WorldWideScience

Sample records for prematriculation immunization policy

  1. Hepatitis B Immunization Policies of United States Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Hanaa A.; Catania, Patrick N.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 53 pharmacy schools investigated immunization requirements and policies, both on admission and before students begin clerkships. Results are reported, highlighting schools' hepatitis B immunization policies. Results indicate that most schools lack an immunization requirement for this disease. (Author/MSE)

  2. Pre-matriculation indicators of academic difficulty during veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Sanderson, Michael W; Elmore, Ronnie G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pre-matriculation academic and demographic data to identify risk factors for academic difficulty and failure to graduate among veterinary students. Admissions data were compiled for 1,098 students admitted to veterinary college between 1989 and 2000 inclusive. Students were classified by (a) academic success, consisting of students who completed veterinary school within four years in the top 90% of the class or (b) academic difficulty, including students dismissed for academic reasons, students who experienced academic delay, and students who graduated with a cumulative GPA in the 10th percentile of their class. Of 1,098 admitted students, 930 (84.7%) completed veterinary school within four years in the top 90% of their class. Among students with academic difficulty, 94 (8.6%) completed veterinary school in four years in the 10th percentile, 44 (4%) experienced academic delay, and 30 (2.7%) were dismissed. Academic difficulty was associated with a low prerequisite GPA, a low GRE score, poor undergraduate institutional selectivity, and older age (> or =35 years). Students who attended three-or-more undergraduate institutions or two-year colleges prior to attending a four year institution were 1.9 times more likely to experience academic difficulty and 3.87 times more likely to fail to graduate than students who attended a four-year institution (major or small) to complete their prerequisites. These study findings may assist with early identification of students at greater risk of experiencing academic difficulty and support the consideration of cognitive selection criteria (GRE and GPA) and undergraduate institutional experience during the admissions process.

  3. Ethics and immunization policy: promoting dialogue to sustain consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, C; Marcuse, E K

    2001-05-01

    The societal consensus that has supported the United States' universal childhood immunization programs for the past 50 years shows signs of eroding. This article proposes a systematic approach to evaluate immunization policy options. Through a unifying framework that combines epidemiologic, economic, and ethical concerns, this approach promotes a clearer understanding of underlying issues and inherent tradeoffs between alternative policies. Such a systematic examination of policy options could facilitate the public dialogue necessary to continually recreate a broad consensus on immunization practices and enable us to choose policies most in accord with our fundamental values.

  4. Development of an interdisciplinary pre-matriculation program designed to promote medical students’ self efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosobuski, Anna Wirta; Whitney, Abigail; Skildum, Andrew; Prunuske, Amy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and objectives: A four-week interdisciplinary pre-matriculation program for Native American and rural medical students was created and its impact on students’ transition to medical school was assessed. The program extends the goals of many pre-matriculation programs by aiming to increase not only students’ understanding of basic science knowledge, but also to build student self-efficacy through practice with medical school curricular elements while developing their academic support networks. Design: A mixed method evaluation was used to determine whether the goals of the program were achieved (n = 22). Student knowledge gains and retention of the microbiology content were assessed using a microbiology concept inventory. Students participated in focus groups to identify the benefits of participating in the program as well as the key components of the program that benefitted the students. Results: Program participants showed retention of microbiology content and increased confidence about the overall medical school experience after participating in the summer program. Conclusions: By nurturing self-efficacy, participation in a pre-matriculation program supported medical students from Native American and rural backgrounds during their transition to medical school. Abbreviations: CAIMH: Center of American Indian and Minority Health; MCAT: Medical College Admission Test; PBL: Problem based learning; UM MSD: University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth PMID:28178916

  5. Pre-matriculation program at the University of South Florida College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M T

    1999-04-01

    Underrepresented-minority (URM) students at the University of South Florida College of Medicine increased from 4.9% to 10.5% of the total student body from 1991 to 1997. During that period it became clear that some majority and minority students had serious academic difficulties with the first-year curriculum and that a higher proportion of the minority matriculants had difficulties. In response, the college in 1997 created the Summer Pre-matriculation Program to reduce the number of first-year students who had academic difficulty. In the summer before they matriculate in the college, the students complete a six-week program of lectures, small-group discussions, compute-aided instruction, and laboratory instruction in biochemistry, human embryology, and gross anatomy. URM students, non-science majors, and students who have been away from the academic environment (e.g., pursuing medicine as a second career) are given priority for the 20 positions available each year. At the end of the first cohort's first medical school year, the academic performances of program participants and other students were compared, and it was clear that the program participants had performed as well as or slightly better than their counterparts in gross anatomy, biochemistry, and human embryology. Further, the program participants performed at or above the class average in medical school courses for which they had not had targeted instruction during the program. The College of Medicine is committed to diversifying its student body and realizes that diverse students bring varying levels of academic preparation as well as diversity in cultural and academic backgrounds. Concerted efforts such as the pre-matriculation program may be required to normalize the "playing field" at the very outset of medical school and to ensure that every matriculant has an equal opportunity to succeed.

  6. The Impact of Pre-Matriculation Variables on the Persistence of Freshman Students to Their Sophomore Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlblom, Dwight A.

    2013-01-01

    No group of college students persists at a rate lower than freshmen students to their sophomore year. In 2011, those rates varied from 55.4% at two-year public colleges to 80.3% at private schools offering a PhD program. This study investigated the impact of five pre-matriculation variables on the retention of freshmen students to their sophomore…

  7. A Measles Outbreak at a College with a Prematriculation Immunization Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Bradley S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports a retrospective cohort study among students living in campus dormitories to examine potential risk factors for measles vaccine failure. As in secondary schools, measles outbreaks can occur among highly vaccinated college populations. Requiring two doses of measles vaccine for college entrants should help reduce measles outbreaks in college…

  8. The future of immunization policies in Italy and in the European Union: The Declaration of Erice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Fara, Gaetano M; Giammaco, Giuseppe; Blangiardi, Francesco; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    On December 2014 the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) of the European Union adopted the Council Conclusions on "Vaccinations as an effective tool in public health," a crucial step to strengthen EU action supporting Member States (MS) to implement effective immunization policies and programs. As a contribution to the ongoing pan-European discussion and to the Italian commitment to stay at the forefront of promoting vaccination policies, the Erice Declaration was drafted by Italy's best experts in the field of immunization to transpose to the national level the goals set by the EPSCO Conclusions. The aim of the current letter is to present to the broader international audience the Italian perspective as a case study to assess different immunization policy models, challenges and priorities.

  9. The impact of an online prematriculation sleep course (sleep 101 on sleep knowledge and behaviors in college freshmen: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available College students have a high prevalence of poor sleep quality and sleep deficiency which negatively impacts their academic, mental and physical performance. A prematriculation course focused on improving sleep knowledge and behaviors may reduce sleep problems. “Sleep 101” is an online prematriculation course developed to educate incoming college freshmen about the importance of sleep in their lives and to recommend behaviors that will improve their sleep health. In a pilot program, “Sleep 101” was administered to freshman at four universities. The results of a voluntary survey after completion of the course indicated that there was an improvement in knowledge about sleep and the effects of caffeine use, and that students were less likely to drive drowsy and pull “all-nighters,” These pilot data suggest that an internet administered prematriculation course on the importance of sleep and the adoption of healthy sleep behaviors will be effective in reducing sleep problems among college students.

  10. Immunization of Health-Care Providers: Necessity and Public Health Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    Health-care providers (HCPs) are at increased risk for exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the workplace. The rationale for immunization of HCPs relies on the need to protect them and, indirectly, their patients from health-care-associated VPDs. Published evidence indicates significant immunity gaps for VPDs of HCPs globally. Deficits in knowledge and false perceptions about VPDs and vaccines are the most common barriers for vaccine uptake and may also influence communication about vaccines between HCPs and their patients. Most countries have immunization recommendations for HCPs; however, there are no universal policies and significant heterogeneity exists between countries in terms of vaccines, schedules, frame of implementation (recommendation or mandatory), and target categories of HCPs. Mandatory influenza immunization policies for HCPs have been implemented with high vaccine uptake rates. Stronger recommendations for HCP immunization and commitment at the level of the health-care facility are critical in order to achieve high vaccine coverage rates. Given the importance to health, mandatory immunization policies for VPDs that can cause serious morbidity and mortality to vulnerable patients should be considered.

  11. Immunization of Health-Care Providers: Necessity and Public Health Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Health-care providers (HCPs) are at increased risk for exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in the workplace. The rationale for immunization of HCPs relies on the need to protect them and, indirectly, their patients from health-care-associated VPDs. Published evidence indicates significant immunity gaps for VPDs of HCPs globally. Deficits in knowledge and false perceptions about VPDs and vaccines are the most common barriers for vaccine uptake and may also influence communication about vaccines between HCPs and their patients. Most countries have immunization recommendations for HCPs; however, there are no universal policies and significant heterogeneity exists between countries in terms of vaccines, schedules, frame of implementation (recommendation or mandatory), and target categories of HCPs. Mandatory influenza immunization policies for HCPs have been implemented with high vaccine uptake rates. Stronger recommendations for HCP immunization and commitment at the level of the health-care facility are critical in order to achieve high vaccine coverage rates. Given the importance to health, mandatory immunization policies for VPDs that can cause serious morbidity and mortality to vulnerable patients should be considered. PMID:27490580

  12. Immunization information systems: a decade of progress in law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W; Lowery, N Elaine; Brand, Bill; Gold, Rebecca; Horlick, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as "immunization registries") in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews.The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS' ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity.To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems.

  13. Saskatchewan Joins British Columbia in Introducing an Immunize or Mask Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Zarzeczny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza is a contagious respiratory infection for which certain populations, particularly seniors in long-term care and medically vulnerable individuals receiving care as in-patients in health care facilities, are at heightened risk for serious complications. Accordingly, annual influenza vaccination is a public health objective. In September 2014, Saskatchewan joined British Columbia and became the second Canadian province to implement a so-called “immunize or mask” policy that applies to individuals in patient care locations including, but not limited to, health care workers. The policy is focused on promoting patient safety by reducing the transmission of influenza in regional health authority facilities. On its face, this policy aligns well with the Ministry of Health’s commitments to patient-centered care, to quality improvement, and to thinking and acting as one system. The policy will be adopted and implemented by each of the 13 regional health authorities and the single cancer agency in the province. Preliminary evaluation is anticipated after this first year of policy implementation.

  14. Understanding the policy environment for immunization supply chains: Lessons learned from landscape analyses in Uganda and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzze, Henry; Badiane, Ousseynou; Mamadou Ndiaye, El Hadji; Ndiaye, Annette Seck; Atuhaire, Brian; Atuhebwe, Phionah; Guinot, Phillippe; Fry Sosne, Erin; Gueye, Abdoulaye

    2017-04-19

    As immunization programs around the world undergo rapid change and expansion, supply chain and logistics systems have become strained, making it increasingly challenging for national public health systems to provide reliable, safe, and efficient access to vaccines. Governments and immunization partners have been aware of this problem for several years, and in 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) process to help countries identify shortcomings in their immunization supply chains and develop plans for systematic improvement. EVM improvement plans now exist in all Gavi-eligible countries plus many middle- and upper-income countries; however, implementation has been slow and in many cases fraught with financial, managerial, structural, and political roadblocks. Recognizing that significant change of any kind requires a supportive policy environment and strong leadership, PATH began working in Uganda and Senegal to landscape the policy environment around immunization and identify relevant policies, administrative and technical roles and responsibilities, and other issues that may be affecting the supply chain for immunization. The policy landscape assessments included a desk review and a series of structured, in-depth interviews with key international, national, and local stakeholders. The findings highlighted a number of critical issues and challenges in both countries that may be preventing supply chains from functioning optimally. These challenges include a need for better coordination and planning between immunization programs and supply chain managers; the need for sufficient, timely and reliable financing for all aspects of immunization programs; the need for high-level managers trained in immunization supply chain management; and an urgent need for better, more timely data for decision-making. Overcoming these challenges will require the involvement of high-level political actors-including ministers of health

  15. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920630 Effects of the spleen on immunestate of patients with gastric cancer.QIUDengbo (仇登波), et al. Dept General Surg,Union Hosp, Tongji Med Univ, Wuhan, 430022.Natl Med J China 1992; 72(6): 334-337. For analysing the effects of the spleen on im-mune state of gastric cancer patients.T-lym-

  16. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yeon Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs. In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP, established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP’s role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws.

  17. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Yeon

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP), established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP's role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws.

  18. Factors affecting immunization coverage in urban slums of Odisha, India: implications on urban health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Prusty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children. One of the most cost-effective interventions for improved child survival is immunization, which has significant urban-rural divides. Slum dwellers constitute about one-third of Indian population, and most children still remain incompletely immunized. The main purpose of this study was to understand the factors behind partial or non-immunization of children aged 12-23 months in slum areas of Cuttack district, India. Session-based audit and a population-based survey were conducted in the urban slums of Cuttack city, April-June 2012. Total 79 children were assessed and their mothers were interviewed about the nature and quality of immunization services provided. Children fully immunized were 64.6%. Antigen-wise immunization coverage was highest for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG (96.2% and lowest for Measles (65.8%, which indicates high instances of late drop-out. Frequent illnesses of the child, lack of information about the scheduled date of immunization, frequent displacement of the family and lack of knowledge regarding the benefits of immunization were cited as the main factors behind coverage of immunization services. The study showed that there is an urgent need to revise the immunization strategy, especially for urban slums. District and sub-district officials should reduce instances of early and late dropouts and, in turn, improve complete immunization coverage. Community participation, intersectoral co-ordination and local decision making along with supportive supervision could be critical in addressing issues of drop-outs, supply logistics and community mobilization.

  19. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L.; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. Methods We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of mea...

  20. Income transfer policies and the impacts on the immunization of children: the Bolsa Família Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Chein, Flávia; Souza, Laetícia Rodrigues de; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the immunization of children from 0 to 6 years of age in Brazil and its regions. The Bolsa Família program is a conditional cash transfer program. One of its conditionalities is the compliance of children with the immunization schedule ordered by the Ministry of Health. The evaluation was performed using the Propensity Score Matching technique. We used data from a survey conducted in 2005 evaluating the program - Pesquisa de Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família. The main findings suggest that the Bolsa Família Program does not affect the immunization status of children.

  1. Economic analysis for evidence-based policy-making on a national immunization program: a case of rotavirus vaccine in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchana, Charung; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Jiamsiri, Suchada; Thamapornpilas, Piyanit; Warinsatian, Porpit

    2012-04-16

    Severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus is a health problem worldwide, including Thailand. The World Health Organization has recommended incorporating rotavirus vaccination into national immunization programs. This policy has been implemented in several countries, but not in Thailand where the mortality rate is not high. This leads to the question of whether it would be cost-effective to implement such a policy. The Thai National Vaccine Committee, through the Immunization Practice Subcommittee, has conducted an economic analysis. Their study aimed to estimate the costs of rotavirus diarrhea and of a rotavirus vaccination program, and the cost-effectiveness of such a program including budget impact analysis. The study was designed as an economic evaluation, employing modeling technique in both provider and societal perspectives. A birth cohort of Thai children in 2009 was used in the analysis, with a 5-year time horizon. Costs were composed of cost of the illness and the vaccination program. Outcomes were measured in the form of lives saved and DALYs averted. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%. The study found the discounted number of deaths to be 7.02 and 20.52 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (13.5 deaths averted). Discounted DALYs were 263.33 and 826.57 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (563.24 DALYs averted). Costs of rotavirus diarrhea in a societal perspective were US$6.6 million and US$21.0 million for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. At base case, the costs per additional death averted were US$5.1 million and US$5.7 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively, in a societal perspective. Costs per additional DALYs averted were US$128,063 and US$142,144, respectively. In a societal perspective, with a cost-effectiveness threshold at 1 GDP per capita per DALYs averted, vaccine prices per dose were US$4.98 and US$3.32 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively; in a provider perspective, they

  2. Policies and procedures related to testing for weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin: results and recommendations related to supplemental questions in the Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine survey of the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Roseff, Susan D; Domen, Ronald E; Shaz, Beth; Gottschall, Jerome L

    2014-05-01

    Advances in RHD genotyping offer an opportunity to update policies and practices for testing weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin to postpartum women. To repeat questions from a 1999 College of American Pathologists proficiency test survey, to evaluate current practices for testing for weak D and administration of Rh immune globulin, and to determine whether there is an opportunity to begin integrating RHD genotyping in laboratory practice. The College of American Pathologists Transfusion Medicine Resource Committee sent questions from the 1999 survey to laboratories that participated in the 2012 proficiency test survey. The results of the 2012 survey were compared with those from 1999. Results from published RHD genotyping studies were analyzed to determine if RHD genotyping could improve current policies and practices for serological Rh typing. More than 3100 survey participants responded to the 2012 questions. The most significant finding was a decrease in the number of transfusion services performing a serological weak D test on patients as a strategy to manage those with a weak D as Rh negative (from 58.2% to 19.8%, P Rh positive. Selective integration of RHD genotyping policies and practices could improve the accuracy of Rh typing results, reduce unnecessary administration of Rh immune globulin in women with a weak D, and decrease transfusion of Rh-negative red blood cells in most recipients with a serological weak D phenotype.

  3. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012: Implications for immunization policies.

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    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara

    2014-08-19

    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P<0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with a co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests, (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess, the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  4. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  5. Application of PHEL (Public Health Epidemiological Logic) in devising a vaccination policy: a broad public health criteria-for routine Immunization.

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    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    There is a need to develop clear cut public health criteria for consideration of new vaccines for use in public health. Most of the vaccines which have become recently available or will soon be available are mostly recommended for use in clinical/office practice. A new vaccine that is highly recommended for use in clinical setting may not be effective at all for larger public health use or may even lack rationale to put it in use for public health. It is stressed that a new vaccine which is proven to be good clinical tool for preventing particular disease at individual level need not necessarily be good public health tool in combating the same disease at community level. The present paper takes a closer look at the logical basis for use of any vaccine in public health. Rabies vaccine is used as a case study to set the background to scrutinize the criteria for eligibility for considering any new vaccine to be included in routine immunization program A rough & ready algorithm is proposed as a check list for a new vaccine as a likely candidate for inclusion in Universal immunization programme.The suggested new algorithm is basically a public health criteria called as Public Health Epidemiological Logic (PHEL) Criteria. The public health debate and the arguments against inclusion of Rabies vaccine in routine national immunization programme in India is a argued in the frame work of PHEL criteria in this paper Rabies vaccine to drive home the point, that a vaccine which is a good clinical tool need not always be a good public health tool, where as a vaccine which is proven to be a good public health tool will always invariably be a good clinical tool as well.

  6. Immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tetanus antitoxin are examples of passive immunization. BLOOD COMPONENTS The immune system includes certain types of white ... lymphocytes develop, they normally learn to tell the difference between your own body tissues and substances that ...

  7. Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Ruehl-Fehlert, C.; Elmore, S.A.; Parker, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are found in every organ, from the classic lymphoid organs to tissues such as liver, mucosae, and omental adipose tissue. Toxicity to the immune system may be from a direct or indirect injury to lymphoid organs. The morphological responses range from lymphocyte depletion t

  8. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  9. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and South Africa. Monitoring ... information on vaccines and immunization You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health ...

  10. IMMUNITY AND LENIENCY POLICY IN COMPETITION CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria UDRISTE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is fully known that the premises for market economics resides on free competition. In other words, market player must make all the necessary efforts in order to obtain the desired results on their own, through business innovation and increased efficiency. In order to protect this, the competition primary and secondary legislation is carefully tailored to such needs, supporting and protecting the internal market from the companies’ tendency to distort competition. As such, competition law offers the companies’ involved in anticompetitive agreements methods to either waive the entire fine or to diminish it considerably. The aim is to encourage companies to bring upfront anticompetitive agreements that aim to distort competition and free market, thus protecting the internal market. The competition law itself does not pursue to sanction players that acted in an anticompetitive manner, but to prevent such behavior, because prevention is more important than reducing the effects afterwards. In the present paper we aim to make a radiography of the methods of eliminating or reducing a fine that a company have in our national law when it comes to anticompetitive agreements.

  11. Candida Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  12. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  13. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  14. Nepotism: A Policy of Convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Nepotism is one of those words that makes people cringe. The hint of such behavior within an organization immediately raises suspicions of unethical behavior despite well-written, comprehensive policies and procedures. School districts are not immune to the damage that can be done to even the most highly regarded and well-respected organizations.…

  15. Determinants of immunization coverage in Lucknow district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost-effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. Over two million deaths are delayed through immunization each year worldwide. Aims: This study sought to identify specific factors associated with immunization coverage in order to advance improved intervention, policies/strategies therefore raising overall immunization coverage. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 198 children aged 12-23 months at Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, Era′s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, over a period of 6 months i.e., from July 2012-December 2012. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Results: A total of 198 children of age 12-23 months were included in this study, of which 74.7% of children were fully immunized, 11.1% were partially immunized and 14.1% were not immunized at all. The most common reason for partial or non-immunization was family problems (24% of the respondents followed by lack of knowledge of immunization (20%, and fear of side effects (16%. The odds of risk of partial/non-immunization in illiterate women is 5.78 more than the graduate women (P = 0.039. Conclusions: Although in the present study, majority of the children were immunized, it is still not up to the mark. We have to make it 100%, so that we can reduce mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Increasing awareness and reducing fear of side effects of immunization among parents through health education, counseling, etc. can increase the percentage of immunized children.

  16. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  17. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  18. An Immune Inspired Approach to Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    The immune system provides a rich metaphor for computer security: anomaly detection that works in nature should work for machines. However, early artificial immune system approaches for computer security had only limited success. Arguably, this was due to these artificial systems being based on too simplistic a view of the immune system. We present here a second generation artificial immune system for process anomaly detection. It improves on earlier systems by having different artificial cell types that process information. Following detailed information about how to build such second generation systems, we find that communication between cells types is key to performance. Through realistic testing and validation we show that second generation artificial immune systems are capable of anomaly detection beyond generic system policies. The paper concludes with a discussion and outline of the next steps in this exciting area of computer security.

  19. Immunity and immunization in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice

    2003-12-01

    As the average life expectancy increases, retired people want to travel. Five to 8% of travellers in tropical areas are old persons. Immune system suffers of old age as the other organs. The number and the functions of the T-lymphocytes decrease, but the B-lymphocytes are not altered. So, the response to the vaccinations is slower and lower in the elderly. Influenza is a great cause of death rate in old people. The seroconversion, after vaccine, is 50% from 60 to 70 years old, 31% from 70 to 80 years old, and only 11% after 80 years old. But in public health, the vaccination reduced the morbidity by 25%, admission to hospital by 20%, pneumonia by 50%, and mortality by 70%. Antipoliomyelitis vaccine is useful for travellers, as the vaccines against hepatitis and typhoid fever. Pneumococcal vaccine is effective in 60%. Tetanus is fatal in at last 32% of the people above 80 years, therefore this vaccine is very important.

  20. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth ...

  1. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  2. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  3. Understanding Herd Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Ferrari, M; Graham, A L; Grenfell, B T

    2015-12-01

    Individual immunity is a powerful force affecting host health and pathogen evolution. Importantly, the effects of individual immunity also scale up to affect pathogen transmission dynamics and the success of vaccination campaigns for entire host populations. Population-scale immunity is often termed 'herd immunity'. Here we outline how individual immunity maps to population outcomes and discuss implications for control of infectious diseases. Particular immunological characteristics may be more or less likely to result in a population level signature of herd immunity; we detail this and also discuss other population-level outcomes that might emerge from individual-level immunity.

  4. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  5. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  6. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  7. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunizations among Asian American College Students: Infection, Exposure, and Immunity Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunizations among Asian American College Students: Infection, Exposure, and Immunity Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…

  9. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  10. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  11. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  12. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on this page, ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses. There are several theories. However, ...

  13. Achieving an Optimal Childhood Vaccine Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Schwartz, Jason L; Omer, Saad B; Silverman, Ross; Duchin, Jeff; Kodish, Eric; Diekema, Douglas S; Marcuse, Edgar K; Orenstein, Walt

    2017-07-03

    Policies to remove parents' ability to opt-out from school immunization requirements on the basis of religious or personal beliefs (ie, nonmedical exemptions) may be a useful strategy to increase immunization rates and prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of this strategy and the range of possible outcomes. We advocate for a more deliberative process through which a broad range of outcomes is scrutinized and the balance of values underlying the policy decision to eliminate nonmedical exemptions is clearly articulated. We identify 3 outcomes that require particular consideration before policies to eliminate nonmedical exemptions are implemented widely and outline a process for making the values underlying such policies more explicit.

  14. AIDS: Setting Policy, Educating Employees at Bank of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagel, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Bank of America has responded to the problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace by devising a comprehensive policy on life-threatening illnesses and initiating an employee education program on AIDS. (CH)

  15. Immunization Milestones: A More Comprehensive Picture of Age-Appropriate Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve G. Robison

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A challenge facing immunization registries is developing measures of childhood immunization coverage that contain more information for setting policy than present vaccine series up-to-date (UTD rates. This study combined milestone analysis with provider encounter data to determine when children either do not receive indicated immunizations during medical encounters or fail to visit providers. Milestone analysis measures immunization status at key times between birth and age 2, when recommended immunizations first become late. The immunization status of a large population of children in the Oregon ALERT immunization registry and in the Oregon Health Plan was tracked across milestone ages. Findings indicate that the majority of children went back and forth with regard to having complete age-appropriate immunizations over time. We also found that immunization UTD rates when used alone are biased towards relating non-UTD status to a lack of visits to providers, instead of to provider visits on which recommended immunizations are not given.

  16. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  17. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  18. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  19. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  20. [Innate immunity against viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drutskaia, M S; Belousov, P V; Nedospasov, S A

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites which are able to infect cells of all living organisms. Multiple antiviral defense mechanisms have appeared early in evolution of the immune system. Higher vertebrates have the most complex antiviral immunity which is based on both innate and adoptive immune responses. However, majority of living organisms, including plants and invertebrates, rely exclusively on innate immune mechanisms for protection against viral infections. There are some striking similarities in several components of the innate immune recognition between mammals, plants and insects, rendering these signaling cascades as highly conserved in the evolution of the immune system. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of innate immune recognition of viruses, with particular interest on pattern-recognition receptors.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumarss Nasseri

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In an effort towards complying with the WHO,s global policy of achieving Health For All by the year 2000 and also with the pledge made by the Government of Iran to that effect, a national headquarters has been set up to speed the implementation of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI in the country. This paper aims to report the results of evaluations made at various times since the beginning of the implementation of EPI in 1983.

  2. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  3. Immunization Data Exchange With Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Natarajan, Karthik; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Holleran, Stephen; Forney, Kristen; Aponte, Angel; Vawdrey, David K

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of exchange of immunization information between an immunization information system (IIS) and an electronic health record on up-to-date rates, overimmunization, and immunization record completeness for low-income, urban children and adolescents. The New York City Department of Health maintains a population-based IIS, the Citywide Immunization Registry (CIR). Five community clinics in New York City implemented direct linkage of immunization data from the CIR to their local electronic health record. We compared immunization status and overimmunization in children and adolescents 19 to 35 month, 7 to 10 year, and 13 to 17 year-olds with provider visits in the 6-month period before data exchange implementation (2009; n = 6452) versus 6-months post-implementation (2010; n = 6124). We also assessed immunization record completeness with and without addition of CIR data for 8548 children and adolescents with visits in 2012-2013. Up-to-date status increased from before to after implementation from 75.0% to 81.6% (absolute difference, 6.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2% to 8.1%) and was significant for all age groups. The percentage overimmunized decreased from 8.8% to 4.7% (absolute difference, -4.1%; 95% CI, -7.8% to -0.3%) and was significant for adolescents (16.4% vs 1.2%; absolute difference, -15.2%; 95% CI, -26.7 to -3.6). Up-to-date status for those seen in 2012 to 2013 was higher when IIS data were added (74.6% vs 59.5%). This study demonstrates that data exchange can improve child and adolescent immunization status. Development of the technology to support such exchange and continued focus on local, state, and federal policies to support such exchanges are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  5. Workplace Issues: Testing, Training and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on organizations with over 50 employees concerning such workplace issues as drug testing, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome testing, and policies on these issues and on smoking, sexual harassment, and affirmative action. Results are broken down by company size and by industry. (CH)

  6. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  7. Human immune system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  8. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  9. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  10. Immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - immune hemolytic; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) ... for no reason, the condition is called idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia . The antibodies may also be caused by: Complication ...

  11. Your Child's Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A en español Las vacunas ... determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: ... (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine ( ...

  12. The genetics of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Brian P; Schneider, David S

    2014-06-17

    In this commentary, Brian P. Lazzaro and David S. Schneider examine the topic of the Genetics of Immunity as explored in this month's issues of GENETICS and G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. These inaugural articles are part of a joint Genetics of Immunity collection (ongoing) in the GSA journals. Copyright © 2014 Lazzaro and Schneider.

  13. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    , upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social......The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting...

  14. Advertisement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  15. The impact of changing medicaid enrollments on New Mexico's Immunization Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunizations are an important component to pediatric primary care. New Mexico is a relatively poor and rural state which has sometimes struggled to achieve and maintain its childhood immunization rates. We evaluated New Mexico's immunization rates between 1996 and 2006. Specifically, we examined the increase in immunization rates between 2002 and 2004, and how this increase may have been associated with Medicaid enrollment levels, as opposed to changes in government policies concerning immunization practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study examines trends in childhood immunization coverage rates relative to Medicaid enrollment among those receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF in New Mexico. Information on health policy changes and immunization coverage was obtained from state governmental sources and the National Immunization Survey. We found statistically significant correlations varying from 0.86 to 0.93 between immunization rates and Medicaid enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: New Mexico's improvement and subsequent deterioration in immunization rates corresponded with changing Medicaid coverage, rather than the state's efforts to change immunization practices. Maintaining high Medicaid enrollment levels may be important for achieving high childhood immunization levels.

  16. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  17. Transplantation Immunity. Contemporary Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Yuliya M.

    1999-12-01

    "Transplantation immunity in Cyclosporin era" is a special chapter in science under name transplantation immunity. Nowadays, practically all the organs can be grafted: kidney, heart, lung, liver, pancreas both as organ, and as islet cells, bone marrow from relative and unrelative donors. The broad spectrum of grafted organs gave one more surprising peculiarity of transplantation immunity: it operates with different strength after transplantation of various organs. If the decreasing gradient of transplantation immunity could be composed, then it appeared to be approximately in the following order: bone marrow - skin - kidney - heart - lung. The most complicated operating activity of transplantation immunity is occurring after bone marrow transplantation, especially from unrelative donor, because in bone marrow transplantation immunological process develops in both directions. Therefore now, bone marrow is the only organ (tissue), when the complete compatibility between donor and recipient is required after its transplantation; especially in cases with unrelative donors.

  18. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  19. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2014-11-06

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  20. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity.

  1. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  2. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  3. Immunity in urogenital protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M

    2014-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated.

  4. Structures, roles, and procedures of state advisory committees on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolen, Virginia; Talkington, Kathy; Bhatt, Achal; Rodewald, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Advisory committees have the potential to play a critical role in decision making and implementation at the state level. Many states have advisory committees for their immunization programs to assist in decision making on topics such as implementing new vaccines in their states, school and childcare requirements and exemptions and addressing concerns about vaccine safety. This article describes how immunization advisory committees work; their roles, formation, organization, and structure; membership; the issues they address; and their benefit to state immunization programs. In 2011, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted an online survey of immunization program managers to determine which states have immunization advisory committees, how these committees function, and the perceived benefits of the committees to state immunization programs. Follow-up half-hour telephone interviews were conducted with 5 states to gain in-depth information on specific advisory committees. One hundred percent of states and 3 territories responded, giving an overall response rate of 91%. Thirty-four of the 53 respondents (64%) reported having an advisory committee for immunization issues. Membership is composed of physicians, public health representatives, and nurses as well as public advocates and members of the public. States reported a variety of issues their committee has worked on; the most frequently mentioned issue was school and childcare vaccination requirements. Others included immunization information systems and vaccination of health care personnel. Overall, states with immunization advisory committees reported that the committees were helpful on issues faced by the program and worth the time and monetary commitment. Given the reported benefits of state immunization advisory committees and the complex program and policy decisions that states face in the dynamic immunization

  5. Experimenting with Innate Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors argued the case for incorporating ideas from innate immunity into artificial immune systems (AISs) and presented an outline for a conceptual framework for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were highlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed in detail. The next logical step is to take these ideas and build a software system with which AISs with these properties can be implemented and experimentally evaluated. This paper reports on the results of that step - the libtissue system.

  6. libtissue - implementing innate immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors argued the case for incorporating ideas from innate immunity into articficial immune systems (AISs) and presented an outline for a conceptual framework for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were hughlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed in detail. The next logical step is to take these ideas and build a software system with which AISs with these properties can be implemented and experimentally evaluated. This paper reports on the results of that step - the libtissue system.

  7. Analysing immune cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  8. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno......-informatics methods to allow the simulation of the cardinal events of the antigenic recognition, going from single peptides to whole proteomes. The recognition process accounts for B cell-epitopes prediction through Parker-scale affinity estimation, class I and II HLA peptide prediction and binding through position...

  9. International Monetary Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Carlberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the international coordination of monetary policies in the world economy. It carefully discusses the process of policy competition and the structure of policy cooperation. As to policy competition, the focus is on monetary competition between Europe and America. Similarly, as to policy cooperation, the focus is on monetary cooperation between Europe and America. The spillover effects of monetary policy are negative. The policy targets are price stability and full employment.

  10. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  11. Featured Immune System Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMCase, an enzyme present in humans and other mammals, plays a key role in initiating protective immune ... Facilities Biosafety Laboratory Sites Rutgers University University of Alabama George Mason University Tufts University Tulane University Regional ...

  12. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to defend itself when germs, such as viruses or bacteria, invade it: They expose you to a very small, very safe amount of viruses or bacteria that have been weakened or killed. Your immune ...

  13. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Vaccines protect people from ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  14. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  15. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Everyone: Easy-to-read Schedules Infants and Children Preteens and Teens Adults Display Immunization Schedules and Quiz ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  16. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Everyone: Easy-to-read Schedules Infants and Children Preteens and Teens Adults Display Immunization Schedules and Quiz ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  17. Antiviral immunity in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangchun; Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Although a variety of virus species can infect amphibians, diseases caused by ranaviruses ([RVs]; Iridoviridae) have become prominent, and are a major concern for biodiversity, agriculture and international trade. The relatively recent and rapid increase in prevalence of RV infections, the wide range of host species infected by RVs, the variability in host resistance among population of the same species and among different developmental stages, all suggest an important involvement of the amphibian immune system. Nevertheless, the roles of the immune system in the etiology of viral diseases in amphibians are still poorly investigated. We review here the current knowledge of antiviral immunity in amphibians, focusing on model species such as the frog Xenopus and the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and on recent progress in generating tools to better understand how host immune defenses control RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission.

  18. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  19. Innate Immunity and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shastri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of central nervous system (CNS is usually associated with trauma and infection. Neuroinflammation occurs in close relation to trauma, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. Low-level neuroinflammation is considered to have beneficial effects whereas chronic neuroinflammation can be harmful. Innate immune system consisting of pattern-recognition receptors, macrophages, and complement system plays a key role in CNS homeostasis following injury and infection. Here, we discuss how innate immune components can also contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  20. Innate immunity and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Abhishek; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Kishore, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of central nervous system (CNS) is usually associated with trauma and infection. Neuroinflammation occurs in close relation to trauma, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. Low-level neuroinflammation is considered to have beneficial effects whereas chronic neuroinflammation can be harmful. Innate immune system consisting of pattern-recognition receptors, macrophages, and complement system plays a key role in CNS homeostasis following injury and infection. Here, we discuss how innate immune components can also contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  1. Pentraxins and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Nagar; Deepak Viswanath; Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh Prabhuji

    2014-01-01

    Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when...

  2. The immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsay B

    2016-10-31

    All organisms are connected in a complex web of relationships. Although many of these are benign, not all are, and everything alive devotes significant resources to identifying and neutralizing threats from other species. From bacteria through to primates, the presence of some kind of effective immune system has gone hand in hand with evolutionary success. This article focuses on mammalian immunity, the challenges that it faces, the mechanisms by which these are addressed, and the consequences that arise when it malfunctions.

  3. Immune Gamma Globulin Therapeutic Indications in Immune Deficiency and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luanna; Wu, Eveline Y; Tarrant, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    Immune gamma globulin (IgG) has a long history in the treatment of both primary immune deficiency and autoimmune disorders. Disease indications continue to expand and new-generation products increase the versatility of delivery. This review encompasses a historical perspective as well as current and future implications of human immune globulin for the treatment of immune-mediated illness.

  4. Mammalian gut immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Chassaing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a "love-hate relationship." Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases.

  5. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  6. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  7. Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J C

    2012-12-01

    The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity.

  8. Vaccine supply, demand, and policy: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Cline, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    To provide an overview of supply and demand issues in the vaccine industry and the policy options that have been implemented to resolve these issues. Medline, Policy File, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched to locate academic journal articles. Other sources reviewed included texts on the topics of vaccine history and policy, government agency reports, and reports from independent think tanks. Keywords included vaccines, immunizations, supply, demand, and policy. Search criteria were limited to English language and human studies. Articles pertaining to vaccine demand, supply, and public policy were selected and reviewed for inclusion. By the authors. Vaccines are biologic medications, therefore making their development and production more difficult and costly compared with "small-molecule" drugs. Research and development costs for vaccines can exceed $800 million, and development may require 10 years or more. Strict manufacturing regulations and facility upgrades add to these costs. Policy options to increase and stabilize the supply of vaccines include those aimed at increasing supply, such as government subsidies for basic vaccine research, liability protection for manufacturers, and fast-track approval for new vaccines. Options to increase vaccine demand include advance purchase commitments, government stockpiles, and government financing for select populations. High development costs and multiple barriers to entry have led to a decline in the number of vaccine manufacturers. Although a number of vaccine policies have met with mixed success in increasing the supply of and demand for vaccines, a variety of concerns remain, including developing vaccines for complex pathogens and increasing immunization rates with available vaccines. New policy innovations such as advance market commitments and Medicare Part D vaccine coverage have been implemented and may aid in resolving some of the problems in the vaccine industry.

  9. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines: recent advances and possible immunization policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Domnich, Alexander; Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella

    2014-03-01

    Since the development of the first-generation vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV), which were able to contain strain-specific epidemics, but were not suitable for universal use, enormous steps forward in the prevention of Neisseria meningitidis B have been made. The first multicomponent vaccine, Bexsero(®), has recently been authorized for use; other vaccines, bivalent rLP2086 and next-generation OMV vaccines, are under development. The new vaccines may substantially contribute to reducing invasive bacterial infections as they could cover most Neisseria meningitidis B strains. Moreover, other potentially effective serogroup B vaccine candidates are being studied in preclinical settings. It is therefore appropriate to review what has recently been achieved in the prevention of disease caused by serogroup B.

  10. Immunizations climb, then falter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1994-01-01

    The extended immunization campaign began in the mid 1980s and contributed to immunization of 4 out of every 5 infants worldwide, or 80% by the end of the 1980s. There was a slight relaxation of effort around 1990 and 1991, and declines occurred in 28 developing countries. In developing countries, 101 countries maintained or increased immunization in 1991. Rates dropped in Brazil and Venezuela and sub-Saharan Africa. Rates remained constant in 1992, except for the declines in women's tetanus immunization. Distribution is 4-5 times a year to 100 million infants. The savings in lives amounted to 3 million 1992, and further extension could have saved another 1.7 million. The cost in low income countries is $6 to $20, with an average of $15. Five visits are required for complete immunization into one dose; costs could then be reduced by 70%. Total annual costs amount to $2.2 to $2.4 billion for the United Nations Expanded Programme on Immunization. This sum amounts to 2% of public health expenditures in developing countries. The benefits are in reduction in health care costs and expanded productive potential of people. The measles vaccine alone reduced the death rate from 2.5 million in 1980 to 900,000 in 1990. Nonfatal measles morbidity was reduced from 75 million to 25 million for the same period. From averted measles incidents, the savings in treatment costs and productive potential are immeasurable. The first smallpox vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, but it took nearly two for final smallpox eradication in 1979 worldwide. Over the past 10 years, polio eradication has cost $1.4 billion, but without polio vaccines, the cost would reach $500 million annually. Refrigeration and transportation to remote areas has made immunization difficult. The development of low-dose vaccines that would maintain potency in tropical temperatures would be a welcome contribution.

  11. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...

  12. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  13. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  14. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases. PMID:25377140

  16. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha

    2017-04-01

    The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  17. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisya Agita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  18. Aging, immunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Kotb, Rami; de Angelis, Flavia; Pawelec, Graham

    2011-06-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for tumorigenesis. More than 60% of new cancers and more than 70% of cancer deaths occur in elderly subjects >65 years. The immune system plays an important role in the battle of the host against cancer development. Deleterious alterations occur to the immune response with aging, termed immunosenescence. It is tempting to speculate that this waning immune response contributes to the higher incidence of cancer, but robust data on this important topic are few and far between. This review is devoted to discussing state of the art knowledge on the relationship between immunosenescence and cancer. Emerging understanding of the aging process at the molecular level is viewed from the perspective of this increased tumorigenesis. We also consider some of the most recent means to intervene in the modulation of immunosenescence to increase the ability of the immune system to fight against tumors. Future research will unravel new aspects of the immune response against tumors which will be modulable to decrease the burden of cancer in elderly individuals.

  19. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. Iron overload and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(c)a Porto; Maria De Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the characterization of genes involved in the control of iron homeostasis in humans and in mice has improved the definition of iron overload and of the cells affected by it. The cell involved in iron overload with the greatest effect on immunity is the macrophage.Intriguing evidence has emerged, however, in the last 12 years indicating that parenchymal iron overload is linked to genes classically associated with the immune system. This review offers an update of the genes and proteins relevant to iron metabolism expressed in cells of the innate immune system, and addresses the question of how this system is affected in clinical situations of iron overload. The relationship between iron and the major cells of adaptive immunity, the T lymphocytes,will also be reviewed. Most studies addressing this last question in humans were performed in the clinical model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis. Data will also be reviewed demonstrating how the disruption of molecules essentially involved in adaptive immune responses result in the spontaneous development of iron overload and how they act as modifiers of iron overload.

  1. Detecting Anomalous Process Behaviour using Second Generation Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie; Whitbrook, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems have been successfully applied to a number of problem domains including fault tolerance and data mining, but have been shown to scale poorly when applied to computer intrusion detec- tion despite the fact that the biological immune system is a very effective anomaly detector. This may be because AIS algorithms have previously been based on the adaptive immune system and biologically-naive mod- els. This paper focuses on describing and testing a more complex and biologically-authentic AIS model, inspired by the interactions between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its performance on a realistic process anomaly detection problem is shown to be better than standard AIS methods (negative-selection), policy-based anomaly detection methods (systrace), and an alternative innate AIS approach (the DCA). In addition, it is shown that runtime information can be used in combination with system call information to enhance detection capability.

  2. Meningococcal C specific immune responses: immunity in an era of immunization with vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate immunization was introduced in the Dutch national immunization schedule at the age of 14 months, together with a large catch-up campaign in 2002. After introduction of this MenC immunization, the incidence of MenC completely disappeared from the immunized populati

  3. Fully immunized child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration......, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization. This paper documents the levels of coverage, timing and sequencing of routine childhood vaccines. Methods: The study...... was conducted between 2007 and 2014 in two informal urban settlements in Nairobi. A total of 3856 children, aged 12-23 months and having a vaccination card seen were included in analysis. Vaccination dates recorded from the cards seen were used to define full immunization coverage, timeliness and sequencing...

  4. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno......-informatics methods to allow the simulation of the cardinal events of the antigenic recognition, going from single peptides to whole proteomes. The recognition process accounts for B cell-epitopes prediction through Parker-scale affinity estimation, class I and II HLA peptide prediction and binding through position...... simulation. AVAILABILITY: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/C-ImmSim-10.1/ CONTACT: f.castiglione@iac.cnr.it...

  5. [Immune-mediated neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, G; Reiners, K

    2016-08-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings. The therapeutic toolbox encompasses corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis often accompanied by long-term immunosuppression. It is important to note that immune-mediated neuropathies selectively respond to treatment and contraindications need to be considered. Despite treatment a considerable number of patients suffer from permanent neurological deficits.

  6. TSLP and Immune Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shino Hanabuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an immune system, dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs as well as powerful sensors of danger signals. When DCs receive signals from infection and tissue stress, they immediately activate and instruct the initiation of appropriate immune responses to T cells. However, it has remained unclear how the tissue microenvironment in a steady state shapes the function of DCs. Recent many works on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that has the strong ability to activate DCs, provide evidence that TSLP mediates crosstalk between epithelial cells and DCs, involving in DC-mediated immune homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress made on how TSLP expressed within the thymus and peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell homeostasis in the periphery.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease related innate immunity and adaptive immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Zhonge

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Its pathogenesis remains not yet clear. Current researchers believe that after environmental factors act on individuals with genetic susceptibility, an abnormal intestinal immune response is launched under stimulation of intestinal flora. However, previous studies only focused on adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of IBD. Currently, roles of innate immune response in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation have also drawn much attention. In this study, IBD related innate immunity and adaptive immunity were explained, especially the immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:27398134

  8. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IL–18 AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yakushenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Interleukin–18 is one of the main cytokines, inducing production of IFNg. It is the important factor of anti–infectious and anti–tumor immunity. The review represent molecular–genetic and biochemical characteristics of IL–18. The data about producers, the structure of the receptor and of IL–18 binding protein, as well as signal transduction in the cell are considered. Besides that, the main immune effects of IL–18 are discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp 355–364

  10. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-15

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  11. Exercise boosts immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  12. Pentraxins and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when there are indications of inflammation. PTX3 is related to inflammation in the periodontal tissue and it can be suggested that salivary concentrations may be used for diagnosing the same.

  13. Transparency and the logic of auto-immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Antonelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Voyous, Jacques Derrida develops his argument starting from the presupposition that democracy as such is the entity whose integrity and immunity are at stake and, therefore, under investigation. This gesture reflects the setting in which ten years before, in Foi et savoir, he had cast his reasoning about the logic of immunity. There, it was one of the sources of religion, the immunity of the sacred, that operated according to this logic. The hyphen between these two essays, beside Derrida’s own crossed references, is the genealogical reasoning on the meaning and essence of the concept of democracy: contrary to what Derrida claims, it will be maintained that Athenian democracy had a clear immune matrix, whose constant exercise is clearly defined, in spite of himself, by Vernant, and it will be shown how modern democracy has been forced to change policy. Modern democracy is an entity characterized by an immune deficiency. In order to save Derrida’s intuition from both the collapse of different vantage points and from a quite bizarre reticence in taking into account of the immune value of rituals, our starting point will be René Girard’s œuvre and his reading of the role of immune logic in sacred systems and, more generally, in modernity. The threshold between the auto-immune reaction, immune deficiency and auto-immune disease, between the sacrifice who delimits and constitutes the self and the holocauste du peuple en détail, is the space where, constantly exposed to the risk of auto-denial, democracy lives. 

  14. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available to the label of any given instance, it can choose to act through a process of policy reuse from a library in contrast to policy learning. In policy reuse, the agent has prior experience from the class of tasks in the form of a library of policies that were...

  15. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...

  16. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  17. Translating Policy and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Global influences and demographic changes are leading policy makers in less developed countries to look to more developed regions for policy and service ideas. Policy and services ideas may then be `borrowed' via processes such as policy transfer (Dolowitz and Marsh, 1996). This article explores the establishment of day care for people with dementia in Kerala, India. During the development of this ...

  18. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  19. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  20. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  1. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  2. Photodynamic immune modulation (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, John R.; Hunt, David W. C.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Lui, Harvey; Levy, Julia G.

    1999-09-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is accepted for treatment of superficial and lumen-occluding tumors in regions accessible to activating light and is now known to be effective in closure of choroidal neovasculature in Age Related Macular Degeneration. PDT utilizes light absorbing drugs (photosensitizers) that generate the localized formation of reactive oxygen species after light exposure. In a number of systems, PDT has immunomodulatory effects; Photodynamic Immune Modulation (PIM). Using low- intensity photodynamic regimens applied over a large body surface area, progression of mouse autoimmune disease could be inhibited. Further, this treatment strongly inhibited the immunologically- medicated contact hypersensitivity response to topically applied chemical haptens. Immune modulation appears to result from selective targeting of activated T lymphocytes and reduction in immunostimulation by antigen presenting cells. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated skin condition, exhibits heightened epidermal cell proliferation, epidermal layer thickening and plaque formation at different body sites. In a recent clinical trial, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis and arthritis symptoms (psoriatic arthritis) displayed a significant clinical improvement in several psoriasis-related parameters after four weekly whole-body PIM treatments with verteporfin. The safety profile was favorable. The capacity of PIM to influence other human immune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis is under extensive evaluation.

  3. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  4. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, but the condition is usually not severe. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is also known as the "bubble boy disease" after a Texas boy with SCID who lived in a germ-free plastic bubble. SCID is a serious immune system disorder that occurs because of a lack of both ...

  5. Lipids and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, J J; Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    There is in vitro and in vivo evidence to suggest that dietary lipids play a role in modulating immune function. A review of the current literature on the interrelationships among dietary lipids, blood cholesterol levels, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis makes for a very strong argument that (a) immunosuppression may be causally related to lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as to tumorigenesis and (b) diets high in polyunsaturated fat, relative to diets high in saturated fat, are more immunosuppressive and are better promotors of tumorigenesis. The effects of dietary fat on immune function seem to be mediated though its component parts, the unsaturated fatty acids, specially linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic. It is not clear how these components affect immune function. Several studies suggest that one effect is mediated by altering the lipid component of the cell membrane and thus its fluidity; the more fluid the membrane, the less responsive it is. Thus, fluidity of both immune cells and those to be destroyed or protected may be affected. The effects of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids may be mediated by modulating serum lipoprotein levels, prostaglandin metabolism, and cholesterol concentrations and metabolism.

  6. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  7. Immune checkpoint receptors in regulating immune reactivity in rheumatic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ceeraz, Sabrina; Nowak, Elizabeth C.; Burns, Christopher M.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2014-01-01

    Immune checkpoint regulators are critical modulators of the immune system, allowing the initiation of a productive immune response and preventing the onset of autoimmunity. Co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory immune checkpoint receptors are required for full T-cell activation and effector functions such as the production of cytokines. In autoimmune rheumatic diseases, impaired tolerance leads to the development of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjogren’s...

  8. Immune Vasculitis Induced Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between immune vasculitis and atherosclerosis was studied. The experimental model of weanling rabbits for immune vasculitis was reproduced by intravenous injection of 10 % bovine serum albumin. There were 6 groups: group A, 25 weanling rabbits with immune vasculitis subject to coronary arteriography; group B, 10 normal mature rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group C, 10 weanling rabbits subject to coronary arteriography; group D, 8 weanling rabbits with vasculitis and cholesterol diet; group E, 8 weanling rabbits receiving single cholesterol diet; group F: 8 weanling rabbits receiving basic diet. Four weeks later, coronary arteriography was performed in groups A, B and C. The rabbits in groups D, E and F were sacrificed for the study of pathological changes in the coronary artery after 12 weeks. The results showed that the dilatation of coronary artery occurred in 6 rabbits of group A, but in groups B and C, no dilatation of coronary artery appeared. In comparison with group E, more severe atherosclerosis occurred in group D, showing the thickened plaque, fibrous sclerosis and atherosclerotic lesion. Percentage of plaques covering aortic intima, incidence of atherosclerosis of small coronary arteries and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries were significantly higher in group D than in group E (P<0.01). No atherosclerosis changes were found in group F. It was concluded that in the acute phase, the serum immune vasculitis can induce the dilatation of coronary artery of some weanling rabbits, and aggravate the formation of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with cholesterol diet. Immune vasculitis is a new risk factor of atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.

  9. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worry that the vaccines their child receives may overload his or her immune system. But a new ... on the latest immunization research and downloadable vaccine information fact sheets. Evaluating Info on the Web Are ...

  10. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates.

  11. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get sick. This is called immunity . Will my child's immune system be weaker by relying on a vaccine? ... is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in young children. In 1999, a rotavirus vaccine was taken off ...

  12. Ubiquitin in the immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Zinngrebe; Antonella Montinaro; Nieves Peltzer; Henning Walczak

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that has been implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. There is increasing evidence that both ubiquitination and its reversal, deubiquitination, play crucial roles not only during the development of the immune system but also in the orchestration of an immune response by ensuring the proper functioning of the different cell types that constitute the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the lates...

  13. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  14. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...

  15. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  16. miRNA-124 in Immune System and Immune Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, miR-124 has emerged as a critical modulator of immunity and inflammation. Here, we summarize studies on the function and mechanism of miR-124 in the immune system and immunity-related diseases. They indicated that miR-124 exerts a crucial role in the development of immune system, regulation of immune responses, and inflammatory disorders. It is evident that miR-124 may serve as an informative diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in the future.

  17. Immune memory, immune oblivion: a lesson from Funes the memorious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2007-01-01

    We commonly think of the immune system as having a memory. However, memory is always accompanied by a complementary process of oblivion. Is there immune oblivion? In this theoretical paper, I address this question and suggest that oblivion is an integral aspect of memorization. In this context, I suggest that immune memory is an orchestration of reversible and irreversible processes of biological computation through feedback loops. Drawing on the linguistic metaphor, I inquire into the implications of this idea for a better understanding of immune memory and immune deficiency among the elderly.

  18. Adaptive immune resistance: How cancer protects from immune attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immune resistance is a process where the cancer changes its phenotype in response to a cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory immune response, thereby evading it. This adaptive process is triggered by the specific recognition of cancer cells by T cells, which leads to the production of immune-activating cytokines. Cancers then hijack mechanisms developed to limit inflammatory and immune responses and protect themselves from the T cell attack. Inhibiting adaptive immune resistance is the mechanistic basis of responses to PD-1 or PD-L1 blocking antibodies, and may be of relevance for the development of other cancer immunotherapy strategies. PMID:26272491

  19. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a carbohydrate-rich versus fat-rich diet influenced the effect of training on the immune system. Ten untrained young men ingested a carbohydrate-rich diet [65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate] and ten subjects a fat-rich diet (62E% fat) while...... endurance training was performed 3-4 times a week for 7 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake increased by 11% in both groups. Blood samples for immune monitoring were collected before and at the end of the study. Blood samples were also collected, in parallel, from 20 age-matched subjects, and data from...... these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...

  20. Immunity to amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Barbara; Valdenegro-Vega, Victoria; Crosbie, Philip; Bridle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Amoebic infections in fish are most likely underestimated and sometimes overlooked due to the challenges associated with their diagnosis. Amoebic diseases reported in fish affect either gills or internal organs or may be systemic. Host response ranges from hyperplastic response in gill infections to inflammation (including granuloma formation) in internal organs. This review focuses on the immune response of Atlantic salmon to Neoparamoeba perurans, the causative agent of Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD).

  1. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); N. Martí-Oliet; M. Palomino

    2012-01-01

    textabstract{\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among

  2. Streamlining Policy Creation in Policy Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Martí-Oliet, N.; Palomino, M.

    2012-01-01

    {\\it Policy frameworks} provide a technique for improving reuse in program analysis: the same language frontend, and a core analysis semantics, can be shared among multiple analysis policies for the same language, while analysis domains (such as units of measurement) can be shared among frameworks f

  3. Alarmins, inflammasomes and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwane Saïd-Sadier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of an effective immune response against pathogenic microbes such as viruses, intracellular bacteria or protozoan parasites relies on the recognition of microbial products called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Ligation of the PRRs leads to synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Infected cells and other stressed cells also release host-cell derived molecules, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, danger signals, or alarmins, which are generic markers for damage. DAMPs are recognized by specific receptors on both immune and nonimmune cells, which, depending on the target cell and the cellular context, can lead to cell differentiation or cell death, and either inflammation or inhibition of inflammation. Recent research has revealed that DAMPs and PAMPs synergize to permit secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β: PAMPs stimulate synthesis of pro-IL-1β, but not its secretion; while DAMPs can stimulate assembly of an inflammasome containing, usually, a Nod-like receptor (NLR member, and activation of the protease caspase-1, which cleaves pro-IL-1β into IL-1β, allowing its secretion. Other NLR members do not participate in formation of inflammasomes but play other essential roles in regulation of the innate immune response.

  4. Cystatins in immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magister, Spela; Kos, Janko

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins comprise a large superfamily of related proteins with diverse biological activities. They were initially characterised as inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases, however, in recent years some alternative functions for cystatins have been proposed. Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family III (kininogens). Stefin A is often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium while another family I cystatin, stefin B is supposed to have a specific role in neuredegenerative diseases. Cystatin C, a typical type II cystatin, is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cells. On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease inhibitor, selectively expressed in immune cells, suggesting its role in processes related to immune response. Our recent work points on its role in regulation of dendritic cell maturation and in natural killer cells functional inactivation that may enhance tumor survival. Cystatin E/M expression is mainly restricted to the epithelia of the skin which emphasizes its prominent role in cutaneous biology. Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies, with particular emphasis on their suppressive vs. promotional function in the tumorigenesis and metastasis. We proposed that an imbalance between cathepsins and cystatins may attenuate immune cell functions and facilitate tumor cell invasion.

  5. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  6. Innate immune memory in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Melanie A; Quintin, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity have evolved as sophisticated mechanisms of host defence against invading pathogens. Classically the properties attributed to innate immunity are its rapid pleiotropic response, and to adaptive immunity its specificity and ability to retain a long-term memory of past infections. It is now clear that innate immunity also contributes to raising a memory response upon pathogenic assault. In this review we will discuss the interaction between bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic molecular patterns and innate immune cells in which a memory response is imposed, or has the potential to be imposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  8. Platelets in inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, J M; Rossaint, J; Zarbock, A

    2014-11-01

    The paradigm of platelets as mere mediators of hemostasis has long since been replaced by a dual role: hemostasis and inflammation. Now recognized as key players in innate and adaptive immune responses, platelets have the capacity to interact with almost all known immune cells. These platelet-immune cell interactions represent a hallmark of immunity, as they can potently enhance immune cell functions and, in some cases, even constitute a prerequisite for host defense mechanisms such as NETosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed a new role for platelets in immunity: They are ubiquitous sentinels and rapid first-line immune responders, as platelet-pathogen interactions within the vasculature appear to precede all other host defense mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of platelets as inflammatory cells, and provide an exemplary review of their role in acute inflammation.

  9. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution.

  10. Do Policies Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Beth; Sanlo, Ronni L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of nondiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity and addresses how such policies might be used to improve campus climates for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.

  11. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  12. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  13. IT Policy Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  14. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  15. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  16. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  17. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  18. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  19. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  20. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  1. Open Access policy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  2. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  3. Immunization information systems in Canada: Attributes, functionality, strengths and challenges. A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Tu, Karen; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    Canada does not have a national immunization registry. Diverse systems to record vaccine uptake exist, but these have not been systematically described. Our objective was to describe the immunization information systems (IISs) and non-IIS processes used to record childhood and adolescent vaccinations, and to outline the strengths and limitations of the systems and processes. We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal organization's surveillance systems for assessing immunization coverage. Information collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a follow-up interview. We evaluated systems against attributes derived from the literature using content analysis. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated over the period of April to August 2015. Twelve of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (P/Ts) and two organizations involved in health service delivery for on-reserve First Nations people participated. Across systems, there were differences in data collection processes, reporting capabilities and advanced functionality. Commonly cited challenges included timeliness and data completeness of records, particularly for physician-administered immunizations. Privacy considerations and the need for data standards were stated as challenges to the goal of information sharing across P/T systems. Many P/Ts have recently implemented new systems and, in some cases, legislation to improve timeliness and/or completeness. Considerable variability exists among IISs and non-IIS processes used to assess immunization coverage in Canada. Although some P/Ts have already pursued legislative or policy initiatives to address the completeness and timeliness of information, many additional opportunities exist in the information technology realm.

  4. Immune mechanisms in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Rossini, Claudia; La Boria, Elisa; Porteri, Enzo; Petroboni, Beatrice; Gavazzi, Alice; Sarkar, Annamaria; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    Low grade inflammation may have a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Several studies showed that both innate and adaptive immune systems may be involved, being T cells the most important players. Particularly, the balance between Th1 effector lymphocytes and Treg lymphocytes may be crucial for blood pressure elevation and related organ damage development. In the presence of a mild elevation of blood pressure, neo-antigens are produced. Activated Th1 cells may then contribute to the persistent elevation of blood pressure by affecting vasculature, kidney and perivascular fat. On the other hand, Tregs represent a lymphocyte subpopulation with an anti-inflammatory role, being their activity crucial for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Indeed, Tregs were demonstrated to be able to protect from blood pressure elevation and from the development of organ damage, including micro and macrovascular alterations, in different animal models of genetic or experimental hypertension. In the vasculature, inflammation leads to vascular remodeling through cytokine activity, smooth muscle cell proliferation and oxidative stress. It is also known that a consistent part of ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury is mediated by inflammatory infiltration and that Treg cell infusion have a protective role. Also the central nervous system has an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. In conclusion, hypertension development involves chronic inflammatory process. Knowledge of cellular and molecular players in the progression of hypertension has dramatically improved in the last decade, by assessing the central role of innate and adaptive immunity cells and proinflammatory cytokines driving the development of target organ damage. The new concept of role of immunity, especially implicating T lymphocytes, will eventually allow discovery of new therapeutic targets that may improve outcomes in hypertension and

  5. Single Nutrients and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    allergic Proc 198140:344. encephalomyelitis. J Nutr 1975105:288-300. 198. Rice C, Hudig D. Redelman D, Mendelsohn J, 180. Weston PG. Johnston PV...Pediatr 1978;93:71-3. AE. Defect of cell-mediated immunity in patients 272. Weston WL, Huff JC, Humbert JR, et al. Zinc with iron-deficiency anaemia...Methylmercuy: ogy. Hagerstown Md: Harper & Row, 1980:155-97. effect on serum enzymes and humoral antibody. J 385. Ota DM. Copeland EM. Dudrick SJ, et al. The

  6. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  7. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  8. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  9. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  10. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  11. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  12. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that collaborative...... policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  13. Immune regulation by pericytes: modulating innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Rocio; Compte, Marta; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis;

    2016-01-01

    respond to a series of proinflammatory stimuli and are able to sense different types of danger through expression of functional pattern recognition receptors, contributing to the onset of innate immune responses. In this context, PC not only secrete a variety of chemokines, but they also overexpress...... adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 involved in the control of immune cell trafficking across vessel walls. In addition to their role in innate immunity, pericytes are involved in adaptive immunity. It has been reported that interaction with PC anergizes T cells, attributed, at least in part...

  14. Induction of mucosal immunity through systemic immunization: Phantom or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Patel, Girishchandra B; Hu, Songhua; Chen, Wangxue

    2016-04-02

    Generation of protective immunity at mucosal surfaces can greatly assist the host defense against pathogens which either cause disease at the mucosal epithelial barriers or enter the host through these surfaces. Although mucosal routes of immunization, such as intranasal and oral, are being intensely explored and appear promising for eliciting protective mucosal immunity in mammals, their application in clinical practice has been limited due to technical and safety related challenges. Most of the currently approved human vaccines are administered via systemic (such as intramuscular and subcutaneous) routes. Whereas these routes are acknowledged as being capable to elicit antigen-specific systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, they are generally perceived as incapable of generating IgA responses or protective mucosal immunity. Nevertheless, currently licensed systemic vaccines do provide effective protection against mucosal pathogens such as influenza viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, whether systemic immunization induces protective mucosal immunity remains a controversial topic. Here we reviewed the current literature and discussed the potential of systemic routes of immunization for the induction of mucosal immunity.

  15. Immunity's fourth dimension: approaching the circadian-immune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Silver, Adam C; Walker, Wendy E; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-12-01

    The circadian system ensures the generation and maintenance of self-sustained ~24-h rhythms in physiology that are linked to internal and environmental changes. In mammals, daily variations in light intensity and other cues are integrated by a hypothalamic master clock that conveys circadian information to peripheral molecular clocks that orchestrate physiology. Multiple immune parameters also vary throughout the day and disruption of circadian homeostasis is associated with immune-related disease. Here, we discuss the molecular links between the circadian and immune systems and examine their outputs and disease implications. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie circadian-immune crosstalk may prove valuable for devising novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions.

  16. Immune-Related Adverse Events Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daphne; Hansen, Aaron R

    2016-12-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have shown durable treatment responses in multiple tumor types by enhancing antitumor immunity. However, removal of self-tolerance can induce autoimmunity and produce a unique immune-driven toxicity profile, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs). As ICIs gain approval for a growing number of indications, it is imperative clinicians increase their knowledge of and ability to manage irAEs. This review examines the etiology, presentation, kinetics, and treatment of irAEs and aims to provide practical guidance for clinicians.

  17. Problematizations in Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bacchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article directs attention to the significance, for health promotion advocates, of reflecting on how “problems” are constituted, or brought into existence, as particular sorts of problems, within policies and policy proposals. To this end, it introduces a poststructural analytic strategy called “What’s the Problem Represented to be?” (WPR approach, and contrasts this perspective to the ways in which “problems” are commonly conceptualized in health policy analyses (e.g., “a problem stream,” “wicked problems”. Such a perspective offers a significant rethinking of the conventional emphasis on agenda setting and policy-making processes in considering the meaning of success or failure in health policy initiatives. The starting point is a close analysis of items that are “successful,” in the sense that they make the political agenda, to see how representations of “problems” within selected policies limit what is talked about as possible or desirable, or as impossible and undesirable. This form of analysis thus enables critical reflections on the substantive content of policy initiatives in health policy. The article takes a step back from policy process theories, frameworks, and models to offer reflections at the level of paradigms. Highlighting potential dangers and limitations in positivism, interpretivism, and critical realism, it uses international, Australian, and South Australian examples in health policy to explore what poststructural policy analysis contributes to understanding the broad political influences shaping contemporary modes of rule.

  18. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  19. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  20. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  1. Policy and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  2. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  3. Chemokines and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Diana Carolina Torres; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are a large family of small cytokines and generally have low molecular weight ranging from 7 to 15kDa. Chemokines and their receptors are able to control the migration and residence of all immune cells. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory, and their release can be induced during an immune response at a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling of cells migration during tissue development or maintenance. The physiologic importance of this family of mediators is resulting from their specificity − members of the chemokine family induce recruitment of well-defined leukocyte subsets. There are two major chemokine sub-families based upon cysteine residues position: CXC and CC. As a general rule, members of the CXC chemokines are chemotactic for neutrophils, and CC chemokines are chemotactic for monocytes and sub-set of lymphocytes, although there are some exceptions. This review discusses the potential role of chemokines in inflammation focusing on the two best-characterized chemokines: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a CC chemokine, and interleukin-8, a member of the CXC chemokine sub-family. PMID:26466066

  4. HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROHORMONES AND IMMUNE RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis eQuintanar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed.

  5. The Immunization Programme In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhey J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunization Programme was started in India in 1978 with the objective of reducing the mortality due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage levels in infants and pregnant women have increased substantially over the last decade. Immunization coverage levels of 69 to 82% with various vaccines were reported in 1989-90. There is however, a wide disparity in the coverage levels in states and in the districts. While the priority to remains to increase immunization coverage levels, surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases is receiving high priority to identify weak pockets for intensification of immunization services and to document impact. Besides completeness of reporting., emphasis of the surveillance system in many areas has shifted to obtaining information on cases as early as possible to allow epidemiological investigations and effective follow-up action. The achievements in a large number of districts show that the goal of universal immunization, while difficult and challenging, is attainable.

  6. Leptin Regulation of Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Caitlin; Petri, William A

    2016-02-01

    Leptin is a regulatory hormone with multiple roles in the immune system. We favor the concept that leptin signaling 'licenses' various immune cells to engage in immune responses and/or to differentiate. Leptin is an inflammatory molecule that is capable of activating both adaptive and innate immunity. It can also 'enhance' immune functions, including inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages, granulocyte chemotaxis, and increased Th17 proliferation. Leptin can also 'inhibit' cells; CD4(+) T cells are inhibited from differentiating into regulatory T cells in the presence of elevated leptin, while NK cells can exhibit impaired cytotoxicity under the same circumstances. Consequently, understanding the effect of leptin signaling is important to appreciate various aspects of immune dysregulation observed in malnutrition, obesity, and autoimmunity.

  7. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  8. Herd Immunity: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M J; Rahman, M F

    2016-04-01

    Immunization is a means of protecting the greatest number of people. By reducing the number of susceptible in the community, it augments "herd immunity" making the infection more difficult to spread. It also reduces the risk for those individuals who have escaped vaccination or those who have not developed satisfactory protection. It is well to bear in mind that immunizations are not at all 100 per cent effective, particularly when an individual is exposed to a large dose of pathogenic organisms.

  9. Immunity in Chagas’ Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final report on the immunity in Chagas ’ disease contract and it summarizes the results of a diversity of studies directed toward...antibody test for Chagas ’ disease . Also mentioned are the facts that the cell membranes of live trypomastigotes are not immunoreactive with the...humoral immune response of an infected host and that suppression of parasitemias in chronic Chagas ’ disease is probably a function of the cell immune system of the host. (Author)

  10. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  11. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  12. [History of compulsory immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Germinario, Cinzia; Prato, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Mandatory vaccination was introduced for the first time in the nineteenth century in some European countries following the then sweeping smallpox epidemics. Compulsory vaccination for some diseases is still extant in some countries like Italy, France, Greece, Portugal and Belgium; in other countries, like the United Kingdom and Finland, vaccinations are voluntary but the state pursues a policy of active promotion. In 2007, the Veneto Region of Italy government approved a law allowing the experimentation of the abolition of mandatory vaccination. This experimentation caused an important debate among healthcare workers and scientific society of public health.

  13. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad G; Tsai, Vicky W W; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Hassanpour, Masoud; Li, Hui; Hart, Prue H; Breit, Samuel N; Sawchenko, Paul E; Brown, David A

    2014-03-01

    In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity.

  14. Primary Immune Deficiencies – Principles of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Helen; Prevot, Johan; Gaspar, Hubert Bobby; Español, Teresa; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Solis, Leire; Drabwell, Josina

    2014-01-01

    Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are a growing group of over 230 different disorders caused by ineffective, absent or an increasing number of gain of function mutations in immune components, mainly cells and proteins. Once recognized, these rare disorders are treatable and in some cases curable. Otherwise untreated PIDs are often chronic, serious, or even fatal. The diagnosis of PIDs can be difficult due to lack of awareness or facilities for diagnosis, and management of PIDs is complex. This document was prepared by a worldwide multi-disciplinary team of specialists; it aims to set out comprehensive principles of care for PIDs. These include the role of specialized centers, the importance of registries, the need for multinational research, the role of patient organizations, management and treatment options, the requirement for sustained access to all treatments including immunoglobulin therapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, important considerations for developing countries and suggestions for implementation. A range of healthcare policies and services have to be put into place by government agencies and healthcare providers, to ensure that PID patients worldwide have access to appropriate and sustainable medical and support services. PMID:25566243

  15. PRIMARY IMMUNE DEFICIENCIES – PRINCIPLES OF CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eChapel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary Immune Deficiencies (PIDs are a growing group of over 230 different disorders caused by ineffective, absent or an increasing number of gain of function mutations in immune components (mainly cells and proteins. Once recognised, these rare disorders are treatable and in some cases curable. Otherwise untreated PIDs are often chronic, serious or even fatal. The diagnosis of PIDs can be difficult due to lack of awareness and facilities for diagnosis, and management of PIDs is complex. This document was prepared by a worldwide multi-disciplinary team of specialists; it aims to set out comprehensive principles of care for PIDs. These include the role of specialised centres, the importance of registries, the need for multinational research, the role of patient organisations, management and treatment options, the requirement for sustained access to all treatments including immunoglobulin (Ig therapies and HSCT, important considerations for developing countries and suggestions for implementation. A range of healthcare policies and services have to be put into place by government agencies and healthcare providers, to ensure that PID patients world-wide have access to appropriate and sustainable medical and support services.

  16. Immune regulation by pericytes: modulating innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Rocio; Compte, Marta; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 involved in the control of immune cell trafficking across vessel walls. In addition to their role in innate immunity, pericytes are involved in adaptive immunity. It has been reported that interaction with PC anergizes T cells, attributed, at least in part...... respond to a series of proinflammatory stimuli and are able to sense different types of danger through expression of functional pattern recognition receptors, contributing to the onset of innate immune responses. In this context, PC not only secrete a variety of chemokines, but they also overexpress......Pericytes (PC) are mural cells that surround endothelial cells (EC) in small blood vessels. PC have traditionally been endowed with structural functions, being essential for vessel maturation and stabilization. However, accumulating evidence suggest that PC also display immune properties. They can...

  17. Incidence of mumps and immunity to measles, mumps and rubella among US military recruits, 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Angelia A; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Zhong; Nevin, Remington L

    2008-01-24

    Recent mumps outbreaks have evoked concerns of decreasing mumps immunity among adolescents and adults, including US military recruits subject to differing mumps immunization policies. To compare mumps incidence and to assess initial measles, mumps and rubella seropositivity, we conducted a cohort study among recruits from 2000 to 2004. Mumps incidence in the targeted MMR and universal MMR cohorts was 4.1 and 3.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, giving an incidence rate ratio of 1.16 (P=0.67). Measles, mumps, and rubella seropositivity was 84.6%, 89.5%, and 93.2%, respectively. Among recruits with measles and rubella immunity, 92.8% were mumps immune. These findings support the policy of targeting MMR immunization based upon measles and rubella serology alone.

  18. Curating the innate immunity interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http://www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity. Results Here, we describe the InnateDB curation project, which is manually annotating the human and mouse innate immunity interactome in rich contextual detail, and present our novel curation software system, which has been developed to ensure interactions are curated in a highly accurate and data-standards compliant manner. To date, over 13,000 interactions (protein, DNA and RNA) have been curated from the biomedical literature. Here, we present data, illustrating how InnateDB curation of the innate immunity interactome has greatly enhanced network and pathway annotation available for systems-level analysis and discuss the challenges that face such curation efforts. Significantly, we provide several lines of evidence that analysis of the innate immunity interactome has the potential to identify novel signalling, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of innate immunity. Additionally, these analyses also provide insight into the cross-talk between innate immunity pathways and other biological processes, such as adaptive immunity, cancer and diabetes, and intriguingly, suggests links to other pathways, which as yet, have not been implicated in the innate immune response. Conclusions In summary, curation of the InnateDB interactome provides a wealth of information to enable systems-level analysis of innate immunity. PMID:20727158

  19. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  20. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  1. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  2. Canine immune complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechner, A J

    1976-11-01

    Though not conclusive, our primary findings indicate that a feature common to many of our tumor and ICD patients is depressed cortisol production. Additionally, the response to ACTH adrenal cortex stimulation tests, at 2-hour intervals between rest and stimulation, have ranged from negative to substantially less than would be expected in normal subjects. Peripheral plasma cortisol values for dogs, at rest and 2 hours after ACTH stimulation, respectively, have been reported as 2-10 and 25-30 mug/dl, 3-8 and 7.5-18 mug/dl, and 1-12.5 and 9.5-22 mug/dl. For representative patients, our resting values have been 1.2-5.2 mug/dl, vs 1.2-7.6 mug after ACTH stimulation (Table 2). Altogether we have studied 42 cases in detail, and we feel that a post-ACTH level of 8.0 mug/dl or less is a conservative indication of adrenocortical insufficiency; all levels have been between 1 and 8 mug/dl. We believe these low cortisol levels indicate either a genetically-induced adrenal cortical insufficiency (evident at 2 months to 1 year of age) or an immune complex adrenal cortical suppression (occurring after 1 year of age in association with other immunodeficiency disorders). Our studies demonstrate a need for biphasic therapy. We have found it necessary to not only initiate cortisone acetate therapy to support the deficient adrenal cortical secretion, but also use other immunosuppressive drugs to control the ICD. If the target organ has been suppressed or destroyed, the need for supplementation is obvious. However, other immune-injury moieties must be suppressed also, eg, ANA, anti-IgG antibodies, etc.

  3. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  4. Modeling rejection immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Matone, Alice; Agnes, Annamaria; Palumbo, Pasquale; Ria, Francesco; Magalini, Sabina

    2012-05-20

    Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft), immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician's experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine), subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of therapy protocols in the transplanted patient.

  5. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  6. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...

  7. Macroeconomic Policies Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This concise study analyses the symmetry of financial markets’ responses to macroeconomic policy interaction in the United Kingdom. Employing the Vector Auto-regression (VAR model on monthly data of the British financial sector and macroeconomic policies from January 1985 to August 2008, this study found that the equity and sovereign debt markets showed identical symmetry in response to macroeconomic policy interaction.

  8. Guiding Economic Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  9. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  10. Immune epitope database analysis resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang

    2012-01-01

    The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide:MH...

  11. Plain Talk about Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Juneau. Div. of Family and Youth Services.

    This booklet provides parents with information about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases, balances the benefits and risk of vaccination, and responds to inaccuracies or misinformation about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases. Section 1 presents a message to parents about vaccination. Section 2 offers facts about…

  12. Immune evasion by pseudomonal proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes and rapidly kills invading bacteria via different mechanisms. Bacteria exploit several strategies to evade recognition by the immune system in order to survive within the host. An important strategy of bacteria is the secretion of proteins that block crucial funct

  13. A route towards immune protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a

  14. Recent approaches to immune networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Neumann, A.U.; Perelson, A.S.; Segel, L.A.; Weisbuch, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Jerne (1974) proposed that the immune system has important network characteristics that are similar in many respects to neural networks. This paper outlines some recent approaches taken by the authors and their colleagues toward the analysis of immune networks. Other approaches have been omitted owi

  15. Diversity in the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that fo

  16. Questions of Mind Over Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the possibility of disturbed immunity among people experiencing either clinical depression or some type of severe stress. Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of psychological treatment and its ability to shore up a person's immunity and slow the spread of infectious disease, is reviewed. (KR)

  17. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  18. Guttmacher policy review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... This quarterly review relates state to national and international developments and highlights all aspects of reproductive health policy, drawing the connections between abortion, contraception...

  19. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social...

  20. Direct policy search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidrich-Meisner, V.; Igel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    process. Exploration is realized by stochastic perturbations, which can be applied at different levels. When considering direct policy search in the space of neural network policies, exploration can be applied on the synaptic level or on the level of neuronal activity. We propose neuroevolution strategies...... (NeuroESs) for direct policy search in RL. Learning using NeuroESs can be interpreted as modelling of extrinsic perturbations on the level of synaptic weights. In contrast, policy gradient methods (PGMs) can be regarded as intrinsic perturbation of neuronal activity. We compare these two approaches...

  1. Service volume and other factors affecting the costs of immunizations in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.; Davis, Joe H.; Jobe, Kebba

    1984-01-01

    The total cost of the Expanded Programme on Immunization and of its various components in the Gambia over a period of one year (from July 1980 to June 1981) was investigated, and the costs per immunization dose and per fully immunized child were calculated. The total costs were to a large extent (45%) due to the cost of personnel and fixed costs. Where there was efficient delivery of immunizations, the average cost per dose was about one-fifth of that in the most costly facilities (range: US$2.32 to $0.41). The lower costs were related to more intensive use of the facilities. The national average cost was $1.09. The implications of the results of this study for policies to reduce costs are discussed, and further areas of research are suggested that will provide improved information to guide decision-makers in the use of scarce immunization programme resources for better health in the world. PMID:6334570

  2. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Innate Immunity

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Innate immunity now occupies a central role in immunology. However, artificial immune system models have largely been inspired by adaptive not innate immunity. This paper reviews the biological principles and properties of innate immunity and, adopting a conceptual framework, asks how these can be incorporated into artificial models. The aim is to outline a meta-framework for models of innate immunity.

  3. "Herd immunity": a rough guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul; Eames, Ken; Heymann, David L

    2011-04-01

    The term "herd immunity" is widely used but carries a variety of meanings. Some authors use it to describe the proportion immune among individuals in a population. Others use it with reference to a particular threshold proportion of immune individuals that should lead to a decline in incidence of infection. Still others use it to refer to a pattern of immunity that should protect a population from invasion of a new infection. A common implication of the term is that the risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population is reduced by the presence and proximity of immune individuals (this is sometimes referred to as "indirect protection" or a "herd effect"). We provide brief historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on this concept.

  4. Energetics and the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiches, Meredith W.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Ellison, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. Methodology: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function. Non-acute (under 2 mg/L) CRP was used as an index of immune function. Predictor variables include linear height velocity, adiposity, leptin, and measures of energy balance. Results: Non-acute log CRP was positively associated with adiposity (β = 0.16, P resources and demands. We also find support for an adaptive association between the immune system and adipose tissue. PMID:28003312

  5. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glenthøj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.

  6. Candidate immune biomarkers for radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Newly available immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs), capable to revert tumor immune tolerance, are revolutionizing the anticancer armamentarium. Recent evidence also established that ionizing radiation (IR) could produce antitumor immune responses, and may as well synergize with ICBs. Multiple radioimmunotherapy combinations are thenceforth currently assessed in early clinical trials. Past examples have highlighted the need for treatment personalization, and there is an unmet need to decipher immunological biomarkers that could allow selecting patients who could benefit from these promising but expensive associations. Recent studies have identified potential predictive and prognostic immune assays at the cellular (tumor microenvironment composition), genomic (mutational/neoantigen load), and peripheral blood levels. Within this review, we collected the available evidence regarding potential personalized immune biomarker-directed radiation therapy strategies that might be used for patient selection in the era of radioimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  8. Role of Leptin in Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Queenie Lai Kwan Lam; Liwei Lu

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, a protein hormone produced by the adipocytes, has long been recognized to regulate metabolism, neuroendorine and other physiological functions. Early findings of increased leptin production during infection and inflammation and dysregulated immune response in leptin signaling-deficient mice provide strong evidence for the involvement of leptin in the immune responses. Recent data have established the regulatory function for leptin in immunity similar to the function of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, while gene-targeting studies also demonstrated an essential role of leptin in regulating hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Moreover, there has been increasing evidence that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the role of leptin in immunity and leptin-signaling pathways involved in modulating immune homeostasis and autoimmune pathogenesis.

  9. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  10. Plant innate immunity multicomponent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eAndolfo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defence mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defence response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defence system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant’s ability to distinguish the feeding behaviour of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defence against the different behaviours of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area.

  11. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner

    2016-01-01

    diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients......-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...... mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS....

  12. Impact of the Raising Immunizations Safely and Effectively (RISE) Program on Healthcare Worker Influenza Immunization Rates in Long-Term Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, David A.; Handler, Steven M.; Hoffman, Erika L.; Perera, Subashan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Rationale National influenza immunization rates for healthcare workers (HCW) in long-term care (LTC) remain unacceptably low. This poses a serious public health threat to residents. Prior work has suggested high staff turnover rates as a contributing factor to low immunization rates. There is a critical need to identify and deploy successful models of HCW influenza immunization programs to LTC facilities. This report describes one potential model that has been successfully initiated in a network of LTC facilities. Methods All facilities served by a single regional LTC pharmacy were invited to participate in a HCW influenza immunization program. This voluntary immunization program began in 2005 and continues to the present. As part of the program, the pharmacy promoted organizational change by assuming oversight and control of HCW immunization policies and processes for all facilities. Primary and secondary outcomes are the number of facilities reaching HCW influenza immunization rates of 60% and 80%. Results Fourteen of the sixteen LTC facilities participated. Facilities were diverse and included both nursing and assisted living facilities; unionized and nonunionized facilities; and urban, suburban and rural facilities. The pharmacy provided educational and communication materials, centralized data collection using a standardized definition for HCW immunization rates, and facility feedback. All fourteen LTC facilities achieved the primary goal of 60% and nearly two thirds reached the secondary goal of 80%. Twenty percent reached the new Healthy People 2020 goal of 90%. Discussion It is possible for LTC facilities to improve HCW immunization rates using a pharmacy based, voluntary HCW influenza immunization approach. Such an approach may help attenuate the negative influence of staff turnover on HCW immunizations. Attainment of the new Health People 2020 goals still remains a challenge and may require mandatory programs. PMID:23031265

  13. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  14. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis.

  15. Impact of Louisiana's HPV Vaccine Awareness Policy on HPV Vaccination among 13- to 17-Year-Old Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Trepka, Mary Jo; Page, Timothy F.; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for 11- to 12-year-old adolescents. In 2008, Louisiana required the school boards to distribute HPV vaccine information to parents or guardian of students in Grades 6 to 12. This article investigates the impact of this policy on HPV…

  16. Microbiota, Intestinal Immunity, and Mouse Bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  17. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  18. Immune inhibitory receptors : regulated expression and suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevels, T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system protects against disease by identifying and eliminating pathogens, while leaving healthy host cells unaffected. Regulatory mechanisms are required to prevent excess or inappropriate immune cell activation and to ultimately terminate the immune response, thereby restoring homeostasi

  19. Slamf receptors : Modulators of Phagocyte Immune Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, Boaz Job

    2015-01-01

    Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule family (Slamf) receptors can operate in three distinct modes. Slamf receptors can dictate the extent of immune responses, thereby maneuvering immunity to the optimal zone between immunopathology or autoimmunity and weak, ineffective immune responses. A second

  20. Modern regional innovation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  1. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  2. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  3. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  4. Intercultural Policies and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  5. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the Ministry o

  6. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Publ...

  7. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  8. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  9. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  10. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  12. Public Policy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  13. ICU visitation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, A M

    1994-09-01

    Critically ill patients need their families more than ever, but rigid policies often restrict family visitation in ICU. Family visitation is not a "privilege" granted by hospitals, it is a necessary adjunct to the therapeutic regimen. Though changing outdated visitation policies can be difficult, it must be done. The clinical nurse specialist can play an important role in planning and implementing needed change.

  14. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  15. Public Policy Agenda, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  16. Public Policy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article is devoted to public policies and child care providers. The author talks about how these policies affect providers and their work with young children. The author stresses that child care providers should help legislators by keeping them aware of what goes on in the child care communities.

  17. Public Policy Agenda, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  18. Public Policy Agenda, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. The document is intended to serve as a point of reference for federal and state policymakers, the association's members, and other interested organizations and…

  19. Intercultural Policies and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Susana, Ed.; Carpenter, Markus A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural Policies and Education is concerned with educational challenges in multicultural societies. Educational policies, practices and strategies for fruitful coexistence in the multicultural school and classroom are explored and analysed through a collection of chapters designed and selected to provide readers with international,…

  20. Oil shortage policy; Olieschaarstebeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppelaar, R.; Van Meerkerk, B.; Polder, P.; Van den Bulk, J.; Kamphorst, F.

    2008-10-15

    This policy proposal addresses the deployment of options for decreasing Dutch dependency on oil by means of firm government policy. [Dutch] Dit beleidsvoorstel richt zich op het benutten van de mogelijkheden voor Nederland om via een sterke overheidsaanpak de afhankelijkheid van olie te verminderen.

  1. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  2. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  3. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  4. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  5. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  6. Immunity to Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, A

    1991-01-01

    Human serum contains antibodies, mainly of the IgM and IgG isotypes, to pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. This, as well as the capacity of these amebas to activate complement via the alternative pathway, may be a first-line defense against acanthamoeba infections in humans. Both antibody and complement appear to be important in promoting recognition of these amebas by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils. However, killing of amebas by neutrophils is dependent on lymphokine/monokine priming of the neutrophil. This priming augments the respiratory-burst activity and release of lysosomal enzymes of neutrophils in their response to the ameba. The products of the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst appear to be of prime importance in the killing of this free-living ameba. Antibodies also may prevent tissue invasion by Acanthamoeba by inhibiting its adherence, phagocytic activity, and migration and by neutralizing cytopathogenic amebic agents. Studies on experimental Acanthamoeba infections in mice showed marked species and strain specificity with regard to induction of protection with amebic antigens. Immune compromise or, alternatively, invasion at unique body sites in healthy individuals may form the basis for human infection with Acanthamoeba.

  7. [Chronobiology and immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, F; Lévi, F

    2005-06-01

    At all times, cycles have focused men's attention and fashioned his life. Today, thanks to genetic, one can find tracks of circadian rhythms programming until cell's DNA, and this in a very amazing and similar manner from amoebas to mammals. A particular rhythm interests the researcher in oncology: the circadian rhythm of melatonin. It stands at the junction of several domains: somatic, immune and psychic, through the many receptors found on leukocytes, through the links between this hormone production and the one of many cytokines but also with activity, life habits and "stress". On an other hand, antioxydant action of melatonin gives a serious argument concerning its possible role in cancer aetiology. As for them, studies on sleep confirm the large ubiquity of biological cycles, for instance thanks to the observation of the impact of particular genetic mutations on advance or delayed sleep syndrome. Because of the great diversity of cyclic phenomena, the study of chronobiology cannot be undertaken today without a wide interdisciplinary collaboration. During the 13th congress of the "Association Francaise de Chronobiologie Medicale", this study has been continued mainly in three different directions of research: fundamental, applied and transverse. Many original experimental results have been presented and new ways of multidisciplinary research specified. The important scientific fecundity of this very convivial annual congress never lacks to satisfy its participants: it continues to favour the onset of new projects, enabling to avoid major shelves thanks to the constructive criticism of each domain specialists.

  8. Optimal vaccine schedules to maintain measles elimination with a two-dose routine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKEE, A; Shea, K; Ferrari, M J

    2017-01-01

    Measles was eliminated in the Americas in 2002 by a combination of routine immunizations and supplementary immunization activities. Recent outbreaks underscore the importance of reconsidering vaccine policy in order to maintain elimination. We constructed an age-structured dynamical model for the distribution of immunity in a population with routine immunization and without disease, and analysed the steady state for an idealized age structure and for real age structures of countries in the Americas. We compared the level of immunity maintained by current policy in these countries to the level maintainable by an optimal policy. The optimal age target for the first routine dose of measles vaccine depends on the timing and coverage of both doses. Similarly, the optimal age target for the second dose of measles vaccine depends on the timing and coverage of the first dose. The age targets for the first and second doses of measles vaccine should be adjusted for the post-elimination era, by specifically accounting for current context, including realized coverage of both doses, and altered maternal immunity. Doing so can greatly improve the proportion immune within a population, and therefore the chances of maintaining measles elimination, without changing coverage.

  9. Immune disorders in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Chitsazian, Zahra; Moosavian, Mehdi; Raygan, Fariba; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Sharif, Ali Reza; Einollahi, Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Immunologically, End Stage renal Disease (ESRD) is associated with some disorders in both innate and adaptive immune system in such a form that there is a coexistence of both immune activation and immune suppression. Although these disorders are complex yet thoroughly unknown, there is a close relation between the progressively defective immune system with side effects as well as mortality causes including cardiovascular problems, infections, and malignancies. From the other point, chronic inflammation as a major determinant of "dialysis syndrome" (including malnutrition, cachexia, and vasculopathy) is considered as the main factor of inability and mortality in dialysis patients. Such inflammation is generally arisen from immune system response to uremia and individual's repetitive contact with dialysis instruments and, in the long term, leads to premature aging via intensifying tissue degeneration. Therefore, the immune system is known as one of the most important therapeutic targets to reduce morbidity and mortality in uremic and dialysis patients.   This review addresses different aspects as well as mechanisms of immune system dysfunction and possible therapeutics in dialysis patients.

  10. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  11. Photosensitizers for photodynamic immune modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, John R.; Boch, Ronald; Hunt, David W. C.; Ratkay, Leslie G.; Simkin, Guillermo O.; Tao, Jing-Song; Richter, Anna M.; Levy, Julia G.

    2000-06-01

    PDT may be an effective treatment for certain immune-mediated disorders. The immunomodulatory action of PDT is likely a consequence of effects exerted at a number of levels including stimulation of specific cell signaling pathways, selective depletion of activated immune cells, alteration of receptor expression by immune and non-immune cells, and the modulation of cytokine availability. QLT0074, a potent photosensitizer that exhibits rapid clearance kinetics in vivo, is in development for the treatment of immune disorders. In comparison to the well-characterized and structurally related photosensitizer verteporfin, lower concentrations of QLT0074 were required to induce apoptosis in human blood T cells and keratinocytes using blue light for photoactivation. Both photosensitizers triggered the stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) and p38 (HOG1) pathways but not extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) activity in mouse Pam212 keratinocytes. In cell signaling responses, QLT0074 was active at lower concentrations than verteporfin. For all in vitro test systems, the stronger photodynamic activity of QLT0074 was associated with a greater cell uptake of this photosensitize than verteporfin. In mouse immune models, sub-erythemogenic doses of QLT0074 in combination with whole body blue light irradiation inhibited the contact hypersensitivity response and limited the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis. QLT0074 exhibits activities that indicate it may be a favorable agent for the photodynamic treatment of human immune disease.

  12. The National Immunization Information Hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, D A; Gangarosa, P; Hibbs, B; Wilkins, C; Ford, K; Stuart, M; Brown-Bryant, R; Wallach, G; Chen, R T

    2004-01-01

    The National Immunization Information Hotline (NIIH) has been providing information regarding immunizations to the public and to health care professionals since March 1997. We describe the operations of the NIIH, its experience over the first two and a half years of operation and lessons learned for other immunization hotlines. From 1998-2000, the hotline answered 246,859 calls. Calls concerning immunization information requests totaled 175,367; data about the calls were collected from 35,102. Approximately a third of the 35,102 calls were from health care providers. Of the remaining calls from the public, the greatest number of calls concerned childhood immunizations. Immunization schedule queries from the public increased 323.0% from 1998 to 2000. While the major goal of the NIIH is to provide accurate and reliable information to the public and to health care providers, data from the hotline can be used to monitor changes over time in calls concerning inquiries about the immunization schedule in addition to other variables of interest.

  13. Good Tourism Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...... and authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....

  14. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  15. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  16. Immune-Mediated Therapies for Liver Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Steer, Clifford J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has gained renewed interest as an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumors. Its premise is based on harnessing the power of the host immune system to destroy tumor cells. Development of immune-mediated therapies, such as vaccines, adoptive transfer of autologous immune cells, and stimulation of host immunity by targeting tumor-evasive mechanisms have advanced cancer immunotherapy. In addition, studies on innate immunity and mechanisms of immune evasion ...

  17. Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Anastas Pashov; Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Thomas Kieber-Emmons

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. Howev...

  18. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  19. The immune system and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu V; Chapleau, Mark W; Harwani, Sailesh C; Abboud, Francois M

    2014-08-01

    A powerful interaction between the autonomic and the immune systems plays a prominent role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension and significantly contributes to cardiovascular pathology, end-organ damage and mortality. Studies have shown consistent association between hypertension, proinflammatory cytokines and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The sympathetic nervous system, a major determinant of hypertension, innervates the bone marrow, spleen and peripheral lymphatic system and is proinflammatory, whereas the parasympathetic nerve activity dampens the inflammatory response through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The neuro-immune synapse is bidirectional as cytokines may enhance the sympathetic activity through their central nervous system action that in turn increases the mobilization, migration and infiltration of immune cells in the end organs. Kidneys may be infiltrated by immune cells and mesangial cells that may originate in the bone marrow and release inflammatory cytokines that cause renal damage. Hypertension is also accompanied by infiltration of the adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue by inflammatory immune cells including macrophages. Increased cytokine production induces myogenic and structural changes in the resistance vessels, causing elevated blood pressure. Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension may result from the mechanical afterload and the inflammatory response to resident or migratory immune cells. Toll-like receptors on innate immune cells function as sterile injury detectors and initiate the inflammatory pathway. Finally, abnormalities of innate immune cells and the molecular determinants of their activation that include toll-like receptor, adrenergic, cholinergic and AT1 receptors can define the severity of inflammation in hypertension. These receptors are putative therapeutic targets.

  20. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Curating the innate immunity interactome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynn, David J

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http:\\/\\/www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity.

  2. Plant immunity against viruses: antiviral immune receptors in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Iara P; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2017-03-01

    Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of the antiviral immune system in plants and the latest breakthroughs reported in plant defence against viruses. Particular attention is given to the immune receptors and transduction pathways in antiviral innate immunity. Plants counteract viral infection with a sophisticated innate immune system that resembles the non-viral pathogenic system, which is broadly divided into pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. An additional recently uncovered virus-specific defence mechanism relies on host translation suppression mediated by a transmembrane immune receptor. In all cases, the recognition of the virus by the plant during infection is central for the activation of these innate defences, and, conversely, the detection of host plants enables the virus to activate virulence strategies. Plants also circumvent viral infection through RNA interference mechanisms by utilizing small RNAs, which are often suppressed by co-evolving virus suppressors. Additionally, plants defend themselves against viruses through hormone-mediated defences and activation of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS), which alternatively impairs and facilitates viral infection. Therefore, plant defence and virulence strategies co-evolve and co-exist; hence, disease development is largely dependent on the extent and rate at which these opposing

  3. Immune system modifications and feto-maternal immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Shi, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed at understanding pregnancy-induced changes in the maternal immune response and mechanisms for the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance. Articles cited in this review were obtained from PubMed in English from 2000 to 2014, and the search string included keywords such as feto-maternal tolerance, dendritic cells, macrophage, T regulatory cells, natural killer cells, cytokines and hormone. Articles regarding altered maternal immune response, including the proliferation and differentiation of the altered cells, and the production of cytokines and regulation of hormones in the feto-maternal interface were retrieved, reviewed and analyzed. The changes in immune cells and cytokines in the local uterine microenvironment and peripheral blood are correlated with the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance. The endocrine system regulates the maternal immune system, promoting modifications during pregnancy. In these regulatory networks, every factor is indispensible for others. The integration and balance of these immune factors during pregnancy give rise to an environment that enables the fetus to escape rejection by the maternal immune system. This progress is complicated, and needs more comprehensive exploration and explanation.

  4. Immune system modifications and feto-maternal immune tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Dan; Shi Yichao

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aimed at understanding pregnancy-induced changes in the maternal immune response and mechanisms for the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.Data sources Articles cited in this review were obtained from PubMed in English from 2000 to 2014,and the search string included keywords such as feto-maternal tolerance,dendritic cells,macrophage,T regulatory cells,natural killer cells,cytokines and hormone.Study selection Articles regarding altered maternal immune response,including the proliferation and differentiation of the altered cells,and the production of cytokines and regulation of hormones in the feto-maternal interface were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results The changes in immune cells and cytokines in the local uterine microenvironment and peripheral blood are correlated with the establishment of feto-maternal tolerance.The endocrine system regulates the maternal immune system,promoting modifications during pregnancy.In these regulatory networks,every factor is indispensible for others.Conclusions The integration and balance of these immune factors during pregnancy give rise to an environment that enables the fetus to escape rejection by the maternal immune system.This progress is complicated,and needs more comprehensive exploration and explanation.

  5. Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a

  6. Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P; Earn, David J D

    2003-09-02

    The recent threat of bioterrorism has fueled debate on smallpox vaccination policy for the United States. Certain policy proposals call for voluntary mass vaccination; however, if individuals decide whether to vaccinate according to self-interest, the level of herd immunity achieved may differ from what is best for the population as a whole. We present a synthesis of game theory and epidemic modeling that formalizes this conflict between self-interest and group interest and shows that voluntary vaccination is unlikely to reach the group-optimal level. This shortfall results in a substantial increase in expected mortality after an attack.

  7. Overview of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... innate cells but also may be retained as memory cells like adaptive cells. B, T, and NK cells also are called lymphocytes. Bloodstream : Immune cells constantly circulate throughout the bloodstream, patrolling for ...

  8. NK cells and immune "memory"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Joseph C; Lopez-Verges, Sandra; Kim, Charles C; DeRisi, Joseph L; Lanier, Lewis L

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, the ability to remember and respond more robustly against a second encounter with the same pathogen has been described in organisms lacking T and B cells...

  9. Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Sanders, Jan S F; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2010-01-01

    Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis is the most frequent cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and, in most cases, is associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). It is either the renal manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis of Churg-St

  10. Maturation of the immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.; Meijer, B.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system depends on features like extracellular and intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognize general molecular patterns. Different types of PRR have been described, identifying microbe-, pathogen-, and danger-associated molecular patterns (abbreviated as MAMP,

  11. Vitamin D and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Amrein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects express three lines of protection from infections and invasions. Their cuticles and peritrophic membranes are physical barriers. Infections and invasions are quickly recognized within insect bodies; recognition launches two lines of innate immune reactions. Humoral reactions involve induc...

  13. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  14. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses the condit......Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...

  15. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  16. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  17. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  18. [Sexuality and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georges; Vlatkovic, Dejan

    2010-03-24

    The idea that it might be a link between auto-immune affections and sexual disturbances could appear a vain purpose at a first glance. Nevertheless, as we start from a new point of view, it is understandable that we focus on a possible common tendency to develop self-aggression and self-destruction. Similarities which could play a role in the development of an auto-immune disease and of a sexual dixturbance as well.

  19. Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanussi, Stefania; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Berretta, Massimiliano; De Paoli, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

  20. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...... and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies....

  1. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  2. Innovation policies for tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    of this article is, in an analysis of the literature, to interpret the rationale behind innovation policy, and to explain the persisting challenges related to acquisition of an informed foundation for policies based upon quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Observed in a historical perspective, innovation......The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose...

  3. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow

  4. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  5. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul......Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  6. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  7. Time policies, urban policies and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, significant social and economic transformations had a relevant correspondence in processes of territorial complexification, urban fragmentation and spatial injustice. Literature and research shows that these processes have also a very important temporal dimension, associated to a transition from an industrial society of synchronized rhythms to more heterogeneous everyday experiences where more individualized time-space associations of a growing number of people are based on atypical agendas and working hours. This article, that is associated with the Urban-Net project Chronotope, profiting from its discussions and results, takes as central the relation between time policies, urban policies and planning, analyzing differences between Oporto/Portugal, Barcelona/Spain, Malmoe/Sweden and Toulouse/France.

  8. Mucosal immunity and the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    By definition, the mucosal immune system is responsible for interfacing with the outside world, specifically responding to external threats, of which pathogenic microbes represent a primary challenge. However, it has become apparent that the human host possesses a numerically vast and taxonomically diverse resident microbiota, predominantly in the gut, and also in the airway, genitourinary tract, and skin. The microbiota is generally considered symbiotic, and has been implicated in the regulation of cellular growth, restitution after injury, maintenance of barrier function, and importantly, in the induction, development, and modulation of immune responses. The mucosal immune system uses diverse mechanisms that protect the host from overt pathogens, but necessarily has coevolved to monitor, nurture, and exploit the normal microbiota. As a whole, mucosal immunity encompasses adaptive immune regulation that can involve systemic processes, local tissue-based innate and inflammatory events, intrinsic defenses, and highly conserved cell autonomous cytoprotective responses. Interestingly, specific taxa within the normal microbiota have been implicated in roles shaping specific adaptive, innate, and cell autonomous responses. Taken together, the normal microbiota exerts profound effects on the mucosal immune system, and likely plays key roles in human physiology and disease.

  9. Stimulating antitumor immunity with nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Mee Rie; Lizotte, Patrick H; Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Fiering, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A variety of strategies, have been applied to cancer treatment and the most recent one to become prominent is immunotherapy. This interest has been fostered by the demonstration that the immune system does recognize and often eliminate small tumors but tumors that become clinical problems block antitumor immune responses with immunosuppression orchestrated by the tumor cells. Methods to reverse this tumor-mediated immunosuppression will improve cancer immunotherapy outcomes. The immunostimulatory potential of nanoparticles (NPs), holds promise for cancer treatment. Phagocytes of various types are an important component of both immunosuppression and immunostimulation and phagocytes actively take up NPs of various sorts, so NPs are a natural system to manipulate these key immune regulatory cells. NPs can be engineered with multiple useful therapeutic features, such as various payloads such as antigens and/or immunomodulatory agents including cytokines, ligands for immunostimulatory receptors or antagonists for immunosuppressive receptors. As more is learned about how tumors suppress antitumor immune responses the payload options expand further. Here we review multiple approaches of NP-based cancer therapies to modify the tumor microenvironment and stimulate innate and adaptive immune systems to obtain effective antitumor immune responses.

  10. Essays on Economic Policy and Foreign Policy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    domain of "microeconomics"-- determination of prices in competitive or monopolistic markets, predicting the effects of minimum wages on employment... Malaysia , Hong Kong, and Singapore) which have long since adopted such policies. The common core of such liberalizing reforms lies, of course, in the...decrease in U.S. bank lending to developing countries, especially in Latin America. Such lending, even when not strictly "tied" to U.S. exports, usually

  11. Income transfer policies and the impacts on the immunization of children: the Bolsa Família Program Programas de transferência de renda e impactos na imunização das crianças: o Programa Bolsa Família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Viegas Andrade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the immunization of children from 0 to 6 years of age in Brazil and its regions. The Bolsa Família program is a conditional cash transfer program. One of its conditionalities is the compliance of children with the immunization schedule ordered by the Ministry of Health. The evaluation was performed using the Propensity Score Matching technique. We used data from a survey conducted in 2005 evaluating the program - Pesquisa de Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família. The main findings suggest that the Bolsa Família Program does not affect the immunization status of children.Este artigo investiga os impactos do Programa Bolsa Família na imunização de crianças de 0 a 6 anos no Brasil e grandes regiões. O Bolsa Família é um programa de transferência condicional de renda. Uma das condicionalidades do Programa Bolsa Família é a atualização do calendário vacinal preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. A avaliação é realizada utilizando a técnica do Matching com escore de propensão. Os dados utilizados são da pesquisa conduzida em 2005 para avaliar o programa Pesquisa de Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família. Os principais resultados mostram que o Bolsa Família não afetou o status de imunização das crianças em 2005.

  12. Female postmating immune responses, immune system evolution and immunogenic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Edward H; Innocenti, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    Females in many taxa experience postmating activation of their immune system, independently of any genital trauma or pathogenic attack arising from male-female genital contact. This response has always been interpreted as a product of natural selection as it either prepares the female immune system for antigens arising from an implanted embryo (in the case of placental mammals), or is a "pre-emptive strike" against infection or injury acquired during mating. While the first hypothesis has empirical support, the second is not entirely satisfactory. Recently, studies that have experimentally dissected the postmating responses of Drosophila melanogaster females point to a different explanation: male reproductive peptides/proteins that have evolved in response to postmating male-male competition are directly responsible for activating particular elements of the female immune system. Thus, in a broad sense, males may be said to be immunogenic to females. Here, we discuss a possible direct role of sexual selection/sexual conflict in immune system evolution, in contrast to indirect trade-offs with other life-history traits, presenting the available evidence from a range of taxa and proposing ways in which the competing hypotheses could be tested. The major implication of this review is that immune system evolution is not only a product of natural selection but also that sexual selection and potentially sexual conflict enforces a direct selective pressure. This is a significant shift, and will compel researchers studying immune system evolution and ecological immunity to look beyond the forces generated by parasites and pathogens to those generated by the male ejaculate.

  13. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  14. Immune regulation of ovarian development: programming by neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba eSominsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal immune challenge by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS produces enduring alterations in the development and activity of neuroendocrine, immune and other physiological systems. We have recently reported that neonatal exposure to an immune challenge by administration of LPS results in altered reproductive development in the female Wistar rat. Specifically, LPS-treated animals exhibited diminished ovarian reserve and altered reproductive lifespan. In the current study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that lead to the previously documented impaired ovulation and reduced follicular pool. Rats were administered intraperitoneally either 0.05mg/kg of LPS (Salmonella Enteritidis or an equivalent volume of non-pyrogenic saline on postnatal days (PNDs 3 and 5, and ovaries were obtained on PND 7. Microarray analysis revealed a significant upregulation in transcript expression (2-fold change; p<.05 for a substantial number of genes in the ovaries of LPS-treated animals, implicated in immune cell signalling, inflammatory responses, reproductive system development and disease. Several canonical pathways involved in immune recognition were affected by LPS treatment, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB activation and LPS-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling. Real-time PCR analysis supported the microarray results. Protein expression analysis of several components of the MAPK signalling pathway revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the neonatal ovary of LPS-treated animals. These results indicate that neonatal immune challenge by administration of LPS has a direct effect on the ovary during the sensitive period of follicular formation. Given the pivotal role of inflammatory processes in the regulation of reproductive health, our findings suggest that early life immune activation via TLR signalling may have significant implications for the programming of ovarian development

  15. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  16. The algebraic immunity and the optimal algebraic immunity functions of a class of correlation immune H Boolean functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jinglian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward an efficient method to study the algebraic immunity of H Boolean functions with Hamming weight of 2n-1 + 2n-2, getting the existence of the higher-order algebraic immunity functions with correlation immunity. We also prove the existing problem of the above 2-order algebraic immunity functions and the optimal algebraic immunity functions. Meanwhile, we solve the compatibility of algebraic immunity and correlation immunity. What is more, the main theoretical results are verified through the examples and are revealed to be correct. Such researches are important in cryptographic primitive designs, and have significance and role in the theory and application range of cryptosystems.

  17. Effective Vaccination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P

    2010-10-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

  18. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...... emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods...

  19. Operation of monetary policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    ... stocks Per cent per annum 10 15 20 30 50 Years to maturity 13 Operation of monetary policy This article covers the three months mid-November 1983 to mid-February 1984. The behaviour of the moneta...

  20. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  1. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  2. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  3. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...... an intended policy shift, there seems to be very little public discussion about them. Far-reaching policy changes become politically invisible and de-politicized. Our empirical case is the contracting out of the public employment services in Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark. The main question is what...... happens to public employment policies when they are contracted out to various non-public (for-profit and non-profit) agencies. The data consist of in-depth interviews with key respondents in the three countries, observations at service delivery agencies, and desk studies of existing research....

  4. Bullying Policies and Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  5. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  6. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  7. Voucher Programs. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2017-01-01

    This education Policy Analysis provides a comprehensive look at eligibility requirements, accountability and funding for voucher programs across the states, and includes research findings and legal challenges for this private school choice option.

  8. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection...... of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...

  9. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  10. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    The immune mechanisms of defence against fungal infections are numerous, and range from protective mechanisms that were present early in evolution (innate immunity) to sophisticated adaptive mechanisms that are induced specifically during infection and disease (adaptive immunity). The first-line innate mechanism is the presence of physical barriers in the form of skin and mucous membranes, which is complemented by cell membranes, cellular receptors and humoral factors. There has been a debate about the relative contribution of humoral and cellular immunity to host defence against fungal infections. For a long time it was considered that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was important, but humoral immunity had little or no role. However, it is accepted now that CMI is the main mechanism of defence, but that certain types of antibody response are protective. In general, Th1-type CMI is required for clearance of a fungal infection, while Th2 immunity usually results in susceptibility to infection. Aspergillosis, which is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus, has been the subject of many studies, including details of the immune response. Attempts to relate aspergillosis to some form of immunosuppression in animals, as is the case with humans, have not been successful to date. The defence against Aspergillus is based on recognition of the pathogen, a rapidly deployed and highly effective innate effector phase, and a delayed but robust adaptive effector phase. Candida albicans, part of the normal microbial flora associated with mucous surfaces, can be present as congenital candidiasis or as acquired defects of cell-mediated immunity. Resistance to this yeast is associated with Th1 CMI, whereas Th2 immunity is associated with susceptibility to systemic infection. Dermatophytes produce skin alterations in humans and other animals, and the essential role of the CMI response is to destroy the fungi and produce an immunoprotective status against re-infection. The resolution

  11. Industrial Policies in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Melendez, Marcela; Perry, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys and analyzes industrial policies in Colombia, finding extensive use of productive development policies (PDPs) and despite claims of only moderate government intervention. Rarely explicitly associated with the need to address market failures, PDPs are instead associated with economic reactivation and vaguely defined “competitiveness.” There are also PDPs that address government failures considered unlikely to be corrected by first-best interventions. Colombia has made progre...

  12. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, MAC; Etalle, S Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...

  13. Population and health policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T.Paul

    2009-01-01

    The program evaluation literature for population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines documenting biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to late life mortality, chronic disease, and disability, though their implications for policy remain uncertain. Both macro- and microeconomics seek to understand and incorporate connections between economic development and the demographic transition. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that econo...

  14. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  15. Natural immunity has significant impact on immune responses against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, B

    2009-03-01

    The immune system defends the host against pathogenic attacks by micro-organisms and their products. It does not react against self-components due to the relatively efficient negative selection of developing T lymphocytes in the thymus. This process does permit T cells with low avidity against self to be present in the T cell repertoire. Such cells play an important physiological role as the host needs so-called autoimmune reactions in order to eliminate dying cells or transformed tumour cells. One of the mysteries in immunology is how the host maintains beneficial autoimmune reactions and avoids pathogenic autoimmune reactions. Activation of the adaptive T lymphocytes is mediated by the low avidity interaction between T-cell antigen receptors and antigenic peptides associated with major histocompatibility complex class I or class II molecules. This interaction is strengthened by T-cell co-receptors such as CD2, CD4, CD8, CD28 and CD154, which react with ligands expressed by cells of the innate immune system. In recent years, the importance of pre-activation of the innate immune system for initiation of adaptive T-cell immune responses has been appreciated. In the present review, I will summarize our work on how natural immunity plays an important role in determining the level of beneficial autoimmune reactions against cancer.

  16. Childhood Immunizations: A Health Education Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sabrina Ann

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, there is a schedule of four immunizations and several boosters against communicable diseases for children, but many children are not immunized against preventable communicable diseases. The article examines reasons for low immunization percentages, barriers to immunization, and possible solutions to the problems. (SM)

  17. Eicosanoids: Progress Toward Manipulating Insect Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect immunity is exclusively innate, lacking the antibody-based adaptive immunity of vertebrates. Innate immunity is a naturally occurring, non-specific system that does not require previous infectious experience. In this essay I describe insect immunity and review the roles of prostaglandins an...

  18. Trained Immunity: An Ancient Way of Remembering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2017-01-01

    The innate arm of the immune system has generally been regarded as primitive and non-specific and, in contrast to adaptive immunity, not to possess memory. Here we review the growing body of evidence that innate immunity has an important capacity to adapt, a de facto innate immune memory (also

  19. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  20. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy instrume

  1. Policy Learning and Governance of Education Policy in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2010-01-01

    Open methods for coordinating (OMC) education policies in the EU rely on a number of techniques, one of which is policy learning. This article examines how policy learning and governance transform each other. More specifically, policy-learning in the education OMC becomes differentiated into four distinct learning styles: mutual, competitive,…

  2. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts.

  3. Evolutionary plasticity of insect immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Many insect genomes have been sequenced and the innate immune responses of several species have been studied by transcriptomics, inviting the comparative analysis of immunity-related genes. Such studies have demonstrated significant evolutionary plasticity, with the emergence of novel proteins and protein domains correlated with insects adapting to both abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. This review article focuses on effector molecules such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteinase inhibitors, which display greater evolutionary dynamism than conserved components such as immunity-related signaling molecules. There is increasing evidence to support an extended role for insect AMPs beyond defense against pathogens, including the management of beneficial endosymbionts. The total number of AMPs varies among insects with completed genome sequences, providing intriguing examples of immunity gene expansion and loss. This plasticity is discussed in the context of recent developments in evolutionary ecology suggesting that the maintenance and deployment of immune responses reallocates resources from other fitness-related traits thus requiring fitness trade-offs. Based on our recent studies using both model and non-model insects, I propose that insect immunity genes can be lost when alternative defense strategies with a lower fitness penalty have evolved, such as the so-called social immunity in bees, the chemical sanitation of the microenvironment by some beetles, and the release of antimicrobial secondary metabolites in the hemolymph. Conversely, recent studies provide evidence for the expansion and functional diversification of insect AMPs and proteinase inhibitors to reflect coevolution with a changing pathosphere and/or adaptations to habitats or food associated with microbial contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immune Regulation by Self-Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2015-01-01

    Circulating T cells that specifically target normal self-proteins expressed by regulatory immune cells were first described in patients with cancer, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. The adaptive immune system is distinguished for its ability to differentiate between self...... the direct targeting of cancer cells in addition to regulatory immune cells. Anti-Tregs provide the immune system with yet another level of immune regulation and contradict the notion that immune cells involved in the adjustment of immune responses only act as suppressor cells.......-antigens and foreign antigens. Thus, it was remarkable to discover T cells that apparently lacked tolerance to important self-proteins, eg, IDO, PD-L1, and FoxP3, expressed in regulatory immune cells. The ability of self-reactive T cells to react to and eliminate regulatory immune cells can influence general immune...

  5. Climate policy decisions require policy-based lifecycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Antonio M; Klotz, Richard

    2014-05-20

    Lifecycle analysis (LCA) metrics of greenhouse gas emissions are increasingly being used to select technologies supported by climate policy. However, LCAs typically evaluate the emissions associated with a technology or product, not the impacts of policies. Here, we show that policies supporting the same technology can lead to dramatically different emissions impacts per unit of technology added, due to multimarket responses to the policy. Using a policy-based consequential LCA, we find that the lifecycle emissions impacts of four US biofuel policies range from a reduction of 16.1 gCO2e to an increase of 24.0 gCO2e per MJ corn ethanol added by the policy. The differences between these results and representative technology-based LCA measures, which do not account for the policy instrument driving the expansion in the technology, illustrate the need for policy-based LCA measures when informing policy decision making.

  6. Eosinophilia associated with disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelli W.; Milner, Joshua D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Elevated serum eosinophil levels have been associated with multiple disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation. Although primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are rare, it is important to consider these in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilia. This review discusses the clinical features, laboratory findings, diagnosis, and genetic basis of disease of several disorders of immune deficiency or dysregulation – all which have documented eosinophilia as part of the syndrome. The article includes autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome, DOCK8 deficiency, PGM3 deficiency, ADA-SCID, Omenn syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome, Comel-Netherton syndrome, and severe dermatitis, multiple allergies, and metabolic wasting syndrome (SAM). PMID:26209898

  7. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Viljakainen, Lumi

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on g...

  8. Targets of Immune Regeneration in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hohensinner, Philipp J.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the aging-related morbidities, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and infectious susceptibility are linked to a decline in immune competence with a concomitant rise in proinflammatory immunity, placing the process of immune aging at the center of aging biology. Immune aging affects individuals over the age of 50 years and is accelerated in patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. Curiously, immune aging results in a marked decline of ...

  9. Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Latz, E.; Mills, K.H.; Natoli, G.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; O'Neill, L.A.; Xavier, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity, as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory."

  10. "On the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy"

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Sawyer, Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of macroeconomic policy and theory over the past twenty years or so, a major shift has occurred regarding the relative importance given of monetary policy versus fiscal policy. The former has gained considerably in stature, while the latter is rarely mentioned. Further, monetary policy no longer focuses on attempts to control some monetary aggregate, as it did in the first half of the 1980s, but instead focuses on the setting of interest rates as the key policy instrument...

  11. Ciphertext Policy Attribute based Encryption with anonymous access policy

    CERN Document Server

    Balu, A

    2010-01-01

    In Ciphertext Policy Attribute based Encryption scheme, the encryptor can fix the policy, who can decrypt the encrypted message. The policy can be formed with the help of attributes. In CP-ABE, access policy is sent along with the ciphertext. We propose a method in which the access policy need not be sent along with the ciphertext, by which we are able to preserve the privacy of the encryptor. The proposed construction is provably secure under Decision Bilinear Diffe-Hellman assumption.

  12. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  13. Melatonin, immune function and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal SR Pandi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging is associated with a decline in immune function (immunosenescence, a situation known to correlate with increased incidence of cancer, infectious and degenerative diseases. Innate, cellular and humoral immunity all exhibit increased deterioration with age. A decrease in functional competence of individual natural killer (NK cells is found with advancing age. Macrophages and granulocytes show functional decline in aging as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. There is also marked shift in cytokine profile as age advances, e.g., CD3+ and CD4+ cells decline in number whereas CD8+ cells increase in elderly individuals. A decline in organ specific antibodies occurs causing reduced humoral responsiveness. Circulating melatonin decreases with age and in recent years much interest has been focused on its immunomodulatory effect. Melatonin stimulates the production of progenitor cells for granulocytes-macrophages. It also stimulates the production of NK cells and CD4+ cells and inhibits CD8+ cells. The production and release of various cytokines from NK cells and T-helper lymphocytes also are enhanced by melatonin. Melatonin presumably regulates immune function by acting on the immune-opioid network, by affecting G protein-cAMP signal pathway and by regulating intracellular glutathione levels. Melatonin has the potential therapeutic value to enhance immune function in aged individuals and in patients in an immunocompromised state.

  14. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  15. Immune function during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  16. Is adenomyosis an immune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, H; Igarashi, S; Hatazawa, J; Tanaka, T

    1998-01-01

    Adenomyosis is characterized as ectopic endometrial tissues within the myometrium in the uterus. The only difference between adenomyosis and endometriosis is the site of endometriotic tissues: inside or outside of the uterus. It is well known that endometriosis is frequently associated with various autoimmune phenomena. This short review covers various aspects of the immune cascade found in adenomyosis. In adenomyosis, a series of immune responses is activated, including changes in both cellular and humoral immunity, i.e. a strong expression of cell surface antigens or adhesion molecules, an increased number of macrophages or immune cells, and deposition of immunoglobulins and complement components. Furthermore, the disease exhibited high frequency of autoantibodies in peripheral blood. Thus, an immunological 'vicious circle' is formed in the endometrium in adenomyosis. Endometrial cells seem to be under immunological stress, protecting themselves by exposing heat shock proteins. It is concluded that the endometrial environment in adenomyosis differs widely from that in normal fertile women. These abnormal immune responses might be involved in poor reproductive performance in adenomyosis.

  17. Probiotics as an Immune Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Ji; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganism that can provide a diverse health benefits on the host when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are consumed in diverse ways including dairy product, food supplements and functional foods with specific health claims. Recently, many reports suggest that certain probiotic strains or multi strain mixture have potent immunomodulatory activity in diverse disorders including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, underlying mechanism of action is still unclear and efficacy of probiotic administration is quite different depending on the type of strains and the amounts of doses. We and others have suggested that live probiotics or their metabolites could interact with diverse immune cells (antigen presenting cells and T cells) and confer them to have immunoregulatory functions. Through this interaction, probiotics could contribute to maintaining immune homeostasis by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the effect of probiotics in prevention or modulation of ongoing disease is quite diverse even within a same species. Therefore, identification of functional probiotics with specific immune regulatory property is a certainly important issue. Herein, we briefly review selection methods for immunomodulatory probiotic strains and the mechanism of action of probiotics in immune modulation.

  18. Inflammation and pregnancy: the role of the immune system at the implantation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Gil; Cardenas, Ingrid; Abrahams, Vikki; Guller, Seth

    2011-03-01

    The concept that pregnancy is associated with immune suppression has created a myth of pregnancy as a state of immunological weakness and, therefore, of increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. A challenging question is whether the maternal immune system is a friend or a foe of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss data associated to the role of the immune system during pregnancy. We propose a new paradigm in terms of the fetal-maternal immune interaction as well as the immunological response of the mother to microorganism. Our challenge is to better understand the immunology of pregnancy in order to deliver the appropriate treatment to patients with pregnancy complications as well as to determine public policies for the protection of pregnant women during pandemics.

  19. Patching vs Packaging in Policy Formulation: Assessing Policy Portfolio Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about policy mixes is at the forefront of current research work in the policy sciences and raises many significant questions with respect to policy tools and instruments, processes of policy formulation, and the evolution of tool choices over time. Not least among these is how to assess the potential for multiple policy tools to achieve policy goals in an efficient and effective way. Previous conceptual work on policy mixes has highlighted evaluative criteria such as "consistency" (the ability of multiple policy tools to reinforce rather than undermine each other in the pursuit of individual policy goals, "coherence" (or the ability of multiple policy goals to co-exist with each other in a logical fashion, and "congruence" (or the ability of multiple goals and instruments to work together in a uni-directional or mutually supportive fashion as important design principles and measures of optimality in policy mixes. And previous empirical work on the evolution of existing policy mixes has highlighted how these three criteria are often lacking in mixes which have evolved over time as well as those which have otherwise been consciously designed. This article revisits this early design work in order to more clearly assess the reasons why many existing policy mixes are sub-optimal and the consequences this has for thinking about policy formulation processes and the practices of policy design.

  20. T dose Vaccine Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Programme of Immunization (NPI), measles remains a disturbing cause ... or as a supplement is expected to offer a second opportunity to children who ... available in 1963, the world welcomed it with joy .... one dose of vaccine were not always protected from .... begins a long story Starting now is still early enough.

  1. Dynamic Metabolism in Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against “self” or “non-self” antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells. While a number of groups are dwelling into the nuances of the metabolism and its role in immune response at various strata, this review focuses on dynamic state of metabolism that is operational within various cellular compartments that interact to mount an effective immune response to alleviate disease state.

  2. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance?

  3. Insect immune resistance to parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Carton; Marylène Poirié; Anthony J. Nappi

    2008-01-01

    Insect host-parasitoid interactions involve complex physiological, biochemical and genetic interactions. Against endoparasitoids, immune-competent hosts initiate a blood cell-mediated response that quickly destroys the intruders and envelops them in a multilayered melanotic capsule. During the past decade, considerable progress has been made in identifying some of the critical components of the host response, mainly because of the use of efficient molecular tools. This review examines some of the components of the innate immune response of Drosophila, an insect that has served as an exceptionally good experimental model for studying non-self recognition processes and immune cell signaling mechanisms. Topics considered in this review include hematopoiesis, proliferation and adhesion of hemocytes, melanogenesis and associated cytotoxic molecules, and the genetic aspects of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  4. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom.

  5. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  6. Immunity in a Social Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Traniello, James F. A.; Chen, Tammy; Brown, Julie J.; Karp, Richard D.

    Although pathogens appear to have exerted significant selective pressure on various aspects of sociality, mechanisms of disease resistance in the social insects are poorly understood. We report here on an immune response to infection by the dampwood termite, Zootermopsis angusticollis. Nymphs immunized with an injection of 7.6×107, 7.6×105, or 7.6×104 cells/ml glutaraldehyde-killed solution of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa had significantly higher survivorship than controls following a challenge with a lethal concentration of active bacteria. Similarly, nymphs exposed to a 9×10-1 spores/ml suspension of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae had higher survivorship than controls after a challenge with a lethal concentration of spores. Prior exposure to a pathogen thus conferred upon termites a degree of protection during a subsequent encounter with the same pathogen. This represents the first demonstration of immune function in vivo in a social insect.

  7. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  8. Immune response to H pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Suarez; Victor E Reyes; Ellen J Beswick

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer,attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium.

  9. Homeostatic Immunity and the Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkaid, Yasmine; Harrison, Oliver J

    2017-04-18

    The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the induction, education, and function of the host immune system. In return, the host immune system has evolved multiple means by which to maintain its symbiotic relationship with the microbiota. The maintenance of this dialogue allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the utilization of regulatory pathways involved in the sustained tolerance to innocuous antigens. The ability of microbes to set the immunological tone of tissues, both locally and systemically, requires tonic sensing of microbes and complex feedback loops between innate and adaptive components of the immune system. Here we review the dominant cellular mediators of these interactions and discuss emerging themes associated with our current understanding of the homeostatic immunological dialogue between the host and its microbiota. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Women, immunity and sexual hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenberg, R

    1995-01-01

    How a weakened immune system affects the female's reproductive system is explained. The female's endocrine system controls the menstrual and reproductive systems, and the immune system attacks harmful substances and organisms. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones FSH and LH, which in turn signal the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones cause a mature egg to be released. If fertilized, the egg remains within the uterus; if not, menstruation occurs. HIV-positive females often complain of menstrual cycle changes, such as irregular periods, depression, or pain. The virus, other complications, or medications, such as AZT, may cause these symptoms. Estrogen therapy may help those with suppressed immune systems who have premature menopause. Oral contraceptives offer protection against pregnancy, but not HIV. It is not known if the pill reacts adversely with AIDS treatment drugs. Lists are provided showing the pros and cons of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

  11. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  12. Contradictions of industrial policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitan, S.A.; Johnson, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    The authors feel that proposals for a new industrial policy have remained unfocused and their most constructive elements have been ignored. If industrial policy arguments emerged from another political context - as a vindication of government intervention instead of an alternative to it - the potential of such arguments for improving economic performance and industrial competitiveness would be considerably greater. Instead, industrial policy has sprouted from a neoliberal movement which in large measure accepts the notion that government intervention has contributed to our social and economic problems. The authors conclude that a constructive approach requires that we abandon the popular widsom that claims our social programs have failed. On the contrary, it requires that we heed evidence demonstrating that societal investments in education, training, and employment pay off. Further, concrete solutions to our economic and social problems will emerge only if proponents of industrial policy acknowledge - openly, vocally, and unabashedly - the importance of an expanded role for government. When industrial policy advocates address this underlying issue, they will build support for necessary public investments that could capture the returns associated with an adaptable workforce, a strong scientific base, and a sound infrastructure for commerce and trade.

  13. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation's policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control system or policies....

  14. Experiments on Crowdsourcing Policy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Prpic, J.; Taeihagh, A.; Melton, J.

    2017-01-01

    Can Crowds serve as useful allies in policy design? How do non-expert Crowds perform relative to experts in the assessment of policy measures? Does the geographic location of non-expert Crowds, with relevance to the policy context, alter the performance of non-experts Crowds in the assessment of policy measures? In this work, we investigate these questions by undertaking experiments designed to replicate expert policy assessments with non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We...

  15. Creating a Cultural Policy for Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Minette E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the importance of a national cultural policy for Namibia. Describes how the policy was developed and addresses the draft policy. Discusses the purpose of a cultural policy and the concerns and recommendations for the implementation of the policy. (CMK)

  16. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G

    2012-11-19

    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Zhang; Chen Dong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  18. Dietary influences on intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Marc; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena

    2012-10-01

    The function of the gastrointestinal tract relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells, which are essential for the uptake of nutrients. The fragile lining requires protection against insults by a diverse array of antigens. This is accomplished by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, which constitute a highly organized immune organ. In this Review, we discuss several recent findings that provide a compelling link between dietary compounds and the organization and maintenance of immune tissues and lymphocytes in the intestine. We highlight some of the molecular players involved, in particular ligand-activated nuclear receptors in lymphoid cells.

  19. Huntington's Disease: An Immune Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats. Neuroinflammation is a typical feature of most neurodegenerative diseases that leads to an array of pathological changes within the affected areas in the brain. The neurodegeneration in HD is also caused by aberrant immune response in the presence of aggregated mutant huntingtin protein. The effects of immune activation in HD nervous system are a relatively unexplored area of research. This paper summarises immunological features associated with development and progression of HD.

  20. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongliangZhang; ChenDong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):20-27.

  1. ERBF network with immune clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫新保; 臧小刚; 周希朗

    2004-01-01

    Based on immune clustering and evolutionary programming(EP), a hybrid algorithm to train the RBF network is proposed. An immune fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (IFCM) is used to adaptively specify the amount and initial positions of the RBF centers according to input data set; then the RBF network is trained with EP that tends to global optima. The application of the hybrid algorithm in multiuser detection problem demonstrates that the RBF network trained with the algorithm has simple network structure with good generalization ability.

  2. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  3. Report of the ad-hoc consultation on aging and immunization for a future WHO research agenda on life-course immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Crusells, Judith; McElhaney, Janet E; Aguado, M Teresa

    2012-09-14

    WHO convened a meeting of around 30 experts to address the topic of aging and immunization in March 2011 in Geneva. The purpose of the meeting was to develop a global research agenda to eventually inform WHO policy recommendations regarding immunization beyond childhood and into old age. This issue is becoming more critical, since the population aged 60 and above will reach two billion people - three-quarters of whom will be in developing countries - in the next 40 years. The meeting reviewed current knowledge and gaps in information about: (1) the epidemiology of infectious diseases in the elderly in developed and developing countries and their contribution to disability in old age; (2) the deterioration of the immune system with age ("immune senescence") and possible ways to measure and counteract it; and (3) immunization approaches to maintain or improve health in older persons. These approaches include the concept of a "life-course vaccination" schedule to help sustain immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases beyond childhood and into old age; strategies to strengthen older persons' responses to vaccines (e.g., by adding adjuvants to vaccines, increasing vaccine dosage, and intradermal vaccine administration); and the possible development of new vaccines targeted specifically for older adults. Participants proposed priority research topics as well as strategies to facilitate and coordinate the research, including the establishment of networks of collaborators, with WHO playing a key coordinating role.

  4. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...

  5. New staff contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  6. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy-makers and the re......A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy...... a full account, see Vohnsen 2011). These insights will be relevant for the anthropological researcher of legislative processes who wishes to move beyond a merely discursive approach to the study of policy and politics....

  7. Poor uptake of hepatitis B immunization amongst hospital-based health care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A D; Whorwell, P J

    1991-03-01

    The uptake of hepatitis B vaccine was assessed amongst 100 medical and 100 nursing staff in a teaching hospital with a policy of recommending to those at risk that they should seek immunization from their general practitioners. Sixteen per cent of nurses and 31% of doctors had completed a course of immunization with confirmation of seroconversion. An additional 9% and 18% respectively had been immunized without post-immunization serology. Ninety three per cent of nurses and 61% of doctors who had not been immunized would like to receive the vaccine. The commonest reasons for non-immunization amongst nurses were fear of vaccine and lack of advice, and amongst doctors, apathy and difficulty in obtaining the vaccine. Eighty seven per cent of medical staff and 57% of nurses had a history of needle stick injury. The low rates of vaccine uptake in this study combined with the high incidence of needle stick injury calls for a reappraisal of present hepatitis B vaccination programmes in hospitals. In particular the abrogation of responsibility for immunization to general practitioners is probably a major disincentive to potential vaccines.

  8. Impact of Information Security Policies on Email-Virus Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at tracing out the email-virus propagation rules in communication network, this paper extends the traditional epidemiological model (i. e., SEIR) by taking into account the behavior of email users, such as email checking frequency and anti-virus information security policies, and discusses the factors that affect the email-virus propagation in an organization. With the extended SEIR model, namely E-SEIR, three aspects of information security policies (i. e., immunization, information security training,and user recovery support) are investigated in terms of their impacts on the email virus propagation. The results show that the E-SEIR model is suitable to reflect the propagation pattern of email virus, and may also be used in anti-virus policies simulation and evaluation.

  9. Ocular Immune Privilege in the Year 2010: Ocular Immune Privilege and Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew W.; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    The phrase “immune privilege” was coined by Peter Medawar to describe the absence of an immune response to allografts placed into the anterior chamber of the eye or brain. We now understand that immune privilege is more than a passive microenvironment with a distinctive anatomical structure that holds back immunity. The ocular microenvironment actively engages the immune system with immunosuppressive biochemical mechanisms. The unique characteristics of ocular immune privilege appear designed...

  10. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... and policy ideas produced in collaborative governance arenas are not diffused to the formal political institutions of representative democracy because the participating politicians only to a limited extent function as boundary spanners between the collaborative governance arena and the decision making arenas...

  11. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  12. Prostitution Policy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Emerek, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented.......The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented....

  13. Open Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    University of East London, .

    2013-01-01

    The University of East London is committed to and supports open access to its research publications.\\ud There is a worldwide move towards free and unrestricted access to research publications, with benefits\\ud for researchers, universities and wider society. UEL supports this initiative and recognises the\\ud importance of open access in increasing the visibility and impact of research. This policy is aligned with\\ud and supports HEFCE’s Policy for Open Access in the Post‐2014 REF, and is alig...

  14. Auto Industry Development Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Decree No. 8The National Development and Reform CommissionThe People’s Republic of ChinaAccording to the Document [2004] 30 of the State Council, the Auto Industry Development Policy has passed the examination of the Sitate Development and Reform Commission and been approved by the State Council. Now it is issued and shall be effective as of the date of promulgation. The Auto Industrial Policies implemented since 1994 should end as of the date of this promulgation.MAKaiDirector of the National Development and Reform CommissionMay 21, 2004

  15. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  16. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  17. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  18. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  19. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy......In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy...

  20. Immune Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishraga Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between immunity and neurodevelopmental disorders has been extensively investigated in autism, suggesting a potential involvement of both cellular and humoral immunity in the establishment of synaptic connectivity modulation during development. A similar link has been proposed also for Tourette syndrome (TS, a complex, multifactorial disorder, in which the interplay between genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological factors might be relevant. Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis in TS suggests a possible systemic activation of several T- and B-cell subtypes, whereas the observed decreased numbers of T regulatory lymphocytes might predispose to autoimmunity. Genes related to both cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses may be over-expressed at specific ages in youngsters with TS. Data from cytokine measurements and transcriptomics profiles in TS patients are coherent with the systemic immune activation detected by studies on lymphocyte subpopulations. Moreover, TS patients have exhibited IgG3 and IgA dysgammaglobulinemia, which might predispose to recurrent infections and autoimmunity. To date, the association between TS and autoantibodies has not been demonstrated. Interestingly, however, there is a higher degree of maternal family history of autoimmune diseases among TS patients. Finally, TS patients could be prone to allergic illnesses (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, but more work is needed in this area.

  1. Natural and engineered mosquito immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Alphey, Luke

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Microbiology shows how suppression of mosquito innate immunity against a virus that the mosquito can normally tolerate increases mosquito mortality. This is just one of several approaches that may soon bring genetics-based mosquito control methods from the laboratory into the field.

  2. Pasteurella multocida and immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatzky, Katharina F

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first discovered by Perroncito in 1878 and named after Louis Pasteur who first isolated and described this Gram-negative bacterium as the cause of fowl disease in 1880. Subsequently, P. multocida was also found to cause atrophic rhinitis in pigs, haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and respiratory diseases in many other animals. Among other factors such as lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins and its capsule, the protein toxin (PMT) of P. multocida is an important virulence factor that determines the immunological response of the host's immune system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms taking place in cells of the innate and adaptive immune system are largely unknown for any of these virulence factors. Due to the obvious function of PMT on cells of the porcine skeletal system where it causes bone destruction, PMT was regarded as an osteolytic protein toxin. However, it remained unclear what the actual benefit for the bacteria would be. Recently, more attention was drawn to the osteoimmunological effects of PMT and the interplay between bone and immune cells. This review summarises the knowledge of effects of P. multocida virulence factors on the host's immune system.

  3. PIERCING THE DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY VEIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... From time to time the media reports on diplomats residing in a ... "mistreatment", but has since received diplomatic immunity and left the US for India. ... Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (hereafter the "LRA").

  4. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  5. Tumors STING adaptive antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-11-20

    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer patients, but the molecular basis for tumor immunogenicity is unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Deng et al. (2014) and Woo et al. (2014) provide evidence suggesting that dendritic cells detect DNA from tumor cells via the STING-mediated, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway.

  6. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  7. [Obesity and the immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M

    2004-01-01

    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article.

  8. Amino acids and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Yu-Long; Li, Defa; Kim, Sung Woo; Wu, Guoyao

    2007-08-01

    A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most amino acids in plasma. Findings from recent studies indicate an important role for amino acids in immune responses by regulating: (1) the activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages; (2) cellular redox state, gene expression and lymphocyte proliferation; and (3) the production of antibodies, cytokines and other cytotoxic substances. Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Arginine, glutamine and cysteine precursors are the best prototypes. Because of a negative impact of imbalance and antagonism among amino acids on nutrient intake and utilisation, care should be exercised in developing effective strategies of enteral or parenteral provision for maximum health benefits. Such measures should be based on knowledge about the biochemistry and physiology of amino acids, their roles in immune responses, nutritional and pathological states of individuals and expected treatment outcomes. New knowledge about the metabolism of amino acids in leucocytes is critical for the development of effective means to prevent and treat immunodeficient diseases. These nutrients hold great promise in improving health and preventing infectious diseases in animals and humans.

  9. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivo

  10. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses....

  11. Circadian clock proteins and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anne M; Bellet, Marina M; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2014-02-20

    Immune parameters change with time of day and disruption of circadian rhythms has been linked to inflammatory pathologies. A circadian-clock-controlled immune system might allow an organism to anticipate daily changes in activity and feeding and the associated risk of infection or tissue damage to the host. Responses to bacteria have been shown to vary depending on time of infection, with mice being more at risk of sepsis when challenged ahead of their activity phase. Studies highlight the extent to which the molecular clock, most notably the core clock proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, and REV-ERBα, control fundamental aspects of the immune response. Examples include the BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer regulating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expression and repressing expression of the inflammatory monocyte chemokine ligand (CCL2) as well as REV-ERBα suppressing the induction of interleukin-6. Understanding the daily rhythm of the immune system could have implications for vaccinations and how we manage infectious and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The most common friend first immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  13. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  14. Evidence and Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Tom; Jochems, Wim; Moos, Lejf; van Zanten, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    The EERJ roundtable took as its point of departure the experience of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in carrying out policy research. CERI has conducted four reviews of national educational research and development (in New Zealand, England, Mexico and…

  15. Fiscal Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia;

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a ‘fat tax’ the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University l...... look at whether a fiscal policy would work....

  16. Policy analysis without data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R.; Spancake, L.R. (Energy Information Adminstration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Information Administration's work to assess the potential of experimental economics for policy analysis. The article reviews the experimental approach and describes an application to provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 10 refs.

  17. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Jonker, Willem; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  18. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  19. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  20. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2015-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  1. Essays on fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with selected topics in fiscal policy. The first part examines the relationship between fiscal decentralization and certain outcomes, one being the amount of trust citizens have in their government, the other being economic efficiency. The second part looks into the challenge of

  2. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  3. Assessment and Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia B.

    1975-01-01

    Because of increased access of postsecondary education in the 1950's and 1960's, higher education cost analysis gained importance. Attempts have been made to develop a standard unit cost, but it is hard to see unit cost accounting by itself as a valuable tool for public accountability or policy making. For these purposes a cost-effectiveness ratio…

  4. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIACONESCU DIANA RALUCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks in advanced economies have deployed a variety of unconventional policies during the crisis. It can be seen that the central banks have been mostly successful at achieving their objectives and that spillover to other countries have—thus far at least—been benign overall. Also it can be considered that using unconventional measures may be appropriate in some circumstances, but also they can have disadvantages and all the benefits for using such measures need to be balanced against potential costs. Prior to the crisis the monetary policy was implemented by central banks in a predictable and systematic way, and its transmission mechanism was understood by the economic agents. A transparent central bank reaction function (or broad rule guided market expectations of future interest rates. After the crisis appeared, the central banks from developed countries applied unconventional tools1 to address two important objectives: first one is to restore the proper functioning of financial markets and intermediation, and second one is to provide further monetary policy accommodation. Both these objectives need to support financial stability, including the diminishing big risks in acute phases of the crisis (collapse of the financial system, depression, and deflation. This paper reviews recent experience with these policies and considers issues related to their continued use in the future in the Romanian economy. It will be a tentative to explain how to avoid liquidity trap2 or get out of it – these also can be seen in the Romanian economy in the last few years.

  5. Triage as Urban Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuse, Peter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Triage policy is the exclusion of severely declining urban areas from services and programs on the grounds that the intensity of their needs cannot be met and the provision of services is therefore inefficient. Community groups must insist that severity of need, human benefits, and community protection be the priorities for allocation of funds.…

  6. Race and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ernest R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the connection between race and education policy in the United States, focusing on the interplay between the U.S. population's belief in democracy, national racist beliefs, and the inability of many white citizens to comprehend the depth of racism in the United States. (SLD)

  7. Mississippi: State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  8. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  9. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  10. Policies built upon pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; Z. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    After the general introductions, the first substantive part of this volume (Part II) provides concise research-based discussions of policies developed in recognition of the important role played by the pathways along which city-regions have travelled. Our research has shown that it is highly importa

  11. Public Policy Agenda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) public policy agenda, rooted in an uncompromising commitment to opportunity for the nation's students, is expressed through the following core principles: (1) Higher education is a common good that provides significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole; (2) America's…

  12. Against all policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungusia, Eliezeri; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    landscapes are unknown. This case illustrates how existing forest and land policies and practices of implementation discourage landscape level forest conservation and how a current rush for ‘unused’ village land areas for conservation, agribusiness or forest plantations implies an incentive for villages...

  13. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  14. Florida: State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  15. Evidence and Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Tom; Jochems, Wim; Moos, Lejf; van Zanten, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    The EERJ roundtable took as its point of departure the experience of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in carrying out policy research. CERI has conducted four reviews of national educational research and development (in New Zealand, England, Mexico and…

  16. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold

    2016-01-01

    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Alt

  17. Privacy Policy | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  18. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  19. Communications Policies and Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeat, Henri; And Others

    These two papers discuss communications policies and structures in France and in the United States. The first paper reports that efforts to develop new electronic communication systems in France are hindered by rivalry between two public monopolies and by governmental protection against foreign influence. The second paper assesses ownership of…

  20. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  1. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  2. SEVERAL MEASURES OF BUDGETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Dan Morar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Budget policy for the funding and sometimes care about the public sector, certain actions and utilities on the private sector within limits set by the strategies, tactics and operational deciyiile promoted executive. Phenomenon budget includes both revenues and expenditure side edge contained in the public budget. Often, perhaps excessive zeal in translating domain-specific phrases are even officially speak about "fiscal policy measures", with reference to all areas of the budget, containing and thus the budget expenditure. Budgetary policy has several specific policy budget subdomains like Cookie fiscal policy, budget expenditure allocation Polti, policy and public loans.

  3. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  4. Transforming Policy into Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadja; Maru, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite expanding policy commitments in many poor countries, health care is often a failure at the point of delivery. Lack of information, poor enforcement, and power dynamics prevent those whose rights have been violated from pursuing redress. In Mozambique, grassroots health advocates work to address this gap between policy and reality by blending approaches known as legal empowerment and social accountability. They raise awareness of health policy, support clients to seek redress for grievances, and facilitate problem-solving dialogues between communities and health facility staff. In three years we have seen communities begin to overcome a culture of silence. Twenty-one advocates and their clients have achieved redress to over a thousand grievances across 27 health facilities. These cases have resulted in improvements to access, infrastructure, and provider performance. Advocates have supported village health committees to transform themselves from collections of names on a list into active agents for change. Advocates should not be trained and left alone—they are most effective when integrated into a vertical team that provides continuous support and supervision, and that can engage higher levels of authority to solve tough cases. Aggregate data from cases handled by health advocates provides unique insight into how health policy is working in practice. We draw on that information to advocate for systemic changes that affect the entire country, like better policies for combatting bribery and stronger procedures for responding to grievances. We have found that legal empowerment and social accountability practices interact synergistically. Our preliminary experience suggests that when people are equipped to exercise their rights to health, even a poorly resourced system can improve. PMID:28559689

  5. Routine immunization services in Pakistan: seeing beyond the numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S; Omer, S B

    2016-06-15

    Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in Pakistan, and the country remains one of the last reservoirs of polio, posing a threat of viral spread within the region and globally. This structured review describes challenges in the achievement of vaccination targets and identifies arenas for policy and programmatic interventions and future research. Burdened with limited demand and inefficient vaccination services, the recently devolved Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces multiple hurdles in increasing immunization volumes, improving the quality of services and ensuring timely vaccination. The EPI requires multi-pronged, multi-level, coordinated interventions to improve programme functioning and to enhance vaccination uptake at community level. Additionally, a lack of rigorous scientific enquiry on vaccination services limits the introduction of well-developed, responsive interventions. The paper describes systemic bottlenecks, proposes potential solutions and suggests lines of further enquiry to understand and reduce the languishing immunization rates in Pakistan.

  6. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are ``vaccinated'' with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.

  7. The Knowledge and Attitude towards Childhood Immunization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Knowledge and Attitude towards Childhood Immunization amongst Mothers ... There were significant (P<0.05) relationships between age of respondents; ... A better understanding of routine immunization schedule is important in the ...

  8. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  9. The evolution of costly acquired immune memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Alex; Hoyle, Andy

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is acquired immune memory, whereby hosts launch a faster and heightened response when challenged by previously encountered pathogens, preventing full infection...

  10. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  11. Immune-priming in ant larvae: social immunity does not undermine individual immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Malak, Tanya; Mackintosh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Social insects deploy numerous strategies against pathogens including behavioural, biochemical and immunological responses. While past research has revealed that adult social insects can generate immunity, few studies have focused on the immune function during an insect's early life stages. We hypothesized that larvae of the black carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus vaccinated with heat-killed Serratia marcescens should be less susceptible to a challenge with an active and otherwise lethal dose of the bacterium. We compared the in vivo benefits of prior vaccination of young larvae relative to naive and ringer injected controls. Regardless of colony of origin, survival parameters of vaccinated individuals following a challenge were significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. Results support the hypothesis that ant larvae exhibit immune-priming. Based on these results, we can infer that brood care by workers does not eliminate the need for individual-level immunological responses. Focusing on these early stages of development within social insect colonies can start addressing the complex dynamics between physiological (individual level) and social (collective) immunity.

  12. The rise of education policy as an economic policy tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of implications for education policy-making processes and not least it has had an impact on who conducts policy studies and how. This book brings together a variety of contributions which explore recent political economic changes affecting education policy-making processes including the ascension of neo...

  13. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  14. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  15. Immunological memory within the innate immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, J. C.; Ugolini, S.; Vivier, E

    2014-01-01

    Immune memory has traditionally been the domain of the adaptive immune system, present only in antigen-specific T and B cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for immunological memory in lower organisms (which are not thought to possess adaptive immunity) and within specific cell subsets of the innate immune system. A special focus will be given to recent findings in both mouse and humans for specificity and memory in natural killer (NK) cells, which hav...

  16. Immunity-based diagnosis for a motherboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Haruki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard.

  17. Immunity-Based Diagnosis for a Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiteru Ishida; Takeshi Okamoto; Haruki Shida

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal...

  18. Immunity-Based Diagnosis for a Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiteru Ishida; Takeshi Okamoto; Haruki Shida

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal...

  19. Distance Concentration-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; WANG Yao-cai; WANG Zhi-jie; MENG Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, adaptation and memory of biological immune system attract much attention of researchers. Several optimal algorithms based on immune system have also been proposed up to now. The distance concentration-based artificial immune algorithm (DCAIA) is proposed to overcome defects of the classical artificial immune algorithm (CAIA) in this paper. Compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and CAIA, DCAIA is good for solving the problem of precocity,holding the diversity of antibody, and enhancing convergence rate.

  20. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  1. Immunity and immune modulation in Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Fabíola; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira; Antas, Paulo Renato Zuquim; Mengel, José

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite reaches the secondary lymphoid organs, the heart, skeletal muscles, neurons in the intestine and esophagus among other tissues. The disease is characterized by mega syndromes, which may affect the esophagus, the colon and the heart, in about 30% of infected people. The clinical manifestations associated with T. cruzi infection during the chronic phase of the disease are dependent on complex interactions between the parasite and the host tissues, particularly the lymphoid system that may either result in a balanced relationship with no disease or in an unbalanced relationship that follows an inflammatory response to parasite antigens and associated tissues in some of the host organs and/or by an autoimmune response to host antigens. This review discusses the findings that support the notion of an integrated immune response, considering the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system in the control of parasite numbers and also the mechanisms proposed to regulate the immune response in order to tolerate the remaining parasite load, during the chronic phase of infection. This knowledge is fundamental to the understanding of the disease progression and is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine strategies.

  2. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  3. Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine M; Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick E

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

  4. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  5. Public opinion: Stunted policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, James N.

    2013-07-01

    Energy policy is widely debated, with regards to climate change, alternative energy use and responsibility for policy. Research now highlights the role of citizens in public debates about energy and how it can be swayed.

  6. A New Foreign Policy Consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the achievements of Reagan's foreign policy. Explores the question: Did Reagan reconstruct a domestic foreign policy consensus? Concludes that no consensus was reached. Analyzes Reagan's political beliefs, including his antinuclear sentiments, and examines relations between Reagan and Congress. (RW)

  7. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  8. Communicable Diseases and the Enrolled Student: A Model Policy and Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    A model school policy provides guidelines for Iowa school systems with regard to students with AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus. The AIDS guidelines include the following: (1) Routine screening students for AIDS associated virus is not recommended. (2) Children infected with the AIDS associated virus,…

  9. LAIR and collagens in immune regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system constantly receives opposing signals that on the one side activate immune cells allowing them to eradicate diseased cells and pathogens, and on the other side inhibit these same cells to limit and ultimately terminate an immune response. A correct balance is crucial for effective

  10. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan

    2012-01-01

    tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...

  11. Why study the evolution of immunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cooper, Max D.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of immune recognition in nonmammalian species provide new insights into the evolution of immunity and the inner workings of the mammalian immune system. Very diverse mechanisms are used by different multicellular organisms to recognize and cope with the rapidly evolving microbial world.

  12. Childhood Immunization: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Immunizations for Preterm Babies (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish Recommended Immunizations for Children from 7 Through 18 ... Children Immunizations: Active vs. Passive (American Academy of Pediatrics) ... Foundation) Also in Spanish Vaccination: An Act of Love (Pan American Health ...

  13. Immune regulation and CNS autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antel, J P; Owens, T

    1999-01-01

    The central nervous system is a demonstrated target of both clinical and experimental immune mediated disorders. Immune regulatory mechanisms operative at the levels of the systemic immune system, the blood brain barrier, and within the CNS parenchyma are important determinants of the intensity a...

  14. The immunity status of demodecosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, B G; Koljadenko, V G; Golovtchenko, D Y

    1991-01-01

    49 patients with different clinical types of demodecosis were examined. There was a pronounced decrease in the T-cellular immunity state on the skin. The state of immunity was directly dependent on the degree of clinical manifestation and when the patients contracted the disease, and it correlated with data from the humoral immunity state study (CIC).

  15. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  16. LAIR and collagens in immune regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system constantly receives opposing signals that on the one side activate immune cells allowing them to eradicate diseased cells and pathogens, and on the other side inhibit these same cells to limit and ultimately terminate an immune response. A correct balance is crucial for effective d

  17. Bacterial toxins and the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms that cause persistent infection often exhibit specific adaptations that allow them to avoid the adaptive immune response. Recently, several bacterial toxins have been shown in vitro to disrupt immune cell functions. However, it remains to be established whether these activities are relevant during infection and whether these toxins have specifically evolved to disrupt the adaptive immune system. PMID:15699067

  18. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    displayed high levels of activated T cells and mucosal IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-10, and IL-2; and winter newborns had the highest levels of innate immune cells, IL-5, type 17-related immune mediators, and activated T cells. Birth season fluctuations seem to affect neonatal immune development and result...

  19. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  20. Immunity of FPGA chips by direct injection

    OpenAIRE

    Aurand, Tobias; Dawson, J.F.; Robinson, Martin Paul; Marvin, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Immunity measurements of Xilinix XC3S200TQ144 and Altera EP3C10E144C7N FPGAs by direct injection are presented and the immunity of individual pins is shown to depend greatly on the load seen by nearby pins. The implications of this on in circuit immunity prediction are discussed.