represent two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. The discovery of their genetic basis has led to the identification of several gene mutations leading to a spectrum of progeroid phenotypes ranging from moderate and mild–severe to very aggressive forms. In parallel, the creation of disease registers and databases provided available data for the design of relatively large-scale epidemiological studies, thereby allowing a better understanding of the nature and frequency of the premature aging-associated signs and symptoms. The aim of this article is to review the most recent findings concerning the epidemiology of premature aging disorders, their genetic basis, and the most recent reports on the frequency of associated diseases. Keywords: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome, Werner syndrome, premature aging disorders, epidemiology, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, genetics, sign and symptoms

  15. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  16. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

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    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  17. The relationship between premature birth and caregiver first concern in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Rachel L; Matson, Johnny L; Matheis, Maya; Jang, Jina

    2017-05-01

    The current study examines the relationship between premature birth and the age at which caregivers first become concerned with their child's development in a sample of 84 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were split into two groups: those born prematurely and those born full term. The results indicate that the age of caregiver first concern is significantly younger for those born prematurely than those born full term. The average age caregivers reported first becoming concerned about their child's development was around 7 months for participants born prematurely and around 13 months for participants born full term. Possible explanations for the results and their implications are discussed.

  18. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Median age at death as an indicator of premature mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Jannerfeldt, Eric; Hörte, Lars-Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    The median age at death from certain diseases was calculated for each year for 1969-85 and compared with that at death from all causes. The results indicated the impact of these diseases in terms of premature mortality and changes over time. Cancer was a more important cause of premature mortality among women than among men. For cancer of the cervix the median age at death increased appreciably whereas for cancer of the lung in women it slightly decreased. The median age at death is easy to c...

  20. Specific premature epigenetic aging of cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Mera-Varela, Antonio; Rego-Perez, Ignacio; Horvath, Steve; Zhang, Yuhua; del Real, Álvaro; Zhai, Guangju; Blanco, Francisco J; Riancho, Jose A.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease affecting multiple tissues of the joints in the elderly, but most notably articular cartilage. Premature biological aging has been described in this tissue and in blood cells, suggesting a systemic component of premature aging in the pathogenesis of OA. Here, we have explored epigenetic aging in OA at the local (cartilage and bone) and systemic (blood) levels. Two DNA methylation age-measures (DmAM) were used: the multi-tissue age estimator for cartilage and bone; and a blood-specific biomarker for blood. Differences in DmAM between OA patients and controls showed an accelerated aging of 3.7 years in articular cartilage (95 % CI = 1.1 to 6.3, P = 0.008) of OA patients. By contrast, no difference in epigenetic aging was observed in bone (0.04 years; 95 % CI = −1.8 to 1.9, P = 0.3) and in blood (−0.6 years; 95 % CI = −1.5 to 0.3, P = 0.2) between OA patients and controls. Therefore, premature epigenetic aging according to DNA methylation changes was specific of OA cartilage, adding further evidence and insight on premature aging of cartilage as a component of OA pathogenesis that reflects damage and vulnerability. PMID:27689435

  1. Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Philip C; Perlman, Christopher M; Ross, Stuart A; Gates, April L

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed.

  2. Impact of prematurity on language skills at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A R; Channell, Ron W; Petrill, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control group of twins born at full term, analyzing both standardized test results and language sample data from the population-based Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP; Petrill, Deater-Deckard, Thompson, DeThorne, & Schatschneider, 2006). Fifty-seven children born prematurely, at ≤32 weeks or children born at full term and were matched for age, gender, race, and parental education. Data included discourse-level language samples and standardized test results, collected at average ages 7, 8, and 10 years. The language samples were analyzed to yield a number of semantic and syntactic measures that were consolidated via factor analysis. Regression models showed significant differences between the 2 groups for standardized test results, although the mean score for both groups fell in the normal range. For the discourse-level language measures, however, differences never reached statistical significance. Parental education was significantly associated with improved standardized test scores. These findings suggest that in the absence of frank neurological impairment, sophisticated semantic and syntactic skills may be relatively intact in the discourse-level language of children born prematurely. Implications for assessment, particularly the potential role of attention and executive function in standardized testing tasks, are reviewed.

  3. Premature ovarian failure (POF): discordance between somatic and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette

    2002-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a unique example of isolated organ senescence, with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Though the phenotypic expression of POF is similar to that of age-appropriate natural menopause, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are diverse and not entirely clear. The impact of POF on the patient is profound, with myriad ramifications, ranging from psychological devastation to multi-system implications of estrogen deprivation and its sequelae. The hastening of degenerative changes noted in these patients however, are not entirely ameliorated with estrogen replacement and POF may indeed represent an acceleration of the aging process.

  4. Risk factors for premature death in middle aged men

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Bo; Trell, Erik; Henningsen, Nels-Christian; Hood, Bertil

    1984-01-01

    The causes of premature death and the associated risk factors were analysed in a cohort of 7935 middle aged men participating in a preventive population programme in Malmö. They were screened when aged 46-48 and then followed up for 3½-8 years. Two hundred and eighteen died, of whom 181 (83%) underwent necropsy. Three major causes of death were established: cancer in 61 (28%), deaths related to consumption of alcohol in 55 (25%), and coronary heart disease in 50 (23%).

  5. Premature ageing prevention: limitations and perspectives of pharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-11-01

    A significant increase of the elderly in populations of developed countries is followed by increase morbidity and mortality from main age-related diseases--cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative, cancer, diabetes mellitus, declining in a resistance to infections. Obviously, the development of means of the prevention of the premature ageing and these diseases in humans are crucial at present. However, data on such type means rather scarce, contradictory and often not reliable from the points of view of the adequacy of the experiments to current scientific requirements, as well as the interpretation of the results and safety. Available data on the life span extension and adverse effects of chemical compounds and drugs suggested as geroprotectors are critically analyzed: antidiabetic drugs, growth and thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, DHEA, sex steroids and contraceptives, melatonin and peptide preparations modulating the pineal gland, antioxidants, chelate agents and lathyrogens, adaptogens and herbs, neurotropic drugs, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase, immunomodulators and some other. Most of the results could not convincingly evidence the life span extension and safety of the suggested geroprotectors. We believe that it is necessary to establish an international program for the expert evaluation of the life span extension potential of pharmacological interventions for humans. The scope of the program should be to evaluate chemical, immunological, dietary and behavioural interventions that may lead to life span extension or retard premature ageing and the objective--preparation of critical reviews and evaluations on evidence of the life span extending properties of a wide range of potential geroprotectors and strategies by international groups of working experts. The program may assist national and international authorities in devising programs of health promotion and premature ageing prevention.

  6. Cellular senescence in normal and premature lung aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, B

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of chronic respiratory diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) and interstitial lung diseases (e.g., pneumonia and lung fibrosis) increases with age. In addition to immune senescence, the accumulation of senescent cells directly in lung tissue might play a critical role in the increased prevalence of these pulmonary diseases. In the last couple of years, detailed studies have identified the presence of senescent cells in the aging lung and in diseased lungs of patients with COPD and lung fibrosis. Cellular senescence has been shown for epithelial cells of bronchi and alveoli as well as mesenchymal and vascular cells. Known risk factors for pulmonary diseases (cigarette smoke, air pollutions, bacterial infections, etc.) were identified in experimental studies as being possible mediators in the development of cellular senescence. The present findings indicate the importance of cellular senescence in normal lung aging and in premature aging of the lung in patients with COPD, lung fibrosis, and probably other respiratory diseases.

  7. Psychiatric disorder in early adulthood and risk of premature mortality in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of the association between psychiatric disorder and premature death have adjusted for key confounders and used structured psychiatric interviews. We aimed to investigate if psychiatric disorder was associated with a higher risk of mortality and whether any excess mortality was due to suicide, or explained by other health or socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative UK birth cohort. 3283 men and women completed the Present State Examination at age 36. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality before age 60. Results Those with psychiatric disorder at age 36 had a higher risk of death even after adjusting for potential confounders (Hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% C.I. 1.22-2.78. Censoring violent deaths and suicides led to similar results. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder was associated with excess premature mortality not explained by suicide or other health or socioeconomic risk factors.

  8. Molecular insights into the premature aging disease progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an extremely rare premature aging disease presenting many features resembling the normal aging process. HGPS patients die before the age of 20 years due to cardiovascular problems and heart failure. HGPS is linked to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the intermediate filament protein lamin A. Lamin A is a major component of the nuclear lamina, a scaffold structure at the nuclear envelope that defines mechanochemical properties of the nucleus and is involved in chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation. Lamin A is also present in the nuclear interior where it fulfills lamina-independent functions in cell signaling and gene regulation. The most common LMNA mutation linked to HGPS leads to mis-splicing of the LMNA mRNA and produces a mutant lamin A protein called progerin that tightly associates with the inner nuclear membrane and affects the dynamic properties of lamins. Progerin expression impairs many important cellular processes providing insight into potential disease mechanisms. These include changes in mechanosignaling, altered chromatin organization and impaired genome stability, and changes in signaling pathways, leading to impaired regulation of adult stem cells, defective extracellular matrix production and premature cell senescence. In this review, we discuss these pathways and their potential contribution to the disease pathologies as well as therapeutic approaches used in preclinical and clinical tests.

  9. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  10. Prematurely aged children: molecular alterations leading to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gerpe, Lourdes; Araújo-Vilar, David

    2008-12-01

    Ageing is thought to be a polygenic and stochastic process in which multiple mechanisms operate at the same time. At the level of the individual organism ageing is associated with a progressive deterioration of health and quality of life, sharing common features such as: alopecia and grey hair, loss of audition, macular degeneration, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataract formation, type-2 diabetes, lipodystrophies; a generally increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disorders and diseases such as cancer; and an impaired ability to cope with stress. Recent studies of mechanisms involved in the ageing process are contributing to the identification of genes involved in longevity. Monogenic heritable disorders causing premature ageing, and animal models have contributed to the understanding of some of the characteristic organism-level features associated with human ageing. Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are the best characterized human disorders. Werner syndrome patients have a median life expectancy of 47 years with clinical conditions from the second decade of life. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome patients die at a median age of 11-13 years with clinical conditions appearing soon after birth. In both syndromes, alterations in specific genes have been identified, with mutations in the WRN and LMNA genes respectively being the most closely associated with each syndrome. Results from molecular studies strongly suggest an increase in DNA damage and cell senescence as the underlying mechanism of pathological premature ageing in these two human syndromes. The same general mechanism has also been observed in human cells undergoing the normal ageing process. In the present article the molecular mechanisms currently proposed for explaining these two syndromes, which may also partly explain the normal ageing process, are reviewed.

  11. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  12. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  13. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  14. [Gait characteristics of women with fibromyalgia: a premature aging pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics of aging, progeria and lamin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shrestha; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2014-06-01

    Premature aging disorders, like Werner syndrome, Bloom's syndrome, and Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), have been the subjects of immense interest as they recapitulate many of the phenotypes observed in physiological aging. They, therefore, not only provide model systems to study normal aging processes but also give valuable insights into the intricate mechanisms underlying senescence. Recent works on HGPS have revealed alterations in a spectrum of cellular and molecular pathways involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity, thus suggesting a profound impact of the nuclear lamina in nuclear organization, chromatin dynamics, regulation of gene expression and epigenetics.

  16. LMNA-Associated Cardiocutaneous Progeria: a Novel Autosomal Dominant Premature Aging Syndrome with Late Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S.; Lindsay, Mark E.; Judge, Daniel P.; Barrowman, Jemima; Rhys, Colette Ap; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C.; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a well-characterized premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. Emerging evidence indicates that LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: 1) the processing-deficient, early onset “typical” progerias (e.g. HGPS), and 2) the processing-proficient “atypical” progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a novel progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that causes LCPS is a heterozygous missense mutation resulting in an amino acid substitution (D300G) in the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease. PMID:23666920

  17. LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria: an inherited autosomal dominant premature aging syndrome with late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S; Lindsay, Mark E; Judge, Daniel P; Barrowman, Jemima; Ap Rhys, Colette; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, which encodes the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: (1) the processing-deficient, early onset "typical" progerias (e.g., HGPS), and (2) the processing-proficient "atypical" progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a previously unrecognized progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that caused LCPS in this family is a heterozygous c.899A>G (p.D300G) mutation predicted to alter the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors, as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease.

  18. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  19. Muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aierdi, Alba Judith; Goicoechea, Maria; Aiastui, Ana; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Garcia-Puga, Mikel; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 or Steinert's disease) and type 2 (DM2) are multisystem disorders of genetic origin. Progressive muscular weakness, atrophy and myotonia are the most prominent neuromuscular features of these diseases, while other clinical manifestations such as cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance and cataracts are also common. From a clinical perspective, most DM symptoms are interpreted as a result of an accelerated aging (cataracts, muscular weakness and atrophy, cognitive decline, metabolic dysfunction, etc.), including an increased risk of developing tumors. From this point of view, DM1 could be described as a progeroid syndrome since a notable age-dependent dysfunction of all systems occurs. The underlying molecular disorder in DM1 consists of the existence of a pathological (CTG) triplet expansion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene, whereas (CCTG)n repeats in the first intron of the Cellular Nucleic acid Binding Protein/Zinc Finger Protein 9 (CNBP/ZNF9) gene cause DM2. The expansions are transcribed into (CUG)n and (CCUG)n-containing RNA, respectively, which form secondary structures and sequester RNA-binding proteins, such as the splicing factor muscleblind-like protein (MBNL), forming nuclear aggregates known as foci. Other splicing factors, such as CUGBP, are also disrupted, leading to a spliceopathy of a large number of downstream genes linked to the clinical features of these diseases. Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on muscle progenitor cells, known as satellite cells, which are activated after muscle damage, and which proliferate and differentiate to muscle cells, thus regenerating the damaged tissue. Satellite cell dysfunction seems to be a common feature of both age-dependent muscle degeneration (sarcopenia) and muscle wasting in DM and other muscle degenerative diseases. This review aims to describe the cellular, molecular and macrostructural processes involved in the muscular

  20. Muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Judith eMateos-Aierdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 or Steinert’s disease and type II (DM2 are multisystem disorders of genetic origin. Progressive muscular weakness, atrophy and myotonia are the most prominent neuromuscular features of these diseases, and other clinical manifestations such as cardiomyopathy, insulin-resistance and cataracts are also common. From a clinical perspective, most DM symptoms are interpreted as a result of an accelerated aging (cataracts, muscular weakness and atrophy, cognitive decline, metabolic dysfunction, etc., including an increased risk of developing tumors. From this point of view, DM1 could be described as a progeroid syndrome since a notable age-dependent dysfunction of all systems occurs. The underlying molecular disorder in DM1 consists of the existence of a pathological (CTGn triplet expansion in the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene, whereas (CCTGn repeats in the first intron of the CNBP/ZNF9 gene cause DM2. The expansions are transcribed into (CUGn and (CCUGn-containing RNA, respectively, which form secondary structures and sequester RNA-binding proteins, such as the splicing factor muscleblind-like protein (MBNL, forming nuclear aggregates known as foci. Other splicing factors, such as CUGBP, are also disrupted, leading to a spliceopathy of a large number of downstream genes linked to the clinical features of these diseases. Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on muscle progenitor cells, known as satellite cells, which are activated after muscle damage, and which proliferate and differentiate to muscle cells, thus regenerating the damaged tissue. Satellite cell dysfunction seems to be a common feature of both age-dependent muscle degeneration (sarcopenia and muscle wasting in DM and other muscle degenerative diseases. This review aims to describe the cellular, molecular and macrostructural processes involved in the muscular degeneration seen in DM patients, highlighting the similarities found with muscle aging.

  1. Congenital Heart Disease in Premature Infants 25-32 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Patricia Y; Li, Jennifer S; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Hornik, Christoph P; Hill, Kevin D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) across the spectrum of common defects in very/extremely premature infants and to compare mortality rates between premature infants with and without CHDs. The Kids' Inpatient Databases (2003-2012) were used to estimate the birth prevalence of CHDs (excluding patent ductus arteriosus) in very/extremely premature infants born between 25 and 32 weeks' gestational age. Birth prevalence was compared with term infants for a subset of "severe" defects expected to be near universally diagnosed in the neonatal period. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate aORs of mortality comparing very and extremely premature infants with vs without CHDs. We identified 249 011 very/extremely premature infants, including 28 806 with CHDs. The overall birth prevalence of CHDs was 116 per 1000 very/extremely premature births. Severe CHDs had significantly higher birth prevalence in very/extremely premature infants when compared with term infants (7.4 per 1000 very/premature births vs 1.5 per 1000 term births; P premature infants with severe CHDs had an overall 26.3% in-hospital mortality and a 7.5-fold increased adjusted odds of death compared with those without CHDs. Mortality varied widely by defect in very/extremely premature infants, ranging from 12% for interrupted aortic arch to 67% for truncus arteriosus. Given the increased birth prevalence of severe CHDs in very/extremely premature infants, and significantly higher mortality, there is justification for intensive interventions aimed at decreasing the likelihood of premature delivery for patients where CHD is diagnosed in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between premature ageing and immune responses in the oral cavity of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Tanaka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal disorder resulting in various abnormalities such as mental retardation, immunodeficiency and physical abnormities. Especially, abnormality of the immune function is important pathological features in this syndrome, and leads to increased susceptibility to viral or bacterial infections. Interestingly, several studies have showed that they have high susceptibility of severe periodontal disease, even though they have lower or equal prevalence of dental caries. Many studies have attempted to clarify this phenomenon but it remains unsolved. It is also well known that DS is a premature ageing syndrome. DS has been considered as a model of precocious, abnormal ageing of immune function in human. Age-related declines in immune function cause more susceptibility to infections in the elderly. In addition, it is well known that ageing is related with telomere shortening. Furthermore, DS has an accelerated telomere shortening. However, there are only a few reports that focus on the relations among ageing, telomere length and high susceptibility of oral infectious disease in individuals with DS. Therefore, we summarize our current knowledge on the relations between the oral disease and immunodeficiency in individuals with DS taking account of telomere shortening and ageing.

  3. Prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions induce impaired Oct-1 activity and autophagy in prematurely aged human mesenchymal stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Arantza; Gago, Andrea; de Eguino, Garbiñe Ruiz; Calvo-Fernández, Teresa; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi; Schlangen, Karin; Fullaondo, Ane; Aransay, Ana M; Martín, Abraham; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2014-04-01

    Aging, a time-dependent functional decline of biological processes, is the primary risk factor in developing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or degenerative diseases. There is a real need to understand the human aging process in order to increase the length of disease-free life, also known as "health span". Accumulation of progerin and prelamin A are the hallmark of a group of premature aging diseases but have also been found during normal cellular aging strongly suggesting similar mechanisms between healthy aging and LMNA-linked progeroid syndromes. How this toxic accumulation contributes to aging (physiological or pathological) remains unclear. Since affected tissues in age-associated disorders and in pathological aging are mainly of mesenchymal origin we propose a model of human aging based on mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) which accumulate prelamin A. We demonstrate that prelamin A-accumulating hMSCs have a premature aging phenotype which affects their functional competence in vivo. The combination of prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions enhance the aging phenotype by dysregulating the activity of the octamer binding protein Oct-1This experimental model has been fundamental to identify a new role for Oct-1 in hMSCs aging.

  4. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    hospital admissions later in life. METHODS: Using Danish nation-wide registries we created a cohort of 1,348,106 persons born 1974-1996 and assessed all unique diagnoses registered in the Danish Patient Registry (DPR) for hospital admissions in the period 1994-2007 (n=27,910,558). We determined the odds...... in life. CONCLUSION: Being born premature or SGA was associated with significantly altered risks of being admitted to a hospital with a wide range of diseases later in life, affecting almost all organ systems throughout childhood and early adulthood. Our findings may motivate testing in other cohorts...

  5. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain: Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cortés Castell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal age is a preponderant variable in the epidemiological analysis of the premature birth. Studies show that in the extreme ages of the maternal life there is a risk of premature birth that generates a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Objetives: Determine the effect on the extreme ages of women residents in the province of Alicante on the total of the premature births. Method: An explanatory, retrospective case-control study was conducted during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. The study was based on the revision of the newborn registers from the Neonatal Screening Center of the province of Alicante. All the preterm were included, this means between 22 & 36 complete weeks of pregnancy (5,295 out of 78,391 newborn which represents 6.75% of prematurity, and a random sample of the deliveries with 37 weeks or more of pregnancy (control group. The age of the mother was studied as independent variable and the prematurity as dependent variable. Results: Clearly shows an increased risk of prematurity among teenage mothers compared to the age group nearest to them, which is confirmed by a squared Chi test which gives a significantly different distribution (p < 0,0001 and an OD for very preterm of 2,41 (1,51-3,24 and of preterm of 1,71 (1,32-2,19. This probability is also higher among mothers over 40 years old with an OD of 1,86 (1,39-2,48 and 1,66 (1,44-1,91 for very preterm newborns and preterm newborns respectively. Discussion: The results clearly manifest that teenagers and older pregnant mothers are at higher prematurity and low birth weight risk, therefore imposes the need to trace educational interventions to minimize this problem from the results in this research.

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  8. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Compared to Premenopausal Women at Middle Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Nadine M P; Muka, Taulant; Koster, Maria P H; Roeters van Lennep, Jaenine E; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Fauser, Clemens G K M; Meun, Cindy; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Boersma, Eric; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A young age at menopause has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular risk profile between women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premenopausal controls of comparable age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control st

  9. No support for premature central nervous system aging in HIV-1 when measured by cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau (p-tau)

    OpenAIRE

    Krut, J. J.; Price, R W; Zetterberg, H; Fuchs, D.; Hagberg, L.; YILMAZ, A.; Cinque, P.; Nilsson, S; Gisslén, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of neurocognitive deficits are reported to be high in HIV-1 positive patients, even with suppressive antiretroviral treatment, and it has been suggested that HIV can cause accelerated aging of the brain. In this study we measured phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a potential marker for premature central nervous system (CNS) aging. P-tau increases with normal aging but is not affected by HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. METHODS: With ...

  10. The Premature Aging Hypothesis: Old Before Its Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Joel H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered California Verbal Learning Test to young and old alcoholics and controls. Alcoholism and aging produced similar levels of immediate and delayed free recall. However, poor recognition memory and more frequent intrusion and false positive errors were associated with alcoholism but not with aging. Results suggest that alcoholism and…

  11. Premature aging in skeletal muscle lacking serum response factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lahoute

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.

  12. Uremia causes premature ageing of the T cell compartment in end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijers Ruud WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT have premature immunologically aged T cells which may underlie uremia-associated immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia was able to induce premature ageing of the T cell compartment. For this purpose, we examined the degree of premature immunological T cell ageing by examining the T cell differentiation status, thymic output via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC content and proliferative history via relative telomere length in ESRD patients not on RRT. Results Compared to healthy controls, these patients already had a lower TREC content and an increased T cell differentiation accompanied by shorter telomeres. RRT was able to enhance CD8+ T cell differentiation and to reduce CD8+ T cell telomere length in young dialysis patients. An increased differentiation status of memory CD4+ T cells was also noted in young dialysis patients. Conclusion Based on these results we can conclude that uremia already causes premature immunological ageing of the T cell system and RRT further increases immunological ageing of the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular in young ESRD patients.

  13. Leaving College Prematurely: The Experiences of Nontraditional-Age College Students With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Ebanks, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of former nontraditional-age students with depression and reasons that led them to leave college prematurely. Constant comparative methods were used to illuminate themes within and across participants' stories. The findings showcase eight complex interlocking factors that these former students…

  14. Leaving College Prematurely: The Experiences of Nontraditional-Age College Students With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Ebanks, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of former nontraditional-age students with depression and reasons that led them to leave college prematurely. Constant comparative methods were used to illuminate themes within and across participants' stories. The findings showcase eight complex interlocking factors that these former students…

  15. Coronary risk factors and metabolic disorders in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, C.A.; Halkes, C.J.M.; De Jaegere, P.P.Th.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Cabezas, M. Castro

    2006-01-01

    Aims Despite agreement on the need for screening for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree family members of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD), this is not routinely carried out in relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in family members of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature CAD. Methods Eligible index subjects were patients with premature CAD (6.5 mmol/l were excluded. Sixteen index subjects were included with a mean age of 49±8 years and total cholesterol levels of 5.5±0.8 mmol/l. Sixty-four first-degree relatives from these 16 pedigrees were screened, namely 18 children, 42 siblings and four parents. National Cholesterol Education Program III guidelines were used to identify candidates for lipid-lowering treatment. Furthermore, the presence of four additional metabolic disorders was investigated: the metabolic syndrome, increased levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), hyperhomocysteinaemia and postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Results Of 64 relatives free of CAD, 34 subjects (53%) fulfilled the criteria to receive therapeutic advice, 20 of whom (31% of the relatives) were candidates for drug therapy. Sixty-one relatives were available for a full assessment of metabolic disorders and in 37 relatives (61%) at least one metabolic abnormality was present. Twelve subjects had hyper-Lp(a), seven subjects had postprandial hyperlipidaemia and two had the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, 16 subjects had a combination of at least two out of four metabolic disorders. Conclusion Careful evaluation of coronary risk factors and metabolic variables in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic CAD patients identifies a significant number of subjects at increased coronary risk in whom primary prevention measures should be initiated. PMID:25696610

  16. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  17. GDF11 administration does not extend lifespan in a mouse model of premature aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Rodríguez, Sandra; Rodríguez, Francisco; Folgueras, Alicia R.

    2016-01-01

    GDF11 has recently emerged as a powerful anti-aging candidate, found in young blood, capable of rejuvenating a number of aged tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscle and brain. However, recent reports have shown contradictory data questioning its capacity to reverse age-related tissue dysfunction. The availability of a mouse model of accelerated aging, which shares most of the features occurring in physiological aging, gives us an excellent opportunity to test in vivo therapies aimed at extending lifespan both in pathological and normal aging. On this basis, we wondered whether the proposed anti-aging functions of GDF11 would have an overall effect on longevity. We first confirmed the existence of a reduction in GDF11/8 levels in our mouse model of accelerated aging compared with wild-type littermates. However, we show herein that GDF11 daily administration does not extend lifespan of premature-aged mice. PMID:27507054

  18. Premature ageing of the immune system underlies immunodeficiency in ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Andrew Robert; Buckenham, Samantha; Hodges, Elizabeth; Hallam, Robert; Byrd, Phil; Last, James; Trinder, Claire; Harris, Susan; Screaton, Nicholas; Williams, Anthony P; Taylor, A Malcolm R; Shneerson, John M

    2011-07-01

    ATM kinase modulates pathways implicated in premature ageing and ATM genotype predicts survival, yet immunodeficiency in ataxia telangiectasia is regarded as mild and unrelated to age. We address this paradox in a molecularly characterised sequential adult cohort with classical and mild variant ataxia telangiectasia. Immunodeficiency has the characteristics of premature ageing across multiple cellular and molecular immune parameters. This immune ageing occurs without previous CMV infection. Age predicts immunodeficiency in genetically homogeneous ataxia telangiectasia, and in comparison with controls, calendar age is exceeded by immunological age defined by thymic naïve CD4+ T cell levels. Applying ataxia telangiectasia as a model of immune ageing, pneumococcal vaccine responses, characteristically deficient in physiological ageing, are predicted by thymic naïve CD4+ T cell levels. These data suggest inherited defects of DNA repair may provide valuable insight into physiological ageing. Thymic naïve CD4+ T cells may provide a biomarker for vaccine responsiveness in elderly cohorts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

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    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gestational age of 31,7±2,7 weeks and a birth-weight of 1561.0±379.3 g were included in the study. Axial length measurements were done at a mean postconceptional age of 35.8 ±2.6 (31-40 and 39.8±2.7 (35-44 weeks, consecutively. The mean axial length at first and second visits were 16.43±0.42 mm (15.28-17.13 and 16.69±0.41 mm (15.60-17.70, consecutively (p

  20. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

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    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  1. Prognostic value of neonatal electroencephalography in premature newborns less than 33 weeks of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Parain, D; Ménard, J F; Blanc, T; Devaux, A M; Ensel, P; Fessard, C; Samson-Dollfus, D

    1997-03-01

    In a prospective study of 417 premature neonates born before 33 weeks' gestational age, neonatal tracings were reviewed to evaluate the use of EEG in prognosis of neurological injuries. The population was divided into two groups: Group 1, infants who died before the age of 1, and Group 2, survivors in which two categories of motor development were considered. Category A, were abnormal, and Category B, were always normal. Positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW), which reflect white matter injury, occurred equally in both groups, indicating a similar incidence of white matter damage in Groups 1 and 2. In Group 2, there was a significant correlation of PRSW with developmental motor sequelae (Category A). A frequency of PRSW above 2/min (suggesting more severe periventricular white matter injury) and seizures were significantly more prevalent in Group 1 than in Group 2 and in Category A of Group 2 than in Category B. Background abnormalities occurred equally in both subgroups of extremely premature infants ( 28 weeks' gestation) and extremely (< or = 28 weeks' gestation) premature newborns.

  2. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging Xpd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Yoon; Cho, Mi-Ook; Leonard, Shanique; Calder, Brent; Mian, I Saira; Kim, Woo Ho; Wijnhoven, Susan; van Steeg, Harry; Mitchell, James; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Cohen, Pinchas; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2008-06-11

    Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD) mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing Xpd(TTD) mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the Xpd(TTD) mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the Xpd(TTD) mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis.

  3. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging Xpd mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yoon Park

    Full Text Available Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W, display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing Xpd(TTD mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the Xpd(TTD mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the Xpd(TTD mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis.

  4. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  5. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, I. W.; Yeon, K. M. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  6. Telomerase Protects Werner Syndrome Lineage-Specific Stem Cells from Premature Aging

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    Hoi-Hung Cheung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS patients exhibit premature aging predominantly in mesenchyme-derived tissues, but not in neural lineages, a consequence of telomere dysfunction and accelerated senescence. The cause of this lineage-specific aging remains unknown. Here, we document that reprogramming of WS fibroblasts to pluripotency elongated telomere length and prevented telomere dysfunction. To obtain mechanistic insight into the origin of tissue-specific aging, we differentiated iPSCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs. We observed recurrence of premature senescence associated with accelerated telomere attrition and defective synthesis of the lagging strand telomeres in MSCs, but not in NPCs. We postulate this “aging” discrepancy is regulated by telomerase. Expression of hTERT or p53 knockdown ameliorated the accelerated aging phenotypein MSC, whereas inhibition of telomerase sensitized NPCs to DNA damage. Our findings unveil a role for telomerase in the protection of accelerated aging in a specific lineage of stem cells.

  7. Characterization of monoaminergic systems in brain regions of prematurely ageing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Monica; Hernanz, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Guayerbas, Noelia; Fernández, Beatriz; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that differences in life span among members of Swiss mouse populations appear to be related to their exploration of a T-maze, with a slow exploration ("slow mice") being linked to increased levels of emotionality/anxiety, an impaired immune function and a shorter life span. Thus, we proposed the slow mice as prematurely ageing mice (PAM). We have now compared the monoaminergic systems of the PAM and of the non-prematurely ageing mice (NPAM), in discrete brain regions. PAM had decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels in all the brain regions analysed, whereas the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG)/NA ratios were not significantly modified. PAM also showed decreased serotonine (5-HT) levels in hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain, as well as increased 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratios in hypothalamus and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) content was lower in PAM in most regions, whereas the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios were either increased or unchanged depending on the region analysed. In most cases, the differences between PAM and NPAM involved both sexes. One exception was the hypothalamus where the differences only affected the male mice. The neurochemical alterations found in PAM resemble some changes reported for aged animals and are related with their behavioural features.

  8. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  9. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  10. Hearing Disorders and Sensorineural Aging

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    Alessandra Fioretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological age-related hearing loss is defined as presbycusis and it is characterized by reduced hearing sensitivity and problems in understanding spoken language especially in a noisy environment. In elderly the reduced speech recognition is generally caused by a reduction of the cochlear cells in the organ of Corti and degeneration of the central auditory pathways. In order to have a complete management strategy of central and peripheral presbycusis the diagnostic evaluation should include clinical ENT examination, standard audiological tests, and tests of central auditory function. Treatment should include not only the appropriate instruments for peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling to prevent social isolation and loss of autonomy. Other common hearing disorders in elderly are tinnitus and hyperacusis which are often undervalued. Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of a “phantom” sound due to abnormal auditory perception. Hyperacusis is defined as a reduced tolerance to ordinary environmental sounds. Furthermore auditory, visual, nociceptive, and proprioceptive systems may be involved together in a possible context of “sensorineural aging.” The aim of this review is to underline the presence of hearing disorders like tinnitus and hyperacusis which in many cases coexist with hearing loss in elderly.

  11. Association of Gestational Hypertensive Disorders with Retinopathy of prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla Y. L.; Tang, Shu-Min; Au, Sunny C. L.; Rong, Shi-Song; Lau, Henry H. W.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Ng, Danny S. C.; Chen, Li Jia; Yam, Jason C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of gestational hypertensive disorders, which includes both pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension, in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between gestational hypertensive disoders and ROP. Eligible studies published up to June 5, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated the association between the two conditions. Totally 1142 published records were retrieved for screening, 925 of them eligible for detailed evaluation. Finally 19 studies involving 45281 infants with 5388 cases of ROP met our criteria for meta-analysis. Gestational hypertensive disorders were not associated with ROP (unadjusted OR: 0.89; P = 0.38; adjusted OR: 1.35; P = 0.18). Subgroup analyses also revealed no significant association between ROP with pre-eclampsia (unadjusted OR: 0.85; P = 0.29; adjusted OR:1.29; P = 0.28) or with gestational hypertension (unadjusted OR: 1.10; P = 0.39; adjusted OR: 1.25; P = 0.60) separately. Sensitivity analysis indicated our results were robust. We concluded no significant association between gestational hypertensive disorders and ROP. More large scale well-conducted prospective cohorts on the topic are needed. PMID:27491726

  12. Premature Birth and Large for Gestational Age Are Associated with Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-04-01

    Birth characteristics, including weight and gestational age, may be associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the only known precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma; however, data are limited. To examine associations between various birth characteristics and BE, and whether these associations are mediated by known risk factors for BE. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among eligible Veterans Affairs patients scheduled for an upper endoscopy, and a sample identified from primary care clinics. Participants underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy and completed a survey that captured information on sociodemographic and clinical factors, as well as birth information. We compared 263 patients with histologically confirmed BE to 1416 controls without BE on endoscopy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Premature birth was independently associated with risk of BE after adjusted by age, sex, race, and other birth characteristics (OR 3.28, 95 % CI 1.22-8.79). On the other hand, large for gestational age was inversely associated with risk of BE (OR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.21-0.98). These effects were stronger for patients with long-segment BE than with short-segment BE. The associations were not mediated by gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, use of proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter Pylori infection, waist-hip-ratio, height or the presence of hiatus hernia. Premature birth and large for gestational age may be associated with risk of BE in adults. These associations do not appear to be mediated through known risk factors for BE; however, additional studies are required to confirm our findings.

  13. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Alku, Paavo; Kushnerenko, Elena; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Luotonen, Mirja; Kaukola, Tuula; Tolonen, Uolevi; Hallman, Mikko

    2010-07-30

    Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories) at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The results hence suggest that language problems related to

  14. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suominen Kalervo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Results Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Conclusion Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The

  15. Premature aging in mice activates a systemic metabolic response involving autophagy induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Guillermo; Ugalde, Alejandro P; Salvador-Montoliu, Natalia; Varela, Ignacio; Quirós, Pedro M; Cadiñanos, Juan; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2008-07-15

    Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In this work, we describe the unexpected finding that Zmpste24-null mice, which show accelerated aging and are a reliable model of human Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, exhibit an extensive basal activation of autophagy instead of the characteristic decline in this process occurring during normal aging. We also show that this autophagic increase is associated with a series of changes in lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, which resemble those occurring in diverse situations reported to prolong lifespan. These Zmpste24(-/-) mice metabolic alterations are also linked to substantial changes in circulating blood parameters, such as leptin, glucose, insulin or adiponectin which in turn lead to peripheral LKB1-AMPK activation and mTOR inhibition. On the basis of these results, we propose that nuclear abnormalities causing premature aging in Zmpste24(-/-) mice trigger a metabolic response involving the activation of autophagy. However, the chronic activation of this catabolic pathway may turn an originally intended pro-survival strategy into a pro-aging mechanism and could contribute to the systemic degeneration and weakening observed in these progeroid mice.

  16. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging XpdTTD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.Y. Park; M.O. Cho; S. Leonard (Shanique); B. Calder (Brent); I.S. Mian (Saira); W.H. Kim (Woo); S.W.P. Wijnhoven (Susan); H. van Steeg (Harry); J.R. Mitchell (James); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P. Cohen (Pinchas); J. Vijg (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. XpdTTDmice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a rduced incidence

  17. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging XpdTTD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.Y. Park; M.O. Cho; S. Leonard (Shanique); B. Calder (Brent); I.S. Mian (Saira); W.H. Kim (Woo); S.W.P. Wijnhoven (Susan); H. van Steeg (Harry); J.R. Mitchell (James); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P. Cohen (Pinchas); J. Vijg (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. XpdTTDmice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a rduced incidence

  18. MECHANISMS OF PREMATURE VASCULAR AGING IN CHILDREN WITH HUTCHINSON-GILFORD PROGERIA SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B.; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W.; Kleinman, Monica E.; Miller, David T.; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B.

    2011-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in HGPS and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and gender-matched controls in the intima-media (P<0.02), near adventitia (P<0.003) and deep adventitia (P<0.01), as was internal carotid artery mean flow velocity (p<0.0001). Ankle-brachial indices were abnormal in 78% of patients. Effective disease treatments may be heralded by normalizing trends of these noninvasive cardiovascular measures. The data demonstrates that, along with peripheral vascular occlusive disease, accelerated vascular stiffening is an early and pervasive mechanism of vascular disease in HGPS. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in HGPS provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population. PMID:22083160

  19. Mechanisms of premature vascular aging in children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Smoot, Leslie B; Wake, Nicole; Kieran, Mark W; Kleinman, Monica E; Miller, David T; Schwartzman, Armin; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Neuberg, Donna; Gordon, Leslie B

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare, segmental premature aging syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis and early death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This study sought to establish comprehensive characterization of the fatal vasculopathy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and its relevance to normal aging. We performed cardiovascular assessments at a single clinical site on the largest prospectively studied cohort to date. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was dramatically elevated (mean: 13.00±3.83 m/s). Carotid duplex ultrasound echobrightness, assessed in predefined tissue sites as a measure of arterial wall density, was significantly greater than age- and sex-matched controls in the intima-media (Pnormalizing trends of these noninvasive cardiovascular measures. The data demonstrate that, along with peripheral vascular occlusive disease, accelerated vascular stiffening is an early and pervasive mechanism of vascular disease in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. There is considerable overlap with cardiovascular changes of normal aging, which reinforces the view that defining mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome provides a unique opportunity to isolate a subset of factors influencing cardiovascular disease in the general aging population.

  20. Loss of HtrA2/Omi activity in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice causes premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S; Louboutin, J-P; Datta, P; Landel, C P; Martinez, D; Zervos, A S; Strayer, D S; Fernandes-Alnemri, T; Alnemri, E S

    2013-02-01

    mnd2 mice die prematurely as a result of neurodegeneration 30-40 days after birth due to loss of the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial quality control protease HtrA2/Omi. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human HtrA2/Omi in the central nervous system of mnd2 mice rescues them from neurodegeneration and prevents their premature death. Interestingly, adult transgenic mnd2 mice develop accelerated aging phenotypes, such as premature weight loss, hair loss, reduced fertility, curvature of the spine, heart enlargement, increased autophagy, and death by 12-17 months of age. These mice also have elevated levels of clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in their tissues. Our results provide direct genetic evidence linking mitochondrial protein quality control to mtDNA deletions and aging in mammals.

  1. Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T): An emerging dimension of premature ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Yosef; Lederman, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    A-T is a prototype genome instability syndrome and a multifaceted disease. A-T leads to neurodegeneration - primarily cerebellar atrophy, immunodeficiency, oculocutaneous telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), vestigial thymus and gonads, endocrine abnormalities, cancer predisposition and varying sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, particularly those that induce DNA double-strand breaks. With the recent increase in life expectancy of A-T patients, the premature ageing component of this disease is gaining greater awareness. The complex A-T phenotype reflects the ever growing number of functions assigned to the protein encoded by the responsible gene - the homeostatic protein kinase, ATM. The quest to thoroughly understand the complex A-T phenotype may reveal yet elusive ATM functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NRMT1 knockout mice exhibit phenotypes associated with impaired DNA repair and premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Lindsay A; Tooley, John G; Van Hoose, Patrick M; Wang, Eugenia; Cheng, Alan; Cole, Marsha P; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2015-03-01

    Though defective genome maintenance and DNA repair have long been known to promote phenotypes of premature aging, the role protein methylation plays in these processes is only now emerging. We have recently identified the first N-terminal methyltransferase, NRMT1, which regulates protein-DNA interactions and is necessary for both accurate mitotic division and nucleotide excision repair. To demonstrate if complete loss of NRMT1 subsequently resulted in developmental or aging phenotypes, we constructed the first NRMT1 knockout (Nrmt1(-/-)) mouse. The majority of these mice die shortly after birth. However, the ones that survive, exhibit decreased body size, female-specific infertility, kyphosis, decreased mitochondrial function, and early-onset liver degeneration; phenotypes characteristic of other mouse models deficient in DNA repair. The livers from Nrmt1(-/-) mice produce less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than wild type controls, and Nrmt1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a decreased capacity for handling oxidative damage. This indicates that decreased mitochondrial function may benefit Nrmt1(-/-) mice and protect them from excess internal ROS and subsequent DNA damage. These studies position the NRMT1 knockout mouse as a useful new system for studying the effects of genomic instability and defective DNA damage repair on organismal and tissue-specific aging.

  3. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh H.D. Thang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods: Acetylcholine (ACh-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvascular function was compared between 52 patients with advanced CKD (stage 4–5: n = 16; end-stage renal disease: n = 36 and 33 healthy control subjects. As aging has an important effect on microvascular function, both control subjects and CKD patients were divided in subgroups younger and older than 45 years. Linear regression analysis was applied to assess potential associations between microvascular function and various demographic and clinical parameters. Results: There were three main findings. (1 In young patients with advanced CKD, both ACh- and SNP-mediated vasodilations were impaired if compared to young healthy controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.056, respectively. (2 In young patients with advanced CKD, microvascular function was similar to old healthy controls and elderly patients with advanced CKD. (3 Whereas age was inversely associated with microvascular function in healthy controls (log ACh-mediated vasodilation R = –0.41; p = 0.02 and log SNP-mediated vasodilation R = –0.38; p = 0.03, no such relation was found in patients with advanced CKD. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with premature aging of the microvascular vasodilatory capacity in patients with advanced CKD.

  4. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, David C.; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, M. Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M.; Cirera, Lluís; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Struijk, Ellen A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk

  5. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe : results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, David C.; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Luisa Redondo, M.; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M.; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Struijk, Ellen A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Engstrom, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk

  6. Vanishing honey bees: Is the dying of adult worker bees a consequence of short telomeres and premature aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stindl, Reinhard; Stindl, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    Einstein is often quoted to have said that without the bee, mankind would have but 4years to live. It is highly unlikely that he made this comment, which was even mentioned in a Lancet article on honey bees. However, the current vanishing of the bees can have serious consequences for human health, because 35% of the human diet is thought to benefit from pollination. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees is characterized by the rapid decline of the adult bee population, leaving the brood and the queen poorly or completely unattended, with no dead bodies in or around the hive. A large study found no evidence that the presence or amount of any individual pesticide or infectious agent occurred more frequently or abundantly in CCD-affected colonies. The growing consensus is that honey bees are suffering from comprised immune systems, which allow various infectious pathogens to invade. The question remains, what causes immunosuppression in many colonies of Apis mellifera in North America and Europe? Telomeres are protective DNA structures located at eukaryotic chromosome tips that shorten in the somatic tissues of animals with age. Lifelong tissue regeneration takes place in Apis mellifera, and worker bees have been shown to senesce. In humans, a vast amount of literature has accumulated on exhausted telomere reserves causing impaired tissue regeneration and age-associated diseases, specifically cancer and immunosuppression. Therefore, we propose a new causative mechanism for the vanishing of the bees: critically short telomeres in long-lived winter bees. We term this the telomere premature aging syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attenuation of Replication Stress–Induced Premature Cellular Senescence to Assess Anti-Aging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21WAF1) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents. PMID:24984966

  8. Attenuation of replication stress-induced premature cellular senescence to assess anti-aging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21(WAF1) ) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents.

  9. Younger or older parental age and risk of suicidality, premature death, psychiatric illness, and criminality in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Pearl; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Webb, Roger

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundYounger or older parental age has been linked with a range of adverse offspring endpoints. We investigated associations between parental age and nine adverse offspring outcomes in three correlated domains: (i) Premature death: suicide, unnatural death, natural death; (ii) Psychiatric morbidity: any mental illness, suicide attempt, substance misuse; (iii) Criminality: violent offending, imprisonment, driving whilst intoxicated.MethodsPersons born in Denmark 1966–1996 were followed fr...

  10. Investigation into the human premature ageing disease, Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome, using hTERT immortalised fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Gemma Louise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature ageing disease affecting children. 80% of “classic” HGPS patients share the same mutation in the LMNA gene that gives rise to characteristics similar to normal human ageing and they usually die in their teens from heart attacks or strokes. Cells taken from progeria patients have a short replicative lifespan in culture an...

  11. The Age of Onset of Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijster, Jasmijn M de; Dierckx, Bram; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Verhulst, Frank C; Zieldorff, Carola; Dieleman, Gwen C; Legerstee, Jeroen S

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to estimate the age of onset (AOO) for all anxiety disorders and for specific subtypes. Gender differences in the AOO of anxiety disorders were examined, as were the influence of study characteristics on reported AOOs. Seven electronic databases were searched up to October 2014, with keywords representing anxiety disorder subtypes, AOO, and study design. The inclusion criteria were studies using a general population sample that provided data on the AOO for all anxiety disorders, or specific anxiety disorders, according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 criteria. There were 1028 titles examined, which yielded 24 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the AOO and gender. Meta-analysis found a mean AOO of all anxiety disorders of 21.3 years (95% CI 17.46 to 25.07). Separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and social phobia had their mean onset before the age of 15 years, whereas the AOO of agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder began, on average, between 21.1 and 34.9 years. Meta-analysis revealed no difference in the AOO between genders. A prospective study design and higher developmental level of the study country were associated with an earlier AOO. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that anxiety disorder subtypes differ in the mean AOO, with onsets ranging from early adolescence to young adulthood. These findings suggest that prevention strategies of anxiety disorders should be directed towards factors associated with the development of anxiety disorder subtypes in the age groups with the greatest vulnerability for developing those disorders.

  12. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  13. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  14. Premature Aging-related Peripheral Neuropathy in a Mouse Model of Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, James R.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Zhang, Mingdi; Arbujas, Norma; Robbins, Paul D.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common aging-related degenerative disorder that interferes with daily activities and leads to increased risk of falls and injury in the elderly. The etiology of most aging-related peripheral neuropathy is unknown. Inherited defects in several genome maintenance mechanisms cause tissue-specific accelerated aging, including neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that a murine model of XFE progeroid syndrome, caused by reduced expression of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair endonuclease, develops peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies revealed normal nerve function in young adult (8 week) Ercc1−/Δ mice, but significant abnormalities in 20 week-old animals. Morphologic and ultrastructural analysis of the sciatic nerve from mutant mice revealed significant alterations at 20 but not 8 weeks of age. We conclude that Ercc1−/Δ mice have accelerated spontaneous peripheral neurodegeneration that mimics aging-related disease. This provides strong evidence that DNA damage can drive peripheral neuropathy and offers a rapid and novel model to test therapies. PMID:21596054

  15. Premature aging-related peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, James R; Stolz, Donna Beer; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Zhang, Mingdi; Arbujas, Norma; Robbins, Paul D; Glorioso, Joseph C; Niedernhofer, Laura J

    2011-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common aging-related degenerative disorder that interferes with daily activities and leads to increased risk of falls and injury in the elderly. The etiology of most aging-related peripheral neuropathy is unknown. Inherited defects in several genome maintenance mechanisms cause tissue-specific accelerated aging, including neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that a murine model of XFE progeroid syndrome, caused by reduced expression of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair endonuclease, develops peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies revealed normal nerve function in young adult (8 week) Ercc1(-/Δ) mice, but significant abnormalities in 20 week-old animals. Morphologic and ultrastructural analysis of the sciatic nerve from mutant mice revealed significant alterations at 20 but not 8 weeks of age. We conclude that Ercc1(-/Δ) mice have accelerated spontaneous peripheral neurodegeneration that mimics aging-related disease. This provides strong evidence that DNA damage can drive peripheral neuropathy and offers a rapid and novel model to test therapies.

  16. Premature closure of the upper esophageal sphincter as a cause of severe deglutition disorder in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Husby, Steffen; Kruse-Andersen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    of these causes. An 8-week-old infant was referred because of suspicion of cricopharyngeal achalasia causing persistent swallowing problems and failure to thrive. Manometry results showed normal resting tone and relaxation but premature closure of the upper esophageal sphincter. The infant was treated...

  17. The Reasons and Prevention of Ovarian Premature Aging%卵巢早衰的原因与预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors that cause ovarian premature aging so as to provide a basis for clinical prevention and treatment of ovarian premature aging. Methods A questionnaire was used to investigate the 100 cases in the observation group and the control group, and the data was treated by logistic regression analysis. Results 12 variables such as the number of induced abortion, drinking, smoking, marital status, family and social relationship, bean products, mood, taking corticosteroids and so on are related to the occurrence of ovarian premature aging. Multiple factors analysis showed that marital status (OR = 6.03), number of induced abortion (OR = 2.14), smoking (OR =3.26), hair coloring (OR =2.74), mood (OR= 0.16), vegetables (OR = 0.34), mumps (OR = 10.23), and other factors are closely associated with ovarian premature aging. Conclusion Many factors can cause ovarian premature aging, so effective measures should be taken clinically to strengthen the prevention and treatment, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease and promoting the recovery of the patients as early as possible.%目的:分析卵巢早衰发生因素,为临床卵巢早衰的防治提供一定的依据。方法采用问卷调查方式对观察组和健康对照组共100例进行logistic回归分析。结果卵巢早衰发生因素与人工流产次数、饮酒、吸烟、婚姻状况以及家人社会相处关系、豆制品、心情和服用糖皮质激素等12个变量相关。多因素分析表明,婚姻状况(OR=6.03)、人工流产次数(OR=2.14)、吸烟(OR=3.26)、染发(OR=2.74)、心情(OR=0.16)、蔬菜(OR=0.34)、腮腺炎(OR=10.23)等因素与卵巢早衰密切相关。结论卵巢早衰发生因素较多,临床应采取有效的措施加强预防,治疗,以降低发病率,促进患者早日康复。

  18. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Disorders of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Joanna; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake cycles are known to be disrupted in people with neurodegenerative disorders. These findings are now supported by data from animal models for some of these disorders, raising the question of whether the disrupted sleep/circadian regulation contributes to the loss of neural function. As circadian rhythms and sleep consolidation also break down with normal aging, changes in these may be part of what makes aging a risk factor for disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanisms underlying the connection between circadian/sleep dysregulation and neurodegeneration remain unclear, but several recent studies provide interesting possibilities. While mechanistic analysis is under way, it is worth considering treatment of circadian/sleep disruption as a means to alleviate symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Homeostatic Imbalance between Apoptosis and Cell Renewal in the Liver of Premature Aging XpdTTD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Yoon; Cho, Mi-Ook; Leonard, Shanique; Calder, Brent; Mian, I. Saira; Kim, Woo Ho; Wijnhoven, Susan; van Steeg, Harry; Mitchell, James; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Cohen, Pinchas; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2008-01-01

    Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. XpdTTD mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing XpdTTD mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the XpdTTD mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the XpdTTD mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis. PMID:18545656

  20. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  1. Nuclear matrix, nuclear envelope and premature aging syndromes in a translational research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Pierre; Navarro, Claire; Harhouri, Karim; Roll, Patrice; Sigaudy, Sabine; Kaspi, Elise; Perrin, Sophie; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Lévy, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Lamin A-related progeroid syndromes are genetically determined, extremely rare and severe. In the past ten years, our knowledge and perspectives for these diseases has widely progressed, through the progressive dissection of their pathophysiological mechanisms leading to precocious and accelerated aging, from the genes mutations discovery until therapeutic trials in affected children. A-type lamins are major actors in several structural and functional activities at the nuclear periphery, as they are major components of the nuclear lamina. However, while this is usually poorly considered, they also play a key role within the rest of the nucleoplasm, whose defects are related to cell senescence. Although nuclear shape and nuclear envelope deformities are obvious and visible events, nuclear matrix disorganization and abnormal composition certainly represent the most important causes of cell defects with dramatic pathological consequences. Therefore, lamin-associated diseases should be better referred as laminopathies instead of envelopathies, this later being too restrictive, considering neither the key structural and functional roles of soluble lamins in the entire nucleoplasm, nor the nuclear matrix contribution to the pathophysiology of lamin-associated disorders and in particular in defective lamin A processing-associated aging diseases. Based on both our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and the biological and clinical consequences of progeria and related diseases, therapeutic trials have been conducted in patients and were terminated less than 10 years after the gene discovery, a quite fast issue for a genetic disease. Pharmacological drugs have been repurposed and used to decrease the toxicity of the accumulated, unprocessed and truncated prelaminA in progeria. To date, none of them may be considered as a cure for progeria and these clinical strategies were essentially designed toward reducing a subset of the most dramatic and morbid features

  2. Attenuation of Replication Stress–Induced Premature Cellular Senescence to Assess Anti-Aging Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-as...

  3. A model of premature aging in mice based on altered stress-related behavioral response and immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Arranz, Lorena; Hernanz, Angel; Miquel, Jaime; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    The intensity of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli in rodent strains seems to be inversely related to their life span. We have previously shown that interindividual differences in members of outbred Swiss and inbred BALB/c mouse populations, both male and female, may be related to their behavior in a simple T-maze test. The animals that explore the maze slowly show impaired neuromuscular vigor and coordination, decreased locomotor activity, increased level of emotionality/anxiety, decreased levels of brain biogenic amines as well as immunosenescence and decreased life span, when compared to their control counterparts, which quickly explore the maze. These traits are similar to some of the alterations previously observed in aging animals and therefore we proposed that those 'slow mice' are biologically older than the fast animals and may be a model of prematurely aging mice (PAM). Although most of our work on this model has been performed on chronologically adult-mature animals, we have also shown that certain characteristics of PAM, such as increased anxiety and deficient immune response, are already present in chronologically young animals. Thus, it is tempting to hypothesize that chronic hyperreactivity to stress (trait anxiety) leading to immune dysfunction may have a causal relationship with impaired health and premature aging. In view of the link between oxidative stress and the aging process, the redox state of peritoneal leukocytes from PAM has been studied, showing an oxidative stress situation. In the present work we have determined the levels of a key antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, both in the spleen and brain of male and female PAM and non-PAM (NPAM). We found that GSH and MDA are decreased and increased, respectively, in PAM with respect to NPAM. Moreover, diet supplementation with antioxidants showed to be an effective strategy for protection

  4. Premature lung aging and cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Marco; Carloni, Angelo; Rossi, Andrea; Poletti, Venerino

    2013-09-01

    Different anatomic and physiological changes occur in the lung of aging people that can affect pulmonary functions, and different pulmonary diseases, including deadly diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), can be related to an acceleration of the aging process. The individual genetic background, as well as exposure to a variety of toxic substances (cigarette smoke in primis) can contribute significantly to accelerating pulmonary senescence. Premature aging can impair lung function by different ways: by interfering specifically with tissue repair mechanisms after damage, thus perturbing the correct crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial components; by inducing systemic and/or local alteration of the immune system, thus impairing the complex mechanisms of lung defense against infections; and by stimulating a local and/or systemic inflammatory condition (inflammaging). According to recently proposed pathogenic models in COPD and IPF, premature cellular senescence likely affects distinct progenitors cells (mesenchymal stem cells in COPD, alveolar epithelial precursors in IPF), leading to stem cell exhaustion. In this review, the large amount of data supporting this pathogenic view are discussed, with emphasis on the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to the severe parenchymal remodeling that characterizes, in different ways, these deadly diseases.

  5. Premature thelarche: a follow up study of 40 girls. Natural history and endocrine findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Tebaldi, L; Cioschi, L; Cives, C; Finocchi, G; Maciocci, M; Mancuso, G; Boscherini, B

    1985-01-01

    Follow up of 40 girls with premature thelarche showed that where this disorder occurred before age 2 years it usually regressed completely, thus representing a transient and isolated phenomenon. Premature thelarche after age 2 years persisted more frequently, however, and represented the first sign of sexual development, generally leading to simple early puberty. PMID:4091585

  6. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  7. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  8. Néstor-Guillermo progeria syndrome: a novel premature aging condition with early onset and chronic development caused by BANF1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Rubén; Cadiñanos, Juan; Villameytide, José A F; Pérez, Mercedes; Longo, Jesús; Richard, José M; Alvarez, Rebeca; Durán, Noelia S; Illán, Rafael; González, Daniel J; López-Otín, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Progeria syndromes are rare disorders that involve premature aging. Mutations in BANF1 have been recently reported to cause a new hereditary progeroid syndrome that we now propose to call the Néstor-Guillermo progeria syndrome (NGPS). We describe herein the clinical features of the first two NGPS patients, who phenocopy features of classic progerias (i.e., Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome or mandibuloacral dysplasia), such as aged appearance, growth retardation, decreased subcutaneous fat, thin limbs, and stiff joints. However, these NGPS patients have a distinctive phenotype. In their early adulthood (32 and 24 years of age), they have no signs of cardiovascular impairment, diabetes mellitus, or hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, they suffer profound skeletal abnormalities that affect their quality of life. The observed differences are of utmost importance to patients and their families and palliation of osseous manifestations is a priority, given their relatively long lifespan. We define NGPS as a chronic progeria because of its slow clinical course and relatively long survival, despite its early onset. Understanding the differences between progeria syndromes might contribute to the development of treatment strategies for common skeletal conditions, as well as aging itself.

  9. Patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization for brain MRI tissue segmentation at arbitrary age after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Shaw, Dennis; Studholme, Colin

    2016-02-15

    Accurate automated tissue segmentation of premature neonatal magnetic resonance images is a crucial task for quantification of brain injury and its impact on early postnatal growth and later cognitive development. In such studies it is common for scans to be acquired shortly after birth or later during the hospital stay and therefore occur at arbitrary gestational ages during a period of rapid developmental change. It is important to be able to segment any of these scans with comparable accuracy. Previous work on brain tissue segmentation in premature neonates has focused on segmentation at specific ages. Here we look at solving the more general problem using adaptations of age specific atlas based methods and evaluate this using a unique manually traced database of high resolution images spanning 20 gestational weeks of development. We examine the complimentary strengths of age specific atlas-based Expectation-Maximization approaches and patch-based methods for this problem and explore the development of two new hybrid techniques, patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization with weighted fusion and a spatial variability constrained patch search. The former approach seeks to combine the advantages of both atlas- and patch-based methods by learning from the performance of the two techniques across the brain anatomy at different developmental ages, while the latter technique aims to use anatomical variability maps learnt from atlas training data to locally constrain the patch-based search range. The proposed approaches were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Compared with the conventional age specific atlas-based segmentation and direct patch based segmentation, both new approaches demonstrate improved accuracy in the automated labeling of cortical gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal cortical-spinal fluid regions, while maintaining comparable results in deep gray matter.

  10. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  11. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  12. Order of age at onset for substance use, substance use disorder, conduct disorder and psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Steen; Linneberg, Inger Holm; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and social phobia. Of patients reporting an age at onset for SUD and conduct disorder, 84% reported that age at onset was earliest for conduct disorder. Of patients reporting an age at onset for both any non-substance related axis I disorder and any substance related disorder, age at onset was earliest...

  13. Premature Birth and Large for Gestational Age Are Associated with Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Thrift, Aaron P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics, including weight and gestational age, may be associated with risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), the only known precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma; however, data are limited. Aims To examine associations between various birth characteristics and BE, and whether these associations are mediated by known risk factors for BE. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among eligible Veterans Affairs patients scheduled for an upper endoscopy, and a sample identified from primary care clinics. Participants underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy and completed a survey that captured information on sociodemographic and clinical factors, as well as birth information. We compared 263 patients with histologically confirmed BE to 1,416 controls without BE on endoscopy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Premature birth was independently associated with risk of BE after adjusted by age, sex, race, and other birth characteristics (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.22–8.79). On the other hand, large for gestational age was inversely associated with risk of BE (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.21–0.98). These effects were stronger for patients with long-segment BE than short-segment BE. The associations were not mediated by gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, use of proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter Pylori infection, waist-hip-ratio, height or presence of hiatus hernia. Conclusions Premature birth and large for gestational age may be associated with risk of BE in adults. These associations do not appear to be mediated through known risk factors for BE; however, additional studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:26611860

  14. Mutations in EXOSC2 are associated with a novel syndrome characterised by retinitis pigmentosa, progressive hearing loss, premature ageing, short stature, mild intellectual disability and distinctive gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Nataliya; Neuhann, Teresa; Kahlert, Anne-Karin; Klink, Barbara; Hackmann, Karl; Neuhann, Irmingard; Novotna, Barbora; Schallner, Jens; Krause, Claudia; Glass, Ian A; Parnell, Shawn E; Benet-Pages, Anna; Nissen, Anke M; Berger, Wolfgang; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Weber, Bernhard H F; Schrock, Evelin; Dobyns, William B; Bier, Andrea; Rump, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa in combination with hearing loss can be a feature of different Mendelian disorders. We describe a novel syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in the 'exosome component 2' (EXOSC2) gene. Clinical ascertainment of three similar affected patients followed by whole exome sequencing. Three individuals from two unrelated German families presented with a novel Mendelian disorder encompassing childhood myopia, early onset retinitis pigmentosa, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, hypothyroidism, short stature, brachydactyly, recognisable facial gestalt, premature ageing and mild intellectual disability. Whole exome sequencing revealed homozygous or compound heterozygous missense variants in the EXOSC2 gene in all three patients. EXOSC2 encodes the 'ribosomal RNA-processing protein 4' (RRP4)-one of the core components of the RNA exosome. The RNA exosome is a multiprotein complex that plays key roles in RNA processing and degradation. Intriguingly, the EXOSC2-associated phenotype shows only minimal overlap with the previously reported diseases associated with mutations in the RNA exosome core component genes EXOSC3 and EXOSC8. We report a novel condition that is probably caused by altered RNA exosome function and expands the spectrum of clinical consequences of impaired RNA metabolism. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Antenatal betamethasone and fetal growth in prematurely born children: implications for temperament traits at the age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Lano, Aulikki; Peltoniemi, Outi; Hallman, Mikko; Kari, M Anneli

    2009-01-01

    We explored whether repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone and variation in intrauterine growth of prematurely born children predict temperament characteristics at the age of 2 years. The patients (n = 142) were prematurely born children (mean gestational age: 31.0 weeks; range: 24.6-35.0 weeks) who participated in a randomized and blinded trial testing the effects of a repeated dose of antenatal betamethasone in imminent preterm birth. Fetal growth was estimated as weight, length, and head circumference in SDs according to Finnish growth charts. Parents assessed their toddlers' temperament with 201 items of the Early Childhood Temperament Questionnaire (mean child corrected age: 2.1 years). No significant main effects of repeated betamethasone on toddler temperament existed. However, a significant interaction between study group and duration of exposure to betamethasone emerged; those exposed to a repeated dose for >24 hours before delivery were more impulsive. One-SD increases in weight, length, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.19-SD lower levels of negative affectivity (fearfulness, anger proneness, and sadness); 1-SD increases in length, weight, and head circumference at birth were associated with 0.14- to 0.18-SD higher levels of effortful control (self-regulation). Repeated antenatal betamethasone did not induce alterations in toddler temperament. The results, however, suggest that a longer duration of exposure is associated with higher impulsivity scores. Regardless of betamethasone exposure, slower fetal growth exerted influences on temperament. Our findings indicate prenatal programming of psychological development and imply that more attention is needed to support the development of infants born at the lower end of the fetal growth distribution.

  16. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  17. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  18. A Case of Premature Termination in a Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Llera, Sandra J.; Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a case of failure in an integrative treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) combining cognitive-behavioral therapy, an empirically supported treatment for GAD, and interpersonal-emotional processing therapy. The client of focus dropped out of treatment after the 8th session. Based on our analysis of this case, we…

  19. A Case of Premature Termination in a Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Llera, Sandra J.; Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a case of failure in an integrative treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) combining cognitive-behavioral therapy, an empirically supported treatment for GAD, and interpersonal-emotional processing therapy. The client of focus dropped out of treatment after the 8th session. Based on our analysis of this case, we…

  20. Low birthweight and premature birth are both associated with type 2 diabetes in a random sample of middle-aged Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgaard, K; Færch, K; Carstensen, B; Poulsen, P; Pisinger, C; Pedersen, O; Witte, D R; Hansen, T; Jørgensen, T; Vaag, A

    2010-12-01

    We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237). Information about size at birth and prematurity was identified from original midwife records in 4,744 middle-aged Danes. Type 2 diabetes status, insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and beta cell function (disposition index) were assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Participants born prematurely were compared with a group of at-term participants born small for gestational age. An increase in birthweight of 1 kg was associated with a 51% (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.69) reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Ponderal index, reflecting thinness at birth, was associated with type 2 diabetes to the same extent as birthweight. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was increased to a similar degree in participants born prematurely and participants born small for gestational age, although the former had a higher ponderal index at birth. In addition, birthweight z-scores, reflecting fetal growth rate, were unrelated to the risk of type 2 diabetes and to other measures of glucose regulation in participants born prematurely. While low birthweight was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, prematurity was associated solely with decreased insulin sensitivity. While the association between birthweight and risk of type 2 diabetes is mediated via combined effects on beta cell function and insulin sensitivity, prematurity seems to influence risk of type 2 diabetes via attenuated insulin sensitivity only and independently of fetal growth rates.

  1. Molecular Clues to Physiological and Premature Ageing Revealed | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many theories about the molecular basis of ageing. One of the most popular ones postulates that organisms age by accumulating damage to their tissues, cells, and molecules. On the cellular level, ageing is associated with progressive changes in chromatin (a combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes). These changes include loss of chromatin structure, loss and/or modification of essential proteins, and accumulation of DNA damage.

  2. Phenotype-Dependent Coexpression Gene Clusters: Application to Normal and Premature Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Das, Avinash; Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Cao, Kan; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease with symptoms of aging at a very early age. Its molecular basis is not entirely clear, although profound gene expression changes have been reported, and there are some known and other presumed overlaps with normal aging process. Identification of genes with agingor HGPS-associated expression changes is thus an important problem. However, standard regression approaches are currently unsuitable for this task due to limited sample sizes, thus motivating development of alternative approaches. Here, we report a novel iterative multiple regression approach that leverages co-expressed gene clusters to identify gene clusters whose expression co-varies with age and/or HGPS. We have applied our approach to novel RNA-seq profiles in fibroblast cell cultures at three different cellular ages, both from HGPS patients and normal samples. After establishing the robustness of our approach, we perform a comparative investigation of biological processes underlying normal aging and HGPS. Our results recapitulate previously known processes underlying aging as well as suggest numerous unique processes underlying aging and HGPS. The approach could also be useful in detecting phenotype-dependent co-expression gene clusters in other contexts with limited sample sizes.

  3. Psychiatric Disorders, Morbidity, and Mortality: Tracing Mechanistic Pathways to Accelerated Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Wilson, Stephanie J

    2016-09-01

    A meta-analysis published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine provides convincing evidence that certain psychiatric populations have shorter telomeres than nonpsychiatric controls, in accord with the strong evidence linking psychiatric disorders with premature mortality. After addressing the clinical significance of shorter telomeres, this editorial describes mechanistic pathways that lead to telomere shortening. Additionally, two other novel methods for measuring biological markers of accelerated aging are briefly discussed: DNA methylation and cellular senescence based on p16. These innovative approaches could be used to confirm and extend our understanding of psychiatric patients' increased health and mortality risks.

  4. SU5416 induces premature senescence in endothelial progenitor cells from patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Marc J.; Kunst, Frank; Wege, Henning; Strunnikova, Natalya V.; Gordiyenko, Natalya; Grierson, Rebecca; Richard, Gisbert; Csaky, Karl G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated increased frequency and growth potential of late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (OECs) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). This study investigated the effects of short- and long-term in vitro inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signaling by SU5416 and other inhibitors of the VEGF signaling pathway in OECs. Methods OECs, from the peripheral blood of patients with nvAMD, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown in the presence of SU5416, other VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3′-Kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) in complete angiogenic medium. Apotosis was assessed after 48 h using the fluorescein isothiocyanate Annexin V method. Cell counts were performed for 10 days, and features of senescence were analyzed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, the telomeric repeat amplification protocol for telomerase activity, Southern blot analysis for mean telomere length, flow cytometric analysis for cell-cycle arrest, and western blot for p53 and p21. Control OECs, cells treated for 7 days with inhibitors, as well as naturally senescent OECs were analyzed for expression of different endothelial antigens, including VEGFR-2 and the receptor for stromal cell-derived factor 1, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR-4). Migration in vitro to VEGF and stromal cell-derived factor 1 of OECs was assessed. Results SU5416, other VEGFR-2 TKIs, and inhibitors of PI3K, Akt, and PKC induced apoptosis, inhibited long-term proliferation, reduced telomerase activity, and induced premature senescence and cell-cycle arrest in OECs as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Naturally senescent cells and cells rendered senescent by VEGFR-2 TKIs had reduced VEGFR-2 and CXCR-4 expression and demonstrated reduced migratory ability to VEGF. Conclusions This study demonstrates

  5. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies.

  6. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  7. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Abdul-Raouf; Seugnet, Laurent; Klarsfeld, André

    2017-01-01

    Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing) than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1) clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila. PMID:28072817

  8. [Development deficit risks in the late premature newborn: Evaluation at 48 months using the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, X; Schonhaut, L; Morillas, J; Martínez-Nadal, S; Vila, C; Raspall, F; Sala, P

    2016-01-01

    Lack of specific monitoring protocols hinders the knowledge of the impact of late prematurity on delayed psychomotor development. The objective of this study is to evaluate this at 48 months and compare it with those born at term. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 90 late preterm (PT) and 89 term (AT) healthy children at 48 months, assessed by the Ages & Stages Questionnaires® (ASQ-3). Continuous variables described using mean and standard deviation compared with the t Student t test for independent samples. The categorical variables were described as frequencies and proportions, compared with the Chi-square test of independence. A cut-off was determined for the total score of ASQ-3 able to discriminate the risk of developmental deficit by a ROC analysis. A step-wise logistic regression model identified the associated risk factors. The mean scores for each domain and overall ASQ-3 score showed no differences between groups. However, when analyzing the probability density for the ASQ-3 total score of ≤251 points, 15 PT (16.6%) and 4 AT (4.5%) showed risk of psychomotor deficits, and late prematurity and lack of breastfeeding were significantly associated factors. There is an increased prevalence of risk of development deficit in the PT, which justifies considering this population at risk and establishing effective monitoring programs. It should be further investigated whether this risk corresponds to the entire population, or if there are biological factors or perinatal history that makes them more vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. 1164例早泄患者心理障碍调查分析%A study on psychological disorders of 1164 patients with premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉双; 张贤生; 夏磊; 郝宗耀; 周骏; 张翼飞; 樊松; 江长琴; 梁朝朝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and relevant factors of psychological disorders in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Methods From September 2009 to October 2010,we employed the Self- Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation ( CIPE-5 ),NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and self-designed questionnaire to investigate the psychological status of 1164 patients with PE.The relevance between scores of SAS,SDS and such parameters as NIH-CPSI score,CIPE-5 score,erectile function,age,disease duration,occupation,education,personality characteristics and other factors were evaluated. Results The SAS and SDS scores of 1,164 cases with PE were 43.87 ± 10.53,44.05 ±9.81,respectively.If the cut-off points were set at SAS ≥ 50 and SDS ≥53,341 (29.3%) of cases had symptoms of anxiety and 217( 18.6% ) patients had symptoms of depression.The SAS,SDS scores and detection rate of anxiety and depression were correlated with the CIPE-5 score,NIH-CPSI score,erectile function and duration of disease,personality characteristics ( P < 0.05),while they were not correlated with age,occupation,and education. Conclusions Psychological disorders widely exist in patients with PE and may have a close relationship with a variety of factors.%目的 了解早泄( premature ejaculation,PE)患者心理障碍的患病情况及相关因素,探讨心理障碍与PE的关系. 方法 2009年9月至2010年10月我们应用焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)、中国早泄患者性功能评价表(C1PE-5)、国际前列腺炎症状指数表(NIH-CPSI)、国际勃起功能指数表(IIEF-5)及自制相关因素调查表对1164例PE患者心理状况进行调查.分析SAS、SDS评分及焦虑抑郁症状检出率与NIH-CPSI评分、CIPE-5评分、勃起功能、年龄、病程、职业、文化程度、性

  10. Premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; Berti, Alessandra; Rossi, Elisa; Roverato, Alberto; Palella, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may have a greater risk of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) compared with the general population. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for NICMs in a large cohort of HIV-infected adults and compared these findings with data from matched control subjects. We performed a case-control study involving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients treated at Modena University, Italy, from 2002 through 2009. These patients were compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched adults (control subjects) from the general population included in the CINECA ARNO database. NICMs included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Polypathology (Pp) was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICMs. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICMs and Pp. There were 2854 patients and 8562 control subjects. The mean age was 46 years, and 37% were women. Individual NICM and Pp prevalences in each age stratum were higher among patients than among controls (all P <.001). Pp prevalence among patients aged 41-50 years was similar to that among controls aged 51-60 years (P value was not statistically significant); diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, and renal failure were statistically independent after adjustment for sex, age, and hypertension. Logistic regression models showed that independent predictors of Pp in the overall cohort were (all P < .001) age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11), male sex (OR, 1.77), nadir CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 4.46), and ART exposure (OR, 1.01). Specific age-related NICMs and Pp were more common among HIV-infected patients than in the general population. The prevalence of Pp in HIV-infected persons anticipated Pp prevalence observed in the general population among persons who were 10 years older, and HIV-specific cofactors (lower nadir CD4 cell count and more prolonged

  11. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  12. Premature aging in mice activates a systemic metabolic response involving autophagy induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mariño (Guillermo); A.P. Ugalde (Alejandro); N. Salvador-Montoliu (Natalia); I. Varela (Ignacio); P.M. Quirós (Pedro); J. Cadiñanos (Juan); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); J.M.P. Freije (José); C. López-Otín (Carlos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAutophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation

  13. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  14. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  15. Metabolic Damage and Premature Thymus Aging Caused by Stromal Catalase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Ann V; Venables, Thomas; Shi, Jianjun; Farr, Andrew; van Remmen, Holly; Szweda, Luke; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rabinovitch, Peter; Petrie, Howard T

    2015-08-18

    T lymphocytes are essential mediators of immunity that are produced by the thymus in proportion to its size. The thymus atrophies rapidly with age, resulting in progressive diminution of new T cell production. This decreased output is compensated by duplication of existing T cells, but it results in gradual dominance by memory T cells and decreased ability to respond to new pathogens or vaccines. Here, we show that accelerated and irreversible thymic atrophy results from stromal deficiency in the reducing enzyme catalase, leading to increased damage by hydrogen peroxide generated by aerobic metabolism. Genetic complementation of catalase in stromal cells diminished atrophy, as did chemical antioxidants, thus providing a mechanistic link between antioxidants, metabolism, and normal immune function. We propose that irreversible thymic atrophy represents a conventional aging process that is accelerated by stromal catalase deficiency in the context of an intensely anabolic (lymphoid) environment.

  16. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  17. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  18. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  19. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  20. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  1. Reading, Mathematics and Fine Motor Skills at 5 Years of Age in US Children who were Extremely Premature at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miryoung; Pascoe, John M; McNicholas, Caroline I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of extreme prematurity at birth has increased, but little research has examined its impact on developmental outcomes in large representative samples within the United States. This study examined the association of extreme prematurity with kindergarteners' reading skills, mathematics skills and fine motor skills. Methods The early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort, a representative sample of the US children born in 2001 was analyzed for this study. Early reading and mathematics skills and fine motor skills were compared among 200 extremely premature children (EPC) (gestational age sampling weights, children's age, race, sex, and general health status, and parental marital status and education among singleton children. Results At age 5 years, EPC were 2.6(95 % CI 1.7-3.8) times more likely to fail build a gate and were 3.1(95 % CI 1.6-5.8) times more likely to fail all four drawing tasks compared to TC (p values gate, 1.3[95 % CI 1.0-1.7]; failed to draw all four shapes, 1.1[95 % CI 0.8-1.6]) was not significantly different from TC. Mean early reading scale score (36.8[SE:1.3]) of EPC was 4.0 points lower than TC (p value sample of infants, the biological risk of extreme prematurity persists after adjusting for other factors related to development.

  2. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Premature Aging and Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vázquez, Wendy Ivett; Solorio-Meza, Sergio; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Ramos-Rodríguez, Edna; Benítez- Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased oxidative stress is a well described feature of patients in hemodialysis. Their need for multiple blood transfusions and supplemental iron causes a significant iron overload that has recently been associated with increased oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and accelerated aging due to DNA damage caused by telomere shortening. Methods. A total of 70 patients were evaluated concomitantly, 35 volunteers with ferritin levels below 500 ng/mL (Group A) and 35 volunteers with ferritin levels higher than 500 ng/mL (Group B). A sample of venous blood was taken to extract DNA from leukocytes and to measure relative telomere length by real-time PCR. Results. Patients in Group B had significantly higher plasma TBARS (p = 0.008), carbonyls (p = 0.0004), and urea (p = 0.02) compared with those in Group A. Telomeres were significantly shorter in Group B, 0.66 (SD, 0.051), compared with 0.75 (SD, 0.155) in Group A (p = 0.0017). We observed a statistically significant association between relative telomere length and ferritin levels (r = −0.37, p = 0.001). Relative telomere length was inversely related to time on hemodialysis (r = −0.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that iron overload was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and shorter relative telomere length. PMID:27800120

  3. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  4. Helicobacter pylori colonization and pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, spontaneous prematurity, and small for gestational age birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Holster, I Lisanne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriëtte A; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J; Steegers, Eric A P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), small for gestational age (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) each may be complications of impaired placental function in pregnancy. Although their exact pathogenesis is still unknown, certain infectious agents seem to play a role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization has been associated with increased risk for PE. Our aim was to assess the association between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. We measured IgG anti-H. pylori and CagA antibodies in serum of pregnant women (median 20.5 weeks, range 16.5-29.4) who participated in a population-based prospective cohort study. Delivery and medical records were assessed. Information on demographics, education, and maternal risk factors was collected by questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess associations between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. In total, 6348 pregnant women were assessed. H. pylori positivity was found in 2915 (46%) women, of whom 1023 (35%) also were CagA-positive. Pregnancy was complicated by PE, SGA, or PTB in 927 (15%) women. H. pylori colonization was associated with PE (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.03-2.25). Differentiation according to CagA status revealed the same risk. H. pylori was positively related with SGA, mainly explained by CagA-positive strains (aOR 1.34; 1.04-1.71). No association was observed between H. pylori and PTB. Our data suggest that H. pylori colonization may be a risk factor for PE and SGA. If these associations are confirmed by future studies and shown to be causal, H. pylori eradication may reduce related perinatal morbidity and mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rapamycin activates autophagy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: implications for normal aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotto, John J; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    While rapamycin has been in use for years in transplant patients as an antirejection drug, more recently it has shown promise in treating diseases of aging, such as neurodegenerative disorders and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that rapamycin reverses the cellular phenotype of fibroblasts from children with the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). We found that the causative aberrant protein, progerin, was cleared through autophagic mechanisms when the cells were treated with rapamycin, suggesting a new potential treatment for HGPS. Recent evidence shows that progerin is also present in aged tissues of healthy individuals, suggesting that progerin may contribute to physiological aging. While it is intriguing to speculate that rapamycin may affect normal aging in humans, as it does in lower organisms, it will be important to identify safer analogues of rapamycin for chronic treatments in humans in order to minimize toxicity. In addition to its role in HGPS and normal aging, we discuss the potential of rapamycin for the treatment of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Age-related temporal and parietal cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Dankner, Nathan; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Martin, Alex

    2010-12-01

    Studies of head size and brain volume in autism spectrum disorders have suggested that early cortical overgrowth may be followed by prematurely arrested growth. However, the few investigations quantifying cortical thickness have yielded inconsistent results, probably due to variable ages and/or small sample sizes. We assessed differences in cortical thickness between high-functioning adolescent and young adult males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 41) and matched typically developing males (n = 40). We hypothesized thinner cortex, particularly in frontal, parietal and temporal regions, for individuals with autism spectrum disorders in comparison with typically developing controls. Furthermore, we expected to find an age × diagnosis interaction: with increasing age, more pronounced cortical thinning would be observed in autism spectrum disorders than typically developing participants. T(1)-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorders and from typically developing males matched group-wise on age (range 12-24 years), intelligence quotient (≥ 85) and handedness. Both gyral-level and vertex-based analyses revealed significantly thinner cortex in the autism spectrum disorders group that was located predominantly in left temporal and parietal regions (i.e. the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal, postcentral/superior parietal and supramarginal gyri). These findings remained largely unchanged after controlling for intelligence quotient and after accounting for psychotropic medication usage and comorbid psychopathology. Furthermore, a significant age × diagnosis interaction was found in the left fusiform/inferior temporal cortex: participants with autism spectrum disorders had thinner cortex in this region with increasing age to a greater degree than did typically developing participants. Follow-up within group comparisons revealed significant

  7. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Michalczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years. The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children.

  8. Agreement between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity at age 5.5 years in the preterm child. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, V; Quinn, G E; Siatkowski, R M; Baker, J D; Hardy, R J; Reynolds, J D; Trese, M T; Tung, B

    1999-02-01

    To examine the relation between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity and grating acuity at 5.5 years, in preterm children with birth weights less than 1251 g. Subjects were participants in the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. The Teller acuity card (TAC; Vistech Consultants, Dayton, OH) procedure was used to measure monocular grating acuity in children at ages 1 and 5.5 years. Early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) charts were used to measure the childrens' monocular recognition (Snellen) acuity at age 5.5 years. Data are presented for 575 eyes with measurable TAC grating acuity at 1 year and 111 eyes that had no measurable acuity at 1 year. Among eyes with normal acuity at 1 year, 86.8% showed normal Snellen acuity, and 94.3% showed normal grating acuity at 5.5 years. Among eyes that were blind (i.e., had no measurable TAC grating acuity) at 1 year, 96.8% showed no quantifiable Snellen acuity, and 89.2% showed no quantifiable grating acuity at 5.5 years. Only 2.4% of eyes had acuity in the range between normal and blind at 1 year (i.e., measurable grating acuity Snellen and grating acuity at age 5.5 years, and eyes that had no quantifiable acuity at 1 year remained blind at 5.5 years. Relative position of an eye's acuity score within the normal range was not predictive of the relative position of that eye's later acuity score.

  9. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  10. Ghrelin: a link between ageing, metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanova, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increase in life expectancy over the last century comes the increased risk for development of age-related disorders, including metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. These chronic disorders share two main characteristics: 1

  11. Ghrelin: a link between ageing, metabolism and neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increase in life expectancy over the last century comes the increased risk for development of age-related disorders, including metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. These chronic disorders share two main characteristics: 1

  12. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  13. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  14. Bipolar disorder in the elderly; different effects of age and of age of onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostervink, Frits; Boomsma, Maarten M; Nolen, Willem A

    2009-01-01

    Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited.......Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited....

  15. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  16. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined

  17. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "s

  18. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  19. Anxiety disorders in adolescents and psychosocial outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Adolescent anxiety predicted poor total adjustment, poor adjustment at work, poor family relationships, problems with the family unit, less life satisfaction, poor coping skills, and more chronic stress. Adolescent anxiety predicted, substance (SUD), alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD), and anxiety in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult, SUD, AUD and anxiety mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through adult anxiety, SUD and AUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Age at Onset and Clinical Correlates in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Grant, Jon E.; Menard, William; Stalker, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. METHODS Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. RESULTS BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder

  2. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  3. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  4. Eating disorders in men aged midlife and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L; Stedal, Kristin

    2015-06-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses which can occur across the lifespan. Men aged midlife and beyond are vulnerable to stigma, shame, and stereotypes portraying eating disorders as afflictions of youth and female gender. Historically, men have been neglected in the field of eating disorders owing to traditional and female-centric approaches to conceptualization and classification. In this literature review, we identified 16 case reports of eating disorders in males ranging from the age of 40 to 81 years. The majority of cases reported an earlier onset in life, followed by a variable course of illness with periods of relapse interspersed with remission. Diagnostic crossover or symptom fluctuation was common. High rates of comorbid depression were found, and several cases described a history of weight cycling and premorbid obesity. Precipitating factors included stressors which disproportionately occur in later life, including loss due to death or divorce, changes in financial or housing situation, and medical issues. Very little is known regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in older men, with initial population estimates ranging from 0.02% to 1.6%. Rates of subthreshold eating disordered behavior are higher and appear to be increasing among older individuals and males in the community. Recent revisions in the DSM-5 will likely increase the broader applicability of diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, stimulating improved recognition of diverse presentations occurring across the lifespan for both genders. Eating disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained weight gain or weight loss irrespective of age or gender. Multi-site studies are needed for adequate sampling and to allow larger empirical investigations regarding how to improve clinical practices in screening and assessment, as well the provision of differential care for older men suffering from an eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  5. Cardiovascular follow-up at school age after perinatal glucocorticoid exposure in prematurely born children: perinatal glucocorticoid therapy and cardiovascular follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Willem B; Karemaker, Rosa; Mooy, Nicole F; Strengers, Jan L M; Kemperman, Hans; Baerts, Wim; Veen, Sylvia; Visser, Gerard H A; Heijnen, Cobi J; van Bel, Frank

    2008-08-01

    To study whether antenatal or neonatal glucocorticoid therapy to reduce the incidence and severity of chronic lung disease in preterm infants is associated with long-term adverse cardiac effects and hypertension. Retrospective matched-cohort study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. One hundred ninety-three children aged 7 to 10 years who had been born prematurely between December 2, 1993, and September 15, 1997. Main Exposure Neonatal treatment with dexamethasone disodium phosphate(n = 48) or the clinically equally effective glucocorticoid hydrocortisone (n = 51), or only antenatal treatment with betamethasone disodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate (n = 51). These 3 groups were compared with a reference group of prematurely born children who had not been exposed to perinatal glucocorticoid therapy (n = 43). General hemodynamic data (heart rate and blood pressure), cardiovascular function as assessed at echocardiography, intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries, and cardiac biochemical features as early markers of expansion and volume overload of the cardiac left ventricle (B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). No significant group differences were found for heart rate, blood pressure, biochemical features, intima-media thickness, or systolic or diastolic left ventricular function. Although no differences were found in blood pressure and cardiovascular function at school age in children antenatally or neonatally treated with glucocorticoids, further cardiovascular follow-up may be advisable because cardiovascular dysfunction may become apparent only later in life.

  6. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  7. Voice disorders in children, aged 5 to 7 years

    OpenAIRE

    Polutnik, Tjaša

    2013-01-01

    Dysphonia is a term for every unpleasant change which can be detected via hearing and the voice disorder is most frequently a consequence of recuperation after a respiratory infection and it can also occur due to an incorrect formation of sounds or throat disorders. The purpose of the research is to find out how often dysphonia occurs among children from the age of five to the age of seven and how illnesses or the individual way children talk influence the occurrence of dysphonia. The researc...

  8. Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Mat...

  9. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  10. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    preschool to school. METHODS: A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained......BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from...... from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0...

  11. Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Incident Aging Macula Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, S.S.; Vingerling, J.R.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Duijn, C.M. van; Pols, H.A.P.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. It has been suggested that early menopause increases the risk of aging-macula disorder (AMD), the major cause of incurable blindness with a dry and wet late subtype, and that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens reduces this risk. This study was undertaken to investi

  12. Into the Unknown: Aging with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Berkman, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Research investigation of older adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) noticeably lags behind studies of children and younger adults with ASD. This article reviews the current literature regarding a range of quality of life outcomes of aging adults with ASD. Studies that have addressed life expectancy, comorbid physical and mental health…

  13. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with ......, and children born at term with low birth weights (1500-2499 g) have an increased risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. These findings have important public health perspectives because the majority of preterm babies are born close to term.......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  14. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  15. Premature Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    idiopathic but may be due to autoimmune disorders, genetic causes, infections .... atrophy, joint pains, cancer phobia, pseudocyesis and lack of concentration. ... associated with palpitations, a feeling of anxiety and red blotching of the skin.

  16. A hyperoxic lung injury model in premature rabbits: the influence of different gestational ages and oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Munhoz Manzano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to study bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The preterm rabbit is a low-cost, easy-to-handle model, but it has a high mortality rate in response to the high oxygen concentrations used to induce lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rates of two models of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rabbits. METHODS: Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 28 or 29 (full term  = 31 days. The premature rabbits in the 28-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂ ≥95%, and the rabbits in the 29-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂  = 80% for 11 days. The mean linear intercept (Lm, internal surface area (ISA, number of alveoli, septal thickness and proportion of elastic and collagen fibers were quantified. RESULTS: The survival rates in the 29-day groups were improved compared with the 28-day groups. Hyperoxia impaired the normal development of the lung, as demonstrated by an increase in the Lm, the septal thickness and the proportion of elastic fibers. Hyperoxia also decreased the ISA, the number of alveoli and the proportion of collagen fibers in the 28-day oxygen-exposed group compared with the control 28-day group. A reduced number of alveoli was found in the 29-day oxygen exposed animals compared with the control 29-day group. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-day preterm rabbits had a reduced mortality rate compared with the 28-day preterm rabbits and maintained a reduction in the alveoli number, which is comparable to BPD in humans.

  17. 早期蛋白质对不同胎龄早产儿营养评估价值的研究进展%Research Progress of Early Protein’s Nutritional Assessment Value to Premature Infants of Different Gestational Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛军(综述)

    2014-01-01

    Organs of the premature infants develop immaturely, and infants are usualy pre-delivered because of the changes of intrauterine condition, so complications such as feeding difficulties often appear after birth; protein deficiency and lipid metabolism disorder may easily come along. So the early nutritional status not only decides the survival of the premature infants but also has lasting effects on their future living quality. According to the research findings, the shorter the gestational age of a premature infant is, the lower his ALB, PAB and TP wil be. PAB is the most sensitive index to evaluate the maturity and nutritional status of premature infants so far. Therefore, monitoring the SP level of premature infants has great guiding significance to the clinical reasonable nutritional treatment and disease prevention.%早产儿各脏器发育不成熟,且多因宫内生存条件变化而致早产,生后常有喂养困难等合并症,易发生蛋白质缺乏及血脂代谢紊乱,其早期的营养状况不但决定早产儿存活与否,而且对早产儿远期生活质量也有持久的影响。研究发现,早产儿胎龄越小,白蛋白、前白蛋白、总蛋白水平越低,前白蛋白是目前评价早产儿成熟度及营养状况最敏感的指标。监测早产儿血清蛋白水平变化,对临床合理营养支持治疗及预防疾病具有指导意义。

  18. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  19. Inactivation of RAD52 and HDF1 DNA repair genes leads to premature chronological aging and cellular instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SILVIA MERCADO-SÁENZ; BEATRIZ LÓPEZ-DÍAZ; FRANCISCO SENDRA-PORTERO; MANUEL MARTÍNEZ-MORILLO; MIGUEL J RUIZ-GÓMEZ

    2017-06-01

    The present study aims to investigate the role of radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) and high-affinity DNA binding factor1 (HDF1) DNA repair genes on the life span of budding yeasts during chronological aging. Wild type (wt) and rad52,hdf1, and rad52 hdf1 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were used. Chronological aging and survival assayswere studied by clonogenic assay and drop test. DNA damage was analyzed by electrophoresis after phenol extraction.Mutant analysis, colony forming units and the index of respiratory competence were studied by growing on dextroseand glycerol plates as a carbon source. Rad52 and rad52 hdf1 mutants showed a gradual decrease in surviving fractionin relation to wt and hdf1 mutant during aging. Genomic DNA was spontaneously more degraded during aging,mainly in rad52 mutants. This strain showed an increased percentage of revertant colonies. Moreover, all mutantsshowed a decrease in the index of respiratory competence during aging. The inactivation of RAD52 leads to prematurechronological aging with an increase in DNA degradation and mutation frequency. In addition, RAD52 and HDF1contribute to maintain the metabolic state, in a different way, during chronological aging. The results obtained couldhave important implications in the chronobiology of aging.

  20. Reversible cell cycle inhibition and premature aging features imposed by conditional expression of p16Ink4a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquoi, Amelie; Arora, Sanjeevani; Chen, Tina; Litwin, Sam; Koh, James; Enders, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16Ink4a (p16) is a canonical mediator of cellular senescence and accumulates in aging tissues, where it constrains proliferation of some progenitor cells. However, whether p16 induction in tissues is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, mediate senescence, and/or impose aging features has remained unclear. To address these issues, we generated transgenic mice that permit conditional p16 expression. Broad induction at weaning inhibited proliferation of intestinal transit-amplifying and Lgr5+ stem cells and rapidly imposed features of aging, including hair loss, skin wrinkling, reduced body weight and subcutaneous fat, an increased myeloid fraction in peripheral blood, poor dentition, and cataracts. Aging features were observed with multiple combinations of p16 transgenes and transactivators and were largely abrogated by a germline Cdk4 R24C mutation, confirming that they reflect Cdk inhibition. Senescence markers were not found, and de-induction of p16, even after weeks of sustained expression, allowed rapid recovery of intestinal cell proliferation and reversal of aging features in most mice. These results suggest that p16-mediated inhibition of Cdk activity is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation and impose aging features in somatic tissues of mammals and that at least some of these aging features are reversible. PMID:25481981

  1. Facial Emotion Recognition in Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Stella, Eleonora; Balzotti, Angela; Bellomo, Antonello; Palumbo, Rocco; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Emotional face recognition is impaired in bipolar disorder, but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness. Here, we investigated how aging and bipolar disorder influence dynamic emotional face recognition. Twenty older adults, 16 bipolar patients, and 20 control subjects performed a dynamic affective facial recognition task and a subsequent rating task. Participants pressed a key as soon as they were able to discriminate whether the neutral face was assuming a happy or angry facial expression and then rated the intensity of each facial expression. Results showed that older adults recognized happy expressions faster, whereas bipolar patients recognized angry expressions faster. Furthermore, both groups rated emotional faces more intensely than did the control subjects. This study is one of the first to compare how aging and clinical conditions influence emotional facial recognition and underlines the need to consider the role of specific and common factors in emotional face recognition.

  2. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  3. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  4. Screening and familial characterization of copy-number variations in NR5A1 in 46,XY disorders of sex development and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Campbell, Ian M; Keays, Melise; Granberg, Candace F; Villanueva, Carlos; Tannin, Grace; Zinn, Andrew R; Castrillon, Diego H; Shaw, Chad A; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Baker, Linda A

    2013-10-01

    The NR5A1 gene encodes for steroidogenic factor 1, a nuclear receptor that regulates proper adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations identified by NR5A1 sequencing have been associated with disorders of sex development (DSD), ranging from sex reversal to severe hypospadias in 46,XY patients and premature ovarian failure (POF) in 46,XX patients. Previous reports have identified four families with a history of both 46,XY DSD and 46,XX POF carrying segregating NR5A1 sequence mutations. Recently, three 46,XY DSD sporadic cases with NR5A1 microdeletions have been reported. Here, we identify the first NR5A1 microdeletion transmitted in a pedigree with both 46,XY DSD and 46,XX POF. A 46,XY individual with DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis was born to a young mother who developed POF. Array CGH analysis revealed a maternally inherited 0.23 Mb microdeletion of chromosome 9q33.3, including the NR5A1 gene. Based on this finding, we screened patients with unexplained 46,XY DSD (n = 11), proximal hypospadias (n = 21) and 46,XX POF (n = 36) for possible NR5A1 copy-number variations (CNVs) via multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), but did not identify any additional CNVs involving NR5A1. These data suggest that NR5A1 CNVs are an infrequent cause of these disorders but that array CGH and MLPA are useful genomic screening tools to uncover the genetic basis of such unexplained cases. This case is the first report of a familial NR5A1 CNV transmitting in a pedigree, causing both the male and female phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations, and the first report of a NR5A1 CNV associated with POF.

  5. Increased release and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with mandibuloacral dysplasia type A, a rare premature ageing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F; Fasciglione, G F; D'Apice, M R; Vielle, A; D'Adamo, M; Sbraccia, P; Marini, S; Borgiani, P; Coletta, M; Novelli, G

    2008-10-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA; OMIM 248370), a rare disorder caused by mutation in the LMNA gene, is characterized by post-natal growth retardation, craniofacial and skeletal anomalies (mandibular and clavicular hypoplasia, acroosteolysis, delayed closure of cranial sutures, low bone mass and joint contractures), cutaneous changes and partial lipodystrophy. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which LMNA mutations produce bone alterations. An altered bone extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling could play a pivotal role in this disorder and influence part of the typical bone phenotype observed in patients. Therefore, we have focused our investigation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are degradative enzymes involved in ECM degradation and ECM remodelling, thus likely contributing to the altered bone mineral density and bone metabolism values seen in five MADA patients. We evaluated the serum levels of several MMPs involved in bone development, remodelling and homeostasis, such as MMP-9, -2, -3, -8 and -13, and found that only the 82 kDa active enzyme forms of MMP-9 are significantly higher in MADA sera compared with healthy controls (n = 16). The serum level of MMP-3 was instead lower in all patients. No significant differences were observed between controls and MADA patients for the serum levels of MMP-2, -8 and -13 and of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, a natural inhibitor of MMP-9. Similarly, normal serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1beta were detected. These data suggest a possible involvement of MMP-9 in MADA disease, underlying the potential use in diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Materials and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study in a population of 190 premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight born from January 2009 to June 2014 who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and took part in the follow-up program. The psychomotor development, sensorineural hearing loss, retinopathy of prematurity, presence of cerebral palsy and convulsive syndrome were assessed. Results: The average weight at birth was 1,180.53 ± 212.40 grams with a gestational age of 29.86 ± 2.33 weeks, and 51.58% of the newborns were male. Forty-two point six three percent (42.63% of the premature newborns with very low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 25.26%, retinopathy; 13.68%, sensorineural hearing loss; 3.68%, cerebral palsy; and 3.68%, convulsive syndrome. Fifty-two point two seven percent (52.27% of the premature newborns with extremely low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 50%, retinopathy; 15.91%, sensorineural hearing loss; and 2.27%, convulsive syndrome. Conclusions: Retardation of psychomotor development and retinopathy were the most important complications shown by premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age.

  7. Glycation: the angiogenic paradox in aging and age-related disorders and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, F; Grossin, N; Chassagne, P; Puisieux, F; Boulanger, E

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis is generally a quiescent process which, however, may be modified by different physiological and pathological conditions. The "angiogenic paradox" has been described in diabetes because this disease impairs the angiogenic response in a manner that differs depending on the organs involved and disease evolution. Aging is also associated with pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Glycation, the post-translational modification of proteins, increases with aging and the progression of diabetes. The effect of glycation on angiogenesis depends on the type of glycated proteins and cells involved. This complex link could be responsible for the "angiogenic paradox" in aging and age-related disorders and diseases. Using diabetes as a model, the present work has attempted to review the age-related angiogenic paradox, in particular the effects of glycation on angiogenesis during aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. News of cognitive cure for age-related brain shrinkage is premature: a comment on Burgmans et al. (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-03-01

    The extant longitudinal literature consistently supports the notion of age-related declines in human brain volume. In a report on a longitudinal cognitive follow-up with cross-sectional brain measurements, Burgmans and colleagues (2009) claim that the extant studies overestimate brain volume declines, presumably due to inclusion of participants with preclinical cognitive pathology. Moreover, the authors of the article assert that such declines are absent among optimally healthy adults who maintain cognitive stability for several years. In this comment accompanied by reanalysis of previously published data, we argue that these claims are incorrect on logical, methodological, and empirical grounds.

  9. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-08-18

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  10. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... According to international research findings, eating disorders and disordered eating ... thinness could be a direct cause of disordered eating attitudes and ... suggest that disordered eating behaviour is even reported among a.

  11. Nonmonotonic Aging and Memory Retention in Disordered Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahini, Yoav; Gottesman, Omer; Amir, Ariel; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2017-02-01

    We observe nonmonotonic aging and memory effects, two hallmarks of glassy dynamics, in two disordered mechanical systems: crumpled thin sheets and elastic foams. Under fixed compression, both systems exhibit monotonic nonexponential relaxation. However, when after a certain waiting time the compression is partially reduced, both systems exhibit a nonmonotonic response: the normal force first increases over many minutes or even hours until reaching a peak value, and only then is relaxation resumed. The peak time scales linearly with the waiting time, indicating that these systems retain long-lasting memory of previous conditions. Our results and the measured scaling relations are in good agreement with a theoretical model recently used to describe observations of monotonic aging in several glassy systems, suggesting that the nonmonotonic behavior may be generic and that athermal systems can show genuine glassy behavior.

  12. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  13. Room temperature housing results in premature cancellous bone loss in growing female mice: implications for the mouse as a preclinical model for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, U T; Philbrick, K A; Wong, C P; Gordon, J L; Kahler-Quesada, A M; Olson, D A; Branscum, A J; Sargent, J L; DeMambro, V E; Rosen, C J; Turner, R T

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies

  14. Low birthweight and premature birth are both associated with type 2 diabetes in a random sample of middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Færch, K; Carstensen, B

    2010-01-01

    We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237)....

  15. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains:…

  16. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHODS...

  17. Low birthweight and premature birth are both associated with type 2 diabetes in a random sample of middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Færch, K; Carstensen, B;

    2010-01-01

    We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237).......We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237)....

  18. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prematurity (ROP) Facts About Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) This information was developed by the National Eye ... blind from ROP. Are there different stages of ROP? Yes. ROP is classified in five stages, ranging ...

  19. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature

  20. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  1. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.

  2. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Issues of Premature Babies Page Content Because premature babies are born before they are physically ready ... associated with prematurity. Because of these health concerns, premature babies are given extra medical attention and assistance ...

  3. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelling, Andrew N

    2010-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, and is characterised by amenorrhoea, hypo-oestrogenism and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. Known causes include iatrogenic agents that cause permanent damage to the ovaries, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, autoimmune conditions, X-chromosome abnormalities and autosomal genetic conditions. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. Most women with POF are deeply upset by the diagnosis, partly due to the unexpected menopausal symptoms, but also due to infertility. Therefore, early detection would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help to direct potential targets for future treatment.

  4. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  5. Analysis on effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants%胎龄和出生体重对早产儿预后影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫雅蓉; 章恒; 许兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄及出生体重对早产儿预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析无锡市妇幼保健院2008年1月~2009年12月间分娩的217例早产儿资料.结果:早产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率分别为43.8%和2.3%.早产儿并发症和死亡主要发生于胎龄<32周或出生体重<1 500 g的极低体重儿.缺氧缺血性脑病、窒息、呼吸窘迫综合症发生率和死亡率随胎龄或出生体重增加均呈下降趋势.结论:出生前加强孕期保健,尽可能延长胎龄,促进肺成熟;出生后防止早产儿窒息和加强低出生体重儿监护,将降低早产儿并发症发生率和死亡率.%Objective: To explore the effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants. Methods: The clinical data of 217 premature infants born in the hospital from January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants were 43.8% and 2. 3%, respectively; the premature infants less than 32 gestational weeks or birth weight < 1 500 g had high incidence of complication and high mortality; the incidences of complications ( including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome) and mortality of premature infants showed a decreasing trend with fetal age and the increase of birth weight. Conclusion: Enhancing pregnant health care before delivery, prolonging fetal age as far as possible,promoting fetal lung maturity, preventing neonatal asphyxia and strengthening the monitoring on low birth weight infants may reduce the incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants.

  6. Neuronal histaminergic system in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Swaab, Dick F; Bao, Ai-Min

    2013-07-01

    The neuronal histaminergic system is involved in many physiological functions and is severely affected in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The properties of the neuronal histaminergic system in experimental animals and the alterations observed in postmortem brain material of PD or AD patients are reviewed. The production of neuronal histamine shows diurnal fluctuations in control subjects who had no neuropsychiatric disorders, while this fluctuation was strongly altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD. In addition, different alterations shown as expression levels of histidine decarboxylase (the key enzyme for histamine production), histamine-methyltransferase (the histamine deactivating enzyme), and histamine receptors (H(1-4)R) were found in various neurodegenerative disorders. Discrepancies between results from animal models and postmortem human brain material studies have made clear that the validation of animal models is absolutely necessary and that studies on patients and human postmortem material are essential to understand the changes of neuronal histaminergic system occurring in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  10. Respiratory Failure in Premature Babies Born from Multiple Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the factors that are responsible for the development of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and the specific features of its course in preterm twin neonates. Subjects and methods. Twenty-three patients who had had twin pregnancy, including 9 (39.1% and 14 (60% with monochorial and bichorial biamniotic twin pregnancies, respectively, were examined. Their mean age was 28.5±5.4 years. Obstetric and gynecologic histories, conditions at conception, the course of pregnancy, the type of pla-centation, and fetal presentation were considered. The placentas were morphologically examined. In all the patients, pregnancy ended in birth of 46 premature neonates, of them there were 19 (41.3% boys and 27 (58.7% girls. The gestational age of the neonates averaged 31.7±2.3 weeks. The evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy used clinical assessment of the status of the premature neonates; measurement of partial oxygen tension (pO2 and calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2, respiratory index (RI, and oxygenation index (OI; death rates were analyzed. Results. The main cause of respiratory failure (RF was RDS in premature twins. Neonatal blood aspiration-caused pneumonia occurred in one case. The course of RDS was variable. Most neonatal infants needed exogenous surfactant replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation (MV. No signs of RF were present in 7 (15.2% premature neonates. Conclusion. Premature twins are a high RDS risk group. The unfavorable factors that contribute to the development of the disease are multiple pregnancy, a past maternal obstetric history, in-vitro fertilization-induced pregnancy, severe gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery. The type of placentation affects the fetal status after birth. Fatal outcome occurred in infants from the monochorial bioamniotic twins. In multiple pregnancies, there are pathological changes in the placenta, its membranes, and umbilical

  11. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  12. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  13. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder at Age Six and Clinical and Functional Outcomes Three Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Kessel, Ellen M.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the predictive validity of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). This longitudinal, community-based study examined associations of DMDD at age six with psychiatric disorders, functional impairment, peer functioning, and service use at age nine. Methods 473 children were assessed at ages six and nine. Child psychopathology and functional impairment were assessed at age six with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) with parents and at age nine with the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) with parents and children. At age nine, mothers, fathers and youth completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Screen for Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED), and teachers and K-SADS interviewers completed measures of peer functioning. Significant demographic covariates were included in all models. Results DMDD at age six predicted a current diagnosis of DMDD at age nine. DMDD at age six also predicted current and lifetime depressive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at age nine, after controlling for all age six psychiatric disorders. In addition, DMDD predicted depressive, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms on the K-SADS, and maternal and paternal reports of depressive symptoms on the CDI, after controlling for the corresponding symptom scale at age six. Lastly, DMDD at age six predicted greater functional impairment, peer problems, and educational support service use at age nine, after controlling for all psychiatric disorders at age six. Conclusions Children with DMDD are at high risk for impaired functioning across childhood, and this risk is not accounted by comorbid conditions. PMID:26786551

  14. Symptom clusters in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): influence of age and age of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2010-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an ailment of heterogeneous nature. It is believed that the age of onset determines the subtype of juvenile OCD. The objective of our study was to evaluate the rates of symptoms' contents and the age of manifestation of the various OCD symptoms in adolescents and adults with early and late onset of disorder. Both authors independently reviewed the medical charts of patients treated for OCD between 1999 and 2007 in a psychiatric university hospital. Patients were evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale check list (Y-BOCS). The patients were grouped as adolescents (group 1), adults with late onset (group 2) and adults with early onset (group 3). Chi2 was used for nominal variables and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for continuous comparisons due to deviations from normality of distribution. A total of 132 patients were enrolled in the study (44 group 1, 43 group 2 and 45 group 3). There were no differences in gender distribution. Religious, sexual and miscellaneous obsessions were more frequent and somatic less frequent in group 1 than in group 2. Contamination compulsions were most seldom found in group 1. Cleaning obsessions were more frequent in group 3 than in group 1. Checking were the rarest and miscellaneous, the most often compulsion among adolescents in comparison to other groups. The symptoms' content in adolescents differed from those observed in adult, both with early and later onset of the disease. The age at onset influences the rates of adult patients' compulsions.

  15. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.

  17. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders.

  18. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    birth to age 10 months. Data on the perinatal period were obtained from Danish National Registers. Mental health outcome at age 5-7 years was investigated in 1,585 children who were assessed by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and diagnosed according to the ICD-10. RESULTS: Predictors.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  19. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  20. Increasing incidence of premature thelarche in the Central Region of Denmark - Challenges in differentiating girls less than 7 years of age with premature thelarche from girls with precocious puberty in real-life practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømod, Mia Elbek; Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Kristensen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    was the variable which best discriminated PT from PP. Third, stimulated LH in 1-3 years old girls with PT is similar to stimulated LH in 5-7 years old girls with PP. Age, BMISDS, ethnicity, bone age, stimulated gonadotropins and LH/FSH and SHBG are all useful variables for differentiating PP from PT. However...

  1. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  2. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  3. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    , and congenital malformations. Neonatal sepsis occurs in about 5% of live births following premature rupture, but the rate triples after 24 hours, especially in premature infants. The rate of neonatal asphyxia also increases considerable after 24 hours. Congenital malformations, prolapse of the cord, and pelvic presentation are positively associated with premature rupture of membranes. If the decision is made to interrupt the pregnancy, it should be done between 12-24 hours after rupture because the risks of infection and respiratory difficulty are most balanced at that point. Vaginal deliveries should be preferred only if conditions are favorable for a prompt delivery. The gestational age, presence of infection, obstetric condition of the mother, and indication for hysterectomy are the most important points to consider i management of premature rupture.

  4. Personality disorder in childhood and adolescence comes of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey T; Chanen, Andrew M; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a narrative review of the mounting evidence base on personality disorder in childhood and adolescence. Topics covered include diagnostic validity, prevalence, developmental issues, comorbidity, risk and protective factors, and treatment. Novel indicated...... prevention and early intervention programs for borderline personality disorder in adolescence are given special priority. To conclude, directions for future research are provided....

  5. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  6. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  7. A case of premature ovarian failure (POF) in a 31-year-old woman with a 47,XXX karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skałba, Piotr; Cygal, Anna; Gierzyńska, Zuzanna

    2010-01-01

    A case of POF in a 31-year-old woman with karyotype 47,XXX. The aim of the study was to discuss a case of POF in a 31-year-old patient with polysomy 47,XXX. The described karyotype is not usually associated with this characteristic physical phenotype. In some rare cases, menstrual disorders, sterility, secondary amenorrhoea, premature menopause, and low intelligence are found. Our observations revealed the necessity for cytogenetic examination in all women at reproductive age with symptoms of premature ovarian failure. According to the data found in literature, patients with POF and karyotype disorders belong to the risk group of premature death, mostly for cardiological reasons. Raising patient awareness about the risk may have a positive effect on quality of life and regularity of check-ups.

  8. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  9. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  10. [Neuropsychological syndromes of non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnikov, I V; Omelchenko, M A; Krylova, E S; Kaleda, V G

    2013-01-01

    Seventy male patients with non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age (mean age 19.2±3.7), were studied using A.R. Luria neuropsychological syndrome analysis. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by diagnosis: cyclothymia (20 patients), pubertal decompensation of schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been shown that the neuropsychological changes indicate the dysfunction of the amygdale/temporal region in patients of the first group and frontal/thalamic/parietal connections in the patients of two other groups. There were interhemispheric differences between patients with personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder: left hemisphere dysfunction was characteristic of schizotypal disorder and right hemisphere deficit (neurocognitive deficit) was found in patients with personality disorder.

  11. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  12. Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajantie Eero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children. Methods A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analysed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Neither prematurity (birth Conclusions Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.

  13. Persistent unexplained congenital clitoromegaly in females born extremely prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.E.; Nakhal, R.S.; Achermann, J.C.; Creighton, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Unexplained clitoromegaly is a rare but well recognised feature in girls born premature. Although detected at birth, girls may re-present during childhood to paediatric urologists and gynaecologists who should be aware of this condition. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical findings and management of a series of girls presenting with persistent congenital clitoromegaly associated with prematurity. Materials and methods This was a retrospective notes review set in a tertiary referral centre for Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology (PAG). Results Eight girls with a mean age of 6 years were seen over an eight year period. In all cases a Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) had been previously excluded. The main symptoms were discomfort or concern about appearance. On examination five girls had excess skin over the clitoris and three had enlarged corporal tissue. Management included reassurance and simple measures to ease discomfort. In two cases the parents requested referral to a paediatric urologist to consider clitoral surgery. Conclusion As survival rates for extreme prematurity improve, paediatric urologists and gynaecologists are likely to see more of these cases. Clinicians must be familiar with this condition to ensure children are managed appropriately. PMID:23619354

  14. [Dementia and bipolar disorder on the borderline of old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, D; Theochari, I; Tsalta, E

    2013-01-01

    Dementia and bipolar disorder have been traditionally considered two separate clinical entities. However, recent preclinical and clinical data in elderly people suggest that they are in fact related. Several theories have been put forward to interpret their relationship which could be summed up as follows: (1) Dementia could increase the risk for the emergence of bipolar symptoms, or (2) conversely, bipolar disorder might be associated with heightened risk for developing pseudodementia or dementia. (3) Alternatively, dementia, other brain diseases or drugs affecting brain function could lead to the combination of symptoms of dementia and bipolar disorder in elderly individuals. The two disorders demonstrate similarities with respect to their clinical expression (agitation, psychotic, mood and cognitive symptoms) and structural brain neuroimaging (enlarged lateral ventricles and white matter hyperintensities using magnetic resonance imaging-MRI). Despite the above similarities, the two disorders also have important differences. As expected, cognitive symptoms prevail in dementia and mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. In dementia but not in bipolar disorder there is evidence that brain structural abnormalities are diffuse and hippocampal volumes are smaller. Dementia and bipolar disorder present different abnormalities in functional brain neuroimaging. The pattern of "ventral" hyperactivity and "dorsal" hypoactivity in brain emotional circuits at rest is revealed in bipolar disorder but not dementia. With respect to their treatment, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are indicated against cognitive symptoms in dementia and also improve behavioural and psychological symptoms appearing during the course of dementia. Lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics and antidepressants are effective in the management of the acute episodes of bipolar disorder of younger adults, but there are not yet evidence-based data in elderly bipolar patients. It is likely that the

  15. Brain protein oxidation in age-related neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with aggregated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D A; Kanski, J

    2001-07-15

    Protein oxidation, one of a number of brain biomarkers of oxidative stress, is increased in several age-related neurodegenerative disorders or animal models thereof, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, prion disorders, such as Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, and alpha-synuclein disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Each of these neurodegenerative disorders is associated with aggregated proteins in brain. However, the relationship among protein oxidation, protein aggregation, and neurodegeneration remain unclear. The current rapid progress in elucidation of mechanisms of protein oxidation in neuronal loss should provide further insight into the importance of free radical oxidative stress in these neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  17. Clearance of p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Darren J.; Wijshake, Tobias; Tchkonia, Tamar; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Childs, Bennett G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Kirkland, James L.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan.

  18. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, D.J.; Wijshake, T.; Tchkonia, T.; LeBrasseur, N.K.; Childs, B.G.; Sluis, B. van de; Kirkland, J.L.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan.

  19. Clearance of p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Darren J.; Wijshake, Tobias; Tchkonia, Tamar; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Childs, Bennett G.; van de Sluis, Bart; Kirkland, James L.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan. Cellul

  20. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, D.J.; Wijshake, T.; Tchkonia, T.; LeBrasseur, N.K.; Childs, B.G.; Sluis, B. van de; Kirkland, J.L.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan. Cellul

  1. Factors That Affect Age of Identification of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Chana R.; Kubiszyn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study explored factors associated with age of identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results of a one-way ANOVA indicated differences in age of diagnosis among the four regions in the United States, F(3, 650) = 7.618, p = 0.01. Tukey's post hoc comparisons of the groups indicated that the mean age of diagnosis in the Midwest (M =…

  2. Undercontrolled Temperament at Age 3 Predicts Disordered Gambling at Age 32: A Longitudinal Study of a Complete Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426

  3. Parental age and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2016-01-01

    population-based cohort including all singletons born in Denmark from 1 January 1991 through 31 December 2005 was followed from birth until 30 April 2011. Data were available for 94% (N = 943 785) of the population. Offspring ADHD was identified by an ICD-10 diagnosis of Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD). We used...

  4. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  5. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  6. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  7. Age of onset of bipolar disorder: Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2016-10-01

    Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relationship and interaction of: 1) parental and grandparental total burden of psychiatric illness; and 2) the degree of adversity the patient experienced in childhood on their age of onset of bipolar disorder was examined with multiple regression and illustrated with a heat map. The familial loading and child adversity vulnerability factors were significantly related to age of onset of bipolar and their combined effect was even larger. A heat map showed that at the extremes (none of each factor vs high amounts of both) the average age of onset differed by almost 20 years (mean = 25.8 vs 5.9 years of age). The data were not based on interviews of family members and came from unverified answers on a patient questionnaire. Family loading for psychiatric illness and adversity in childhood combine to have a very large influence on age of onset of bipolar disorder. These variables should be considered in assessment of risk for illness onset in different populations, the need for early intervention, and in the design of studies of primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain tumors in children and adolescents: cognitive and psychological disorders at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Geraldina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Sommovigo, Michela; Castelli, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    Cognitive and psychological disorders are among the most frequently observed sequelae in brain tumor survivors. The goal of this work was to verify the presence of these disorders in a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years, differentiate these disorders according to age of assessment, identify correlations between the two types of impairments and define possible associations between these impairments and clinical variables. The study involved 76 patients diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years. Three age groups were formed, and all the patients received a standardized battery of age-matched cognitive and psychological tests. According to our findings, all three groups present with cognitive and psychological-behavioral disorders. Their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated to time since diagnosis. The performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) was more impaired than the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ). Internalizing problems, withdrawal and social problems were the most frequent psychological disorders. Correlations were found between cognitive impairment and the onset of the main psychological and behavioral disorders. These findings are relevant as they point out the long-term outcome of brain tumor survivors. Hence, the recommendation to diversify psychological interventions and rehabilitation plans according to the patients' age.

  9. LncRNA pathway involved in premature preterm rupture of membrane (PPROM: an epigenomic approach to study the pathogenesis of reproductive disorders.

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    Xiucui Luo

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is a live birth delivered before 37 weeks of gestation (GW. About one-third of PTBs result from the preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM. Up to the present, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PPROM are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated the differential expression of long chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in placentas of PTBs with PPROM, and their possible involvement in the pathogenic pathways leading to PPROM. A total number of 1954, 776, and 1050 lncRNAs were identified with a microarray from placentas of PPROM (group A, which were compared to full-term birth (FTB (group B, PTB (group C, and premature rupture of membrane (PROM (group D at full-term, respectively. Instead of investigating the individual pathogenic role of each lncRNA involved in the molecular mechanism underlying PPROM, we have focused on investigating the metabolic pathways and their functions to explore what is the likely association and how they are possibly involved in the development of PPROM. Six groups, including up-regulation and down-regulation in the comparisons of A vs. B, A vs. C, and A vs. D, of pathways were analyzed. Our results showed that 22 pathways were characterized as up-regulated 7 down-regulated in A vs. C, 18 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated in A vs. D, and 33 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated in A vs. B. Functional analysis showed pathways of infection and inflammatory response, ECM-receptor interactions, apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton, and smooth muscle contraction are the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of PPROM. Characterization of these pathways through identification of lncRNAs opened new avenues for further investigating the epigenomic mechanisms of lncRNAs in PPROM as well as PTB.

  10. 早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用%Study on the Prediction Function of Gestational Age and Body Weight of Premature Infants on Diabetes in C hildren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈召金; 黎见乐; 姚慧梅; 兰红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究并分析早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用。方法回顾性分析200例早产儿的临床资料。按照早产儿的胎龄分为A1、A2、A3、A4组,根据出生体重分为B1、B2、B3、B4组,根据喂养方式分为C1、C2、C3组。跟踪随访15年后,记录早产儿儿童糖尿病的发病率。结果28~30周胎龄组早产儿儿童糖尿病发病率为80.0%,明显高于其他胎龄组;出生体重≤999 g早产儿发病率为80.0%,较其他组早产儿高;人工喂养组早产儿发病率为60.8%,明显高于其余两组(P均<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论儿童糖尿病的发病率与早产儿胎龄和出生体重密切相关。%Objective To explore and analyze the prediction function of gestational age and body weight of premature infants on diabetes in children .Methods The retrospective analysis of clinical data was taken ,in-cluding 200 cases of premature infants .According to their gestational age ,they were divided into A1,A2,A3, A4 four groups,with B1 ,B2,B3,B4 four groups according to their birth weight ,C1,C2,C3 three groups accord-ing to the feeding patterns .After a follow-up visit for 15 years,records were written down on the incidences of diabetes in these children .Re sults The incidence of diabetes was 80%in group of premature infants with 28~30 weeks'gestational age ,significantly higher than other age groups .So was the morbidity rate of those with birth weight ≤999g,which accounted for 80.0%.The morbidity rate of premature infants ,who were treated with arti-ficial feeding was 60.8%,significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05).Besides,the morbidity rate in group of infants with non-nutritive sucking accounted for 50 .9%.Conclusion The incidence of diabetes in children is closely related to the gestational age and birth weight of these premature infants .

  11. Relationship between late preterm birth and expression of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children: clinical, neuropsychological, and neurobiochemical outcomes

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    Ben Amor L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available L Ben Amor,1,2 S Chantal,3 A Bairam41Department of Psychiatry, Hotel Dieu de Levis, 2Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, 3Enfant Jesus Hospital, 4Department of Paediatrics, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in school-aged children, and prematurity is a recognized risk factor. Late-preterm birth, which represents 75% of premature births, is associated with ADHD symptoms, impaired cognitive performance, and behavior problems. However, little is known of the characteristics of ADHD associated with late prematurity. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, neuropsychological, and neurobiochemical characteristics associated with late-preterm ADHD with those of at-term ADHD.Methods: Eighty-six children with ADHD, aged 5–13 years, were recruited. They included 20 late-preterm children with ADHD and 66 at-term children with ADHD. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT were used to evaluate their clinical and neuropsychological characteristics. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of metabolites (glutamate, choline, and N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine in both the prefrontal and striatal regions as well as the left cerebellum.Results: The groups did not differ in regards to clinical outcomes. However, the ADHD late-preterm group had worse omissions and commissions T-scores on CPT (P ≤ 0.05 than the ADHD at-term group. The ADHD late-preterm group also had lower ratios of glutamate in the left prefrontal cortex than the ADHD at-term group (P ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Among children with ADHD, those born at late preterm have lower attention scores as evaluated by CPT and are associated with lower relative concentrations of glutamate in the prefrontal region than those born at term. Etiological factors could play a role in the expression of ADHD

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  13. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  14. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary E.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Evon Batey; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Crittendon, Julie; Stone, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically…

  15. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Specific Stimulant Misuse, Mood, Anxiety, and Stress in College-Age Women at High Risk for or with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Elise L.; Kass, Andrea E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the misuse of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-specific stimulants in a college population at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Participants: Four hundred forty-eight college-age women aged 18-25 at high risk for or with a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. Methods:…

  17. Attention Deficit Disorder--A New Age Yuppie Disorder or an Age Old Human Characteristic Essential for Our Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Anna A.

    This brief paper suggests that Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) may result from a specific "novelty seeking" gene which has been associated over the history of man's evolution with a biological advantage in situations where energy, risk taking, and creativity are essentials. It reviews research on the genetics of ADD which suggest that novelty…

  18. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

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    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  19. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  20. Premature temporal theta (PT theta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Fino, J J; Hart, L A

    1987-07-01

    A distinctive pattern called premature temporal theta (PT theta) was studied in 436 infants, ranging in age from 24 to 46 weeks. The pattern is seen in early prematurity, maximizes at 29-31 weeks and then diminishes and disappears near term. Usually the pattern is found independently on both temporal areas, but with a right-sided preference. Patients without PT theta or with a significantly low amount had either neurological or non-neurological (medical) conditions. With age there is a tendency for an increase in frequency and a decrease in amplitude. Five different peaks in the amount of this pattern are seen at approximately every month. Unilateral PT theta tends to be seen in older babies, more often on the right side and with an abnormal EEG. An abnormal EEG is usually associated with a delay in both the appearance and disappearance of this wave form. PT theta is also associated mainly with REM or active sleep. A polynomial rather than an exponential or power function best describes these data with changes of age. PT theta may arise from the inferior temporal gyrus and/or especially the transverse gyrus.

  1. Age Peculiarities of the Course of Functional Biliary Disorders in Children

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    I.V. Pashchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Functional pathology of biliary tract is widespread among children of different age. The main signs of functional biliary disorders in children are manifestations of dyspeptic, pain, asthenovegetative and cholestatic syndromes of various intensity. The research objective: to study the peculiarities of the biliary functional disorders in children of different age groups. Materials and methods. There were observed 85 children aged from 3 up to 17 years old with the confirmed diagnosis of functional biliary disorders. The patients’ examination included: anamnestic data, general clinical investigation, laboratory and instrumental studies. Among the examined children 44 children were aged from 3 up to 6 years old, 41 patients were aged from 7 up to 17 years old. Results of the research. The main causes of the disease among children of preschool age were the following: improper feeding (63.6 %, the acute infections of the alimentary system diseases in anamnesis (29.5 %, presence of the chro­nic infection foci (22.7 %. According to the result of the analysis of clinical manifestations there was established that in 88.6 % of children of preschool age hypokinetic functional biliary disorders prevailed, accompanied by persistent not intensive stomach ache and dyspeptic syndrome. Improper feeding (92.6 %, psychoemotional stress (43.9 %, hypodynamia (34.2 %, vegetative deregulation (24.3 % were the main reasons for the exacerbation of the disease among school children. In 48.7 % of children of school age there were diagnosed pancreatic disorders. Discussion of the research results. Therapeutic correction of functional biliary disorders in children is required to be carried out taking into account that in children of preschool age the hypokinetic functional biliary disorders prevailed, and in children of school age there was more often diagnosed functional pancreatic disorder of Oddi’s sphincter and hyperkinetic functional biliary

  2. Separation anxiety disorder across the lifespan: DSM-5 lifts age restriction on diagnosis.

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    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan

    2014-10-01

    DSM-5 has lifted the age criterion in the definition of separation anxiety disorder thereby overturning the long-standing convention of restricting the diagnosis to childhood. Previously, adults with separation anxiety symptoms were assigned to other conventional categories such as panic disorder, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two decades, an evolving body of research has identified separation anxiety disorder in adulthood, with 20-40% of adult psychiatric outpatients being assigned that diagnosis. In the US, the lifetime prevalence of the disorder in adulthood is 6.6%. The removal of the age restriction on diagnosis has important implications for clinical practice. Whereas parents (particularly mothers) of children with separation anxiety disorder commonly attracted the diagnosis of agoraphobia, the latter are more likely now to be diagnosed with the adult form of separation anxiety disorder, focusing attention on the importance of intervening with both members of the dyad to overcome mutual reinforcement of symptoms. In addition, adults with separation anxiety disorder have been found to manifest high levels of disability and they tend to show a poor response to conventional psychological and pharmacological treatments. There is an urgent need therefore to devise novel psychological and pharmacological interventions for the adult form of the disorder. The reformulation of separation anxiety disorder in DSM-5 therefore requires a paradigm shift in which clinicians are alerted to identifying and treating the condition in all age groups. Research across countries is needed to examine the new formulation of separation anxiety disorder amongst populations of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

  3. Memory systems analyses of mnemonic disorders in aging and age-related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects upon memory of normal aging and two age-related neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease, are analyzed in terms of memory systems, specific neural networks that mediate specific mnemonic processes. An occipital memory system mediating implicit visual-perceptual memory appears to be unaffected by aging or AD. A frontal system that may mediate implicit conceptual memory is affected by AD but not by normal aging. Another frontal system that mediates aspects of working and strategic memory is affected by Parkinson disease and, to a lesser extent, by aging. The aging effect appears to occur during all ages of the adult life-span. Finally, a medial-temporal system that mediates declarative memory is affected by the late onset of AD. Studies of intact and impaired memory in age-related diseases suggest that normal aging has markedly different effects upon different memory systems. PMID:8942968

  4. Predictive factors for neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months in very low birth weight premature infants Fatores preditivos para anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida em prematuros de muito baixo peso

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    Rosane Reis de Mello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in survival of premature newborns has sparked growing interest in the prediction of their long-term neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months and to identify the predictive factors associated with altered neuromotor development in very low birth weight premature infants. METHOD: Cohort study. The sample included 100 premature infants. The outcome was neuromotor development at 12 months classified by Bayley Scale (PDI and neurological assessment (tonus, reflexes, posture. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. Neonatal variables and neuromotor abnormalities up to 6 months of corrected age were selected by bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Mean birth weight was 1126g (SD: 240. Abnormal neuromotor development was presented in 60 children at 12 months corrected age. CONCLUSION: According to the model, patients with a diagnosis including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hypertonia of lower extremities, truncal hypotonia showed a 94.0% probability of neuromotor involvement at 12 months.INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento na sobrevida de recém-nascidos prematuros tem suscitado interesse crescente na predição do seu neurodesenvolvimento a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência de anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida e identificar os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado em prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte. A amostra incluiu 100 crianças prematuras.O desfecho foi o desenvolvimento neuromotor aos 12 meses. Modelo de regressão logística multivariado foi construído. Variáveis neonatais e anormalidades neuromotoras até os 6 meses de idade corrigida foram selecionadas por análise bivariada. RESULTADOS: O peso de nascimento médio foi 1126g (DP:240. Aos 12 meses 60% das crianças apresentaram desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com o modelo, pacientes com diagn

  5. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  6. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  7. Mitochondrial sirtuins as therapeutic targets for age-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jennifer; Donmez, Gizem

    2013-03-01

    Sirtuins are a class of histone deacetylases that have a wide range of regulatory roles in the cell. Three sirtuins, SIRT3 to SIRT5, localize to and function within the mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be the underlying mechanism of several age-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegeneration. This review examines current evidence that mitochondrial sirtuins are involved in regulating mitochondrial function and pathogenesis.

  8. Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Etienne

    2013-03-01

    The increased risk for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with extended lifespan has long suggested mechanistic links between chronological age and brain-related disorders, including depression, Recent characterizations of age-dependent gene expression changes now show that aging of the human brain engages a specific set of biological pathways along a continuous lifelong trajectory, and that the same genes that are associated with normal brain aging are also frequently and similarly implicated in depression and other brain-related disorders. These correlative observations suggest a model of age-by-disease molecular interactions, in which brain aging promotes biological changes associated with diseases, and additional environmental factors and genetic variability contribute to defining disease risk or resiliency trajectories. Here we review the characteristic features of brain aging in terms of changes in gene function over time, and then focus on evidence supporting accelerated molecular aging in depression. This proposed age-by-disease biological interaction model addresses the current gap in research between "normal" brain aging and its connection to late-life diseases. The implications of this model are profound, as it provides an investigational framework for identifying critical moderating factors, outlines opportunities for early interventions or preventions, and may form the basis for a dimensional definition of diseases that goes beyond the current categorical system.

  9. Lipid profile of women with premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, Erik A. H.; Westerveld, Hendrika E.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Valkenburg, Olivier; van Santbrink, Evert J. P.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Earlier menopause is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events later in life. Concurrent with the ages of menopausal transition, a shift in lipid profile takes place. Premature ovarian failure (POF) or premature menopause allows LIS to Study the effect of cessation of

  10. The role of oxidative and nitrosative stress in accelerated aging and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Noto, Cristiano; Rizzo, Lucas B; Rios, Adiel C; Nunes, Sandra O V; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Sethi, Sumit; Zeni, Maiara; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Maes, Michael; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and is highly comorbid with many age associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus, immune-inflammatory dysregulation and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative/nitrosative stress plays a fundamental role in aging, as well as in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative/neuropsychiatric disorders including MDD. In this review, we critically review the evidence for an involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress in acceleration of aging process in MDD. There are evidence of the association between MDD and changes in molecular mechanisms involved in aging. There is a significant association between telomere length, enzymatic antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, GPx), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (MDA), nuclear factor κB, inflammatory cytokines with MDD. Major depression also is characterized by significantly lower concentration of antioxidants (zinc, coenzyme Q10, PON1). Since, aging and MDD share a common biological base in their pathophysiology, the potential therapeutic use of antioxidants and anti-aging molecules in MDD could be promising.

  11. Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children's negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether cognitive content is disorder-specific. The current study addressed these questions among 120 7-12 year old children (53% female) who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorder, or who were not currently anxious. Contrary to expectations, threat interpretation was not inflated amongst anxious compared to non-anxious children at any age, although older (10-12 year old) anxious children did differ from non-anxious children on measures of perceived coping. The notion of cognitive-content specificity was not supported across the age-range. The findings challenge current treatment models of childhood anxiety, and suggest that a focus on changing anxious children's cognitions is not warranted in mid-childhood, and in late childhood cognitive approaches may be better focussed on promoting children's perceptions of control rather than challenging threat interpretations.

  12. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  13. Social analogical reasoning in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In all, 92 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a social content analogical reasoning task presented via photographs of real-world social interactions. Autism spectrum disorder participants exhibited performance that was well above chance and was not significantly worse than age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children. Investigating the relationship of social content analogical reasoning performance to age in this cross-sectional dataset indicated similar developmental trajectories in the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children groups. These findings provide new support for intact analogical reasoning in autism spectrum disorder and have theoretical implications for analogy as a metacognitive skill that may be at least partially dissociable from general deficits in processing social content. As an initial study of social analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder, this study focused on a basic research question with limited ecological validity. Evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning ability to social content may have long-range applied implications for exploring how this capacity might be channeled to improve social cognition in daily life.

  14. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1 Brigitte Dréno,2 Jean Krutmann,3 Thomas Anton Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 Sylvie Meaume,6 Sophie Seité71Research and Studies Centre on the Integument (CERT, Clinical Investigation Centre (CIC BT506, Department of Dermatology, Besançon University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 2Department of Dermato-Cancerology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5International Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois, France; 6Geriatric Service, Wounds and Healing, Rothschild Hôspital, Paris, France; 7La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, FranceAbstract: The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the

  15. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33–35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueras-Aloy Jose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33–35 weeks' gestational age (GA. Methods The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA who were hospitalised with RSV, and 371 age-matched controls. The model was validated internally by 100-fold bootstrapping. Discriminant function analysis was used to analyse combinations of risk factors to predict RSV hospitalisation. Successive models were chosen that had the highest probability for discriminating between hospitalised and non-hospitalised infants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results An initial 15 variable model was produced with a discriminant function of 72% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.795. A step-wise reduction exercise, alongside recalculations of some variables, produced a final model consisting of 7 variables: birth ± 10 weeks of start of season, birth weight, breast feeding for ≤ 2 months, siblings ≥ 2 years, family members with atopy, family members with wheeze, and gender. The discrimination of this model was 71% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.791. At the 0.75 sensitivity intercept, the false positive fraction was 0.33. The 100-fold bootstrapping resulted in a mean discriminant function of 72% (standard deviation: 2.18 and a median area under the ROC curve of 0.785 (range: 0.768–0.790, indicating a good internal validation. The calculated NNT for intervention to treat all at risk patients with a 75% level of protection was 11.7 (95% confidence interval: 9.5–13.6. Conclusion A robust model based on seven risk factors was developed, which is able to predict which premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA are at highest risk of hospitalisation from RSV. The model could be

  16. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  17. Signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years: Effects of institutional care history and high-quality foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2017-05-01

    Two disorders of attachment have been consistently identified in some young children following severe deprivation in early life: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. However, less is known about whether signs of these disorders persist into adolescence. We examined signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years in 111 children who were abandoned at or shortly after birth and subsequently randomized to care as usual or to high-quality foster care, as well as in 50 comparison children who were never institutionalized. Consistent with expectations, those who experienced institutional care in early life had more signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder at age 12 years than children never institutionalized. In addition, using a conservative intent-to-treat approach, those children randomized to foster care had significantly fewer signs of reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder than those randomized to care as usual. Analyses within the ever institutionalized group revealed no effects of the age of placement into foster care, but number of caregiving disruptions experienced and the percentage of the child's life spent in institutional care were significant predictors of signs of attachment disorders assessed in early adolescence. These findings indicate that adverse caregiving environments in early life have enduring effects on signs of attachment disorders, and provide further evidence that high-quality caregiving interventions are associated with reductions in both reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.

  18. Comorbidity of Learning Difficulties and Socio-psycho-emotional Disorders in School age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakopoulou, V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research in children with learning difficulties indicates high comorbidity with both behavioral/psycho-emotional disorders. It has been suggested that learning disorders constitute the outcome of a continuum of mental disorders which accompany the individual through life. Aim: The main aim of the current research was to point out and document the clinical profile of children with learning difficulties and co-occuring behavioral/psycho-emotional disorders and to establish a pattern between the two. Methodology: Observational study was conducted on a random group of 54 children with learning disorders of varying ages ranging from 6-11years old. The research was conducted at George Papanikolaou General hospital, mental health care sector of children and adolescents in Thessaloniki. Results: Findings indicated associations between learning difficulties and a wide spectrum of behavioral and psycho-emotional disorders such as hyperactivity, conduct and emotional disorders, childhood emotional disorders, disturbed social functionality. Conclusions: In conclusion, the above findings confirm the degree of comorbidity between learning difficulties and mental disorders in childhood.

  19. Therapeutic Strategies for Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Age-Related Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, J S; Kumar, S; Vijayan, M; Bhatti, G K; Reddy, P H

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. Further, much progress has been done in the improvement of therapeutic strategies, including lifestyle interventions, pharmacological, and mitochondria-targeted therapeutic approaches. These strategies were mainly focused to reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress and to retain the mitochondrial health in various diseases. In this chapter, we have highlighted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of various disorders and recent progress in the development of mitochondria-targeted molecules as therapeutic measures for metabolic disorders.

  20. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  1. Observing interactions between children and adolescents and their parents: the effects of anxiety disorder and age

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack\\ud of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in\\ud models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associ...

  2. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-08-01

    Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  4. Serum fructosamine and retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Senol; Oguz, Serife Suna; Gokmen, Tulin; Tunay, Zuhal; Tok, Levent; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether serum fructosamine which is a good marker for detecting hyperglycemia during the previous 2 to 3 wk in infants could predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. One hundred sixty seven premature infants who had a birth weight of < 1500 g and a gestational age of less than 32 wk were investigated in the present study. Blood glucose was measured at the bedside and infants were recorded as hyperglycemic if their mean blood glucose levels were higher than 150 mg/dL. Serum corrected fructosamine level was obtained from the cord blood at birth and after the first month of life. The infants' eyes were examined by ophthalmologists to detect retinopathy of prematurity at the gestational age of 32 wk or at four wk after birth, whichever came first. Corrected fructosamine was 319.6 ± 59.6 and 272.8 ± 50.6 mmol/l for group 1 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively; 320 ± 61.7 and 268.2 ± 47.3 mmol/l for groups 2 + 3 on 1(st) and 30(th) day respectively which did not differ between groups (p = 0.766 and p = 0.665), whereas duration of hyperglycemia was 1.69 ± 1.1 day in group 1 compared with 3.05 ± 2.4 day in groups 2 + 3 which was significantly different (p = 0.019). The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the duration of hyperglycemia in days was significantly correlated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.09-9.80; p = 0.035). Although the duration of hyperglycemia may contribute to the development of retinopathy of prematurity, serum corrected fructosamine does not have a good predictive value in developing retinopathy of prematurity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

  5. Risk for developmental coordination disorder correlates with gestational age at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Olesen, Annette W

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that children born very preterm have a high risk of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We examined the relation between the larger spectrum of gestational age at birth and the risk of DCD. METHODS:   We used the 7-year follow-up data from 22898 singletons...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort. We calculated a total score from the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ), incorporated in the 7-year follow-up, and defined children with a score of 46 or below as having probable DCD. Information on gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth...

  6. Juvenile Delinquency and Attention Deficit Disorder: Boys' Developmental Trajectories from Age 3 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1990-01-01

    In this study of developmental precursors of adolescent behavior, the developmental trajectories of 435 boys from ages 3 through 15 were traced for selected correlates of delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior, low verbal intelligence, reading difficulty, and family adversity). (PCB)

  7. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  8. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  9. Electrolyte disorders and aging: risk factors for delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hong; Xu, Dong-Juan; Wei, Xian-Jiao; Chang, Hao-Teng; Xu, Guo-Hong

    2016-11-23

    At present, the exact mechanism of postoperative delirium has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries and to explore possible related factors. This is a retrospective study. We used 582 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery between January 2011 and December 2014. The surgeries consisted of 155 cases of internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture (IFIF), 128 cases of femoral head replacement (FHR), 169 cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 130 cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Among the 582 patients, 75 developed postoperative delirium (an incidence of 12.9%). The demographics of the patients, which included age, gender, operation duration and blood loss, were statistically analyzed with univariate logistic regression analysis and then multivariate logistic regression. To investigate the influences of different electrolytes disorders for postoperative delirium, the Chi-square test was used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that postoperative delirium incidence in patients aged 70-79 years and in patients aged ≥80 years was higher than that in patients aged delirium in the group of patients with electrolyte disorders was higher than that in the normal group (OR, 2.38). There were statistically significant differences between the delirium group and the non-delirium group in the incidences of the sodium and calcium disorders. Aging and postoperative electrolyte disorders (hyponatremia and hypocalcemia) are risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries.

  10. Genetically modified mouse models for premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Krishna; Reddy, Pradeep; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui

    2010-02-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a complex disorder that affects approximately 1% of women. POF is characterized by the depletion of functional ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years, and clinically, patients may present with primary amenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea. Although some genes have been hypothesized to be candidates responsible for POF, the etiology of most of the cases is idiopathic, with the underlying causes still unidentified because of the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we consider some mutant mouse models that exhibit phenotypes which are comparable to human POF, and we suggest that the use of these mouse models may help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying POF in humans.

  11. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  12. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. Data sources: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases’ inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Study eligibility criteria: Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. Participants: patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. Interventions: a history of depressive disorder. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Results: Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42–1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I2 = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. Limitations: The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42016041272 PMID:27583879

  13. Growth in Small-for-Gestational-Age Preterm-Born Children from 0 to 4 Years : The Role of both Prematurity and SGA Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fullterm small-for-gestational-age children (SGAs) are known for their ability to catch up on growth. Nevertheless, increased risk of growth restriction remains. Evidence on preterm SGA children's growth is lacking. Objective: To determine absolute gains in height and weight, relative gr

  14. The I4895T mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor induces fiber-type specific alterations in skeletal muscle that mimic premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncompagni, Simona; Loy, Ryan E; Dirksen, Robert T; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2010-12-01

    The I4898T (IT) mutation in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca(2+) release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is linked to a form of central core disease (CCD) in humans and results in a nonleaky channel and excitation-contraction uncoupling. We characterized age-dependent and fiber-type-dependent alterations in muscle ultrastructure, as well as the magnitude and spatiotemporal properties of evoked Ca(2+) release in heterozygous Ryr1(I4895T/WT) (IT/+) knock-in mice on a mixed genetic background. The results indicate a classical but mild CCD phenotype that includes muscle weakness and the presence of mitochondrial-deficient areas in type I fibers. Electrically evoked Ca(2+) release is significantly reduced in single flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers from young and old IT/+ mice. Structural changes are strongly fiber-type specific, affecting type I and IIB/IIX fibers in very distinct ways, and sparing type IIA fibers. Ultrastructural alterations in our IT/+ mice are also present in wild type, but at a lower frequency and older ages, suggesting that the disease mutation on the mixed background promotes an acceleration of normal age-dependent changes. The observed functional and structural alterations and their similarity to age-associated changes are entirely consistent with the known properties of the mutated channel, which result in reduced calcium release as is also observed in normal aging muscle. In strong contrast to these observations, a subset of patients with the analogous human heterozygous mutation and IT/+ mice on an inbred 129S2/SvPasCrl background exhibit a more severe disease phenotype, which is not directly consistent with the mutated channel properties.

  15. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cognitive decline in the offspring up to old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Soile; Kajantie, Eero; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Pyhälä, Riikka; Alastalo, Hanna; Lahti, Marius; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tested whether maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predict age-related change in cognitive ability in the offspring up to old age. Methods: Using mothers' blood pressure and urinary protein measurements from the maternity clinics and birth hospitals, we defined normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies in mothers of 398 men, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort 1934–1944 Study. The men underwent the Finnish Defence Forces basic ability test twice: first during compulsory military service at age 20.1 (SD = 1.4) years and then in a retest at age 68.5 (SD = 2.9) years. The test yields a total score and subscores for tests measuring verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial reasoning. Results: Men born after pregnancies complicated by a hypertensive disorder, compared with men born after normotensive pregnancies, scored 4.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.17–7.55) points lower on total cognitive ability at 68.5 years and displayed a greater decline in total cognitive ability (2.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–5.06) after 20.1 years. Of the subscores, associations were strongest for arithmetic reasoning. Conclusion: Maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predict lower cognitive ability and greater cognitive decline up to old age. A propensity to lower cognitive ability and decline up to old age may have prenatal origins. PMID:23035059

  16. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. METHOD: Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57...... countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. RESULTS: There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect...... the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit...

  18. Predictors of Depression and Musculoskeletal Disorder Related Work Disability Among Young, Middle-Aged, and Aging Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level and predictors of work disability in different age groups. We followed young (18 to 34 years), middle-aged (35 to 50 years), and aging (>50 years) employees (n = 70,417) for 7 years (2005 to 2011) for all-cause and cause-specific work disability (sickness absence and disability pension). Using negative binomial regression, we obtained both relative risk estimates and absolute rates, that is, days of work disability per person-year. The greatest relative difference in all-cause, and specifically depression-related work disability, was between young women and young men, and between employees with low versus high levels of education. Aging employees with a low education and chronic somatic disease had the highest levels of musculoskeletal disorder related work disability. The predictors of work disability vary by age and diagnosis. These results help target age-specific measures for the prevention of permanent work disability.

  19. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  20. Cataract surgery and the risk of aging macula disorder: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ho (Lintje); S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila); A. Liana (Alin); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J.R. Vingerling (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate still-controversial associations between prior cataract surgery and aging macula disorder (AMD) in a general population. METHODS. Baseline lens status and risk of incident AMD (iAMD) were examined in participants of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study

  1. Age of Parental Concern, Diagnosis, and Service Initiation among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Colpe, Lisa J.; Pringle, Beverly A.; Kogan, Michael D.; Rice, Catherine; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions…

  2. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  3. Resolving Issues Relevant to the Education of Secondary School Aged Youth with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert G.

    The article provides a format for a workshop in which three issues which must be resolved by educators of secondary aged students with behavior disorders are discussed. The three issues to be addressed are: (1) determination of appropriate curriculum emphasis, (2) parent training/involvement in intervention strategies, and (3) criteria for…

  4. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  5. Mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in accelerated aging syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Brian C; Collins, Francis S; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2007-07-06

    In the past several years, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the mechanisms of premature aging. These rare, genetic conditions offer valuable insights into the normal aging process and the complex biology of cardiovascular disease. Many of these advances have been made in the most dramatic of these disorders, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Although characterized by features of normal aging such as alopecia, skin wrinkling, and osteoporosis, patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are affected by accelerated, premature arteriosclerotic disease that leads to heart attacks and strokes at a mean age of 13 years. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the biology of premature aging uncovered in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and other accelerated aging syndromes, advances that provide insight into the mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases ranging from atherosclerosis to arrhythmias.

  6. Monitoring antioxidant defenses and free radical production in space-flight, aviation and railway engine operators, for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress, immunological impairment, and pre-mature cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mariani, S; Maiani, G; Stancato, A; Korkina, L

    2009-01-01

    Degenerative diseases, immune impairment, and premature ageing commonly affect professional categories exposed to severe environmental and psychological stress. Among these, cosmonauts routinely experience extreme conditions due to microgravity, space radiation, altered oxygen supply, physical and mental fatigue during training, spaceflight, and post-flight. Long route aviation pilots display elevated oncogenic risk, connected with cosmic radiation overexposure, and high mortality rates for cardiovascular causes. Engine drivers, like pilots, are affected by health consequences of psycho-emotional stress, and burnout syndrome. The free radical (FR)/antioxidant (AO) imbalance is a common feature in all these pathological conditions. To assess the effective relevance of oxidative stress, we analyzed blood and urine reliable markers of FR production and AO defenses in 12 Russian cosmonauts, 55 airline pilots, 63 train engine drivers, and 50 age-matched controls by measuring the following: (a) lipophilic/hydrophilic low-molecular weight AO and AO enzyme activities, (b) nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroperoxide production, and (c) urinary catecholamine/serotonine metabolites and lipoperoxidation markers. Cosmonauts showed elevated granulocyte superoxide and nitric oxide production, increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione oxidation, and drastically decreased plasma/leucocyte lipophilic AO levels (P monitoring of clinical biochemistry laboratory markers of AO/FR status, to tailor individually specific AO supplementation and diet regimen, and monitor treatment outcomes.

  7. ADHD-like hyperactivity, with no attention deficit, in adult rats after repeated hypoxia during the equivalent of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oorschot, Dorothy E; Voss, Logan; Covey, Matthew V; Bilkey, David K; Saunders, Sarah E

    2007-11-30

    The most common behavioural disorder seen in children and adolescents born extremely prematurely is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The hyperactive/impulsive sub-type of ADHD or the inattentive sub-type or the hyperactive/impulsive/inattentive sub-type can be evident. These sub-types of ADHD can persist into adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of a new immature rat model of repeated hypoxic exposure to these behavioural characteristics of extreme prematurity. More specifically, this study aimed to measure ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, and inattention, in repeated hypoxic versus repeated normoxic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either repeated hypoxia or repeated normoxia during postnatal days (PN) 1-3. The rat brain during PN1-3 is generally considered to be developmentally equivalent to the human brain during extreme prematurity. The rats were then behaviourally tested at 16 months-of-age on a multiple component fixed interval-extinction test. This test detects ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, as well as inattention. It was found that the repeated hypoxic rats exhibited ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, but no attention deficit, when compared to repeated normoxic rats. These findings provide a new animal model to investigate the biological mechanisms and treatment of ADHD-like hyperactivity due to repeated hypoxia during the equivalent of extreme prematurity.

  8. The I4895T Mutation in the Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor Induces Fiber-Type Specific Alterations in Skeletal Muscle that Mimic Premature Aging

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The I4898T (IT) mutation in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is linked to a form of central core disease (CCD) in humans and results in a non leaky channel and excitation-contraction uncoupling. We characterized age- and fiber type-dependent alterations in muscle ultrastructure, as well as the magnitude and spatiotemporal properties of evoked Ca2+ release in heterozygous Ryr1I4895T/WT (IT/+) knock-in mice on a mixed genetic backgrou...

  9. DYNAMICS OF DISABILITY ADJUSTED LIFE YEARS (DALY AS A RESULT OF PREMATURE MORTALITY OF CHILDREN AT THE AGE OF 0–17 YEARS IN TOMSK REGION IN 2008–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Kobyakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The DALY indicator (Disability Adjusted Life Years is widely used for the assessment of a contribution of various diseases to losses of the population health and of the analysis of activity efficiency of health care systems. Background: Research objective was to evaluate dynamics of the DALY indicator as a result of premature mortality of the child population of Tomsk region during 2008-2012. Patients and methods: DALY calculation as a result of premature mortality of the child population of the region during the period from 2008 to 2012 is made. While calculating the data of Territorial body of Federal service of state statistics for the Tomsk Region (Rosstat which included a sex of the dead, day, month and year of death, place of residence, cause of death, day, month and year of birth of the dead was used. The number and gender and age structure of the population of the Tomsk Region according to Rosstat data were also considered. Results: The DALY decrease by 16,5% in child population at the age of 0–17 years is observed in the Tomsk region during the period from 2008 to 2012. Following the results of 2012, DALY in studied population made 833.1 (82.3 ± 5.4 years for 10 thousand of corresponding population that is 1,1 times lower than totally in the Russian Federation, and 3.4 times lower than the universal indicator of 2010. Conclusion: The received result reflects the activity of health care system of the region, directed on integration of synthesis of theoretical and practical knowledge. Decrease in DALY among the child population in the territory of the region is promoted by a number of factors: continuous quality improvement of the medical care rendered to children, target programs on motherhood and childhood health protection realized in the territory of the region, and also functioning of the federal scientific and educational institutions promoting introduction of modern techniques of medical care delivery in practical health care

  10. [Age-related characteristics of inhalant abuse in adolescents with conduct disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechanyĭ, S V; Egorov, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the relation between inhalant abuse and conduct disorders in adolescents. Material and methods. Authors studied 95 adolescents with ICD-10 diagnoses conduct disorders (F91.1, 91.2), "Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of inhalant abuse. Harmful use" (F18.1) and "Inhalant drug dependence" (F18.2). "The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" ("NCBRF, TIQ version") and "Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD)" ("EvroADAD" version) were used. Two teenager groups were investigated: the younger (mean age 14.35±0.844 years) one and the older (mean age 16.30±0.464 years) ones. Clinical manifestations of inhalant intoxication and symptoms of addiction were described. Using cluster analysis, the relation of clinical manifestations of conduct disorder with symptoms of inhalant addiction and its consequences were calculated. Results and conclusion. In the younger group, no significant statistical relationships were found. In the older group, 3 cluster were detected: 1) the variables that characterized the relationship of inhalant abuse with typical behavioral patterns such as delinquency, school and social maladjustment; 2) the variables that characterized the transformation of the inhalant use to alcohol use which was associated with hyperkinetic conduct disorder; 3) the variables that characterize a pronounced health and psychological consequences of the inhalant use.

  11. Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Glenn, T; Alda, M; Aleksandrovich, M A; Andreassen, O A; Angelopoulos, E; Ardau, R; Ayhan, Y; Baethge, C; Bharathram, S R; Bauer, R; Baune, B T; Becerra-Palars, C; Bellivier, F; Belmaker, R H; Berk, M; Bersudsky, Y; Bicakci, Ş; Birabwa-Oketcho, H; Bjella, T D; Bossini, L; Cabrera, J; Cheung, E Y W; Del Zompo, M; Dodd, S; Donix, M; Etain, B; Fagiolini, A; Fountoulakis, K N; Frye, M A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Gottlieb, J F; Grof, P; Harima, H; Henry, C; Isometsä, E T; Janno, S; Kapczinski, F; Kardell, M; Khaldi, S; Kliwicki, S; König, B; Kot, T L; Krogh, R; Kunz, M; Lafer, B; Landén, M; Larsen, E R; Lewitzka, U; Licht, R W; Lopez-Jaramillo, C; MacQueen, G; Manchia, M; Marsh, W; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, M; Melle, I; Meza-Urzúa, F; Yee Ming, M; Monteith, S; Morken, G; Mosca, E; Munoz, R; Mythri, S V; Nacef, F; Nadella, R K; Nery, F G; Nielsen, R E; O'Donovan, C; Omrani, A; Osher, Y; Østermark Sørensen, H; Ouali, U; Pica Ruiz, Y; Pilhatsch, M; Pinna, M; da Ponte, F D R; Quiroz, D; Ramesar, R; Rasgon, N; Reddy, M S; Reif, A; Ritter, P; Rybakowski, J K; Sagduyu, K; Scippa, Â M; Severus, E; Simhandl, C; Stein, D J; Strejilevich, S; Subramaniam, M; Sulaiman, A H; Suominen, K; Tagata, H; Tatebayashi, Y; Tondo, L; Torrent, C; Vaaler, A E; Veeh, J; Vieta, E; Viswanath, B; Yoldi-Negrete, M; Zetin, M; Zgueb, Y; Whybrow, P C

    2017-07-19

    To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proteomic profiling of adipose tissue from Zmpste24-/- mice, a model of lipodystrophy and premature aging, reveals major changes in mitochondrial function and vimentin processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Juan R; Quirós, Pedro M; Pulido, Marina R; Mariño, Guillermo; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Malagón, María M

    2011-11-01

    Lipodystrophy is a major disease involving severe alterations of adipose tissue distribution and metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding the nuclear envelope protein lamin A or its processing enzyme, the metalloproteinase Zmpste24, cause diverse human progeroid syndromes that are commonly characterized by a selective loss of adipose tissue. Similarly to humans, mice deficient in Zmpste24 accumulate prelamin A and display phenotypic features of accelerated aging, including lipodystrophy. Herein, we report the proteome and phosphoproteome of adipose tissue as well as serum metabolome in lipodystrophy by using Zmpste24(-/-) mice as experimental model. We show that Zmpste24 deficiency enhanced lipolysis, fatty acid biogenesis and β-oxidation as well as decreased fatty acid re-esterification, thus pointing to an increased partitioning of fatty acid toward β-oxidation and away from storage that likely underlies the observed size reduction of Zmpste24-null adipocytes. Besides the mitochondrial proteins related to lipid metabolism, other protein networks related to mitochondrial function, including those involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, were up-regulated in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. These results, together with the observation of an increased mitochondrial response to oxidative stress, support the relationship between defective prelamin A processing and mitochondrial dysfunction and highlight the relevance of oxidative damage in lipoatrophy and aging. We also show that absence of Zmpste24 profoundly alters the processing of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin and identify a novel protein dysregulated in lipodystrophy, High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein. Finally, we found several lipid derivates with important roles in energy balance, such as Lysophosphatidylcholine or 2-arachidonoylglycerol, to be dysregulated in Zmpste24(-/-) serum. Together, our findings in Zmpste24(-/-) mice may be useful to unveil the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue

  13. Diagnostic History and Treatment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... school-aged CSHCN with ASD use psychotropic medication. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a set of complex neurodevelopment disorders characterized by mild to severe problems in social interaction and communication along with restricted repetitive behavior patterns ( 1 ). ASD symptoms begin before age 3 ...

  14. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  15. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pneonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic function in girls with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Piccolo, F; Scalamandre, A; Malvaso, M; Ortolani, R; Boscherini, B

    1980-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic activity was investigated in 9 girls with premature thelarche, and compared with that in 9 healthy girls and 6 girls with true precocious puberty. The gonadotropin stimulation test with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone was used. Girls with premature thelarche showed luteinising hormone response resembling that of normal girls, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response quite similar to that of girls with precocious puberty. This suggests that in premature thelarche there is a partial activation of the diencephalic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis, which affects FSH only. Premature thelarche therefore, should be considered as one of the disorders due to altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic receptors which regulate sex maturation. PMID:6779715

  17. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  18. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction.

  19. Lessons from Microglia Aging for the Link between Inflammatory Bone Disorders and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is sensitive to overactive immune responses, which initiate the onset of inflammatory bone disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, resulting in a significant systemic inflammatory response. On the other hand, neuroinflammation is strongly implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which can be enhanced by systemic inflammation, such as that due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There is growing clinical evidence supporting the concept that rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis are positively linked to AD, suggesting that inflammatory bone disorders are risk factors for this condition. Recent studies have suggested that leptomeningeal cells play an important role in transducing systemic inflammatory signals to brain-resident microglia. More importantly, senescent-type, but not juvenile-type, microglia provoke neuroinflammation in response to systemic inflammation. Because the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis increases with age, inflammatory bone disorders may be significant sources of covert systemic inflammation among elderly people. The present review article highlights our current understanding of the link between inflammatory bone disorders and AD with a special focus on microglia aging.

  20. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

  1. 小胎龄早产儿支气管肺发育不良发生率和危险因素分析%The incidence and risk factors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in small gestational age premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国方; 武荣; 刘石; 郝小清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) incidence and high risk factor in the small gestational age premature infants. Methods Retrospective analyse the materials of inpatient infants whose gestational age (GA) were =?2 weeks and survived over 28 days in our neonatal intensive care unite ( NICU). The 28 cases as BPD group met the new diagnostic criteria of BPD. The 56 cases as the control group were randomly selected from all the premature infant with no BPD. Results Total of 197 cases of premature infant were included in this study. The incidence of BPD is about 14.2%. There were statistical significance in each GA period group (x2 =32.269,/* =0.000). The incidence increased when the GA decreased; There were statistical significance in each birth weight group (x2 =30. 244, P =0. 000), the incidence increased when birth weight decreased. From the comparison of the 23 risk factors for BPD, we find thai 12 factors have statistical significance (P < 0. 05), those are GA, body weight, oxygen time, maximum oxygen treatment concentration, hospital days, tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation, replacement therapy with pulmonary surfactant, anemia, application of Meropenem, the ratio of tenth day body weight to birth weight, the first blood gas analysis scores after birth and oxygen index < 300. On the basis of Logistic regression analysis of GA, birth weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume concentration, tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation, anemia, the ratio of tenth day body weight to birth weight, we find that body weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume concentration, the ratio of tenth body weight to birth weight are high risk factors for BPD. By compared the 18 factors between mild BPD and moderate or severe BPD, we find that asphyxia, application of diuretic, oxygen time and first blood gas analysis scores after birth have statistical significance ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusions The birth weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume

  2. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  3. Alteration of functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder: effect of age and anatomical distance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiliang Long; Xujun Duan; Dante Mantini; Huafu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of local- and long-range functional connectivity (FC). The direction of those changes in FC (increase or decrease), however, is inconsistent across studies. Further, age-dependent changes of distance-specific FC in ASD remain unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from sixty-four typical controls (TC) and sixty-four patients with ASD, whom we further classified into child (18 years)....

  4. Speech disorders did not correlate with age at onset of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alice Estevo; Barbosa, Maira Tonidandel; Limongi, João Carlos Papaterra; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2016-02-01

    Speech disorders are common manifestations of Parkinson´s disease. Objective To compare speech articulation in patients according to age at onset of the disease. Methods Fifty patients was divided into two groups: Group I consisted of 30 patients with age at onset between 40 and 55 years; Group II consisted of 20 patients with age at onset after 65 years. All patients were evaluated based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, Hoehn and Yahr scale and speech evaluation by perceptual and acoustical analysis. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding neurological involvement and speech characteristics. Correlation analysis indicated differences in speech articulation in relation to staging and axial scores of rigidity and bradykinesia for middle and late-onset. Conclusions Impairment of speech articulation did not correlate with age at onset of disease, but was positively related with disease duration and higher scores in both groups.

  5. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed.......19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach...

  6. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other babies. The apnea of prematurity does not cause brain damage. A healthy baby who is apnea free for a week will probably never have AOP again. Although sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) does happen more often in premature infants, no relationship between AOP and SIDS has ...

  7. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity.

  8. Genetic and childhood trauma interaction effect on age of onset in bipolar disorder: An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Amit; Koller, Daniel L; Lawson, William B; Gershon, Elliot S; Nurnberger, John I

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether early life trauma mediates genetic effects on the age at onset (AAO) of bipolar disorder. Data from the BiGS Consortium case samples (N=1119) were used. Childhood traumatic events were documented using the Childhood Life Events Scale (CLES). Interaction between occurrence of childhood trauma and common genetic variants throughout the genome was tested to identify single nucleotide polymorphic gene variants (SNPs) whose effects on bipolar AAO differ between individuals clearly exposed (CLES≥2) and not exposed (CLES=0) to childhood trauma. The modal response to the CLES was 0 (N=480), but an additional 276 subjects had CLES=1, and 363 subjects reported 2 or more traumatic lifetime events. The distribution of age at onset showed a broad peak between ages 12 and 18, with the majority of subjects having onset during that period, and a significant decrease in age of onset with the number of traumatic events. No single SNP showed a statistically significant interaction with the presence of traumatic events to impact bipolar age at onset. However, SNPs in or near genes coding for calcium channel activity-related proteins (Gene Ontology: 0005262) were found to be more likely than other SNPs to show evidence of interaction using the INRICH method (peffects of early life trauma with genotype may have a significant effect on the development and manifestation of bipolar disorder. These effects may be mediated in part by genes involved in calcium signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational health and safety management practices and musculoskeletal disorders in aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Bartram, Timothy

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether occupational health and safety (OHS) management used to manage musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the aged care sector reflects contemporary research evidence of best practice to reduce the incidence of these disorders. Design/methodology/approach In total, 58 interviews were conducted with managers and supervisors in the aged care sector across four organisations in Australia. Policies and procedures relating to MSDs were reviewed for each organisation. Findings Policies and procedures for managing MSDs do not reflect contemporary evidence, which supports a complex aetiology, related to a range of physical and psychosocial workplace factors. Despite strong evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to MSD development, these were not included in the policies and procedures reviewed. Findings from the interviews management practices including leadership and various components of HRM were functioning well but fragmentation was evident due to the challenging nature of the aged care sector. Practical implications To address the significant burden of MSDs in the aged care sector, policies and procedures need to include coverage of psychosocial and physical workplace factors. The development of systematic and integrated OHS management at the workplace level may play an important role in the effective management of MSDs. Originality/value This study offers insights into the previously unexplored area of MSD risk management and the role of management practices such as HRM in the aged care sector.

  10. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  11. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  12. Early diagnosis of junior school age children’s posture disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumeiko N.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe specificities of early diagnosis method for junior school age children’s posture disorders. Material: in pedagogic experiment 156 junior school age children (boys and girls of 7-10 years’ age participated. All children had no experience of training in sport circles. For determination of uniformity of the tested we fulfilled experts’ examination for presence or absence of external signs of posture disorders in frontal plane. The children’s examination was conducted by qualified specialists at the beginning and at the end of experiment. For determination of early signs of muscular asymmetry in torso right and left sides of the tested children we used methodic, based on registration of tonic vibration reflex. Results: the pupils’ examination permitted to form a group of 108 persons, who did not have external signs of posture disorders. It was proved that it would be purposeful to take prophylaxis measures at very early stages of imbalance in muscular system’s work. Traditional approach in the form of prophylaxis examination can not give confident information about initial stage of imbalance in muscular system’s work in child’s organism. Conclusions: it was found that imbalance of motor nervous centers reflex excitability on both sides of backbone (if no purposeful prophylaxis measures are taken can result in muscular tonus asymmetry on right and left sides of torso in lumbar spine area.

  13. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  14. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David A Geier,1,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Lisa K Sykes,2 Mark R Geier1,2 1Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 2Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 3Research Department, CONEM US Autism Research Group, Allen, TX, USA Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs, of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs. Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009 of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218.Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. Keywords: genotype, phenotype

  15. Delusional disorder: no gender differences in age at onset, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Navarro, Víctor; Gastó, Cristóbal; Penadés, Rafael; Catalán, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in age at onset, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior rates in delusional disorder (DD). We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 97 patients with DD. Demographic and clinical data at baseline were recorded. Gender differences were investigated by applying analysis of covariance, using age at onset and age at first psychiatric consultation as dependent variables, comorbid depression and gender as between-subject factors, and employment status, social support, and DD types as covariates. Seventy-six percent of the patients were women. The average age at onset was 48.76 ± 12.67 years, mean age at first psychiatric consultation was 54.13 ± 13.67 years, and men were more likely to be employed than women (p = 0.041). Despite the earlier age at onset and at first psychiatric consultation in men, these differences tended to disappear when adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant gender differences in depressive comorbidity, presence of suicidal ideation and behavior, or compliance rates at follow-up. Our findings could not confirm that male and female DD patients differ in age at onset, age at first psychiatric consultation, or suicidal ideation and behavior, even after controlling for potential confounders.

  16. Delusional disorder: no gender differences in age at onset, suicidal ideation, or suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre González-Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate gender differences in age at onset, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior rates in delusional disorder (DD. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 97 patients with DD. Demographic and clinical data at baseline were recorded. Gender differences were investigated by applying analysis of covariance, using age at onset and age at first psychiatric consultation as dependent variables, comorbid depression and gender as between-subject factors, and employment status, social support, and DD types as covariates. Results: Seventy-six percent of the patients were women. The average age at onset was 48.76±12.67 years, mean age at first psychiatric consultation was 54.13±13.67 years, and men were more likely to be employed than women (p = 0.041. Despite the earlier age at onset and at first psychiatric consultation in men, these differences tended to disappear when adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant gender differences in depressive comorbidity, presence of suicidal ideation and behavior, or compliance rates at follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings could not confirm that male and female DD patients differ in age at onset, age at first psychiatric consultation, or suicidal ideation and behavior, even after controlling for potential confounders.

  17. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  18. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  19. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  20. Premature graying of hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    .... It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying...

  1. Are Anxiety Disorders Associated with Accelerated Aging? A Focus on Neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Perna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AnxDs are highly prevalent throughout the lifespan, with detrimental effects on daily-life functioning, somatic health, and quality of life. An emerging perspective suggested that AnxDs may be associated with accelerated aging. In this paper, we explored the association between AnxDs and hallmarks of accelerated aging, with a specific focus on neuroprogression. We reviewed animal and human findings that suggest an overlap between processes of impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, structural, functional, molecular, and cellular modifications in AnxDs, and aging. Although this research is at an early stage, our review suggests a link between anxiety and accelerated aging across multiple processes involved in neuroprogression. Brain structural and functional changes that accompany normal aging were more pronounced in subjects with AnxDs than in coevals without AnxDs, including reduced grey matter density, white matter alterations, impaired functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, and poorer cognitive performance. Similarly, molecular correlates of brain aging, including telomere shortening, Aβ accumulation, and immune-inflammatory and oxidative/nitrosative stress, were overrepresented in anxious subjects. No conclusions about causality or directionality between anxiety and accelerated aging can be drawn. Potential mechanisms of this association, limitations of the current research, and implications for treatments and future studies are discussed.

  2. Variations in incidence rates and age of onset of acute and transient psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine incidence and age of onset of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs) characterised by subtypes with polymorphic, schizophrenic and predominantly delusional symptoms, pointing out differences from schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective...... to occur in younger males (IRR 1.4; 1.2–1.7). No significant gender difference was found for acute predominantly delusional disorder (IRR 1.0; 0.9–1.2), which had a later onset than any ATPD subtypes. SZ had an incidence twice as high in males (IRR 2.0; 1.9–2.2), and an earlier age of onset than ATPDs...... disorder (BD). Methods: We identified all subjects aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time in the Danish Psychiatric Register with a diagnosis of ATPDs (n = 3,350), SZ (n = 4,576) and BD (n = 3,200) in 1995–2008. Incidence rates and rate ratios (IRR; 95 % confidence interval) by gender and age...

  3. Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Baño, Marta; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Goméz-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-07-01

    In spite of the revived interest in compulsive buying disorder (CBD), its classification into the contemporary nosologic systems continues to be debated, and scarce studies have addressed heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype through methodologies based on a person-centered approach. To identify empirical clusters of CBD employing personality traits, as well as patients' sex, age and the age of CBD onset as indicators. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method defining a combination of the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion and log-likelihood was used. Three clusters were identified in a sample of n=110 patients attending a specialized CBD unit a) "male compulsive buyers" reported the highest prevalence of comorbid gambling disorder and the lowest levels of reward dependence; b) "female low-dysfunctional" mainly included employed women, with the highest level of education, the oldest age of onset, the lowest scores in harm avoidance and the highest levels of persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness; and c) "female highly-dysfunctional" with the youngest age of onset, the highest levels of comorbid psychopathology and harm avoidance, and the lowest score in self-directedness. Sociodemographic characteristics and personality traits can be used to determine CBD clusters which represent different clinical subtypes. These subtypes should be considered when developing assessment instruments, preventive programs and treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Disordered eating behaviors: prevalence among Mexican students aged 15-19].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia; Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Chi Vacuán, Eva María Trujillo; García-Castro, Fátima; Trejo-Franco, Juana

    2010-01-01

    To obtain the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among student female adolescents from public high schools in 17 urban settings in the Mexican Republic, across age, setting and region. The sample comprised 4358 female students 15 to 19 years of age. DE was evaluated with a validated and standardized questionnaire for Mexican adolescents with 2 cutoff points: moderate-DE and high-DE. The total prevalence of moderate-DE was 14.2% and 6.8% for high-DE. Significant statistical differences were found only for high-DE across settings, were the Estado de Mexico reached the highest score (12.1%) and Aguascalientes the lowest (2.1%). The north region obtained the highest scores for both moderate (17.2%) and high-DE (9.7%), whereas the center-west region obtained the second place for moderate-DE (15.1%) and the center region for high-DE (11.5%). The center region showed the lowest scores for moderate-DE (11.5%) and the south-southeast region the lowest for high-DE (4.5%). The analysis across age showed a positive relationship for both moderate and high-DE. The total prevalence of DE was 6.8%. Age, socioeconomic status and the place of residence seem to be variables that relate to disordered eating.

  5. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; de Boer, R.; Brul, S.; Budovskaya, Y.; van der Spek, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for

  6. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  7. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  8. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  9. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Depression: Overlap with other Psychiatric Disorders and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Chang, Lun-Ching; Wang, Xingbin; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Parrish, Jenna; Oh, Hyunjung; French, Beverly J; Lewis, David A; Tseng, George C; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide expression and genotyping technologies have uncovered the genetic bases of complex diseases at unprecedented rates; However despite its heavy burden and high prevalence, the molecular characterization of major depressive disorder (MDD) has lagged behind. Transcriptome studies report multiple brain disturbances but are limited by small sample sizes. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) report weak results but suggest overlapping genetic risk with other neuropsychiatric disorders. We performed systematic molecular characterization of altered brain function in MDD, using meta-analysis of differential expression in eight gene array studies in three corticolimbic brain regions in 101 subjects. The identified "metaA-MDD" genes suggest altered neurotrophic support, brain plasticity and neuronal signaling in MDD. Notably, metaA-MDD genes display low connectivity and hubness in coexpression networks, and uniform genomic distribution, consistent with diffuse polygenic mechanisms. We next integrated these findings with results from over 1800 published GWAS and show that genetic variations nearby metaA-MDD genes predict greater risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and notably for age-related phenotypes, but not for other medical illnesses, including those frequently co-morbid with depression, or body characteristics. Collectively, the intersection of unbiased investigations of gene function (transcriptome) and structure (GWAS) provides novel leads to investigate molecular mechanisms of MDD and suggest common biological pathways between depression, other neuropsychiatric diseases, and brain aging.

  11. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  12. 小于2岁婴幼儿乳房早发育临床随访研究%A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王应旻; 梁黎; 方燕兰; 傅君芬; 董关萍; 王春林

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解小于2岁婴幼儿乳房发育的临床现况及转归,分析影响乳房消退的相关因素.方法 分析2009年10月至2010年9月间因乳房早发育来我院内分泌科就诊的863例2岁以下患儿临床及实验诊断资料并进行纵向随访研究.结果 小于2岁单纯乳房早发育患儿中绝大多数(89.3%)在3周岁内消退,乳房消退平均年龄为17±6月龄;小部分(10.7%)反复或持续增大,3岁后仍不消退,极少数转变为中枢性性早熟.初诊时乳房Tanner分期和基础E2值升高与否是影响乳房消退的独立危险因素.结论 小于2岁婴幼儿乳房早发育在临床并不少见,大多呈自限性病程,3周岁内可消退,但对2岁以上乳房增大持续不消退者要定期随访.%Objective To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Results Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89. 3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17 ± 5. 6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. Conclusions PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  13. [Premature craniosynostosis is related to increased criminal behavior in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlow, P

    1989-01-01

    Among 100 patients with premature synostosis of the coronal suture or of several cranial sutures there were 37 patients with problems of social adaptation. 54% of them had committed punishable offences and 22% were even recidivists. Sexual offenders with mental retardation predominated. Frontal lobe dysfunctions with increased susceptibility to environmental damages are assumed to be the basic disorder.

  14. Axonal Degeneration during Aging and Its Functional Role in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Salvadores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging constitutes the main risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This represents a major health issue worldwide that is only expected to escalate due to the ever-increasing life expectancy of the population. Interestingly, axonal degeneration, which occurs at early stages of neurodegenerative disorders (ND such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease, also takes place as a consequence of normal aging. Moreover, the alteration of several cellular processes such as proteostasis, response to cellular stress and mitochondrial homeostasis, which have been described to occur in the aging brain, can also contribute to axonal pathology. Compelling evidence indicate that the degeneration of axons precedes clinical symptoms in NDs and occurs before cell body loss, constituting an early event in the pathological process and providing a potential therapeutic target to treat neurodegeneration before neuronal cell death. Although, normal aging and the development of neurodegeneration are two processes that are closely linked, the molecular basis of the switch that triggers the transition from healthy aging to neurodegeneration remains unrevealed. In this review we discuss the potential role of axonal degeneration in this transition and provide a detailed overview of the literature and current advances in the molecular understanding of the cellular changes that occur during aging that promote axonal degeneration and then discuss this in the context of ND.

  15. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  16. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological tests assessing visual and verbal memory, generativity, and theory of mind (ToM), and a self-report measure assessing cognitive failures were administered to 236 matched participants with and without ASD, aged 20-79 years (IQ > 80). Group comparisons revealed that individuals with ASD had higher scores on visual memory, lower scores on generativity and ToM, and similar performance on verbal memory. However, ToM impairments were no longer present in older (50+ years) adults with ASD. Across adulthood, individuals with ASD demonstrated similar age-related effects on verbal memory, generativity, and ToM, while age-related differences were reduced on visual memory. Although adults with ASD reported many cognitive failures, those were not associated with neuropsychological test performance. Hence, while some cognitive abilities (visual and verbal memory) and difficulties (generativity and semantic memory) persist across adulthood in ASD, others become less apparent in old age (ToM). Age-related differences characteristic of typical aging are reduced or parallel, but not increased in individuals with ASD, suggesting that ASD may partially protect against an age-related decrease in cognitive functioning. Despite these findings, adults with ASD experience many cognitive daily challenges, which highlights the need for adequate social support and the importance of further research into this topic, including longitudinal studies. Autism Res 2016, 9: 666-676. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Variations in incidence rates and age of onset of acute and transient psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    disorder (BD). Methods: We identified all subjects aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time in the Danish Psychiatric Register with a diagnosis of ATPDs (n = 3,350), SZ (n = 4,576) and BD (n = 3,200) in 1995–2008. Incidence rates and rate ratios (IRR; 95 % confidence interval) by gender and age...... were calculated. Results: The incidence of ATPDs was 6.7 per 100,000 person-years, similarly high for both genders (IRR 1.0; 0.9–1.1). Among the ATPD subtypes, polymorphic psychotic disorder was more common in females (IRR 1.4; 1.2–1.6) as opposed to those featuring schizophrenic symptoms, which tended......Purpose: To determine incidence and age of onset of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs) characterised by subtypes with polymorphic, schizophrenic and predominantly delusional symptoms, pointing out differences from schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar affective...

  18. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  19. Premature Trigger of ERI in Medtronic EnRhythm Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Melissa E; Mahajan, Rajiv; Elliott, Adrian D; Pathak, Rajeev K; Twomey, Darragh; Wilson, Lauren; Stolcman, Simon; Munawar, Dian A; Kumar, Sharath; Lau, Dennis H; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2017-06-01

    Medical technology has made significant advances over the last few decades with smaller and more dynamic pacemakers. However, technical failures leading to premature replacement is a cause of concern. We present a series of Medtronic EnRhythm devices that reached premature elective replacement indicator (ERI). The database of Centre of Heart Rhythm Disorders was searched for EnRhythm device implantation from 2006 to 2011. Battery depletion <8.5 years was considered premature considering the projected average longevity to be 8.5-10.5 years. An unexpected premature ERI was defined when it was reached within 3 months of last normal check. Device follow-up was conducted every 3 months after advisory. A total of 88 EnRhythm pacemakers were implanted. Over a median follow-up of 6.2 years (range: 0.3-9.2), 39 (44.3%) EnRhythm devices reached premature ERI. In 11 (28%), ERI was not recognized and patients were being investigated for other causes of unsteadiness or dyspnea prior to device check. Notably, three (7%) patients had premature ERI < 3.5 years. Ten (25.6%) had sudden and unexpected premature ERI. While asynchronous pacing was observed, there were no cases of absence of pacing. The rate of premature ERI for EnRhythm devices was 44.3%, significantly higher than reported by the manufacturer. Of concern, a sizeable proportion occurred unexpectedly, warranting more frequent reviews and empirical replacement in some patients. With the experience of the EnRhythm, appropriate monitoring strategies are recommended for future advisories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. When the "Golden Years" Turn Blue: Using the Healthy Aging Literature to Elucidate Anxious and Depressive Disorders in Older Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer S.; Magee, Joshua C.; Steiner, Amanda R. W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for disorders of emotion, such as pathological anxiety, are often less effective in older adults than in younger adults and have poorly understood mechanisms, pointing to the need for psychopathology models that better account for age-related changes in normative emotional functioning and the expression of disordered emotion.…

  1. When the "Golden Years" Turn Blue: Using the Healthy Aging Literature to Elucidate Anxious and Depressive Disorders in Older Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer S.; Magee, Joshua C.; Steiner, Amanda R. W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for disorders of emotion, such as pathological anxiety, are often less effective in older adults than in younger adults and have poorly understood mechanisms, pointing to the need for psychopathology models that better account for age-related changes in normative emotional functioning and the expression of disordered emotion.…

  2. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Chonghuai; Shen, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    To determine the amount of television viewing and computer use in urban school-aged Chinese children, and to examine their associations with sleep/wake patterns, duration of sleep, and sleep disorders...

  3. Age of Initiation and Internet Gaming Disorder: The Role of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Charlotte L; Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert E; Stavropoulos, Vasileios

    2017-06-01

    The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment. The current research examines the mediational role of self-esteem variables in the relationship between age of initiation and IGD symptomatology. Data were analyzed from 1,044 adult participants (mean age = 30.90; standard deviation: 9.28; 35.0% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk who reported playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Age of gaming initiation is directly linked to IGD, as earlier age predicted overall IGD symptom severity (b = -0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.17, -0.03]), controlling for self-esteem factors. In addition, self-esteem factors emerged as mediators of the effect, where global self-esteem served as a protective factor (b = -0.05, 95% CI: [-0.07, -0.02]) and high gaming-contingent self-worth (GCSW; b = -0.10, 95% CI: [-0.15, -0.04]) was associated with more negative outcomes. Earlier age of gaming initiation is associated with IGD symptomatology. Although risks of screen time are often referred to in terms of physical consequences, the present study provides support regarding the inclusion of self-esteem factors in the link between early use and IGD.

  4. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHOD: A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressur...

  5. The impact of psychiatric illness on suicide: differences by diagnosis of disorders and by sex and age of subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ping

    2011-11-01

    People with a psychiatric illness are at high risk for suicide; however, variation of the risk by patients' sex and age and by specific diagnosis needs to be explored in a more detail. This large population study systematically assesses suicide incidence rate ratio (IRR) and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with various psychiatric disorders by comparing 21,169 suicides in Denmark over a 17-year period with sex-age-time-matched population controls. The study shows that suicide risk is significantly increased for persons with a hospitalized psychiatric disorder and the associated risk varies significantly by diagnosis and by sex and age of subjects. Further adjustment for personal socioeconomic differences eliminates the IRRs associated with various disorders only to a limited extend. Recurrent depression and borderline personality disorder increase suicide risk the strongest while dementia increases the risk the least for both males and females. The influence of various disorders generally weakens with increasing age; however, there are important exceptions. Schizophrenia affects people aged ≤35 years the strongest in terms of both IRR and PAR. Recurrent depression increases suicide risk particularly strong in all age groups and the associated PAR increases steadily with age. Borderline personality disorder has a strong effect in young people, especially those ≤35 years. Alcohol use disorder accounts the highest PAR of suicides in males of 36-60 years old. For the elderly above 60 years old, reaction to stress and adjustment disorder increases the risk for suicide the most in both sexes. These findings suggest that approaches to psychiatric suicide prevention should be varied according to diagnosis and sex and age of subjects.

  6. Delayed Umbilical Cord Blood Clamping: First Line of Defense Against Neonatal and Age-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Divers, Ryan; Mehindru, Anuj; Mehindru, Ankur; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-06-01

    The aging body is unable to maintain homeostasis in cell genesis and function. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine may reverse aging and treat age-related disorders. This perspective article discusses the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation on neonatal diseases, which may have long-lasting benefits affecting even the aging process. In particular, the article highlights the potential of the earliest transfer of stem cells between a mother and fetus via the umbilical cord during child birth and how this process may modify the clinical practice of umbilical cord clamping. While such umbilical cord clamping is routinely performed in an expeditious manner after birth for stem cell banking, the present article advances the concept that a delay in clamping the umbilical cord may actually allow more stem cells to be delivered from the mother to the fetus. The authors' overarching hypothesis is that early umbilical cord clamping results in an artificial loss of stem cells at birth and increases the infant's susceptibility to both neonatal and age-related diseases, while delaying umbilical cord clamping is perhaps the most effective and non-invasive way to transplant stem cells in order to treat these diseases.

  7. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Urošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  8. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B; Youngstrom, Eric A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  9. Results of Thyroid Function Tests in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the rate, etiology and morbidity association of disorders of thyroid function tests (TFTs in premature babies. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 premature babies who were admitted to Uludag University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2009 and January 2012 were included in this study. Prenatal, natal and postnatal characteristics along with TFTs results were recorded. TFTs were performed for all patients in the first and third weeks of life. Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH values of >10 IU/L was considered elevated. Free T3 and T4 levels were evaluated according to laboratory cut-off values. Weight, height and head circumference values of all individuals with and without the diagnosis of hypothyroidism on the 6th, 12th, and 18th months of their polyclinic follow-ups.Results: Abnormal TFTs were detected in 41 (24% patients. Twenty two patients (53% had transient TSH elevation, 9 (22% had primary hypothyroidism, 9 (22% had non-thyroidal disease and 1 (2.4% had transient hypothyroxinemia. Among morbidities, respiratory distress syndrome rate was found to be significantly higher in patients with thyroid function disorders (p=0.007. The rate of thyroid function disorders in patients with mothers with hypothyroidism was significantly more frequent compared to patients without maternal hypothyroidism (p=0.049. The mean head circumference in 18 month was significantly lower in patients with abnormal TFTs (p=0.047. Conclusions: Thyroid function disorders are common morbidities in premature babies and are important for neuromotor development. Maternal thyroid function disorder can lead to impairment of TFTs in infants. Thyroid function tests should be performed in all premature babies and hypotyhroidism should be treated. Avoidance of iodine exposure in premature infants can reduce the rate of abnormal TFTs and transient hypothyroidism.

  10. Score for neonatal acute physiology-II and neonatal pain predict corticospinal tract development in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Adams, Elysia; Chau, Vann; Brant, Rollin; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Miller, Steven P

    2013-02-01

    Premature infants are at risk for adverse motor outcomes, including cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for abnormal development of the corticospinal tract, the major voluntary motor pathway, during the neonatal period. In a prospective cohort study, 126 premature neonates (24-32 weeks' gestational age) underwent serial brain imaging near birth and at term-equivalent age. With diffusion tensor tractography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract were measured to reflect microstructural development. Generalized estimating equation models examined associations of risk factors on corticospinal tract development. The perinatal risk factor of greater early illness severity (as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II [SNAP-II]) was associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.02), even after correcting for gestational age at birth and postnatal risk factors (P = 0.009). Consistent with previous findings, neonatal pain adjusted for morphine and postnatal infection were also associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Lessening illness severity in the first hours of life might offer potential to improve motor pathway development in premature newborns.

  11. Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan; Stanley, Charlie; Peters, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of child attachment representation, psychopathology, and maternal atypical parenting in a high risk sample. Sixty-one consecutive clinical referrals with externalizing disorder aged 4 - 9 years were assessed for attachment representations measured with Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST), atypical parental expressed emotion (EE), maternal mood, and parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour. Disorganized attachment representations were found in 58% of cases, independent of ADHD symptoms. Pervasive disorganization was associated with very high maternal EE. Attachment status, maternal depression, and ADHD diagnosis were independently associated with parent-rated child behaviour problems; teacher ratings were associated with child's age and ADHD status. Disorganized attachment shows a high prevalence and independent associations with attention deficit symptomatology and maternal EE.

  12. Factors Affecting Age at Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entry into early intervention depends on both age of first parent concern (AOC and age at initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis (AOD. Using data collected from a national online registry from 6214 children diagnosed with an ASD between 1994 and 2010 in the US, we analyzed the effect of individual, family, and geographic covariates on AOC and AOD in a multivariate linear regression model with random effects. Overall, no single modifiable factor associated with AOC or AOD emerged but cumulative variation in certain individual- and family-based features, as well as some geographic factors, all contribute to AOC and AOD variation. A multipronged strategy is needed for targeted education and awareness campaigns to maximize outcomes and decrease disparities in ASD care.

  13. SIRT2 as a therapeutic target for age-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIta eMachado de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin proteins are conserved regulators of aging that have recently emerged as important modifiers of several diseases which commonly occur later in life, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In mammals, there are seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7, which display diversity in subcellular localization and function. SIRT1 has received much of attention due to its possible impact on longevity, while important biological and therapeutic roles of other sirtuins have been underestimated and just recently recognized. Here we focus on SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family, and discuss its role in cellular and tissue-specific functions. This review summarizes the main scientific advances on SIRT2 protein biology and explores its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of age-related disorders.

  14. Premature atherosclerosis: Sounds familial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of cardiovascular disease is an important challenge in current medical practice. Despite higher event rates and cardiovascular burden in individuals at a more advanced age, it represents a greater challenge in individuals who develop cardiovascular disease at a very young age. In

  15. Psychotropic medication exposure and age at onset of bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan; Simeonova, Diana

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to psychotropic medications before the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) in children may have profound effects on the course of illness. Both antidepressant and stimulant exposure have been proposed to hasten the course of BD development, whereas mood stabilizers have been proposed as protective. We sought to describe psychotropic medication exposure in a cohort of children at risk for BD and retrospectively determine the effect of medication exposure on age at onset (AAO) of BD. Subjects were 106 children and adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD. Of these, 63 had BD I or BD II and 43 had subsyndromal symptoms of BD. AAO was determined as nearest month of first manic or hypomanic episode. Past psychotropic medication exposure prior to AAO was determined through interview and chart review. Both groups had high rates of exposure to psychotropic medications. Antidepressant or stimulant exposure was not correlated with an earlier AAO of BD. However, mood stabilizer exposure was associated with a later AAO. Children with full or subsyndromal BD are frequently exposed to a variety of psychotropic medications before their first manic episode. Our findings do not support that early stimulant or antidepressant exposure leads to an earlier AAO of BD. However, early mood stabilizer exposure may be associated with delayed AAO. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these results.

  16. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  17. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, Christine S; Parlade, Meaghan V; McBee, Matthew T; Coman, Drew C; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these measures are designed to assess a wide range of behaviors. Targeted assessment of joint attention and related skills is primarily limited to semi-structured, examiner-led interactions, which are time-consuming and laborious to score. The Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is an efficient parent-report measure of joint attention that can be used as a complement to structured assessments in fully characterizing early social communication development. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale. Results revealed a high degree of internal consistency and strong intercorrelations between subscales. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model of joint attention. Furthermore, significant correlations between the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale and direct clinical measures of child joint attention, language skills, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity were suggestive of concurrent validity. Findings suggest that the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is a promising tool for measuring joint attention skills in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

  18. Late prematurity in twins: a Polish multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Szymusik, Iwona; Bomba-Opon, Dorota; Madej, Anna; Oleszczuk, Jan; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Marciniak, Beata; Breborowicz, Grzegorz; Drews, Krzysztof; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Szymankiewicz, Marta; Zimmer, Mariusz; Pomorski, Michal; Olejek, Anita; Slawska, Helena; Wielgos, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    The study aimed at investigating the impact of late prematurity (LPT) on neonatal outcome in twins and neonatal morbidity and mortality within LPT with regard to the completed weeks of gestation. The study was conducted in six tertiary obstetric departments from different provinces of Poland (Warsaw, Lublin, Poznan, Wroclaw, Bytom). It included 465 twin deliveries in the above centers in 2012. A comparative analysis of maternal factors, the course of pregnancy and delivery and neonatal outcome between LPT (34 + 0-36 + 6 weeks of gestation) and term groups (completed 37 weeks) was performed. The neonatal outcome included short-term morbidities. The analysis of neonatal complication rates according to completed gestational weeks was carried out. Out of 465 twin deliveries 213 (44.8%) were LPT and 156 (33.55%) were term. There were no neonatal deaths among LPT and term twins. One-third of LPT newborns suffered from respiratory disorders or required antibiotics, 40% had jaundice requiring phototherapy, and 30% were admitted to NICU. The analysis of neonatal morbidity with regard to each gestational week at delivery showed that most analyzed complications occurred less frequently with the advancing gestational age, especially respiratory disorders and NICU admissions. The only two factors with significant influence on neonatal morbidity rate were neonatal birth weight (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9, p = .02) and gestational age at delivery (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.5-0.8, p twins. Gestational age and neonatal birth weight seem to play a crucial role in neonatal outcome in twins.

  19. The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2015-03-30

    Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  1. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children - A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar; Havik, Toril; Odd E. Havik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the ...

  2. Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

  3. Relationship between motor and executive functioning in school-age children with pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, Erik; Houwen, S; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing child

  4. Relationship between motor and executive functioning in school-age children with pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, Erik; Houwen, S; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing

  5. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  6. Age of onset of bipolar disorder : Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Methods: Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relat

  7. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

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    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders(ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century,while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has alsoincreased. Studies looking for an association between paternalor maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have notbeen conclusive.Objective To assess for possible associations between paternaland maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring.Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100control subjects, each case was matched for age and genderto two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutivesampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited theDevelopmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics OutpatientClinic and private growth and development centers from Januaryto April 2013, while control group were children of the sameage range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatientclinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tractinfection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria.We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternaland paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, historyof asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period,pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternalsmoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed withChi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal ageat pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3;95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significantassociation between maternal age during pregnancy and theincidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were alsoassociated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9;P 0.003, respectively.Conclusion'in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 3.2 times and asphyxia increasedthe risk of ASDs in offspring by 10

  8. Age and gender changes in children and adolescent patients of a Brazilian eating disorder program

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    Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background International studies have demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of boys and a decrease of patients’ age at the beginning of outpatient treatment for eating disorders (ED. Objective To evaluate if these changes are also present in the Brazilian population participating in the PROTAD, a Brazilian ED program, and to discuss its clinical implication for treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 150 medical records of patients under 18 years diagnosed with ED (DSM IV-TR. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 (2001-2007 (n = 77 and G2 (2008-2014 (n = 73. The girl/boy proportion and the mean age of patients were compared. Results In G1, six boys (7.8% were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 11.8:1, while in G2, 16 (22% boys were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 3.5:1 (p 0.05. Discussion The increase in the number of boys treated for EDs reported in international studies was also found at the PROTAD. Contrary to what has been reported in international studies, the mean age of patients at the PROTAD did not decrease significantly. Gender and sexual orientation issues, clinical presentation, prior overweight history and culture/media impact on boys should be addressed by the healthcare team to increase the therapeutic efficacy.

  9. SIRT1 in the brain—connections with aging-associated disorders and lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Wijaya, Laura; Tang, Bor Luen

    2015-01-01

    The silent mating type information regulation 2 proteins (sirtuins) 1 of class III histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been associated with health span and longevity. SIRT1, the best studied member of the mammalian sirtuins, has a myriad of roles in multiple tissues and organs. However, a significant part of SIRT1’s role that impinges on aging and lifespan may lie in its activities in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Systemically, SIRT1 influences energy metabolism and circadian rhythm through its activity in the hypothalamic nuclei. From a cell biological perspective, SIRT1 is a crucial component of multiple interconnected regulatory networks that modulate dendritic and axonal growth, as well as survival against stress. This neuronal cell autonomous activity of SIRT1 is also important for neuronal plasticity, cognitive functions, as well as protection against aging-associated neuronal degeneration and cognitive decline. We discuss recent findings that have shed light on the various activities of SIRT1 in the brain, which collectively impinge on aging-associated disorders and lifespan. PMID:25805970

  10. SIRT1 in the Brain – Connections with Aging-associated Disorders and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny eNg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The silent mating type information regulation 2 proteins (sirtuins 1 of class III histone deacetylases have been associated with health span and longevity. SIRT1, the best studied member of the mammalian sirtuins, has a myriad of roles in multiple tissues and organs. However, a significant part of SIRT1’s role that impinges on aging and lifespan may lie in its activities in the central nervous system (CNS neurons. Systemically, SIRT1 influences energy metabolism and circadian rhythm through its activity in the hypothalamic nuclei. From a cell biological perspective, SIRT1 is a crucial component of multiple interconnected regulatory networks that modulate dendritic and axonal growth, as well as survival against stress. This neuronal cell autonomous activity of SIRT1 is also important for neuronal plasticity, cognitive functions, as well as protection against aging-associated neuronal degeneration and cognitive decline. We discuss recent findings that have shed light on the various activities of SIRT1 in the brain, which collectively impinge on aging-associated disorders and lifespan.

  11. Mediational Role of Age of Onset in Gambling Disorder, a Path Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Angulo, Ariadna; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B; Aymamí, Neus; Moragas, Laura; Sauvaget, Anne; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Menchón, José M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess a mediational pathway, which includes patients' sex, personality traits, age of onset of gambling disorder (GD) and gambling-related variables. The South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-R were administered to a large sample of 1632 outpatients attending a specialized outpatient GD unit. Sociodemographic variables were also recorded. A Structural Equation Model was adjusted to assess the pathway. Age of onset mediated between personality profile (novelty seeking and self-transcendence) and GD severity and depression symptoms (measured by SCL-90-R). Sex had a direct effect on GD onset and depression symptoms: men initiated the GD earlier and reported fewer depression symptoms. Age of onset is a mediating variable between sex, personality traits, GD severity and depression symptoms. These empirical results provide new evidence about the underlying etiological process of dysfunctional behaviors related to gambling, and may help to guide the development of more effective treatment and prevention programs aimed at high-risk groups such as young men with high levels of novelty seeking and self-transcendence.

  12. Reprogramming suppresses premature senescence phenotypes of Werner syndrome cells and maintains chromosomal stability over long-term culture.

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    Akira Shimamoto

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and cancer predisposition. Mutations in WRN are responsible for the disease and cause telomere dysfunction, resulting in accelerated aging. Recent studies have revealed that cells from WS patients can be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. In the present study, we describe the effects of long-term culture on WS iPSCs, which acquired and maintained infinite proliferative potential for self-renewal over 2 years. After long-term cultures, WS iPSCs exhibited stable undifferentiated states and differentiation capacity, and premature upregulation of senescence-associated genes in WS cells was completely suppressed in WS iPSCs despite WRN deficiency. WS iPSCs also showed recapitulation of the phenotypes during differentiation. Furthermore, karyotype analysis indicated that WS iPSCs were stable, and half of the descendant clones had chromosomal profiles that were similar to those of parental cells. These unexpected properties might be achieved by induced expression of endogenous telomerase gene during reprogramming, which trigger telomerase reactivation leading to suppression of both replicative senescence and telomere dysfunction in WS cells. These findings demonstrated that reprogramming suppressed premature senescence phenotypes in WS cells and WS iPSCs could lead to chromosomal stability over the long term. WS iPSCs will provide opportunities to identify affected lineages in WS and to develop a new strategy for the treatment of WS.

  13. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-04-10

    A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003-2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs). The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. In the years 2003-2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost), and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost). The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year). The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and monitor the leading causes of premature death, and to measure and monitor

  14. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  15. Cost-effectiveness of early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Karen L; Cole, Cynthia H; Gray, James E; Zupancic, John A F

    2009-01-01

    The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial demonstrated that peripheral retinal ablation of eyes with high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (early treatment) is associated with improved visual outcomes at 9 months' corrected gestational age compared with treatment at threshold disease (conventional management). However, early treatment increased the frequency of laser therapy, anesthesia with intubation, treatment-related systemic complications, and the need for repeat treatments. To determine the cost-effectiveness of an early treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity compared with conventional management. We developed a stochastic decision analytic model to assess the incremental cost of early treatment per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. We derived resource-use and efficacy estimates from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial's published outcome data. We used a third-party payer perspective. Our primary analysis focused on outcomes from birth through 9 months' corrected gestational age. A secondary analysis used a lifetime horizon. Parameter uncertainty was quantified by using probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness of early treatment was $14,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. There was a 90% probability that the cost-effectiveness of early treatment would be less than $40,000 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented and a 0.5% probability that early treatment would be cost-saving (less costly and more effective). Limiting early treatment to more severely affected eyes (eyes with "type 1 retinopathy of prematurity" as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial) had a cost-effectiveness of $6,200 per eye with severe visual impairment prevented. Analyses that considered long-term costs and outcomes found that early treatment was cost-saving. Early treatment of retinopathy of prematurity is both

  16. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

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    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  17. Insight on pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation: inverse relationship between lifelong premature ejaculation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, A; Ekmekcioglu, O

    2010-01-01

    Although both biological and psychological factors are important in the etiology, the exact pathogenesis of lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) remains to be clarified. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that contributes to many chronic diseases. Obesity is associated with erectile dysfunction, but the relationship between obesity and PE has not yet been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of these two conditions. Between January 2008 and December 2009, we evaluated consecutive patients with lifelong PE in the urology outpatient clinic. Control cases without lifelong PE were selected randomly among cases attending the department of internal medicine for a checkup procedure. The age and sex of control group were matched with that of the study group. Body mass index (BMI) of each case was calculated using the World Health Organization criteria by the measurements of the physician instead of relying on verbal expressions. The mean (+/-s.d.) age of the premature ejaculators was 31.7+/-5.7 (range 21-51) years and in the control cases it was 32.3+/-6.7 (range 22-54) years. The comparison of the mean (+/-s.d.) weight between the study (74.1+/-11.2 kg) and control groups (81.9+/-6.4 kg) revealed a significant difference (Pobese cases in the control group (n=26, 24.1%) was three times greater than the obese premature ejaculators (Pobesity, and we found that patients with lifelong PE were leaner than the healthy control cases.

  18. Animal models of premature and retarded ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2005-06-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from animal studies using rats with normal sexual behaviour. However, none of these proposed models adequately represents human ejaculatory disorders. Based on the "ejaculation distribution theory", which postulates that the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men is represented by a biological continuum, we have developed an animal model for the research of premature and delayed ejaculation. In this model, a large number of male Wistar rats are investigated during 4-6 weekly sexual behavioural tests. Based on the number of ejaculations during 30 min tests, rapid and sluggish ejaculating rats are distinguished, each representing approximately 10% at both ends of a Gaussian distribution. Together with other parameters, such as ejaculation latency time, these rats at either side of the spectrum resemble men with premature and delayed ejaculation, respectively. Comparable to the human situation, in a normal population of rats, endophenotypes exist with regard to basal sexual (ejaculatory) performance.

  19. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in elderly patients with temporomandibular disorders. Comparison with other age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yura, Shinya; Mabuchi, Akiko; Izumiyama, Yuri; Deyama, Ayako; Totsuka, Yasunori; Inoue, Nobuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Dental Medicine

    2002-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of disc displacement, disc deformity, and bone changes of the temporomandibular joint in elderly patients with temporomandibular disorders, 55 elderly patients (110 joints) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. The ages of the patients ranged from 65 to 89 years (average, 70 years). They consisted of 13 men and 42 women. Normal disc position was found in 40 joints (36.4%), anterior disc displacement with reduction in 17 joints (15.5%), and anterior disc displacement without reduction in 53 joints (48.2%) on magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-eight (71.6%) of the 53 joints with anterior disc displacement without reduction had disc deformity and 33 (62.3%) had bone changes. The frequency of bone changes in the elderly group was higher than that in the younger group. Women had a higher incidence of bone changes than men. (author)

  1. Patterns of language and discourse comprehension skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined patterns of language and discourse comprehension skills in Swedish school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 16) as compared to a slightly younger group of typically developing children (n = 16) matched for non-verbal cognitive ability. Results suggested significantly lower abilities in narrative discourse comprehension for the ASD group, but not in oral receptive vocabulary or reception of grammar. This difficulty with discourse-level comprehension appeared to be of a general nature, as no evidence was found for the hypothesis that participants with ASD would find comprehension of inferential discourse information disproportionally more difficult than stated information, or for the hypothesis that discourse processing in ASD would be characterized by an elevated processing of explicitly stated narrative details. The study has clinical and educational implications, as the findings suggest that children with ASD would benefit from being offered specific support for discourse-level comprehension.

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  3. Niemann-Pick C disease gene mutations and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zech

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95% or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563, FTLD (n = 133 and PSP (n = 94, and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1% and seven control subjects (0.8%, but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted.

  4. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

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    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  5. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  6. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  7. Association between age, breed and sex in relation to urinary disorders in insured cats in Japan during fiscal year 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mika; Inoue, Mai; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2016-10-01

    Data from 48,187 cats insured between April 2012 and March 2013 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis to determine the association of age, breed and sex with the occurrence of urinary disorders. The overall annual prevalence of urinary disorders was 12.2%. Using crossbreeds as the reference breed, Abyssinian cats had the highest odds of having urinary disorders with a ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.63), followed by Norwegian Forest Cats and Somalis. Male cats had higher odds of having urinary disorders with a ratio of 1.27 (1.20-1.35) over female cats. Older cats had higher odds of having urinary disorders than young cats.

  8. First episode of psychosis in a middle-aged patient with a 14-year history of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Manthopoulou, Thiresia; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders).

  9. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  10. Longitudinal Volumetric Brain Changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder Ages 6–35 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample were most often due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole-brain volume showed increased volumes in young children with autism and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156

  11. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  12. An immunological insight into premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojević-Dikić, Svetlana; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Mitrović, Ana; Dikić, Srdjan; Jovanović, Tomislav; Janković-Raznatović, Svetlana

    2010-09-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), a serious life-changing condition that affects young women, remains an enigma and the researchers' challenge. The term POF generally describes a syndrome of gonadal failure before the age of 40, characterized by amenorrhea, sex steroid deficiency and elevated levels of gonadotropins. Infertility and psychological stress are common consequences of this entity the prevalence of which is 0.9-3%. The known cause of this condition includes: genetic aberrations, autoimmune ovarian damage, iatrogenic and environmental factors, although in majority of cases the underlying cause is not identified. For many women in whom the cause of ovarian failure is unknown, autoimmunity may be the pathogenic mechanism. There is currently evidence that some cases of POF are due to faulty recognition of self in the ovary by the immune system, possibly provoked by genetic or environmental factors initiating such immune response. Numerous evidence, including association with multiple autoimmune endocrine disorders, clinical reversibility, transitory estrogen deficiency, histological and immunological features and the demonstration of circulating ovarian antibodies in serum samples from women with POF, have suggested its immunological origin. We discuss the possible role of such an autoimmune process as a cause or consequence of POF including treatment strategies in POF patients.

  13. Melatonin, a possible promising panacea for premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by impairment of ovarian function unrelated to elevatedfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH before the age of 40. The consequence of POF is severe and distinctive, presentingfrom infertility to symptoms caused by hormone deprivation. The mechanism of POF remains unclearand current treatments are therefore ineffective. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a neuroendocrinalhormone chiefly secreted by the pineal body. Melatonin exerts extensive physiological and pharmacologicaleffects on the biological rhythm, oxidative stress, reproduction, autoimmune and tumourigenesis. However,current researches have not yet brought melatonin into the study of POF. In the present review, we have involvedstate-of-the-art research progress of melatonin in ovary with regard to oxidation, follicle formation and function,and ovarian autoimmune disorders since these aspects mainly dispose to POF development. The features thatmelatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS, directly and indirectly induces follicle maturation, ovulationand inhibits apoptosis, and modulates autoimmune derangements in the ovaries are highly indicative that melatonincan effect in combating POF. Also, in this respect we have discussed the possibility of applying melatoninin the treatment of POF and have listed evidence of studies in vitro and in vivo. Vacant research directions aresubsequently suggested and the future application of melatonin in POF treatment is prospected.

  14. CSB-PGBD3 Mutations Cause Premature Ovarian Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Qin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVA-induced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair.

  15. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many low-birthweight babies are born prematurely, many risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby are the same for preterm labor and ... risk for having a low-birthweight baby. Medical risk factors for having a low-birthweight baby Preterm labor . This is labor that starts ...

  16. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  17. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  18. Accelerating Neuronal Aging in In Vitro Model Brain Disorders: a Focus on Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Britto Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss insights gained through the use of stem cell preparations regarding the modeling of neurological diseases, the need for aging neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells to further advance the study of late-onset adult neurological diseases, and the extent to which mechanisms linked to the mismanagement of ROS. The context of these issues can be revealed using the three disease states of Parkinson’s (PD, Alzheimer’s (AD, and schizophrenia, as considerable insights have been gained into these conditions through the use of stem cells in terms of disease etiologies and the role of oxidative stress. The latter subject is a primary area of interest of our group. After discussing the molecular models of accelerated aging, we highlight the role of ROS for the three diseases explored here. Importantly, we do not seek to provide an extensive account of all genetic mutations for each of the three disorders discussed in this review, but we aim instead to provide a conceptual framework that could maximize the gains from merging the approaches of stem cell microsystems and the study of oxidative stress in disease in order to optimize therapeutics and determine new molecular targets against oxidative stress that spare stem cell proliferation and development.

  19. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  20. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.; Knauff, E.A.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Lambalk, C.B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Goverde, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  1. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A. H.; Niermeijer, Martinus F.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lambalk, Cornelius B.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  2. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.

  3. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.

  4. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  5. PSEUDOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ENRICHMENT OF GLYCATED PEPTIDES FOR MONITORING ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS (AGES IN METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar R. Prasanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Glycation End (AGE products are produced due to diabetic progression and they are responsible for many complications in the diabetic disorder. The diabetic progression is measured, particularly following glycated hemoglobin using specific antibodies. However, the most abundant protein in blood, human serum albumin, is also found to be glycated which has a much shorter half life and gives information on short term glycemic control. In addition, glycated albumins are considered as markers of diabetic complications such as nephropathy, peripheral vascular calcification and also in Alzheimer’s disease. The glycation proceeds from the interaction between aldehyde group of sugar and the free amino group of the protein, resulting in the formation of Schiff’s base, which undergoes a series of modifications leading to generation of imidazoyl derivatives of amino acids known as Amadori rearrangement products. The imidazoyl derivatives from arginine and lysine are the most prominent modifications observed in proteins in the presence of reducing sugar and these imidazoyl derivatives have an affinity towards certain transition metal ions. Based on our earlier exhaustive work on trapping the histidine peptides using transition metal ion, Cu(II linked to imino-diacetate complex, we explored Cu(II immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC as a potential tool for specific detection of glycated peptides of human serum albumin. Our results clearly demonstrate that Cu(II IMAC is able to detect glycated peptides very efficiently while the non-glycated forms were not retained on the Cu (II column as confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We further discuss the utility of IMAC technology to enrich the detection of AGE products in plasma. We anticipate that these studies may provide valuable information on understanding disease pathologies and the potential of AGE products as biomarkers of various diseases including neurodegenerative, renal and

  6. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Traynor, Kirsten S; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  7. Modern Approach in Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacu Irina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy. Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.

  8. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  9. Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of the age of onset of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlian, David B; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-09-01

    Discrete time survival analysis was used to assess the age-specific association of event-related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2,938 adolescents and young adults ages 12-25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens.

  10. [Preterm premature rupture of membranes: active or expectant management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, G; Maillard, F

    2009-04-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and is responsible for 30% of preterm births. The management is discussed between active and expectant management. French recommendations let open both possibilities. The risks described in the case of PPROM are those of prematurity, maternofetal infection, acute procidence of the umbilical cord and abruptio placentae. Before 32 weeks of gestation (WG) and even 34 WG, a prolongation of one week of gestational age significantly decreases neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, most of the authors choose expectant management in case of PPROM. Between 34 and 37 WG, the risk of rare severe morbidity associated with prematurity has to be balanced with risks of an acute maternofetal infection and of abruptio placentae. Further randomized trials are required to choose a type of management with a sufficient level of evidence.

  11. Ability to Keep Milk-Ejecting Activity after Premature Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gribakin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the modern data on the importance of breast milk in nursing premature babies. It is shown that the amount of breast milk in women, who gave birth prematurely, decreases rapidly, especially when it is impossible to get a baby latched on to the breast. There is a negative correlation between gestational age and duration of lactation. According to the opinion of both doctors and the majority of mothers, pumping out breast milk and using it in feeding a premature baby is an important psychological and physiological factor linking a mother and a child at the intensive care unit. Individual breast milk banks are a new safe and effective method for long-term keeping of breast milk.

  12. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  13. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  14. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  15. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse...

  16. Evaluation and Treatment of Anemia in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Cengic, Nermana; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Heljic, Jasmina; Lutolli, Ismail; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia in preterm infants is the pathophysiological process with greater and more rapid decline in hemoglobin compared to the physiological anemia in infants. There is a need for transfusions and administration of human recombinant erythropoietin. Aim: To determine the frequency of anemia in premature infants at the Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, as well as parameter values in the blood count of premature infants and to explore a relationship between blood transfusions with the advent of intraventricular hemorrhage (determine treatment outcome in preterm infants). Patients and methods: Research is retrospective study and it included the period of six months in year 2014. Research included 100 patients, gestational age < 37 weeks (premature infants). Data were collected by examining the medical records of patients at the Pediatric Clinic, UCCS. Results: The first group of patients were premature infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks (62/100) and the second group were premature infants of gestational age 33-37 weeks (38/100). Among the patients, 5% were boys and 46% girls. There was significant difference in birth weight and APGAR score among the groups. In the first group, there were 27.42% of deaths, while in the second group, there were only 10.53% of deaths. There was a significant difference in the length of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in the need for transfusion among the groups. 18 patients in the first group required a transfusion, while in the second group only 3 patients. Conclusions: Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks are likely candidates for blood transfusion during treatment. Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks have the risk of intracranial bleeding associated with the application of blood transfusion in the first week of life. PMID:28210010

  17. Predictors of premature discontinuation of treatment in multiple disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nantz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nantz1, Hong Liu-Seifert2, Vladimir Skljarevski21Department of Statistics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USABackground: Premature discontinuation of treatment impacts outcomes of clinical practice. The traditional perception has been patient discontinuation is mainly driven by unwanted side effects. Systematic analysis of data from clinical trials across several disease states was performed to identify predictors of premature discontinuation during clinical interventions.Methods: A post hoc analysis was conducted on 22 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of fibromyalgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Analyses were conducted on pooled data within each disease state.Results: Lack of early therapeutic response was a significant predictor of patient discontinuation in each disease state. Visit-wise changes in therapeutic response and severity of adverse events were also significant risk factors, with change in therapeutic response having a higher significance level in three disease states. Patients who discontinued due to adverse events had similar therapeutic responses as patients completing treatment.Conclusion: Contrary to the conventional belief that premature treatment discontinuation is primarily related to adverse events, our findings suggest lack of therapeutic response also plays a significant role in patient attrition. This research highlights the importance of systematic monitoring of therapeutic response in clinical practice as a measure to prevent patients’ discontinuation from pharmacological treatments.Keywords: attrition, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia, therapeutic response, adverse event

  18. 过氧化氢诱导的人正常和早老细胞中DNA损伤及其修复研究%The Study of Hydrogen Peroxide Induced DNA Damage and Recovery in Normal Aging and Premature Aging Human Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    所起凤; 杜文婷; 杨鸣鸣; 范雪娇; 刘戟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究人早老细胞和正常衰老细胞在氧化应激条件下的DNA损伤和修复.方法 采用免疫荧光技术和彗星电泳技术,分别检测3组不同群体倍增数(PD)的人正常二倍体成纤维细胞BJ(青年组第14代,成年组第30代,衰老组第45代)和2组不同PD的人赫-吉二氏综合征(HGPS)细胞(青年组第8代,衰老组第17代)的DNA基础损伤程度.研究过氧化氢诱导造成以上细胞组DNA损伤及去除致损因素正常培养后的修复水平,采用免疫荧光和彗星电泳技术检测细胞在沉默DNA损伤修复蛋白着色性干皮病蛋白A(XPA)表达前后的修复能力.结果 BJ细胞衰老组DNA损伤程度较高,与成年组相比,对DNA损伤诱导因子更加敏感(P<0.05);成年组与青年组相比,对损伤诱导因子也更敏感(P<0.05).HGPS细胞青年组的DNA基础损伤程度即已达到衰老BJ细胞类似或更高水平,且与BJ细胞具有一致的DNA损伤年龄变化趋势.经siRNA沉默XPA表达后可部分恢复HGPS细胞的修复能力,对BJ细胞则没有影响.随年龄增长无论正常还是早老细胞,DNA损伤程度增加,修复效率降低.结论 XPA功能异常抑制了HGPS细胞的损伤修复.%Objective To study the DNA damage and recovery induced by hydrogen peroxide in normal aging and premature aging human cells. Methods The immunofluorescent assay and comet assay were used to estimate basal DNA damage in normal aging BJ cells and premature aging Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) cells, which were divided into three and two distinct population doubling (PD) number groups (BJ 14· 30, 45 and HGPS 8, 17) respectively. The DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide of these cell populations, as well as their repair activity, was also studied. Finally, the recovery capability before and after the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA ) knocked down in these groups was measured. Results Our results indicated that the normal BJ cells of older PD number

  19. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize J Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8% of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%. Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2% of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%. There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8% to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7% of global DALYs.GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing

  20. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alize J; Charlson, Fiona J; Norman, Rosana E; Patten, Scott B; Freedman, Greg; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-11-01

    Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8%) of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%). Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2%) of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%). There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8%) to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7%) of global DALYs. GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost

  1. Premature: growth and its relation to oral skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Camila Lehnhart; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Steidl, Eduardo Matias dos Santos; Prade, Leila Sauer; Bolzan, Geovana; Keske-Soares, Márcia; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of oral motor skills of premature infants on their oral feeding performance and growth, during neonatal hospitalization. Fifty-one newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of a hospital in Southern Brazil, between July 2012 and March 2013, were evaluated. The evaluation of oral feeding skills, according to Lau and Smith, was applied after prescription for starting oral feeding. The oral feeding performance was analyzed using the following variables: days taken to start independent oral feeding and hospital discharge. Growth was measured by weight, length, and head circumference, using the curves of Fenton, at birth, first and independent oral feeding, and hospital discharge. At birth, 71% preterm infants were proper for gestational age, most of them were males (53%), with average of 33.6 (±1.5) weeks of gestational age. The gestational age in the assessment did not influence the oral feeding performance of the premature infant and did not differ between levels. Time of transition from tube feeding to oral feeding and hospital stay was shorter when the oral skills were higher. At birth, there was a tendency of low weight and low oral feeding performance. Level IV premature infants in the release of oral feeding presented higher weights. The level of oral skills of the premature infant interfered positively on time of feeding transition from tube to independent oral feeding and hospital stay. Growth, represented by weight gain, was not affected by the level of oral skill.

  2. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

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    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  3. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  4. Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M; Belden, Andy C

    2014-07-01

    Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between ages 3 and 6, has demonstrated numerous validated features, including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. This syndrome is characterized by subthreshold DSM criteria for major depressive disorder, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, the authors investigated diagnostic outcomes of preschool children at school age and in adolescence. In a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children, the authors assessed the likelihood of meeting full criteria for major depressive disorder at age 6 or later as a function of preschool depression, other preschool axis I disorders, maternal history of depression, nonsupportive parenting, and traumatic life events. Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of major depressive disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal history of depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted major depression in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting, reducing by 21% the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting major depression. Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for developing full criteria for major depression in later childhood, over and above other established risk factors. The results suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal history of depression and exposure to trauma may be important in identifying young children at highest risk for later major depression and applying early interventions.

  5. Prematurity stereotyping and mothers' interactions with their premature and full-term infants during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine; McIntosh, Bonnie; Moritzen, Sara; Olexa, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    To longitudinally assess stability and correlates of prematurity stereotyping and perceptions of infant vulnerability in mothers of premature (N = 56) and full-term (N = 59) infants. At 5, 9, and 12 months, mothers rated videotapes of unfamiliar infants with a full-term label (FTL) or a preterm label (PL), interacted with their own infant, and completed other questionnaires. A subgroup of infants were administered a developmental assessment at 32 months. Mothers rated PL infants more negatively than FTL infants at each age. Individual differences in stereotyping were not stable. Mothers who negatively rated infants labeled with the same birth status of their own infants exhibited more negative interactive behaviors with their infants. Mothers who viewed their own infant as more vulnerable and who showed more prematurity stereotyping at 5 months had infants with lower 32-month mental scores. The results suggest an association between early maternal cognitions and both contemporaneous maternal behavior and later child developmental outcomes.

  6. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Social Cue Cards for Preschool Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Amberly; Connell, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the effects of Social Cue Cards on the social communication skills of three preschool age children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using a multiple-baseline across-participants design, Social Cue Cards were implemented and direct observations of participants' identified target…

  8. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  9. Comparison of Physical Fitness Performance between Elementary-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the possible differences of the physical fitness performance of elementary-aged students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little research has been produced in the area of youth with ADHD and motor development; this research paper further investigates the effects of…

  10. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  11. Brief Report: Impaired Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wolff, Brian C.; Moody, Eric; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility has been measured with inductive reasoning or explicit rule tasks in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The "Flexible Item Selection Task" (FIST) differs from previous cognitive flexibility tasks in ASD research by giving children an abstract, ambiguous rule to switch. The ASD group (N = 22; Mean age = 8.28…

  12. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  13. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  14. Brief Report: Impaired Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wolff, Brian C.; Moody, Eric; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility has been measured with inductive reasoning or explicit rule tasks in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The "Flexible Item Selection Task" (FIST) differs from previous cognitive flexibility tasks in ASD research by giving children an abstract, ambiguous rule to switch. The ASD group (N = 22; Mean age = 8.28…

  15. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  16. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  17. Comparison of Physical Fitness Performance between Elementary-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the possible differences of the physical fitness performance of elementary-aged students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little research has been produced in the area of youth with ADHD and motor development; this research paper further investigates the effects of…

  18. A Historical Analysis of the Quest for the Origins of Aging Macula Disorder, the Tissues Involved, and Its Terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Paulus T V M

    2016-01-01

    Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer

  19. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  20. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates, stimulants, cannabis, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens and alcohol over several decades. Methods Follow-up study of a consecutive cohort of 561 substance abusers, admitted to a detoxification unit January 1970 to February 1978 in southern Sweden, and followed up in 2006. Demographic and clinical data, substance diagnoses and three groups of psychiatric diagnoses were identified at first admission. Causes of death were coded according to ICD-10 and classified as drug related deaths or non drug related deaths. To identify the incidence of some probable risk factors of drug related premature death, the data were subjected to a competing risks Cox regression analysis. Results Of 561 patients in the cohort, 11 individuals had either emigrated or could not be located, and 204/561 patients (36.4% were deceased by 2006. The cumulative risk of drug related death increased more in the first 15 years and leveled out later on when non drug related causes of death had a similar incidence. In the final model, male gender, regular use of opiates or barbiturates at first admission, and neurosis were associated with an increased risk of drug related premature death, while cannabis use and psychosis were associated with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates

  1. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

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    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been substantial progress in the technology of premature infants nursing, especially with extremely low birth weight. Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers — specifically developed additives that adjust the composition of food for premature babies, are used for more than 20 years (for premature babies receiving breast milk. On the one hand, to preserve all benefits of breastfeeding, on the other — to prevent the deficit development of necessary elements for adequate growth and development of nutrients.

  2. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N=17 in comparison to typically developing peers (N=12. Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005. MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P=.03, while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P=.00, light (P=.00, moderate (P=.00, and total moderate-to-vigorous (P=.01 physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.

  3. Age-at-onset subsets of bipolar I disorders: A critical insight into admixture analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montlahuc, Claire; Curis, Emmanuel; Jonas, Sarah Flora; Bellivier, Frank; Chevret, Sylvie

    2016-10-21

    Gaussian mixture analysis is frequently used to model the age-at-onset (AAO) in bipolar I disorder and identify homogeneous subsets of patients. This study aimed to examine whether, using admixture analysis of AAO, cross-sectional designs (which cause right truncation), unreliable diagnosis for individuals younger than 10 years old (which causes left truncation) and the selection criterion used for admixture analysis impact the number of identified subsets. A simulation study was performed. Different criteria - the likelihood ratio test (LRT), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) - were compared using no, left and/or right truncation simulated data. The error rate of each criterion (percentage of erroneous number of detected subsets) was estimated. An application to two real databases, including 2,876 and 1,393 patients, is provided. Without data truncation and regardless of the distribution of AAO, the LRT and the AIC had much higher error rates (12% and 33%, respectively) than the BIC (1%). For a homogeneous population, the error rate increased with the introduction of left truncation. This study shows that the number of subsets identified using admixture analysis may depend on the sample size, the selection criterion, and the study design.

  4. Physical Activity and Compensation of Body Posture Disorders in Children Aged Seven

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    Hricková Katarína

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is an indelible part of human life, but the impact of industrial changes on society has led to a hypokinetic lifestyle not only in adults but also in children and youth. This paper aims to present the results of a study of the body posture of 7-year-olds, which is an essential part of their physical development evaluation. The aim of our study was to expand our knowledge of the occurrence of body posture disorders in 7-year-olds, as well as to develop an appropriate movement programme which would help improve the current situation. Material and methods. The research sample consisted of 393 first-graders from 4 grammar schools in Kosice. We used muscle testing according to Janda and Tichy to obtain data on individual muscle weaknesses and postural deviations. Results. Our research confirmed the findings of several other researchers who had pointed out that muscle weaknesses and postural deviations can be observed already in preschoolers. Due to a lack of physical activity and movement, muscle weakness in preschool children results in more serious health issues at school age and later in adulthood. Conclusions. We managed to stabilise and even to correct the weaknesses we observed by implementing a movement programme focusing on the diagnosed muscle weakness.

  5. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in elderly Nigerians in the Ibadan Study of Ageing: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Kola, Lola; Afolabi, Ebenezer

    2007-09-15

    The growing populations of elderly people in sub-Saharan Africa are exposed to social changes with potential adverse effects on mental health. Our aim was to estimate the occurrence and effect of major depressive disorder in a large and representative community sample of elderly Africans. Face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of people aged 65 years and older (n=2152) were obtained by a multistage stratified sampling of households in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria (about 22% of the national population). Major depressive disorder was assessed with the WHO composite international diagnostic interview and diagnosed with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of major depressive disorder were 26.2% (95% CI 24.3-28.2) and 7.1% (5.9-8.3) respectively. Female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.9) and increasing levels of urbanisation of residence (OR 1.4) were associated with this disorder. People with major depressive disorder had impaired quality of life and functioning in home, work, and social roles. Independent ratings of symptom severity confirmed the presence of clinically significant depression in 96.9% of those with diagnosis, and increasing symptom severity was associated with greater disability and poorer quality of life. Only about 37% of lifetime cases had received any treatment, and there was a mean delay of 5 years from onset of depression to receipt of first treatment. Low economic status (0.3) and rural residence (1.0) predicted no treatment. Major depressive disorder is common in elderly Nigerians and its occurrence is related to urbanisation. This disorder is a seriously disabling illness in this group but only a few sufferers have ever received treatment. Health-care services need to invest in effective treatment programmes for major depressive disorder.

  6. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Comai, Lucio, E-mail: comai@usc.edu [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging.

  7. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Myoung Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs. Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS.

  8. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Myoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS. PMID:25230212

  9. Relation between blood vitamin B12 levels with premature ejaculation: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadihasanoglu, M; Kilciler, M; Kilciler, G; Yucetas, U; Erkan, E; Karabay, E; Toktas, M G; Kendirci, M

    2016-09-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin B12 levels are associated with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 109 subjects (56 PE and 53 controls) were included in this study. PE was defined as self-reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and those who had had an IELT of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The vitamin 12 levels were measured in all subjects. The mean age between the PE and controls was comparable (p = .084). Mean IIEF and BDI scores between the two groups did not statistically differ. The mean IELT values in the PE group were significantly lower than in the control group (p < .0001). PE patients reported significantly lower vitamin B12 levels compared with the controls (213.14 vs. 265.89 ng ml(-1) ; p < .001). The ROC analysis showed a significant correlation between the diagnosis of PE and lower vitamin B12 levels. This study has demonstrated that lower vitamin B12 levels are associated with the presence of PE. This work also shows a strong correlation between vitamin B12 levels and the PEDT scores as well as the IELT values.

  10. The gender gap in suicide and premature death or: why are men so vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2003-02-01

    Suicide and premature death due to coronary heart disease, violence, accidents, drug or alcohol abuse are strikingly male phenomena, particularly in the young and middle-aged groups. Rates of offending behaviour, conduct disorders, suicide and depression are even rising, and give evidence to a high gender-related vulnerability of young men. In explaining this vulnerability, the gender perspective offers an analytical tool to integrate structural and cultural factors. It is shown that traditional masculinity is a key risk factor for male vulnerability promoting maladaptive coping strategies such as emotional unexpressiveness, reluctance to seek help, or alcohol abuse. This basic male disposition is shown to increase psychosocial stress due to different societal conditions: to changes in male gender-role, to postmodern individualism and to rapid social change in Eastern Europe and Russia. Relying on empirical data and theoretical explanations, a gender model of male vulnerability is proposed. It is concluded that the gender gap in suicide and premature death can most likely be explained by perceived reduction in social role opportunities leading to social exclusion.

  11. Analysis of T-786C and 4a/b endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Jelica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vascular proliferative disorder of retina, that causes visual impairment in premature children. Beside well known risk factors such as short gestational age, low birth weight and early oxygen exposure, genetic susceptibility is considered as a risk factor for development of the disease. The aim of our study was to explore the association of T-786C and 4a/b eNOS gene polymorphisms with the development of severe ROP. Study included 174 preterm infants, 84 with ROP and 90 as a control group. No differences have been observed in genotypes and alleles distributions of eNOS T-786C and eNOS 4a/b polymorphisms between two analyzed groups. There was significant difference in female infants by dominant model for 4a/b genotypes (4bb/4ba+4aa. Namely, female infants in ROP group were more frequently carriers of 4ba and 4aa genotypes than female infants in control group (p=0.037. Analysis of association between 4a/b eNOS polymorphism and ROP among preterm infants have not shown statistically significant association (p=0.288. Gestational age values by recessive model (4bb+4ba/4aa were significantly lower in infants with 4aa genotype (t=2.034 p=0.044. Almost all detected 4aa genotypes were present in the group of infants with gestational age under 30 weeks (p=0.032, but multivariate linear regression analysis does not show association of 4a/b genotypes with gestational age of premature infants. According to results of the present study T-786C and 4a/b polymorphisms of the eNOS gene may not be the risk factors for the manifestation of severe ROP in Serbian infants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175091

  12. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  13. The influence of premature extractions of primary molars on the ultimate root length of their permanent successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Koyoumdijsky-Kaye, E

    1981-06-01

    Final root length of lower premolars which succeed prematurely--extracted primary molars is shortened. The proposed explanation focuses on a possible accelerated movement of the permanent tooth bud and undue environmental stress following the premature extraction of its deciduous predecessor. The degree of shortening is different in both sexes and depends on the age at which the premature extraction is performed. Girls are more affected than boys, especially in cases in which the premature extractions are performed before the age of eight yr.

  14. Influence of visual acuity on anxiety, panic and depression disorders among young and middle age adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Codey, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research, albeit limited, has demonstrated an association of visual acuity with depression and anxiety. However, these studies are limited in that they have focused on older adults, used a convenient sample, and/or used a subjective assessment of visual function. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively-measured visual acuity with depression and anxiety (and panic disorder) among a national sample of young- and middle-age U.S. adults (20-39 years). Using data from the 2003-2004 NHANES (n=602), the presence of anxiety, depression, and panic disorders was assessed from a diagnostic interview. Visual acuity was assessed from a vision exam using the Nidek Auto Lensmeter Model (LM-990A) and expressed as LogMAR units. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, cotinine, diabetes, and physical activity, visual acuity was not associated with panic disorder (p=0.71) or depression disorder (p=0.20), but for every 0.1 LogMAR unit change in vision, participants had a 14% (OR=1.14; p=0.04) higher odds of having an anxiety disorder. The main limitation of this study was the cross-sectional design. Young- and middle-age U.S. adults with worse visual function are at increased odds of having an anxiety disorder. Strategies to prevent and treat anxiety among those with worse visual function are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling premature brain injury and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joey; Fagel, Devon M.; Ment, Laura R.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2009-01-01

    Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure and function in these preterm infants at school age and relevant animal models. These animal models have provided scientists with an opportunity to explore in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury as well as the potential of the brain for recovery. The endogenous potential that the brain has for neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and how environment contributes to recovery, are also outlined. These preclinical models will provide important insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for variable degrees of injury and recovery, permitting the exploration of targeted therapies to facilitate recovery in the developing preterm brain. PMID:19482072

  16. Periodic heart rate decelerations in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Abigail A; Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B

    2010-04-01

    The pacemaking system of the heart is complex; a healthy heart constantly integrates and responds to extracardiac signals, resulting in highly complex heart rate patterns with a great deal of variability. In the laboratory and in some pathological or age-related states, however, dynamics can show reduced complexity that is more readily described and modeled. Reduced heart rate complexity has both clinical and dynamical significance - it may provide warning of impending illness or clues about the dynamics of the heart's pacemaking system. In this paper, we describe simple and interesting heart rate dynamics that we have observed in premature human infants - reversible transitions to large-amplitude periodic oscillations - and we show that the appearance and disappearance of these periodic oscillations can be described by a simple mathematical model, a Hopf bifurcation.

  17. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID and recurrence density (RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders: 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women

  18. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  20. Cochrane review: social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2013-03-07

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  1. Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2012-07-11

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  2. Social Analogical Reasoning in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M.; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In…

  3. Gender-age interaction in incidence rates of childhood emotional disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B

    2014-01-01

    rates of emotional disorders throughout childhood. METHOD: This is a population-based cohort study of 907 806 Danish 3- to 18-year-olds. The outcome was assignment of an emotional disorder diagnosis based on in-patient and out-patient data from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Outcome measures...

  4. Age of Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Latino Children: The Case of Venezuelan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Chacín, José A.; González-Ávila, Zoila

    2017-01-01

    Latino children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder later in life, usually with more severe symptoms, and lower IQs, compared with non-Latino children. Possible reasons for such disparities could be due to lower levels of parent education, lower socioeconomic status, limited knowledge of parents about autism spectrum disorder, and…

  5. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Ahmadi; Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa; Amirmudin Udin; AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always...

  6. Young adult social development as a mediator of alcohol use disorder symptoms from age 21 to 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hill, Karl G; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Meacham, Meredith C; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F; Hawkins, J David

    2014-06-01

    Little research has examined social development in the young adult years relative to childhood and adolescence. This study tested the hypothesized pathways of the social development model (SDM) in young adulthood for predicting symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and positive functioning at age 30. A longitudinal panel study originally drawn from Seattle, Washington, elementary schools was examined. The sample included 808 participants with high retention and was gender balanced and ethnically diverse. Analyses focused on ages 21, 27, and 30. SDM constructs were assessed with self-reports of past-year behavior and combined multiple life domains. AUD symptoms corresponding to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Positive functioning combined measures of constructive engagement in work and school, civic engagement, physical exercise, and lack of depressive symptoms. The study found that AUD symptoms were moderately stable from age 21 to 30; however, developmental pathways hypothesized by the SDM at age 27 played a significant role in partially mediating this association. Alcohol-specific factors were key mediating mechanisms, whereas prosocial factors played little role. Conversely, prosocial factors had an important role in predicting positive functioning at age 30, whereas there were no significant pathways involving alcohol-specific factors. Findings suggest that age 27 is not too late for interventions targeting adult social development to help diminish alcohol use disorder symptoms by age 30. Alcohol-specific factors such as reducing perceived opportunities or rewards for heavy alcohol use or challenging beliefs accepting of drunkenness are likely to be key ingredients of effective adult interventions.

  7. Effects of prematurity on language acquisition and auditory maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Biaggio, Eliara Pinto Vieira; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To verify which damages prematurity causes to hearing and language. We used the decriptors language/linguagem, hearing/audição, prematurity/prematuridade in databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo. randomized controlled trials, non-randomized intervention studies and descriptive studies (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control projects). The articles were assessed independently by two authors according to the selection criteria. Twenty-six studies were selected, of which seven were published in Brazil and 19 in international literature. Nineteen studies comparing full-term and preterm infants. Two of the studies made comparisons between premature infants small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age. In four studies, the sample consisted of children with extreme prematurity, while other studies have been conducted in children with severe and moderate prematurity. To assess hearing, these studies used otoacoustic emissions, brainstem evoked potentials, tympanometry, auditory steady-state response and visual reinforcement audiometry. For language assessment, most of the articles used the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. Most studies reviewed observed that prematurity is directly or indirectly related to the acquisition of auditory and language abilities early in life. Thus, it could be seen that prematurity, as well as aspects related to it (gestational age, low weight at birth and complications at birth), affect maturation of the central auditory pathway and may cause negative effects on language acquisition.

  8. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  9. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  10. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  11. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  12. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Martín Elena; de Larrea-Baz Nerea; Catalá-López Ferrán; Gènova-Maleras Ricard; Morant-Ginestar Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted...

  13. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

  14. Premature ventricular contractions associated with isotretinoin use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Sevil; Ünal, Betül; Yildirim, Aytül

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case. PMID:28099609

  15. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  16. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs accumulation in skin: relations with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Almeida França

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, main causes related with cardiovascular disease (CVD and bone mineral disorder (CKD-BMD. Uremic toxins, as advanced glycation end products (AGEs, are non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor and play a role on development of CKD-BMD in CKD. The measurement of skin autofluorescence (sAF is a noninvasive method to assess the level of AGEs in tissue, validated in CKD patients. Objective: The aim of this study is analyze AGEs measured by sAF levels (AGEs-sAF and its relations with CVD and BMD parameters in HD patients. Methods: Twenty prevalent HD patients (HD group and healthy subjects (Control group, n = 24, performed biochemical tests and measurements of anthropometric parameters and AGEs-sAF. In addition, HD group performed measurement of intact parathormone (iPTH, transthoracic echocardiogram and radiographies of pelvis and hands for vascular calcification score. Results: AGEs-sAF levels are elevated both in HD and control subjects ranged according to the age, although higher at HD than control group. Single high-flux HD session does not affect AGEs-sAF levels. AGEs-sAF levels were not related to ventricular mass, interventricular septum or vascular calcification in HD group. AGEs-sAF levels were negatively associated with serum iPTH levels. Conclusion: Our study detected a negative correlation of AGEs-sAF with serum iPTH, suggesting a role of AGEs on the pathophysiology of bone disease in HD prevalent patients. The nature of this relation and the clinical application of this non-invasive methodology for evaluation AGEs deposition must be confirmed and clarified in future studies.

  17. Subtypes of language disorders in school-age children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Dunn, Michelle A; Dunn, Michael A; Allen, Doris A; Stevens, Michael C; Fein, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Cluster analysis of test scores on expressive phonology and comprehension of words and sentences in 7-9-year-old children with preschool diagnosis of Autistic Disorder yielded 4 clusters. Cluster 1 (N = 11): phonology and comprehension both low; Cluster 2 (N = 4): phonology low, near average comprehension; Cluster 3 (N = 40): average phonology, comprehension low to low average; Cluster 4 (N = 7): average or better phonology and comprehension. The clusters support two major types of language disorders in autism driven by impaired expressive phonology, each divisible by comprehension ability. The clusters refute a single language disorder in autism and are consonant with earlier-defined clinical subtypes.

  18. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

  19. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2011-12-07

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school. To assess the effects of social skills training in children and adolescents with ADHD. We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL (2011, Issue1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), ERIC (1966 to March 2011 ), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2011), CINAHL (1980 to March 2011), and Sociological Abstracts (1952 to March 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials on 15 October 2010. We did not apply any language or date restrictions to the searches. We searched online conference abstracts and contacted 176 experts in the field for possible information about unpublished or ongoing RCTs. Randomised trials investigating social skills training for children with ADHD as a stand alone treatment or as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment. We conducted the review according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Two authors (OJS, MS) extracted data independently using an appropriate data collection form. We performed the analyses using Review Manager 5 software. We included 11 randomised trials described in 26 records (all full text articles) in the review. The trials included a total of 747 participants. All participants were between five and 12 years of age. No trials assessed adolescents. In 10 of the trials the participants suffered from different comorbidities.The duration of the interventions ranged from eight to 10 weeks (eight trials) up to two years. The types of

  20. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth,; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...