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Sample records for premarital health examination

  1. [Premarital examination: a rite of passage in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar

    1997-07-01

    In the first decades of this century, pre-nuptial examination, designed to protect descendants from risks attributed to heredity, worked as a true rite of passage in Public Health routine. An educational text concerning this issue is discussed.

  2. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; Vander Weele, Tyler J

    2013-03-11

    To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premarital screening program. The premarital screening rate was 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 31.0% to 38.5%). Several demographic factors (age, residence, profession), awareness, knowledge, and attitudes towards premarital screening all had significant influence on participation in the premarital screening program. Promotion activities and health education to improve knowledge and attitudes to premarital screening will help increase the rate of voluntary premarital screening.

  3. Premarital health counseling: A must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sonia; Dhiman, Anupama; Bansal, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC) is emerging as a growing trend worldwide. The couples are provided with accurate and unbiased information and assistance, who are planning to get marry with the aim of screening, educating, and counseling about nutritional disorders, communicable diseases, medical conditions, hereditary/genetic disorders, and guiding for a healthy pregnancy. Premarital screening and adequate counseling are essential for changing attitudes toward consanguineous marriage particularly in places where consanguineous and "tribal" marriages are common, resulting in a high incidence of genetic disorders. Although making PMHC obligatory in India may appear to be a very exciting and promising proposal, its implementation still has various ethical issues and other barriers that need to be addressed.

  4. Factors influencing voluntary premarital medical examination in Zhejiang province, China: a culturally-tailored health behavioral model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. Methods A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. Results 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This study has provided new insights for establishing a theoretical model to understand health behaviors in China. PMID:24972866

  5. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006 – 2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital cohabitation experiences were associated with marital instability among a recent contemporary (married since 1996) marriage cohort of men (N = 1,483) ...

  6. Internal migration and health: premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna; White, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The high rates of youth migration to urban and economic centers, in the context of persistent poverty and devastating HIV/AIDS burden, have raised intricate social policy challenges in developing countries. Using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and discrete-time hazard regression models, this study examines the patterns of internal migration and sexual initiation among never-married Nigerian youth aged 15-24. We find that migrants generally show stronger association than non-migrants, and urban-rural and rural-rural migrants particularly show the strongest independent association with premarital sexual initiation. Other significant covariates are age, religion, ethnic origin, educational attainment, independent living arrangement, formal employment and exposure to the mass media. The findings highlight the direct importance of youth migration in understanding and addressing the challenges of premarital sexual behavior and the need for behavior change policies and programs to be sensitive to the complex contextual nuances across youth groups in one country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Methods: Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the prem...

  8. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; Vander Weele, Tyler J

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Methods Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premar...

  9. O exame pré-nupcial: um rito de passagem da Saúde Pública Premarital examination: a rite of passage in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Scliar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Nas primeiras décadas deste século, o exame pré-nupcial, concebido para proteger a prole de riscos atribuídos à hereditariedade, funcionou como um verdadeiro rito de passagem na rotina de Saúde Pública. Um texto educativo a respeito é discutido.In the first decades of this century, pre-nuptial examination, designed to protect descendants from risks attributed to heredity, worked as a true rite of passage in Public Health routine. An educational text concerning this issue is discussed.

  10. What You Don't Know May Kill You: The Importance of Including Sexual Health in Premarital Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, LaTrina M.; Cummings Aholou, Tiffiany M.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual health is a widespread concern for intimate partners. As couples transition to marriage, it is vitally important to explore issues related to sexual health. Moreover, premarital counselors are encouraged to facilitate a sexual health discussion with premarital couples. This article presents the importance of raising the topic of sexual…

  11. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  12. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  13. Clients′ viewpoints about the quality of services in the premarital counseling classes in Tabriz health centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study results can provide suitable information for health policy providers to improve the quality of premarital counseling classes. In order to develop a relatively stable behavior in young couples, it is recommended that the quality of the classes would be overemphasized.

  14. Frequency of haemoglobinopathies at premarital health screening in Dohuk, Iraq: implications for a regional prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, N A; Al-Dousky, A A

    2010-04-01

    beta-thalassaemia major and sickle-cell disease are important health problems in Iraq. To provide information for a prevention programme, the frequency of haemoglobin disorders was mapped in Dohuk governorate. A total of 591 couples (1182 individuals) attending health centres for premarital health screening were tested; 44 (3.7%) were found to be carriers of ,-thalassaemia, 14 (1.2%) of the sickle-cell gene and 1 (0.1%) of deltabeta3-thalassaemia. A total of 3 couples (i.e. 5/1000) were at risk of having a child with beta-thalassaemia major, and the estimated number of affected children with a major haemoglobinopathy was 39 per year. The findings stress the importance of a regional prevention programme for haemoglobinopathies based on premarital screening, counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

  15. Adolescent premarital sex and health outcomes among Taiwanese youth: perception of best friends' sexual behavior and the contextual effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2011-09-01

    This study explores premarital sex among adolescents and its health outcomes in a typical East Asian society, Taiwan. As a collective society in terms of cultural heritage, a particular target of this study was perceived peer pressure and its contextual influence. The data were taken from the Taiwan Youth Project, 2004 and 2007, and never married youth aged 20 years constituted our sample (N=3530). Best friends' sexual behavior and other context-related factors, such as school attendance and community participation, are presumed to influence adolescent premarital sex as well as their health status. Logistic regression models show a positive and significant association between the perception of friends' sexual behavior and the likelihood of adolescent premarital sex engagement, after adjusting for the youth's own sex-related experience and attitudes, individual characteristics, and family background. The analysis also confirms that school attendance and community participation are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having premarital sex. Furthermore, adolescent premarital sex was found to be linked to the perceived health status of the youth (self-rated health, smoking, and drinking), as expected. These findings demonstrate the importance of peers and social context, which suggests that HIV prevention and health promotion programs for youth need to take friendship networks and social context into consideration.

  16. Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Examines association between intimate premarital relationships and subsequent marital dissolution. Results suggest neither premarital sex nor premarital cohabitation by itself indicate either preexisting characteristics or subsequent relationship environments that weaken marriages. Findings are consistent with the notion that premarital sex and…

  17. Investigation and analysis of newly married wife premarital examination and cervical cancer prevention KAP condition%新婚妻婚检与宫颈癌防治KAP情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雁凌; 陈渊青; 罗红; 叶宜根

    2015-01-01

    knowledge, attitude and practice rate of women in the premarital examination group was significantly better than that of unmarried examination group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The premarital examination rate in this investigation is similar to the premarital examination rate of the government released,the high and low degree of premarital examination rate and cervical cancer prevention related knowledge, attitude and practice are connected with educational level,economic income and occupation and so on.So it thinks that improving premarital examination rate and cervical cancer prevention knowledge level must strengthen premarital and marital health education work,improving the premarital examination rate and cervical cancer prevention related KAP rate is very important for the women health.

  18. Effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality in Rizhao City%日照市婚前检查对孕产妇死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永英; 刘杰; 厉君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婚前检查对孕产妇死亡的预防指导作用及效果。方法:分析日照市1998-2013年婚前医学检查和孕产妇死亡资料,分析婚前医学检查对孕产妇死亡的影响。结果:孕产妇死亡率呈逐年缓慢下降的趋势,当婚检率变化较大时,孕产妇死亡率有显著变化(P<0.05)。结论:婚前检查是一级预防措施,应引导广大青年自觉接受婚前医学检查,接受优生优育指导,从而减少孕产妇死亡风险。%Objective:To explore the prevention guidance function and effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality. Methods:The premarital medical examination and maternal death data from 1998 to 2013 in Rizhao City were analyzed.The effect of premarital medical examination on maternal mortality was analyzed.Results:The maternal mortality was a slow downward trend year by year.When the premarital examination rate change was large,there was significant change in maternal mortality(P<0.05). Conclusion:Premarital examination is primary prevention measure.We should guide the youth to consciously accept the premarital medical examination,and accept the eugenic and superior nurture guidance,to reduce the risk of maternal death.

  19. 婚前医学检查行为的影响因素研究%Influencing factors on the voluntary premarital medical examination among Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁; 顾亚明; 周驰; 周旭东; 郑卫军; 杨廷忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing the premarital medical examination in Chinese population and to discuss the related possible intervention strategies.Methods Data were collected through self-designed questionnaires on 2572 newly married respondents,selected under a stratified randomized sampling method,at Marriage Registration Office in 12 counties in Zhejiang province.Predictive factors were derived from the integrating complementary constructs of Health Belief Model,Theory of Reasoned Action as well as individual demographic characteristics.Multiple logistic multilevel analyses was used as the main statistical method,with individuals as the ' low' and counties as the 'high' levels.Results Behaviors on premarital medical examination showed a clustering trait at the county level (P=0.018) and variance partition coefficients (VPC) of each variables was between 15.40% and 17.58%.There were no statistical significances found in the rates of premarital medical examination among gender,age,residence of Household Registration,education,income,health insurance and history of premarital medical examination.However,significant correlation was seen on occupation of the respondents.The rate of premarital medical examination among the respondents who had not attended medical examination during the last six moths was 1.31times (95% confidence intervals,1.05 -1.65 ) more than those who had,with OR (odds ratio) as 1.51 (95%CI:1.14-2.00) for the pregnant respondents in their first marriage and 0.35 (95%CI:0.23-0.51 )for remarried respondents,compared with women at first marriage but remained unpregnant.Regarding premarital medical examination,the respondents reported greater benefits,less barriers,greater positive behavioral attitudes and normative beliefs to it,with an ORs as 2.32 (95% CI:1.18-4.60),0.71 (95%CI:0.57-0.90),1.69 (95%CI:1.10-2.58) and 1.72 (95%CI:1.34-2.20)respectively,but with no significant association with perceived susceptibility

  20. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Aden; Sara Karrar; Omar Shafey; Farida Al Hosni

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi′s Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants...

  1. Premarital rubella vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R L; Clark, S W

    1985-01-01

    A two-year Vermont program identified 494 (7 per cent) of 6,982 premarital female serologies that were seronegative (less than 1:8) to rubella by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer. All 494 susceptible patients and their physicians were notified of their results by letter. The State Health Department received reports that a total of 194 (39 per cent) of the susceptible patients had received rubella vaccinations as a result of their notifications. Intensive follow-up of susceptibles appears to be important factor in the success of premarital rubella screening programs. PMID:4025661

  2. An Exploration of New Models for the Improvement of the Pre-marital Medical Examination%创新婚前医学检查模式提高婚前医学检查率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祖玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how to establish the long-term mechanism and operation pattern for pre-marital medical examination since implementation of “The Marriage Register Regulation” Methods: We established the “one stop” service pattern, which ranged from premarital health education to marriage certification (including family planning consultation, birth-defect intervention and premarital medical examination) and was operated by co-work of civil administration department, health department and family planning commission and invested by the government. Results: We have successfully brought “one stop” service pattern into effect with co-work of the departments. Thus the rate of free premarital medical examination has continuously increased from 60.81% in 2008 to 90.09% in 2014. Conclusion: It is effective and feasible to implement the free pre-marital medical examination through interaction and co-work of civil administration department, health department and family planning commission.%目的:探索《婚姻登记条例》实施以来,如何建立免费自愿婚前医学检查的长效机制和运行模式。方法建立由政府投入,实现民政、卫生、计生联合办公,实行从婚前健康教育-婚前咨询-计划生育咨询-出生缺陷干预咨询-婚前体检到婚姻登记领取结婚证的“零距离,一站式”服务模式。结果部门联合办公,实现婚检“一站式”服务,使免费婚检率不断上升,由2008年的60.81%上升到2014年的90.09%;已查出的异常人群得到及时治疗和干预。结论政府重视,部门联动,卫生、民政、计生一体化办公,推进免费自愿婚检的实施是有效和可行的。

  3. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  4. Hemoglobinopathy carrier prevalence in the United Arab Emirates: first analysis of the Dubai Health Authority premarital screening program results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhoul, Khawla M; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alraei, Rafeeiah F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy carriers in United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals subjected to mandatory premarital screening in Dubai over a 4-year period. Data from UAE nationals who underwent premarital screening by the Dubai Health Authority between January 2007 and December 2010 were collected and analyzed. Premarital screening in Dubai is based on complete blood counts (CBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 6,420 UAE nationals screened, 8.5% (n = 545) were suspected to be carriers. The following carrier frequencies were observed: β-thalassemia (β-thal), 4.56% (n = 293); Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T], 2.9% (n = 186); Hb D-Punjab [β121(GH4)Glu→Gln, GAA>CAA; HBB: c.364G>C], 0.78% (n = 50); Hb Lepore (δβ hybrid gene) with an undetermined molecular genotype, 0.17% (n = 11); Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], 0.03% (n = 2); and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH), 0.016% (n = 1). Hb E-Hb S and Hb E-β-thal also occurred at a rate of 0.016% (n = 1) each; and 0.87% (n = 56) subjects were suspected of carrying silent β-thal. The prevalence of β-thal trait was consistent with the prevalence published by others in the region. Silent β-thal is challenging for screening programs, and is expected to arise in populations with a high prevalence of β-thal carriers. The prevalence of Hb S trait observed in this study was lower than that in other reports for the region. New cases of β-thal major (β-TM) still arise because many fertile couples got married before the screening programs were implemented, and pregnancy termination is not widely practiced in the UAE due to religious restraints. Moreover, some couples choose not to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) or pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), even if they are aware of their risk status. The prevalence of β-thal trait in the UAE is high. This justifies efforts to control the disease by

  5. College Premarital Sex Versus Self-Esteem, Religion, and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Elizabeth D.

    Premarital sexual attitudes of a convenience sample of 95 young unmarried college women were examined to ascertain the association between liberality of premarital sexual attitudes, religiosity, conservatism, self-reported premarital sexual behavior, and self-esteem. SPSS Pearson Correlation analysis showed different patterns for the group as a…

  6. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Stability in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Used data from probability sample of 10,472 ever-married Canadians to examine effects of premarital cohabitation on later marital stability. Results suggest that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on staying married. Positive effect remained when length of marriage and age at marriage were controlled. (Author/NB)

  7. [A comprehensive prevention programs on AIDS, HBV and syphilis among pregnant women and couples experienced premarital medical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xi-En; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Yang, Rong-Rong; Rezivan, Silafu; Li, Feng-Liang; Qin, Ai-Hua; Li, Li; Wu, Li-Zhen; Zong, Li-Li

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive prevention programs on HIV, HBV and syphilis transmission from mother to child and between premarital couples. HIV, HBV and syphilis were screened among pregnant women with interventional measure for infected women; HIV, HBV and syphilis (TP) were screened among premarital couples with medical advice. The HIV, HBsAg and TP positive rates were 8.4‰ (111/13 280), 54‰ (711/13 186) and 12.8‰ (159/12 401) respectively among pregnant women and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 73.8‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate (P premarital couples and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 131.5‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate alone (P < 0.001). Comprehensive prevention was more economical than prevention for HIV alone. The comprehensive strategies for prevention of HIV, HBV and syphilis was feasible, effective and economical that could help to actively conduct the preventive measures.

  8. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined four models of ways premarital cohabitation may affect marital quality using interview data from a national probability sample of 2,033 married persons. Found cohabitation was negatively related to marital interaction and positively related to marital disagreement, proneness to divorce, and the probability of divorce in nonminority…

  9. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z

    1995-03-01

    "Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."

  10. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1992-01-01

    The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.

  11. Recruitment of Engaged Couples for Premarital Counseling: An Empirical Examination of the Importance of Program Characteristics and Topics to Potential Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T.; Anderson, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Study seeks to understand what potential participants perceive are attractive characteristics in premarital prevention approaches. Results indicate that leader characteristics, content, and topics such as communication, finances, and problem solving are the most important elements of premarital counseling to couples. Differences based on gender…

  12. 婚检发现HIV感染5例分析%Analysis of Five Cases of HIV Infection Among Premarital Medical Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚晓炜; 朱静霞; 毕丹红

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析总结无锡市惠山区婚检发现HIV感染者的流行病学调查特点.方法 SPSS回顾性分析惠山区2008-2010年的婚检资料.结果 共检测出5例血液筛查和确证均为HIV-1抗体阳性的病例.其中4例是性传播、1例是血制品传播所致的无症状HIV感染者.性传播的4例中3例是男男性行为者(MSM),1例为异性性传播.结论 建议在婚检中引入HIV抗体筛查,有助于掌握疫情的流行趋势,从而采取相应有效的干预措施,控制HIV的传播.%Objective To analyze and summarize the epidemiological characteristic of five HIV-infected patients among premarital medical examination in HuiShan district of Wuxi. Methods The Date of premarital medical examination was analyzed by SPSS from 2008 to 2010. Results We found 5 cases suspicious to Anti-HIV by blood screening and diagnosed as positive for the HIV-1 antibody eventually. Epidemiological analysis showed one was transmitted by blood, four were transmitted through sex intercouse, three of four are men who had sex with men(MSM), the other was through heterosexual. Conclusion It should be carried out within marriage crowd of HIV antibody exmination which will be contributed to grasp the epidemiological trends of infection and take effective intervention measures for HIV.

  13. Premarital cohabitation and divorce: Support for the "Trial Marriage" Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    PJ Boyle; Hill Kulu

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies show that premarital cohabitation is associated with an increased risk of subsequent marital dissolution. Some argue that this is a consequence of selection effects and that once these are controlled for premarital cohabitation has no effect on dissolution. We examine the effect of premarital cohabitation on subsequent marital dissolution by using rich retrospective life-history data from Austria. We model union formation and dissolution jointly to control for unobserved s...

  14. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  15. Premarital Sexual Behaviour of Youths in Bolgatanga Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Research Centre Mental Health Nursing, In Holland University of Applied Sciences,. Amsterdam ... engage in premarital relationships and unsafe sex. ..... Popular places for 'marketing' – a term used.

  16. A Screening for Thalassemia among People Participating in Premarital Examination in Yizhou City,Guangxi%广西宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦孟兰; 韦雪玲; 韦景勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血(地贫)的发生情况。方法采用血细胞分析和血红蛋白电泳对宜州市2011~2012年20830例婚检人员进行地贫筛查。结果20830例婚检者中,血细胞分析检出地贫3310例(15.89%)。血红蛋白电泳检出疑α-地贫1153例(5.54%),其中疑轻型α-地贫1008例、中间型α-地贫57例、疑β复合α地贫88例;疑β-地贫1170例(5.62%);异常Hb 34例(0.16%)。结论宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血检出率较高,婚前筛查是预防地贫的主要手段。%Objective To learn the occurrence of thalassemia among people participating in premarital examination in Yizhou City.Methods The blood and hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis was applied to a screening for thalassemia in 20 830 cases participating from 2011 to 2012 in premarital examination in Yizhou City .Results Among 20 830 cases participating in premarital examination, there were 3 310 cases ( 15.89%) of thalassemia detected by blood analysis.The hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis suggested that there were 1 153(5.54%) suspected α-thalassemia cases,including 1 008 suspected mildα-thalassemia cases,57α-thalassemia intermedia cases and 88 suspected cases of co-inheritance of α-thalassemia andβ-thalassemia,1 170(5.62%) suspected β-thalassemia cases,and 34(0.16%) abnormal Hb cases.Conclusion The prevalence of thalassemia is higher among people participating in premarital examination in Yizhou City .The premarital screening is a primary means for the prevention of thalassemia .

  17. Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)

  18. Premarital Cohabitation and Postmarital Cohabitating Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabitated prior to first marriage were more likely to cohabitate after marital disruption than those who did not. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for…

  19. Drug Use and Other Determinants of Premarital Pregnancy and Its Outcome: A Dynamic Analysis of Competing Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1987-01-01

    Examined determinants of occurrence and outcomes of premarital pregnancy. Found cohabitation, being black, poor grades and high peer activity in high school, use of illicit drugs other than marijuana and dropping out to be associated with increased risk of premarital pregnancy. Premarital births were overrepresented among blacks, as were abortions…

  20. The issuance of work mode of folic acid in the process of investigation and study of premarital examination%在婚检流程中进行叶酸发放工作模式调查与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 唐栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨在婚检流程中进行增补叶酸发放工作的可行性。方法通过婚检门诊的病史、询问和相关调查问卷,对全市2013年接受婚前医学检查的2249名女性进行调查。结果婚检对象中对于叶酸用于孕前3个月-孕后3个月的服用率,3月内计划妊娠组为70%,已妊娠组为80%,其它组为20%,经χ2检验,P=0.0000,差异有统计学意义。结论在现有“增补叶酸预防神经管缺陷项目”与方案流程中增加婚检环节,叶酸发放工作的模式,是加强出生缺陷干预工作,降低神经管缺陷发生率的重要衔接和途径,是原有流程的补充和完善。%Objective discuss the feasibility in folic acid supplementation grant work. Method conduct a survey about pre-marital check-up among 2249 women who have received pre-marital medical examination in 2013. Result the rates of taking folic acid from first trimester to three months after pregnancy are different among pre-marital medical examination of the object, the rate of group which are planning to get pregnant is 70%, the rate of group which already pregnancy is 80%, the rate of other groups is 20%. Through the test of χ2, P=0.0000, the difference between the data is statistically significant. Conclusion add the premarital check-up link to the solution process and the “supplementary folic acid to Prevent neural tube defects Project”which we have now. the mode of folic acid grant work is the important link and way to strength the intervention work to birth defect and reduce the occurrence rate of neural tube defects, it also supplement and perfect the original flow.

  1. Differential use of premarital education in first and second marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Although second marriages are more likely to end in divorce than first marriages, and thus represent an important target for intervention, there have been no detailed examinations of the use of premarital education in second marriages. Using random-digit dialing methods, 398 individuals currently in a second marriage and 1,342 individuals currently in a first marriage participated. Compared with those in first marriages, individuals in second marriages were significantly less likely to receive premarital education for their current marriage. This difference was fully mediated by differences between individuals in first and second marriages in pre-engagement cohabitation, education level, having children from a previous relationship, and being married by a religious leader. In both first and second marriages, those couples at most risk for subsequent marital distress and divorce were less likely to receive premarital education. Results suggest that more needs to be done to understand the barriers to the use of premarital education for second marriages.

  2. Premarital cohabitation and divorce: Support for the "Trial Marriage" Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Boyle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies show that premarital cohabitation is associated with an increased risk of subsequent marital dissolution. Some argue that this is a consequence of selection effects and that once these are controlled for premarital cohabitation has no effect on dissolution. We examine the effect of premarital cohabitation on subsequent marital dissolution by using rich retrospective life-history data from Austria. We model union formation and dissolution jointly to control for unobserved selectivity of cohabiters and non-cohabiters. Our results show that those who cohabit prior to marriage have a higher risk of marital dissolution. However, once observed and unobserved characteristics are controlled for, the risks of marital dissolution for those who cohabit prior to marriage are significantly lower than for those who marry directly. The finding that premarital cohabitation decreases the risk of marital separation provides support for the "trial marriage" theory.

  3. INVESTIGATION ON STATUS OF PRE-MARITAL MEDICAL EXAMINATION IN CHENGDU%成都市婚前医学检查初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓芬; 张雯; 陈世菊; 高博

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解目前成都市婚检基本情况,探讨影响婚检的可能相关因素及市民、婚检医师对婚检实施方式的建议,为相关部门制定婚检政策和措施提供参考.[方法]采用目的抽样的方法抽取成都市社区居民315人进行面对面问卷调查,同时对成都市九区妇幼保健机构的婚检医师进行深入访谈,并对结果进行统计分析.[结果](1)成都市居民婚检情况不容乐观,对婚检认知有限;建议婚检应自愿参加、免费实施等.(2)部分婚检医师尚未取得国家要求的相关资格证,参加学术交流情况较差;部分医师认为应该适当增加婚检项目,实行免费强制性婚检等.[结论]成都市自实施免费婚检以来,婚检率有一定上升;居民对婚检认知、婚检服务质量等可能会对婚检造成影响,因此应坚持实施自愿、免费婚检,不断简化婚检服务并将其流程化,争取实行婚姻登记和婚检服务的“一站式”.%[Objective] To investigate the slatus of pre-marital medical examination (PME) in Chengdu. The factors affected PME and suggestions of implementation methods were discussed, then to provide the rationale reference for the reasonable policy of PME. [Methods] Survey was carried out in residents by self-designed questionnaire land and doctors conducting PME were interviewed, then data were gathered and analyzed. [ Results] (1) The status of PME in Chengdu was not satisfied. The mass had the limited knowledge of PME and they believed that the PME should be voluntary and free. (2) Some doctors conducting PME did not have qualification certificate and they seldom attended seminars; part of them thought that the PME should be compulsory and free. [Conclusion] The effect of free PME in Chengdu is not up to the expectation. The PME may be affected by people's knowledge, the service quality and the propaganda. A free, simple, standard process is a need to practice the PME.

  4. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Jyotsna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39% reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57% had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5 more

  5. The Effects of Religiosity on Perceptions about Premarital Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Das

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Opinions about premarital sex have been attributed to several social factors. Religiosity is thought to be one influence on peoples’ sexual behavior. Many studies confirm that religiosity reduces the number of sexual acts outside of marriage, but there is a scarcity of studies that examine the social ideology surrounding sexual acts. In an effort to fill the gap in explaining beliefs about premarital sex, the main objective of the current research is to investigate the extent to which religiosity affects views about premarital sex. Using the General Social Survey datasets for 1988, 1998, and 2008, the present paper examines the effects of religiosity and other selected control factors on the opinions of ordinary Americans about premarital sex. The results of the regression analysis indicate that religiosity is the single most important factor that determines one’s beliefs about premarital sex. The effects of control variables, such as age, sex, race, social class, marital status, and education were found to be inconsistent over time, and did not seem to mediate the effects of religiosity on the beliefs about premarital sex

  6. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  7. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-11-01

    This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. Religion, Pledging, and the Premarital Sexual Behavior of Married Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2008-01-01

    Social scientists know little about the effect of religion and abstinence pledging on premarital sex beyond adolescence. Evidence from a sample of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,079) reveals that premarital sex is widespread even among religious Americans and abstinence pledgers. Nevertheless,…

  9. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  10. Knowledge and attitude of university students towards premarital screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. A cross-sectional study conducted at the students' clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al Kindi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79% were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%, media (n=209; 35%, family and friends (n=197; 33%, and/or health services (n=181, 31%. The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92% thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53% favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36% favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  12. The Institutionalization of Premarital Cohabitation: Estimates from Marriage License Applications, 1970 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined extent to which couples who marry cohabit prior to marriage. Data indicate premarital cohabitation in Lane County, Oregon, increased from 13 percent to 53 percent during the decade. Trends and differentials for demographic subgroups are compared to national estimates. Findings suggest premarital cohabitation may be a new normative step…

  13. Health reform: examining the alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, W

    1994-03-01

    This Issue Brief examines the major issues of the health reform debate. The issues that must be resolved before reform can be enacted include: allocation of health care resources, universal coverage versus universal access, composition of risk pools, employer and individual mandates, and distribution of health care services' costs. This report also contains short descriptions and analyses of the following proposals: McDermott-Wellstone, Clinton administration, Cooper-Breaux, Chafee-Thomas, Michel-Lott, Nickles-Stearns, and Gramm. Proposals without an individual mandate will not achieve universal coverage. An individual mandate raises significant enforcement issues. An employer mandate will not achieve universal coverage by itself. Depending on the number of hours an employee must work to be included in a mandate, an employer mandate could potentially extend health insurance coverage to as many as 85 percent of the currently uninsured. Each individual has a risk of needing health care services. Restructuring the health insurance market is accomplished by changing the way individuals and their risks are pooled. The composition of these risk pools will determine the costs of health insurance and the distribution of these costs. The theory behind medical saving accounts is that the market for health insurance currently leads to health care cost inflation because many events covered under most health insurance plans are not truly insurable. There are two issues involved in medical savings accounts--the impact on low-income individuals and individuals' ability to evaluate the quality of care they receive. The present market does not provide individuals with adequate information for assessing the quality or effectiveness of medical care. Among the critical issues in health reform is how to reduce the rate of health care cost inflation. The effect of proposals that impose explicit budget caps or price controls on health care cost inflation can be more easily estimated than

  14. Adolescent Premarital Sexual Activity, Cohabitation, and Attitudes toward Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D.; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2001-01-01

    Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage, specifically a greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements. This paper examines adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of…

  15. Cultural Differences in Premarital Attributions regarding Successful Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Cal D.; Beasley, Ron

    Previous research and literature have shown that college students' and premarital couples' perceptions and attitudes toward marriage and family are only partially understood by researchers and educators. This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Mexican American and Anglo American college students regarding marriage partners. Students…

  16. Premarital Sexual Involvement: A Developmental Investigation of Relational Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, F. Scott; Cate, Rodney M.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differential impact of premarital relationship dimensions on sexual expression among 54 monogamously dating adolescent couples. Couples retrospectively responded to measures of love, conflict, maintenance behaviors, ambivalence, relationship satisfaction, and sexual intimacy for four stages of dating. Found conflict played major role in…

  17. The influence of college female students' premarital sexual behavior to reproductive health and the preventive measures%高校女生婚前性行为对生殖健康的影响及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宁

    2015-01-01

    It is an indisputable fact that the incidence of premarital sexual behavior of college female students has risen in recent years, and the premarital sex behaviors can cause the risk of genital tract infection and non intention pregnancy and artificial abortion. The promotion of sexual morality education and contraception in universities can reduce the incidence of genital tract infections and unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion, so as to guarantee the physical and mental health of female college students.%近年来,高校女生婚前性行为发生率的升高已是一个不争的事实,而婚前性行为存在着生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的风险。在高校中开展性道德教育及避孕知识的宣传,能起到降低生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的发生率,从而保证女大学生的身心健康。

  18. Attitudes towards premarital screening for hepatitis B virus infection in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Hedayati, Saeid; Mohseni, Masood

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the attitudes of the young adult population towards premarital screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Premarital counselling for reproductive health and testing for thalassaemia is required for couples wishing to be married in Iran. We added an information session about hepatitis B to the routine counselling programme, and then evaluated the attitudes of the enrolled population towards premarital screening for hepatitis B, through a self-administered questionnaire. From a total of 1342 participants, 1316 individuals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 98.1%). In total, 73.2% of participants were in agreement with HBV screening. Male sex and higher level of education were associated with more positive attitudes towards HBV testing. Conducting a universal premarital HBV screening programme would be highly acceptable in Iran.

  19. Does premarital education decrease or increase couples' later help-seeking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hannah C; Trail, Thomas E; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-02-01

    Interventions intended to prevent relationship distress are expected to enhance relationship satisfaction and, in turn, reduce the need for later couples counseling. We test this prediction against an alternative possibility: participation in preventive interventions may operate as a gateway for later help-seeking, paradoxically increasing receipt of later couples counseling. A cross-sectional study of 2,126 married individuals examined whether participation in premarital education covaried inversely or directly with couples counseling. Consistent with the gateway hypothesis, receiving premarital education covaried with an increased likelihood of receiving couples counseling. The association between receipt of premarital education and pursuit of couples counseling was moderated by demographic indicators, with the association being stronger for African Americans and for individuals with lower incomes and less formal education. Encouraging the use of premarital interventions may increase the use of therapeutic interventions later in the relationship, especially among high-risk populations.

  20. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  1. The effects of premarital medical examination on primary prevention of birth defects%婚前医学检查与出生缺陷预防的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康媛; 楼懿婷; 凌佩华; 丁焱; 李笑天

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨婚前医学检查(premarital medical examination,PME)的影响因素及其对出生缺陷预防的意义.方法 随机选择2006年9月29日至11月1日,在复旦大学附属妇产科医院门诊进行产前登记的300例孕妇,按PME与否分为PME组和无PME组,采用问卷问答的方法调查孕妇的PME率、人群特点、相关因素,对出生缺陷预防的认知程度.以及相关知识,比较二组之间的差异.结果 在300例孕妇中,PME率为42.7%.本调查结果显示.丈夫的籍贯与PME率有关,丈夫为上海籍贯的夫妇PME率(35.1%)明显低于外省、市来沪人员(50.7%)和国外来沪人员(43.7%)(P<0.05);PME率与个体受教育程度和个人收入均呈两头大中间小趋势;医疗行业从业人员的PME率低于平均水平;有效叶酸补充,在PME组和无PME组之间比较,差异无显著意义(分别为27.3%和22.1%)(P>0.05);PME组通过医务人员孕前咨询的比例(14.8%)明显高于无PME组(4.7%)(P<0.05).结论 PME的依从性较差,对预防出生缺陷的效果有限.PME的内容有待改进.

  2. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Uludağ; A Uysal; YH Ertekin; M Tekin; B Kütük; F Silan; Ö Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    ...) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β...

  3. Prevalence and mutations of [beta]-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Uludag; A Uysal; YH Ertekin; M Tekin; B Kütük; F Silan; Ö Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    ...) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β...

  4. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  5. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to protect future generations and to guarantee the continuity of worshipping God. However, some people reject the compulsory test, considering them against Islam rules. In this letter to the editor, the authors explore the view of Islam towards premarital medical tests.

  6. Premarital rubella screening in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, E; Faich, G A; Simon, P R; Mullan, R J

    1981-04-03

    Rhode Island law requires that rubella serological screening be done for most female marriage license applicants. To evaluate the effect of the law, 203 rubella-susceptible women detected through premarital screening over a four-month period in 1978 were surveyed. Of those responding, 37% had been immunized, 21% were pregnant or infertile, and 42% were eligible for immunization but had not received vaccine. Premarital immunization occurred most frequently when physicians advised and directly offered vaccine. A survey of primary care physicians indicated that 24% immunized none of their rubella-susceptible patients detected by premarital screening.

  7. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  8. Exploring the relationship between premarital sex and cigarette/alcohol use among college students in Taiwan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao Chi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette/alcohol use and premarital sex, and their subsequent consequences on the well-being of college students, are international health promotion issues. However, little is known about the temporal relationship of these risk behaviors among Taiwanese college students. Methods This study utilizes data from the Taiwan Youth Project, a cohort sample of 20-year-olds (N = 2,119 with a 2-year follow-up, to explore the relationship between adolescent cigarette/alcohol use, and subsequent premarital sex. To incorporate the Taiwanese context where the normative value of abstinence until marriage remains strong, multivariate logistic regression models included data on premarital sex attitudes, stressful life events, peer influence, as well as family and individual factors which might influence this relationship. Results The sample consists of 49% male and 51% female college students. About 16% of the sample report having had premarital sex by age 20. After excluding sexually active youth, 20% of males and 13% of females report engaging in premarital sex in the 2-year follow-up interview. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal adolescent alcohol use is significantly associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in premarital sex for both genders; adolescent smoking is significantly associated with premarital sexual activity among males, but not females. Our results indicate liberal premarital sexual attitudes and stressful personal events are also significantly associated with premarital sexual activity. Conclusions These findings suggest health promotion programs for college students need to take developmental and gender perspectives into account. Future research to incorporate a broader, multi-cultural context into risk reduction materials is recommended.

  9. The investigation on the compliance for taking folic acid among pregnant women after intervention of premarital health care- preconception counseling%围孕期妇女叶酸服用影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕岚; 林放; 王丽丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解在保健干预后孕妇的叶酸服用情况及影响因素分析。方法采用调查表形式对2008年10月至2009年9月在上海市闵行区婚姻登记处的“一门式婚检”的初婚对象的女性提供婚前保健同时为研究对象提供孕前咨询服务,2年内电话随访其妊娠情况及叶酸服用情况。结果在251名分娩的孕妇中,叶酸的有效服用(即孕前即开始服用且服用时间至少1个月)率仅仅40.23%。结论计划妊娠和孕前保健是叶酸有效服用的影响因素,应鼓励新婚夫妇制定生育计划,在提供孕前保健服务时,应将叶酸服用的依从性作为干预的重点。%Objective To know about the situation of pregnant women taking folic acid and analyze its influencing factors after the health care interventions. Methods We collected data through questionnaires and provided preconception counseling services for premarital women who seek premarital health in Minhang District Marriage Registry one-stop service from October in 2008. to September in 2009,then we followed up them via telephone. Results Among 251 pregnant women\\who had given birth , the effective rate of taking folic acid (taking from preconception to at least 1 month after conception)was only 40.23%. Conclusions Planned pregnancy and preconception care are effective factors of taking folic acid,.The couple should be encouraged to develop family planning.In the preconception care services, and we shoud take the compliance for taking folic acid as the focus of intervention.

  10. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to p...

  11. The Viewpoints of Sexually Active Single Women About Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study in the Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.

  12. Health promotion and primary health care: examining the discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    The health promotion discourse is comprised of assumptions about health and health care that are compatible with primary health care. An examination of the health promotion discourse illustrates how assumptions of health can help to inform primary health care. Despite health promotion being a good fit for primary health care, this analysis demonstrates that the scope in which it is being implemented in primary health care settings is limited. The health promotion discourse appears largely compatible with primary health care-in theory and in the health care practices that follow. The aim of this article is to contribute to the advancement of theoretical understanding of the health promotion discourse, and the relevance of health promotion to primary health care.

  13. Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young adults. ... The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale.

  14. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of premarital intervention: moderators of divorce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed.

  15. A study on“one-stop”premarital healthcare services based on SWOT analysis%基于 SWOT 分析的“一站式”婚检服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓曦; 吕剑楠; 王芳; 丁雪; 杨婷; 宋秋霞; 宋莉; 刘颖

    2016-01-01

    本研究根据现场调研和文献调研获取婚检相关资料,运用SWOT方法,系统分析了“一站式”婚检服务的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,提出了加强国家有关部委间的沟通合作、建立政府主导的多部门合作机制、加大资源投入、推动婚检与孕前优生健康检查服务整合、加强宣传动员等策略建议,为推进我国婚检工作提供决策依据。%Based on SWOT analysis and relevant information about the premarital healthcare services through on-site survey and literature research , this paper systematically analyzed the Strengths , Weaknesses , Opportunities and Threats of “one-stop” premarital healthcare services .It also puts forward some strategic suggestions on premarital healthcare services in China including enhancing communication and cooperation between the related national minis -tries and commissions , building a government-led multi-sectoral coordination mechanism , increasing the resource in-vestment , promoting the premarital health care service and pre-pregnancy physical examination integration , and strengthening publicity and mobilization of “one stop” service for premarital healthcare service policy recommenda-tions to provide a basis for decision-making in the promotion of the policy-related works .

  16. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyegbade, Olanrewaju; Bello, Ibrahim; Osakwe, Chiddude

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile-Ife. Method This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7%) of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner's sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy. Conclusion This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make

  17. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Abioye-Kuteyi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire.Results: 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7% of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner’s sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy.Conclusion: This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending

  18. Dimensions of Rural-to-Urban Migration and Premarital Pregnancy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U.; Goldberg, Rachel E.

    2013-01-01

    Rural-to urban migration is increasingly common among youth and could affect sexual activities. We use life history calendar data collected in Kisumu, Kenya, to investigate how the timing and number of rural-to-urban moves are associated with premarital pregnancy. Among sexually experienced young women aged 18-24 (N=226), 39 percent have experienced a premarital pregnancy and 60 percent experienced a move in the last 10 years. Results of the event history analysis show that those who experienced one or two moves or whose most recent move occurred in the last seven to 12 months are at increased risk of premarital pregnancy compared to nonmovers. Those whose last move occurred at age 13 or younger were also at an elevated risk. Migration brings about specific needs for youth, including the need for sexual and reproductive health education and services, which should be made available and accessible to new urban residents. PMID:24443586

  19. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gbenga S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out in 2008. A total of 375 religious leaders were used. Multistage sampling technique involving five stages sampling procedures was used to select participants. The research instrument was structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using EPI-INFO computer software and data were presented in form of tables, cross tabulation and test of statistical significance. RESULTS: Result showed that the awareness of religious leaders on HIV/AIDS, premarital HIV screening and Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing (VCCT was high. Most of the premarital HIV screening was initiated by the religious leaders. Also, majority of leaders made premarital HIV screening compulsory which is against the right of the members. More than half of the respondents said they will conduct marriage without premarital HIV screening and more than half also said that they will conduct marriage if one of the partners is tested positive. Religion was found to influence respondents’ attitude in making premarital HIV screening mandatory, rejection among respondents members on premarital HIV screening and conduction of marriage without premarital HIV screening. CONCLUSION: In as much as premarital HIV screening is good; members should be convinced to do this screening and not to be coerced by these religious leaders, thus, stepping on one of their human right. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 129-134

  20. Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire: Premarital Sexual Behaviour of Youths in Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geugten, Jolien van der; Meijel, Berno van; Uyl, Marion H.G. den; Vries, Nanne K. de

    2013-01-01

    Youths in Bolgatanga municipality in the Upper East Region in the rural north of Ghana suffer health and social problems that are caused by their premarital and unsafe sexual behaviour. This study provides more knowledge of and insight into the youths’ conceptions, motives and practices concerning p

  1. 36 CFR 21.7 - Health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 21.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.7 Health examinations. No employee who comes in direct... Reference: For a list of communicable diseases included in the regulations of the United States...

  2. Change in the Association between Premarital Cohabitation and Separation, Australia 1945 - 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; de Vaus, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate change in the association between premarital cohabitation and the risk of separation. Using retrospective marriage history data from the first wave (2001) of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australian survey, we examine 6,210 first marriages formed between 1945 and 2000. We find the association between premarital…

  3. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability: A Test of the Unconventionality Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Alfred; MacDonald, William

    1993-01-01

    Examined whether greater instability of marriage begun by premarital cohabitation can be accounted for by cohabitors' greater unconventionality in family ideology. Hypothesis was largely unsupported. Family attitudes/beliefs did not account for differences in stability. Controlling for background differences, only serial cohabitation was…

  4. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Role of Cohabitation in Premarital Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1996-01-01

    Examines cohabitation in premarital childbearing among U.S. women. Utilized data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the New York Fertility, Employment, and Migration Survey. Marked racial and ethnic differences in the role of the cohabiting union in family building were evident. Interprets findings in terms of long-standing…

  6. Family Adult Awareness of Adolescents' Premarital Romantic and Sexual Relationships in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Roche, Kathleen M.; Blake, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the circumstances under which family adults in Ghana were aware of their adolescent children's involvement in premarital relationships. It was hypothesized that factors related to the seriousness and social acceptability of the relationship would influence the likelihood of family adults' awareness in gender-specific ways. Data…

  7. Marriage and Cohabitation Following Premarital Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.

    1993-01-01

    Considered role of cohabitation in legitimation of premarital conceptions using data from 920 women. Found that, for white women in their twenties, pregnant cohabiting women were more likely to legitimate their first birth. Among black women and teenage white women, pregnant cohabiting women were no more likely to marry before their child was born…

  8. Single women's experiences of premarital pregnancy and induced abortion in Lombok, Eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L R

    2001-05-01

    Induced abortion is widely practiced in Indonesia by both married and unmarried women. This paper draws on ethnographic research, conducted between 1996 and 1998, which focused on reproductive health and sexuality among young single women on the island of Lombok in Eastern Indonesia. While abortion for married women is tacitly accepted, especially for women with two or more children, premarital pregnancy and abortion remain a highly stigmatised and isolating experience for single women. Government family planning services are not legally permitted to provide contraception to single women and their access to reproductive health care is very limited. Abortion providers were highly critical of unmarried women who sought abortions, despite their willingness to carry out the procedure. The quality of abortion services offered to single women was compromised by the stigma attached to premarital sex and pregnancy. Women who experienced unplanned premarital pregnancy faced personal and familial shame, compromised marriage prospects, abandonment by their partners, single motherhood, a stigmatised child, early cessation of education, and an interrupted income or career, all of which were not desirable options. Young women were only able to legitimately continue premarital pregnancy through marriage. In the absence of an offer of marriage, single women necessarily resorted to abortion to avoid compromising their futures.

  9. Therapeutic Value of the Periodic Health Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, T. A.; Hurt, H. B.

    1965-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been conducting periodic health examinations on all of its employees for over 10 years. The original purpose of this program was the early detection of disease to be followed by referral or appropriate counseling. Because of the relatively young age of this group, we expected that this service would be of greatest benefit to only the small percentage who had significant findings. However, over this 10 year period we have been increasingly impressed that those who had no significant findings have expressed almost as much enthusiasm and gratitude as those in whom we found early but potentially serious disease. This response caused us to look more critically at the reasons for this favorable reaction. As a result, we have become convinced that these examinations have an important therapeutic value to the healthy, as well as the sick, and that this fact should be considered in their justification. A health examination can quite properly be considered therapeutic, even though no disease is found or treated, providing it "serves" or meets some of the needs of the person being examined. After all, the literal definition of the word therapeutic is service, since it is derived from the Greek word therapeutikos, which means an attendant or servant.

  10. Report on Ten Years' Experience of Premarital Hemoglobinopathy Screening at a Center in Antalya, Southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran; Delibas, Serpil

    2016-08-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a major public health problem in Turkey. Hemoglobinopathy prevention programs (HPPs) were started in 33 provinces situated in Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions of Turkey in 2003. A premarital hemoglobinopathy test is mandatory and free of charge in this program. According to the Ministry of Health reports, 46 first level hemoglobinopathy diagnostic centers were established for premarital tests. Within the last 10 years, approximately 79.0% of married individuals per year were screened by the centers. While the percentage of premarital screening tests was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. The number of newborn with thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies were 272 in 2002 and dropped to 25 in 2013. There has been a 90.0% reduction in affected births. Our hemoglobinopathy diagnostic center was established in 2003 and licensed by the Ministry of Health in 2004. We studied a total of 89,981 blood samples from premarital tests for 10 years and the incidence of β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) trait was found to be 6.57 and 3.56%, respectively. The distribution of the most common abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) was: Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) (0.31%), Hb D-Los Angeles (HBB: c.364G > C) (0.15%), Hb G-Coushatta (HBB: c.68A > C) (0.06%) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) (0.02%). A total of 60 couples, both carrying β-thal trait, were directed to the prenatal diagnosis (PND) center in 10 years. The premarital hemoglobinopathy screening program is running successfully at our center and other centers in Turkey.

  11. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gbenga S.; Abu-Saeed Kamaldeen; Joseph Folake L.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carrie...

  12. A longitudinal study of the effects of premarital communication, relationship stability, and self-esteem on sexual satisfaction in the first year of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J H; Anderson, S M; Holman, T B; Niemann, B K

    1998-01-01

    This study examined select premarital factors from the ecosystemic perspective hypothesized to influence marital sexual satisfaction in the first year of marriage. A sample of 70 couples was administered by the Preparation of Marriage Questionnaire (PREP-M) a few months prior to marriage to measure premarital levels of empathy, self-disclosure, open communication, relationship stability, and self-esteem. At 1 year of marriage, their sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS). Using multiple regression analyses it was found that the best premarital predictors of husband's marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and wives' relationship stability. The best predictors for wives' marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and husbands' empathic communication. Conclusions and implications for premarital counselling and family life education are discussed.

  13. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  14. Premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    patterns. Compared with the average pattern, outlier countries had either high levels of premarital fertility and ... KEY WORDS: Premarital fertility, Adolescent fertility, HIV-AIDS, Sexual behaviour, Contraception, sub-Saharan ... widespread knowledge of disease transmission and ways to prevent it, as shown by numerous.

  15. Proposed low-cost premarital screening program for prevention of sickle cell and thalassemia in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz; Al-Hadi, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In Yemen, the prevalence of sickle cell trait and β-thalassemia trait are high. The aim of this premarital program is to identify sickle cell and thalassemia carrier couples in Yemen before completing marriages proposal, in order to prevent affected birth. This can be achieved by applying a low-cost premarital screening program using simple blood tests compatible with the limited health resources of the country. If microcytosis or positive sickle cell is found in both or one partner has microcytosis and the other has positive sickle cell, so their children at high risk of having sickle cell or/and thalassemia diseases. Carrier couples will be referred to genetic counseling. The outcomes of this preventive program are predicted to decrease the incidence of affected birth and reduce the health burden of these disorders. The success of this program also requires governmental, educational and religious supports. PMID:25003062

  16. Proposed low-cost premarital screening program for prevention of sickle cell and thalassemia in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz; Al-Hadi, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In Yemen, the prevalence of sickle cell trait and β-thalassemia trait are high. The aim of this premarital program is to identify sickle cell and thalassemia carrier couples in Yemen before completing marriages proposal, in order to prevent affected birth. This can be achieved by applying a low-cost premarital screening program using simple blood tests compatible with the limited health resources of the country. If microcytosis or positive sickle cell is found in both or one partner has microcytosis and the other has positive sickle cell, so their children at high risk of having sickle cell or/and thalassemia diseases. Carrier couples will be referred to genetic counseling. The outcomes of this preventive program are predicted to decrease the incidence of affected birth and reduce the health burden of these disorders. The success of this program also requires governmental, educational and religious supports.

  17. Attitudes towards mandatory national premarital screening for hereditary hemolytic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aama, Jumana Y

    2010-09-01

    A compulsory national premarital screening (PMS) program for hereditary hemoglobinopathies was established in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in February 2004. Termination of pregnancy of affected fetuses is not widely acceptable. Many couples decide to get married regardless of the result. A trend towards coercive interference with this decision is emerging. To examine the attitude of young educated individuals regarding the national PMS program and its implementation. Eight hundred university students (aged 18-29) filled in a self-administered structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the EPI Info Statistical Package version 6. A P-value Screening singles on admission to university prior to any commitment may be preferable than screening immediately before the marriage certificate is issued.

  18. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  19. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  20. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  1. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  2. Premarital Sexual Practice among Unmarried First Year Undergraduate Students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Gemechu Sendo

    2014-03-01

    premarital sexual activity that might predispose them to varied sexual and reproductive health problems. Hence, sex education & targeted behavioral change interventions are recommended.

  3. Premarital Screening of Beta Thalassemia Minor in north-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemizadeh, H; Noori, R

    2013-01-01

    Beta thalassemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000Patients who are homozygote for β-thalassaemia and 3,750,000 carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta thalassemia minor among men who underwent premarital screening in Quchana city in Khorasan Razavi region of Iran. This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From 2010 to 2011, all participants (1000) under marriage coming to health center of Quchan underwent routine mandatory tests. Participants were considered to have beta-thalassemia minor on the condition that hey had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 3.5%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured with a Coulter automated cell counter. Electrophoresis was performed on cellulose acetate. Mean and SD of hemoglobin, MCV and MCH were 16±2.9, 91±4 and 28.4±2, respectively. Hemoglobin A2 Higher than 3.5 percent was reported as 3.5%.The prevalence of beta-thassemia minor with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.5% (P-value). In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. Detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  4. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Carolyn; And Others

    These three learning modules present text, illustrations, and exercises to teach lay persons to take and interpret a temperature, collect a urine specimen, and perform a breast examination. The first module, by Carolyn Maas, defines "temperature," describes the three body areas for temperature taking, distinguishes between normal and…

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Premarital Counseling for Sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    yahoo.com; gooludare@cmul.edu.ng; Phone: + ... practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude ... A person that receives ... rate of affected infants17. ... By excluding children, adults, married youths, and.

  6. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marria...

  7. Social context of premarital fertility in rural South-Africa | Zwang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major social changes, in particular loss of authority of parents and increasing ... Much stigma was associated with premarital fertility, from friends, institutions ... In extreme cases, premarital fertility might lead to exclusion and deviant behavior.

  8. Examination of Bias in Mental Health Evaluation of Deaf Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert, Jeffery

    1988-01-01

    Examined mental health service providers' (N=80) evaluation of deaf patients in various programs. Found staff at specialized inpatient mental health programs for the deaf had more positive attitudes than staff serving the general population. Found mental health staff evaluated some deaf patients differently from hearing patients with respect to…

  9. Students' Reactions to Three Typical Examinations in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Orly; Anson, Ofra; Bentov, Yaakov

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A search for universal and particular changes in emotional, behavioral and cognitive assessments in relation to three types of examinations: an oral presentation, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and a pencil and paper examination. Methods: One hundred and two students of health professions completed the Profile of…

  10. Premarital HIV testing in Malaysia: a qualitative exploratory study on the views of major stakeholders involved in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmania, Sima; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2017-05-10

    HIV screening has existed in numerous methods as an important part of HIV prevention efforts over the years. Premarital HIV testing for couples who wish to marry has been implemented in a number of regions, which often operate in a mandatory rather than voluntary basis and is considered a contentious issue, with viewpoints held in favour and against. One such region is Malaysia which has a policy of mandatory premarital HIV testing of prospective Muslim married couples. The purpose of this study is to understand stakeholders' views on premarital HIV testing given the Malaysian Islamic context. 35 in-depth face to face semi-structured interviews were undertaken with key stakeholder groups involved in HIV prevention policy in Malaysia, namely, officials from the Ministry of Health, religious leaders and people living with HIV. Participants were recruited from the Klang Valley area, from July to December 2013, using purposive sampling techniques. Inclusion criteria necessitated that participants were over the age of 18 and provided full consent. Interviews were audiotaped, followed a standardised topic guide, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework analysis. Participants identified pre-marital HIV testing as an effective HIV prevention policy implemented in Malaysia and was viewed, for the most part, as a positive initiative across all stakeholders. Religious leaders were supportive of testing as it provides a protective mechanism, in line with the teachings of the Shariah, while Ministry of Health officials considered it a normal part of their HIV prevention screening initiatives. However, there were concerns surrounding issues such as confidentiality, counselling and discrimination surrounding the test described by the PLHIV group. The findings of this study show that among the participants interviewed was strong support for mandatory premarital HIV testing, which could possibly expose the vulnerability to HIV, reluctance to test and other areas in the

  11. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh smoking prevalence among applicants to Abu Dhabi′s pre-marital screening program, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Aden

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  12. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  13. Premarital screening for hemoglobinopathies: experience of a single center in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Al-Doski, Adnan A S; Markous, Raji S D; Mohamad Amin, Khyria A K; Eissa, Adil A Z; Badi, Ameer I A; Asmaro, Rafal R H; Hamamy, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    A program for the prevention of major hemoglobinopathies was initiated in 2008 in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. This study reports on the achievements and challenges of the program. A total of 102,554 individuals (51,277 couples) visiting a premarital center between 2008 and 2012 were screened for carrier status of hemoglobinopathies, and at-risk couples were counseled. A total of 223 (4.3/1,000) couples were identified and counseled as high-risk couples. Available data on 198 high-risk couples indicated that 90.4% proceeded with their marriage plans, and 15% of these married couples decided to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) in subsequent pregnancies with the identification of 8 affected fetuses; all were terminated as chosen by the parents. Thirty affected births were recorded among the high-risk couples. The premarital program managed to reduce the affected birth rate of major hemoglobinopathies by 21.1%. Of the 136 affected babies born during the study period, 77.9% were born to couples married prior to the start of the program, while 22.1% were born to couples identified as having a high risk. The main reason for not taking the option of PND was unaffordable costs. Financial support would have increased opting for PND by high-risk couples. Further reduction in affected birth rates could be achieved by including parallel antenatal screening programs to cover those married before the initiation of the premarital program and improving the public health education and counseling programs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  15. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  16. Sliding versus Deciding: Inertia and the Premarital Cohabitation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Markman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has consistently been found to be associated with increased risk for divorce and marital distress in the United States. Two explanations for this "cohabitation effect" are discussed: selection and experience. We present an empirically based view of how the experience of cohabitation may increase risk for…

  17. Premarital Contraceptive Use: A Test of Two Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, John; Maccorquodale, Patricia

    1978-01-01

    Tests the utility of two models for explaining contraceptive use by sexually active women (N=391). Significant relationships were found between use and permissive premarital standards and standard-behavior consistency. Neither model is particularly applicable to the contraceptive reports of sexually active males (N=354). (Author)

  18. Premarital screening for thalassemia and sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman; Almazrou, Yagob Yousaf; Alswaidi, Fahad Mohammad; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sickle cell disorders and beta thalassemia, with their regional distribution, in the adult population screened as part of the Saudi Premarital Screening Program. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted as part of the National Premarital Screening Program. It covered all the individuals who applied for a marriage license during the years 1425 and 1426 Hijra (February 2004 to January 2005). A network of 123 reception centers in the Ministry of Health facilities and 70 laboratories all over Saudi Arabia was involved in data collection. Of a total of 488,315 individuals screened, 4.20% had sickle cell trait, 0.26% had sickle cell disease, 3.22% had thalassemia trait, and 0.07% had thalassemia disease. Both the diseases were focused mainly in the eastern, western, and southwestern parts of the country. Among the 207,333 couples who were issued certificates for matching, 2.14% were declared high risk. Among the 2,375 high-risk couples contacted by telephone, 89.6% married each other, despite the known high-risk status. The results showed excellent access to the target population. However, the program's objective of decreasing high-risk marriages was not as successful, indicating the need for improvement of health education programs for the public, more efforts in counseling high risk couples, and changes in the strategy of timing of screening in relation to marriage.

  19. Factors associated with attitude toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Six-year outcome of the national premarital screening and genetic counseling program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Saeedi, Mohammad Y

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia but the outcomes were not quantified. We used six years of premarital screening data to estimate the burden of sickle disease and β-thalassemia over the program period and to assess the frequency of at-risk marriage detection and prevention. Retrospective review, premarital couples attending premarital and genetic counseling clinics with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009. Blood samples obtained from all couples with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009 were tested for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. Test results were shared with all examinees and genetic counseling was offered for all at-risk couples. Marriage certificates were issued irrespective of the results and compliance with medical advice was voluntary. Out of all men and women examined, 70,962 (4.5%) and 29,006 (1.8%) were carriers or cases of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, respectively. While the prevalence of sickle cell disease was constant between 2004 and 2009 (average 45.1 per 1000 examined persons, P=.803), the prevalence of β-thalassemia steadily decreased from 32.9 to 9.0 per 1000 examined persons (Ppremarital screening in Saudi Arabia markedly reduced the number of at-risk marriages, which may considerably reduce the genetic disease burden in Saudi Arabia in the next decades.

  1. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H; Hargrove, Taylor W; Griffith, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities.

  2. Examining structural breaks and growth rates in international health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar

    2006-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in examining health expenditures. In this paper, we study the behaviour of health expenditures in the G3 countries (USA, the UK, and Japan) and three European countries (the UK, Switzerland and Spain) over the period 1960-2000 from a different perspective, in that we examine: (1) whether there is a common structural break in health expenditures across the G3 and European countries; (2) whether structural breaks have slowed down health expenditure growth rates in these countries or vice versa. Our main findings are that: (1) health expenditures share a common break in both bivariate and trivariate cases, and structural breaks and break intervals suggest that either one or a combination of events (second oil price shock, the 1987 stock market crash and/or recessions) have contributed to the commonality of break in health expenditures in the G3, while the oil price shocks have been instrumental in the commonality of breaks for the European countries; (2) except for the UK, structural breaks have slowed down growth rates in health expenditures for the USA, Japan, Switzerland and Spain.

  3. Examining the Relationship between Instructional Leadership and Organizational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlar, Hanifi; Cansoy, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between school administrators' instructional leadership behaviours, and organizational health of schools. The participants were 538 teachers working in elementary, middle and high schools located in the Umraniye district of Istanbul. The data was gathered through the "School Principals'…

  4. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease...

  5. Associations between family characteristics and public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2014-06-01

    The family and the way it functions have a key role for the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Approximately 10-30% of children grow up in families where their health and well-being may be endangered or weakened. There is very little research data on public health nurses' concerns in connection with children's health examinations related to family characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of children's gender, age, family structure, mother's employment status and parents' perception on the sufficiency of income with public health nurses' concerns on physical and psychosocial health at children's health examinations. In 2007-2009, information about children's health and well-being and their background factors was collected from the health examinations of altogether 6506 children in Finland using a cross-sectional design. Associations between family characteristics and nurses concern related to physical and psychosocial health and development of children were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Physical health and psychosocial issues of school-age children raised most concern in public health nurses. Especially, public health nurses felt concern for the psychosocial development of boys both under and of school age. Family structure and the family's financial situation were associated with public health nurses' concern for children's physical health, psychosocial development and the presence of at least one concern. The fact that public health nurses found cause for concern during health examinations was associated with the child's gender, development stage and family characteristic. The research findings may be utilised in planning and targeting health counselling and services in child and school health care. Understanding the role of family characteristics in health and well-being challenges in children is useful in promoting multidisciplinary work in health care. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Attitudes of adolescents and parents towards premarital sex in rural Thailand: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Crozier, Kenda; Pfeil, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore attitudes of Thai parents and adolescents towards premarital sex. Data were collected from 11 focus groups with 30 Thai parents and 36 adolescents aged 15-19 years old in rural areas of Udon Thani province, Thailand and examined using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified from the data: the social judgement of girls; boys have nothing to lose; considering risks and parents as problem solvers. All themes relate to the continuing existence of double standards concerning the social norm for premarital sex as applied to young women on one side and young men on the other. The influence of traditional values is still very strong in rural north-eastern Thailand. The findings highlight teenagers' need for more support from their parents. The promotion of open, honest communication between parents and teens is important to overcome difficulties of social judgements and align thinking between old and new social values. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

    Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  8. Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p sexual activity was higher among males than females (44.7% and 19.2%, respectively). Predictors of premarital sex for males were age, sexual attitudes, perceived parental expectations regarding sex, dating and peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.

  9. Reassessing the link between premarital cohabitation and marital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG.

  10. Premarital HIV screening in Johor--(2002-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khebir, B V; Adam, M A; Daud, A R; Shahrom, C M D

    2007-03-01

    A descriptive study was conducted on premarital HIV screening programme in Johor over a three year period. HIV screenings were done at government clinics and confirmed by accredited laboratories. As a result, 123 new HIV cases were detected (0.17%) from 74,210 respondents. In 2004, 24 cases (64.9%) advanced to marriage (n = 37) after they underwent counselling and six of them married among themselves. Positivity rate from this programme (0.17%) is higher than antenatal screening (0.05%). Despite the implementation of the premarital HIV screening programme, marriage application in Johor rose 2.8% in 2004 compared with 2002. This programme had partly contributed to public awareness against HIV and provides another option in early detection of the disease.

  11. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, exami...

  12. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma Al Kindi; Salha Al Rujaibi; Maya Al Kendi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about...

  13. Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the U.S., little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health, paying particular attention to the paternity status of the mother's partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black (but not Hispanic) women. We find no evidence that these negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered.

  14. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  15. Mental health symptoms in combat medic training: a longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Teyhen, Deydre S; Wu, Samuel S; Dugan, Jessica L; Wright, Alison C; Childs, John D; Yang, Guijun; George, Steven Z

    2009-06-01

    Mental health symptoms in military populations are rising and constitute a significant health concern. This study examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in soldiers (N = 3,792) undergoing combat medic training. At the start of training, 10.4%, 15.5%, and 4.1% of soldiers had clinically significant depression, anxiety, or suicidal ideation, respectfully. These percentages increased to 12.2%, 20.3%, and 5.7% at completion of training, respectfully. Worsening of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation occurred for 7.7%, 11.4%, and 4% of soldiers. Higher percentages of symptoms were associated with females, lower education, and lower income. Active duty personnel were more likely to worsen following training with respect to suicidal ideation (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) compared to reservists. The identification of these significant predictors of mental health status may serve to identify individuals at risk. Additional work to examine the relative contribution of anticipatory (impending deployment) factors vs. training-related factors is warranted.

  16. Increasing health examination survey participation rates by SMS reminders and flexible examination times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Aistrich, Anna; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Declining participation rates are an increasing problem in population surveys. Different kinds of methods have been used to ensure participation rates as high as possible. Monetary incentives and reminders have been found to be effective ways to increase participation rates, but these are rather expensive to implement in large population surveys. There is a need for cheaper ways to motivate survey invitees to participate. The Kuusamo Health Examination Survey was conducted in May-June 2011. A random sample of 250 people was selected for the survey. Mobile phone numbers, when available, were obtained for people within the sample. For a random sample of 50% of survey invitees with a mobile phone number, a short message service (SMS) reminder was sent prior to their appointment. All survey participants were asked to fill in a feedback questionnaire. Participation rate was 58% for men and 74% for women. Mobile phone numbers were available for 66% of the sample. Among those receiving an SMS reminder about their appointment, participation rates were up to 25 percentage points higher than among the group not receiving a reminder. In the feedback questionnaire, 9% of the survey participants reported that they would not have participated without the SMS reminder they received. Participants preferred morning hours and Monday-Tuesday as time and day options for the examinations. SMS reminder about the appointment time was an effective way to increase participation rate, especially among the youngest age groups also, providing flexible office hours for the examination clinic may increase participation rate. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. A comprehensive prevention programs on AIDS, HBV and syphilis among pregnant women and couples experienced premarital medical examination%孕产妇和婚检人群艾滋病、乙型肝炎及梅毒综合防治成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂希恩; 张元珍; 杨蓉蓉; 热孜艳·斯拉夫; 黎逢良; 覃爱华; 李莉; 吴丽珍; 宗黎黎

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较分析孕产妇及婚前医学检查人群艾滋病单项防治成本与艾滋病、乙型肝炎(乙肝)及梅毒综合防治的投入成本费用.方法 对湖北和新疆3县市部分孕产妇和婚前医学检查(婚检)人群进行HIV、HBV及梅毒螺旋体(TP)检测,并采取阻断母婴传播的措施及相关医学建议;对检测结果及投入成本做比较分析.结果 3县市孕产妇检测HIV抗体13 280人,阳性111例,阳性率为8.4‰;检测HBsAg 13 186人,阳性711例,阳性率54‰;检测TP抗体12 401人,阳性159例,阳性率12.8‰.3种疾病检出率73.8‰.婚检人群检测HIv抗体26 324人,阳性464例,阳性率17.6‰;检测HBsAg19 152人,阳性1826例,阳性率95.3‰;检测TP抗体19 099人,阳性355例,阳性率18.6‰;3种疾病检出率131.5‰,显著高于HIV检出率.但孕产妇综合防治费仅为HIV防治费的1.4倍,婚检综合防治费仅为HIV防治费的1.8倍.结论 对孕产妇及婚检人群进行HIV、HBV及TP的综合防治,易被接受,可提高防治效率.%Objective To evaluate the effect of comprehensive prevention programs on HIV,HBV and syphilis transmission from mother to child and between premarital couples. Methods HIV, HBV and syphilis were screened among pregnant women with interventional measure for infected women; HIV, HBV and syphilis (TP) were screened among premarital couples with medical advice. Results The HIV,HBsAg and TP positive rates were 8.4‰(111/13 280) ,54‰(711/13 186)and 12.8‰( 159/12 401 ) respectively among pregnant women and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 73.8‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate (P<0.001). The positive rates of HIV, HBsAg and TP were 17.6‰(464/26 324), 95.3‰( 1826/19 152) and 18.6‰(355/19 099) respectively among premarital couples and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 131.5‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate alone (P<0.001).Comprehensive prevention was more

  18. A Literature Review of the Strengths and Limitations of Premarital Preparation: Implications for a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy R.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of marital dissolution and dissatisfaction point to a need for interventions, such as premarital preparation, to improve marital quality. Although several studies support the potential for premarital preparation to improve couples' marital satisfaction and interpersonal skills, results from other studies are mixed. Moreover,…

  19. Remarried Couples in Premarital Education: Does Our Content Match Participant Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Winifred Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Premarital education has been found to be an effective way to reduce risk factors of divorce, yet limited research existed on the use of premarital education with individuals who divorced and later remarried. Thus, remarrying couples, already at a higher risk of divorce than couples entering their first marriage, may be entering remarriage…

  20. Acceptability of HIV/AIDS Counseling and Testing among Premarital Couples in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Xu, Chen; Lou, Wei; Detels, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Premarital counseling is required for couples wishing to be married in China. The counseling primarily provides information about contraception. We evaluated adding premarital HIV/AIDS counseling and voluntary HIV testing to the standard counseling. The test was offered free to one group and at the standard cost to the other. The proportion of…

  1. Early marriage, premarital fertility, and marital dissolution: results for Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, J D

    1983-03-01

    Based on data from the marital histories contained in the 1973 National Survey of Family Growth, this research investigates the impact of age at 1st marriage and premarital fertility status on subsequent marital dissolution for both black women and white women 1st married between 1950 and 1970. Results, using multivariate proportional hazards models, indicate that 1) premarital births, but not premarital pregnancies, increase the risk of marital dissolution; 2) an increasing age at the 1st marriage reduces the risk of marital separation and divorce, but not monotonically; 3) blacks differ from whites in that they are less responsive to the effects of a premarital birth or a young age at 1st marriage in increasing the likelihood of marital instability; and 4) an older age at 1st marriage offsets somewhat the destabilizing effects of a premarital birth. Variables used in the analysis include husband/wife age difference at marriage, education at marriage, farm versus nonfarm background, stability of parental marriage, religion, religiosity, work before marriage, number of siblings, urban or rural residence, western versus nonwestern region, 1st marriage cohort, premarital fertility status and age at 1st marriage. Policy implications include reducing the level of premarital births, and establishing support programs for those having a premarital birth without a legitimating marriage which will delay subsequent marriage, especially if the birth occurred at a young age.

  2. A Literature Review of the Strengths and Limitations of Premarital Preparation: Implications for a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy R.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of marital dissolution and dissatisfaction point to a need for interventions, such as premarital preparation, to improve marital quality. Although several studies support the potential for premarital preparation to improve couples' marital satisfaction and interpersonal skills, results from other studies are mixed.…

  3. Americans' attitudes toward premarital sex and pornography consumption: a national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    National panel data gathered in 2008 (T1) and 2010 (T2) from 420 Black and White US adults aged 18-89 years (M = 45.37, SD = 15.85) were employed to assess prospective associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes. Premarital sex attitudes were indexed via a composite measure of perceptions of the appropriateness of adults and teenagers having premarital sex. Wright's (2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of media sexual socialization was used as the guiding theoretical framework. The 3AM maintains that sexual media may be used by consumers to inform their sexual scripts but that attitude change from exposure to sexual media is less likely when media scripts are incongruent with consumers' preexisting scripts. Consistent with these postulates, the association between pornography consumption at T1 and more positive attitudes toward premarital sex at T2 was strongest for younger adults, who are less oppositional to premarital sex than older adults. Contrary to the position that associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes are due to individuals who already have positive attitudes toward premarital sex selecting content congruent with their attitudes, premarital sex attitudes at T1 did not predict pornography consumption at T2.

  4. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  5. Cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian youth in South Africa today: A missional reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explored the rising trends of cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian and non-Christian youth in South Africa that is becoming more socially acceptable. Moving from a premise of engaging in these practices, which is not biblically justified, to what a missional Christian church can do, this article sought to bring the numbers of those who cohabit and engage in premarital sex down. The thesis of this article was that a missional church should view cohabitation and premarital sex as frontiers that need to be crossed to save the lives of our youth by minimising premarital pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (the Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] pandemic included. This will also go a long way in saving the sinking image of marriage. It is the presupposition of this article that cohabitation and premarital sex are great threats to the institution of marriage.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of premarital counseling for sickle cell disease among youth in Yaba, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludarei, Gabriel O; Ogili, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    Nigeria accounts for 50% of sickle cell disease (SCD) births worldwide and about 2.3% of her population suffers from SCD with 25% of Nigerians being healthy carriers. This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice of youths in Yaba, Nigeria towards pre-marital genetic counseling. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing both open ended and closed ended questions. The questionnaires (n= 280) were analyzed by frequency counts, percentages and chi-square. The study shows that 80% of youths had knowledge, 86% had positive attitude and 65% had practiced things related to SCD and premarital counseling. There was a significant association between respondents' educational qualification and knowledge, attitude and practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude and practices related to SCD premarital counseling. In conclusion, public education on the role of premarital genetic counseling should continue and avenues to allow individuals carry out genotype test should still be encouraged.

  7. How much do workers’ health examinations add to health and safety at the workplace? Occupational preventive usefulness of routine health examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz Rodríguez-Jareño

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: This study raises serious concerns about how health examinations are performed within our workers’ health surveillance system, which should be reviewed to ensure the fulfilment of its occupational preventive objective. Our results might encourage other countries with similar practices to assess them in order to assure their fitness for purpose.

  8. Sexual and reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai China: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen; Shang, Meili; Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Ma, Jin; Wang, Jin; Song, Huijiang

    2013-08-09

    We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority.

  9. 我国婚前保健服务筹资机制研究%Empirical research on the financing mechanism of premarital healthcare services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪; 王芳; 宋莉; 刘颖; 陈永超; 杨婷; 衡驰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper , we discussed the financing mechanisms of premarital healthcare services from their properties combined with the status quo financing in our country .We then provided the scientific basis and decision-making reference for improving financing mechanism to improve the premarital healthcare system .A literature or doc-umentary and field researches have combed the present situation of the premarital healthcare services financing mech -anisms at home and abroad .Related data were collected in eight research areas , namely Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Beijing and Tianjin and the related personnel from health administrative department , civil affairs departments , maternal and child healthcare institutions were interviewed in terms of Field Research .From the main content at present , premarital healthcare services belong to the category of quasi-public goods .We dis-cussed the financing mechanisms from the financing levels , sources of funds , fund allocation , payment and financial regulatory and other aspects .Finally, some policy recommendations were put forward including making clear the na-ture of premarital healthcare service property , establishment of a special financial investment mechanism , unify the basic financing service standard after scientific feasibility studies , timely and fully allocate special premarital health-care service funds to strengthen the fund supervision policy recommendations .%本文从婚前保健服务的属性入手,探讨其筹资机制,为完善我国婚检制度提供科学依据。采用文献调研和现场调研相结合的方法,梳理国内外婚检筹资现状,收集福建、广西、江苏等8个调研地区婚检筹资相关数据,并对政府有关部门、婚检机构相关人员进行访谈。婚前保健服务属于准公共产品的范畴,本文从筹资水平、资金渠道、资金分配、资金支付和资金监管等方面对其筹资机制进行探讨,提

  10. Examining the Association Between Temperature and Mental Health in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R.; Gavin, L.; Pearson, D.; Malig, B. J.; Ebisu, K.

    2016-12-01

    Background: The association between temperature and morbidity from some specific causes has been well established. However, the association between temperature and mental health effects has not been examined closely, although those with mental illnesses may be susceptible to temperature. Methods: We obtained daily counts of emergency room visits and hospitalizations (ICD-9 codes) from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development from 16 California climate zones from 2005 - 2013. Mean apparent temperature was determined by combining monitored temperature and humidity data from the US EPA, California Irrigation Management Information System, and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration and weighting monitor values by distance to zip code tabulation areas (ZCTA) and ZCTA populations in the same climate zone as each monitor. We used a two-stage hierarchical model to analyze this data, adjusted by the following independent variables: mean daily apparent temperature, holiday, day of the week, and a natural spline smoothing function of time. The regression was performed for both warm (5/1 - 10/31) and cold (11/1 - 4/30) seasons. Results were stratified by race/ethnicity and age group. Results: We observed an association between same-day mean apparent temperature and mental health outcomes during the warm and cold seasons. We also observed associations between temperature and suicide/self-injury and homicide/assault injury. A 10°F increase in mean apparent temperature was associated with a 4.98% [95% confidence interval, 3.73-6.23], 5.82% [4.34-7.30], and 7.43% [6.75-8.12], increase in mental health events, suicide, and homicide events during the warm season, respectively. Similar results were observed during the cold season. Effect modification by race/ethnic and age groups was observed for some outcomes for both seasons. Conclusions: Increase in mean apparent temperature was found to have same-day associations with several mental health

  11. Premarital screening of beta-thalassemia trait in the province of Denizli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, A; Türk, T; Polat, A; Koyuncu, H; Saracoglu, B

    2000-01-01

    A premarital screening program aiming at reducing the incidence of thalassemia major was started under the auspices of the Regional Health Administration in 1995 in the city of Denizli in the Aegean region of Turkey. In this report we assessed the 4-year results of the screening program. All couples who applied for marriage procedures were screened for beta-thalassemia trait by automatic red cell indices and Hb A(2) determination. The couples at risk were counseled and offered prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy in case of an affected fetus. From October 1995 to August 1999, a total of 19,804 subjects (9,902 couples) were recruited for this study. The prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait with increased Hb A(2) was found to be 2.6% (514/19,804). In addition to the thalassemia trait, 22 patients (0.11%) had sickle trait. In 15 of the 9,902 couples, both partners were found to be carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. After genetic counseling, 2 of the 15 planned carrier marriages were canceled. Seven couples declared that they do not want to have a child at present. Prenatal diagnosis was sought by 6 couples. One fetus was found to be normal, 4 had thalassemia minor and 1 had thalassemia major; this pregnancy was terminated by elective abortion. This study indicated that premarital screening is a very useful tool for detecting carrier couples and an effective way of controlling thalassemia major. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Awareness among parents of β-thalassemia major patients, regarding prenatal diagnosis and premarital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Fouzia; Abid, Hasnain; Kokab, Farkhanda; Akhtar, Adil; Mahmood, Shahid

    2012-04-01

    To assess the knowledge among parents of thalassemia major patients about prenatal diagnosis, premarital screening for carrier detection and impact of consanguineous marriage on disease transmission. Descriptive study. The Thalassemia Centre, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to September 2009. One hundred and fifteen parents of β-thalassemia major patients were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was developed and parents were interviewed to assess their knowledge about preventive measures against thalassemia major. Parents of patients with all other types of blood disorder were excluded from the study. There were 74 male (64.3%) and 41 female (35.7) patients with mean age of 9.5 ± 5.1 years. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) were accompanied by mothers and the rest by their fathers. Seventy-four parents (32.1%) were illiterate; among the literates only 7 were highly educated (3%). Ninety-four couples (81.7%) had consanguineous marriage. Fiftytwo parents (44.6%) knew that thalassemia is an inherited disorder. Thirty-eight (33%) had heard about the test for detecting thalassemia carrier. Premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis was known to 97 (84.3%) and 88 (76.5%) parents respectively. Ninety-nine parents (86.1%) knew about the termination of pregnancy on positive prenatal test but only 69 considered it acceptable religiously (60%). Major source of information to the parents were doctors. Parental knowledge about thalassemia and its preventive measures was inadequate; this requires intervention in the form of public health education programs concentrating on high risk/targeted population.

  13. Health impact assessment as an instrument to examine the health implications of education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J; Gakh, M; Coughenour, C; Clark, S

    2017-04-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that can be used by public health professionals to examine the potential health effects of a policy, plan, program, or project that originates outside of the health sector. This article presents a case study of how an interdisciplinary team utilized an HIA to analyze the potential health impact of full-day kindergarten (FDK) on communities in Nevada. Case study. With stakeholder and community engagement, we conducted a multistage HIA that included qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, a review of existing literature, and projections. The team considered several pathways through which FDK could impact health in Nevada: (1) school performance; (2) physical development (physical activity and nutrition education); and (3) access to school-based meals and health screenings. Findings indicated that access to FDK could enhance opportunities for Nevada's children to harness school-based services, increase physical activity, and promote nutrition education. In addition, based on existing research that suggests relationships between (1) FDK attendance and 3rd and 5th grade math and reading standardized test scores and (2) 3rd and 5th grade test scores and high school graduation, as well as available state and national data, we estimated that access to FDK could increase high school graduation in Nevada by 499-820 students per year. This HIA demonstrated that access to FDK could impact both student and adult health in Nevada. Our engagement of public health professionals along with stakeholders and the community in the HIA process demonstrated that HIAs can be an important tool for public health professionals to examine the effects on community health of policies, programs, plans or projects that arise outside of the health sector. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  15. Premarital screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies, HIV and hepatitis viruses: review and factors affecting their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is a comprehensive summary of premarital (prenuptial) screening programmes for the most prevalent hereditary haemoglobinopathies, namely thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, and the important infections HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and hepatitis viruses B and C (HBV and HCV). It describes the background to premarital screening programmes and their value in countries where these diseases are endemic. The use of premarital screening worldwide is critically evaluated, including recent experiences in Saudi Arabia, followed by discussion of the outcomes of such programmes. Despite its many benefits, premarital testing is not acceptable in some communities for various legal and religious reasons, and other educational and cultural factors may prevent some married couples following the advice given by counsellors. The success of these programmes therefore depends on adequate religious support, government policy, education and counselling. In contrast to premarital screening for haemoglobinopathies, premarital screening for HIV and the hepatitis viruses is still highly controversial, both in terms of ethics and cost-effectiveness. In wealthy countries, premarital hepatitis and HIV testing could become mandatory if at-risk, high-prevalence populations are clearly identified and all ethical issues are adequately addressed.

  16. PREMARITAL GROUNDS AND LIFE PLANS OF YOUNG PEOPLE: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Kasarkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with life plans of young people in the modern society, in particular, the issues of marriage, childbearing and family formation are analyzed basing on sociological surveys conducted in Saransk, as well as on a comparative analysis of other Russian and foreign studies. It is noted that nowadays young people eager to realize their own professional interests, to achieve material well-being, independence, personal improvement and only then to realize their aspirations in family life. Many attributes of marriage and family are implemented in matrimonial behavior of young peoplein a distorted form. For example, the preservation of pre-marital chastity is questioned. A special role is given to premarital cohabitation, which is represented as a certain step before marriage, allowing young people to check the mutual feelings, attitudes and willingness of the partners to have a full marriage. Emotional contacts and sexual satisfaction per se are valuable for young people, and do not always correspond with the question of marriage and family. Nevertheless, the questionnaire shows that in their life plans, though giving priority to career and financial independence, young people seek to build a strong family based on wedlock. Despite the emergence of new views on marriage, the  society still has strong enough thousand-year experience of family traditions. 

  17. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  18. Dissolution of premarital cohabitation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Balakrishnan, T R

    1995-11-01

    The rapid increase in the number of unmarried cohabiting couples, indicated by recent evidence, is crucial to our understanding of changing marriage patterns. The levels and patterns of entry into cohabitation have been well documented over the last two decades, but little is known about the outcomes of nonmarital cohabitation. In this study we examine two competing outcomes of cohabitation relationships: union separation and legalization of the union through marriage. Our results show that the hazard rate of union dissolution is affected particularly by gender, fertility status, partner's marital status, religion, age at start of cohabitation, year cohabitation commenced, and region.

  19. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kocaeli, Turkey: a crowded industrial center on the north coast of Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Nazan; Şenkal, Vijdan; Güray, Fatih; Şahin, Özcan; Bayram, Jülide

    2009-06-05

    Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening is one of the important procedures of hemoglobinopathy control program. This is the first report about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Kocaeli. Study covered screening from July 2005 to the end of the December 2008. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Regional Health authorities blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the wedding office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and high pressure liquid chromotography technique. A genetic counseling was given to carriers of abnormal hemoglobins. A total of 88888 people were screened. The frequency of β -thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait were 0.89% and 0.05% respectively. The frequency of high risk couples was 0.01%. The prevalence of β -thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait was quite low as a reflection of the frequency of eastern and northern Anatolia and migration to Kocaeli from these geographic regions. Although frequency is low, chronic transfusion requirement, high cost of chelating, organ damage, painful crisis and other crisis, availability of stem cell transplantation for a limited number of patients with compatible sibling donors justify premarital screening studies even in less prevalent regions as Kocaeli.

  20. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kocaeli, Turkey: a crowded industrial center on the north coast of Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Sarper

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening is one of the important procedures of hemoglobinopathy control programs. This is the first report about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Kocaeli. Materials and Methods: The study covered screening from July 2005 to the end of December 2008. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and regional health authorities, blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the marriage office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and high pressure liquid chromatography technique. Genetic counseling was given to carriers of thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins. Results: A total of 88,888 people were screened. The frequencies of β-thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait were 0.89% and 0.05%, respectively. The frequency of couples with high-risk of having a sibling with homozygous hemoglobinopathy was 0.01%. Conclusion: The prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait was quite low and reflects the frequency in eastern and northern Anatolia and migration to Kocaeli from these geographic regions. Although frequency is low, the chronic transfusion requirement, high cost of chelating, organ damage, painful crisis and other crisis, and availability of stem cell transplantation only for a limited number of patients with compatible sibling donors justify premarital screening studies even in regions with lower prevalence such as Kocaeli.

  1. 2003-2010年南宁市婚前保健与出生缺陷发生状况分析%Premarital Health Care and Birth Defects Situation in Nanning,2003-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 龚祖康; 覃颛; 李芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pre - marital medical examination ( PME) and birth defects situation in Nanning, improve the quality of the newbom population, and provide the theoretical evidence for formulating birth defect preventive measure scientifically. Methods The PME and birth defects situation in Nanning from 2003 to 2010 was analyzed. Results The PME rate in 2002 was 70. 66%. From 2003 to 2010, totally 1 087 060 people registrated marriage, 167 931 people had accepted PME, the average rate of PME was 15.45% ;during 2004 - 2008 the PME rate maintains between 2% to 3. 37%. Free PME was conducted since June,2009, with the PME rate of 14. 73% , and by 2010, the PME rate reached 65. 70% . The detected prevalence rate was 15. 70% . There were totaUy 10 437 birth defects during 2003 - 2010, the incidence rate was 16. 24 ‰, in which fetal edema syndrome ( thalassemia children) ranked frist Birth defects rate in 2002 was 14.73‰, and in 2010 was 18. 72‰. Conclusion The PME rate in Nanning during 2003 - 2008 was low, which increased after implementation of free PME. PME has the positive sense to reduce the birth defects rate.%目的 分析南宁市婚前医学检查(婚检)与出生缺陷发生状况,提高出生人口素质,为科学制定出生缺陷预防措施提供理论依据.方法 对2003-2010年南宁市婚检与出生缺陷发生状况进行分析.结果 2002年婚检率为70.66%.2003-2010年南宁市结婚登记人数1087 060人,婚检人数167 931人,平均婚检率15.45%;2004-2008年婚检率持续在2%~3.37%,2009-06起实施免费婚检,婚检率14.73%,2010年婚检率达65.70%.检出患病率15.70%.2003-2010年出生缺陷儿共10 437人,发生率16.24 ‰,胎儿水肿综合症(地贫儿)排列出生缺陷第1位,2002年出生缺陷为14.73‰,2010年出生缺陷率18.72‰.结论 2003-2008年南宁市婚检率较低,免费婚检后高婚检率上升,婚检对降低出生缺陷有积极意义.

  2. Playing for health? Revisiting health promotion to examine the emerging public health position on children's play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephanie A; Frohlich, Katherine L; Fusco, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Concerns over dwindling play opportunities for children have recently become a preoccupation for health promotion in western industrialized countries. The emerging discussions of play seem to be shaped by the urgency to address the children's obesity epidemic and by societal concerns around risk. Accordingly, the promotion of play from within the field appears to have adopted the following principles: (i) particular forms of play are critical for increasing children's levels of physical activity; and (ii) play should be limited to activities that are not risky. In this article, we argue that these emerging principles may begin to re-shape children's play: play is predominantly instrumentalized as a means to promote children's physical health, which may result in a reduction of possibilities for children to play freely and a restriction of the kinds of play designated as appropriate for physical health. We argue that within this context some of the social and emotional elements of health and well-being that children gain through diverse forms of playing are neglected. This has implications for health promotion because it suggests a narrowing of the conception of health that was originally advocated for within the field. Additionally, this reveals a curious paradox; despite the urgency to promote physical activity through play, this position may limit the range of opportunities for children to freely engage in play, in effect reducing their activity levels. We propose an example that promotes play for children and better aligns with the conception of health as outlined in the Ottawa Charter.

  3. 某区2009~2012年婚前医学检查结果的分析%AnalysisonPremaritalMedicalExaminationinA DistrictBetween2009and2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁爱华

    2013-01-01

      目的了解广州市黄埔区婚前医学检查状况,为有效促进婚检提供科学依据。方法对2009~2012年广州市黄埔区婚前医学检查资料进行分析。结果2009~2012年应检人数19350例,实检人数9119例,婚前医学检查率为47.13%,疾病检出率为12.23%。各类疾病中生殖系统疾病所占比例最高(72.07%),指定性传染病占17.49%,严重遗传性疾病占6.65%。在检出异常情况中,以HBsAg阳性乙肝病毒携带者最为常见,检出率8.89%。结论加强宣传,提高婚检率,是提高出生人口素质,降低出生缺陷的重要举措。%Objective In order to provide scientific evidence fo reffectively promoting the premarital medical examinations, the situation of premarital medical examination in Huangpu District of Guangzhou was analyzed. Methods The premarital medical examination reports in Huangpu District from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed statistically. Results The number of pre-marital medical check is 19350 persons. In fact,the total of premarital medical examinations were 9119 persons. The rate of Premarital medical examination was 47.13%during 2009-2012. The average rate of disease detection was 12.23%during this period. The first three kinds of disease were reproductive system disease (72.07%), designated infectious disease (17.49%) and serious hereditary diseases (6.65%). The most common disease was HBsAg positive hepatitis B virus carriers in the abnormal situation , the detection rate of 8.89%. Conclusion Premarital medical examination could facilitate the reduction of birth defect and improve the qualityof the population.

  4. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in jinan, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-Sheng; Tian, Cui-Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Taxi drivers' health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions to improve knowledge and change in behaviors are necessary and

  5. Health promotion with adolescents: examining theoretical perspectives to guide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S

    2002-01-01

    A guiding theoretical framework in research serves not only to guide a single research study, but also to link previous and future research that is guided by the same framework. Existing theoretical perspectives appropriate for use with adolescent health promotion research were reviewed. Instead of randomly selecting several theories for comparison, an intensive review of the literature was conducted to identify which theories were most commonly used with adolescent health promotion research. The results of this review revealed some interesting and noteworthy information regarding the state of theory use in adolescent health research for the last decade. Information is provided on theoretical perspectives by journal and year of publication. Trends are analyzed so that nurses can evaluate the current state of the science. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), the health belief model (Becker, 1978), and the health promotion model (Pender, 1996) emerged as the most significant theories for adolescent health promotion research and thus are discussed at the end of the article.

  6. Do cold feet warn of trouble ahead? Premarital uncertainty and four-year marital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Are the doubts that people feel before marriage signs of impending difficulties or normative experiences that can be safely ignored? To test these opposing views, we asked 464 recently married spouses whether they had ever been uncertain about getting married and then compared 4-year divorce rates and marital satisfaction trajectories among those partners with and without premarital doubts. Doubts were reported by at least one partner in two thirds of couples. Women with premarital doubts had significantly higher 4-year divorce rates, even when controlling for concurrent marital satisfaction, the difficulty of their engagement, history of parental divorce, premarital cohabitation, and neuroticism. Among intact couples, men's and women's doubts predicted less satisfied marital trajectories. Premarital doubts appear to be common but not benign, suggesting that valid precursors of marital distress are evident during couples' engagements.

  7. School-based survey of adolescents' opinion on premarital sex in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... opinion on premarital sex in selected secondary schools in Yakurr local government area, Cross river state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire with a reliability ...

  8. Premarital HIV testing on prospective couples in a teaching hospital in sub Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Osakwe, O J; Nwigwe, A C; Ofiaeli, N G; Nnaji, I J F

    2014-01-01

    Most religious bodies insist on premarital screening for prospective couples. To determine the level of voluntary screening, prevalence and risk factors of HIV among premarital couples. A cross-sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and HIV screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of everythird premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic between November 2010 and October 2011. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis of 386 subjects. A majority of respondents (83.4% or 322); X2 = 172.446, df = 1, p screening was 5.7% (22); X2 = 303.018, df = 1, p premarital couples. Voluntary HIV testing was higher than mandatory request, while cohabitation and upper social class are risk factors for HIV transmission.

  9. Premarital screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies, HIV and hepatitis viruses: review and factors affecting their success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; O'brien, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is a comprehensive summary of premarital (prenuptial) screening programmes for the most prevalent hereditary haemoglobinopathies, namely thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, and the important infections HIV...

  10. Religion, religiosity and premarital sexual attitudes of young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexual attitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality.

  11. An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

  12. An Examination of Health Information Management by the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how Deaf people perceive, access, and utilize interpersonal and media sources for health information. In light of the scarcity of research on health information management among this group, a two-phase study was conducted that included eight focus groups (N=39) and survey data (N=366) with Deaf participants to determine the…

  13. Prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin in premarital screening in the province of Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Genc, Ahmet; Taşyürek, Nilgün; Türkyilmaz, Bediha

    2013-02-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of the β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin in couples who applied for premarital screening in the third largest Turkish province of Izmir in the Aegean region. From January 2011 to March 2012, we tested 19,277 couples at the Karşıyaka Public Health Laboratory, Thalassemia Unit for the β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin using a high-performance liquid chromatograph, a hematology analyzer. The β-thalassemia trait with increased HbA2 (>3.5%) and abnormal hemoglobin was found in 4.96% (1912/38,554) and 0.53% (206/38,554) people, respectively. Of abnormal hemoglobin findings, HbS was determined in 128 people (0.33%), HbD in 50 (0.13%), HbE in 24 (0.06%), and HbC in four (0.01%). Furthermore, in 20 of the 19,277 couples (0.05%), both partners had the β-thalassemia trait and were referred to counseling. The prevalence of the β-thalassemia trait in the province of Izmir is high compared with other cities of Turkey. Izmir is a high-risk province for β-thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia. Therefore, premarital screening is essential to prevent new hereditary hemoglobinopaties.

  14. Prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits in premarital screening in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, E-N H; Yaqoob, M; Abdur-Rahim, K; Gustavson, K-H

    2008-01-01

    To study the prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. The Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia launched a countrywide programme in February 2004 to allow all Saudis planning marriage to screen their carrier status for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits. This population survey of mandatory premarital screening for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell heterozygotes provided an opportunity to estimate the prevalence of these traits in the Al-Qassim region. From February 2004 to October 2006 all individuals attending for premarital screening in that region were screened. For each subject, venous blood was taken to determine complete blood count, red cell indices and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassaemia trait if mean corpuscular volume was 3.5%; and sickle cell trait if sickle cell haemoglobin amounted to 35 to 45% and sickling test was positive. Totally 38,153 individuals were screened during the study period. The prevalence rates of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits were 0.165% (63/38,153) and 0.252% (96/38,153) respectively. Compared with results of previous studies carried out in this region on the same issue, the prevalence of sickle cell heterozygotes seems to be the same but the frequency of beta-thalassaemia carriers is substantially higher. Screening for carriers both of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits is important to prevent at risk marriages through genetic counseling.

  15. Cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian youth in South Africa today: a missional reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2011-01-01

    This article explored the rising trends of cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian and non-Christian youth in South Africa that is becoming more socially acceptable. Moving from a premise of engaging in these practices, which is not biblically justified, to what a missional Christian church can do, this article sought to bring the numbers of those who cohabit and engage in premarital sex down. The thesis of this article was that a missional church should view cohabitation and premar...

  16. Do Cold Feet Warn of Trouble Ahead? Premarital Uncertainty and Four-Year Marital Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lavner, Justin A.; Karney, Benjamin R.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Are the doubts that people feel prior to marriage signs of impending difficulties or normative experiences that can be safely ignored? To test these opposing views, we asked 464 recently-married spouses whether they had ever been uncertain about getting married and then compared four-year divorce rates and marital satisfaction trajectories among those partners with and without premarital doubts. Doubts were reported by at least one partner in two-thirds of couples. Women with premarital doubt...

  17. PERCEPTION TOWARDS PREMARITAL MEDICAL SCREENING: A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN QUETTA CITY, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Adeel Ahmed, Fahad Saleem* Qaiser Iqbal , Sajjad Haider , Adeela Anwer , Mohammed Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the perception of young adults toward premarital medical screening in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study design was adopted. Perception of young adults towards premarital medical screening was assessed through a pre-validated questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 1266 respondents of both genders. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All analyses were performed ...

  18. The Danish preventive child health examination should expand on mental health and the well-being of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    health. The aim of this study was to explore how the child's physical, cognitive and psychosocial health are examined and assessed at the health examinations of children aged 0-5 years in general practice. METHODS: Our study employed observations of the consultations as well as individual interviews...... of the health examination. Motor, cognitive, social skills and mental health are assessed globally through observation and communication with the child, and, to a lesser degree, through conversation with the parents. The child health examination rarely has a family perspective, unless the doctor is already...

  19. Thalassemia and premarital screening: potential for implementation of a screening program among young people in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Arslan; Ghani, Alina; Pal, Anam; Sami, Abeer; Hannan, Sana; Ashraf, Zohaib; Iqbal, Sulala; Malik, Umair Zafar; Hayat, Umar; Fatmi, Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has a high prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) but lacks a screening program for its prevention. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in six randomly chosen non medical universities to assess the students' knowledge of β-thal and premarital screening, and their attitude towards such a program. Comparison was made between the respondents' attitude towards premarital screening before and after providing them some information regarding the disease. Only 54.5% (207) of 380 students had heard of β-thal, with a mean knowledge score of 13.0 ± 4.4 out of 27 questions. Most respondents were aware of the concept of premarital screening. Out of 207 students, 60.4% wanted to know if they were carriers, 69.1% wanted to know their spouse's carrier status and 59.4% wanted premarital screening to be made mandatory in Pakistan. These figures increased to 72.5, 78.3 and 67.6%, respectively after provision of written information (p values: 0.03, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). The positive attitude towards premarital screening with low background knowledge of the disease highlights the need of a mass awareness campaign and subsequent implementation of a premarital screening program.

  20. Lack of health maintenance examinations and risk in myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Gleason, Charise; Faiman, Beth; Doss, Deborah; Catamero, Donna; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Katz, Mike; Kurtin, Sandra; Moran, Diane; Lonial, Sagar

    2016-07-01

    Health maintenance (HM) practices are essential to prevent illness, promote well-being, and maximize health. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancers, yet, research on HM practices and preventative care of MM survivors has limited report. The study comprised a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional online survey design. Survey of patients with MM was carried out through the International Myeloma Foundation (IMF) and the Association of Cancer Online Resources (ACOR) e-mail list services. The members of the IMF and ACOR e-mail list services were surveyed, of which 237 patients responded. The modified Medical Expenditure Preventive Survey-Preventive Care questionnaire was used; it included items that ask patients regarding their healthcare practices that relate to dental care, cancer prevention, addiction, lifestyles, sensory screening, immunizations, cardiovascular, endocrine, psychosocial, and bone health. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient were obtained. In this study, men had statistically significant inferior global health maintenance scores than women (P = 0.002). Being employed (P = 0.054) and married or partnered (P = 0.017) were significantly correlated with better health maintenance patterns among male respondents. In contrast, no statistically significant correlations between sociodemographic factors and health maintenance patterns were found in women. Patients with MM, particularly men, require continued education and close monitoring of health maintenance practices. These findings are consistent with publications looking at gender disparities in healthcare utilization in the United States. Studies show that men, in general, are less likely to seek preventative healthcare screenings. Healthcare providers must incorporate health maintenance promotion during clinic visits.

  1. Health communication, information technology and the public's attitude toward periodic general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public's attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government's subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  2. Breast Self-Examination in the Personal Health Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Female college students were surveyed regarding their acceptance of a film format for teaching breast self-examination. Factors that distinguished college women who regularly examined their breasts included: (1) conservatism; (2) confidence; (3) previous instruction; and (4) perception of the threat of cancer. (Author/PP)

  3. Health inequities, HIV, and public health practice: examining the role of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitative research has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitative research in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitative research can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitative research, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals.

  4. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes of Sana'a University Medical Students towards Premarital Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz A. Al-Nood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of Sana’a University medical students towards premarital screening (PMS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the students of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, during the academic year 2012/2013. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 516 Yemeni students. The questionnaire was composed of three parts; the first part was about socio-demographic data, the second part was about the students’ knowledge about PMS and the third part was about their attitudes towards the PMS. Results: Most of the respondents (92% knew that PMS reduces hereditary and sexually-transmitted diseases, believed that it is important to carry out and agreed to do it. Making PMS mandatory and legal prevention of marriage in case of positive results were accepted by 82% and 62% of the respondents, respectively. Conclusions: Although the majority of Sana’a University medical students favored PMS and had a fair knowledge about most of its aspects, a small proportion of them refused its mandating or legally preventing at-risk marriages. These negative attitudes could be reversed by health education of medical students on PMS.

  6. The Danish preventive child health examination should expand on mental health and the well-being of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The preventive child health examination is animportant platform for examination and dialogue concerninga child’s health. The physical aspect works well, butthere is a need for development of the assessment of thechild’s mental health and the well-being of the family. FUNDING: Postdoctoral...

  7. 'Disrespectful men, disrespectable women': men's perceptions on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex in a Sri Lankan Free Trade Zone - a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Öhman, Ann; Essén, Birgitta; Olsson, Pia

    2015-02-07

    Gender norms have been challenged by unmarried rural women's migration for employment to urban Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones (FTZ). Men are described as looking for sexual experiences among the women workers, who are then accused of engaging in premarital sex, something seen as taboo in this context. Increased sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) risks for women workers are reported. To improve SRHR it is important to understand the existing gender ideals that shape these behaviours. This qualitative study explores men's perspectives on gender relations in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ, with a focus on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex. Further, possible implications for SRHR of women workers in FTZs are discussed. Eighteen qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with men living or working in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ and were analysed using thematic analysis. Two conflicting constructions of masculinity; the 'disrespectful womaniser' and the 'respectful partner', were discerned. The 'disrespectful womaniser' was perceived to be predominant and was considered immoral while the 'respectful partner' was considered to be less prevalent, but was seen as morally upright. The migrant women workers' moral values upon arrival to the FTZ were perceived to deteriorate with time spent in the FTZ. Heterosexual relationships and premarital sex were seen as common, however, ideals of female respectability and secrecy around premarital sex were perceived to jeopardize contraceptive use and thus counteract SRHR. The 'disrespectful' masculinity revealed in the FTZ is reflective of the patriarchal Sri Lankan society that enables men's entitlement and sexual domination over women. Deterioration of men's economic power and increase of women's economic and social independence may also be important aspects contributing to men's antagonistic attitudes towards women. The promotion of negative attitudes towards women is normalized through masculine peer pressure

  8. Examining Acceptance of an Integrated Personal Health Record (PHR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Alicia A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this project was to examine the practice question, "What are the factors influencing acceptance of integrated PHRs for self-care management among the Howard University Hospital (HUH) Diabetes Treatment Clinic (DTC) patients?" These factors include a) demographic characteristics, b) computer access/use/experience,…

  9. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  10. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  11. Community Health Worker Impact on Chronic Disease Outcomes Within Primary Care Examined Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Doubleday, Kevin; Bell, Melanie L; Lohr, Abby; Murrieta, Lucy; Velasco, Maria; Blackburn, John; Sabo, Samantha; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-10-01

    To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outcomes. Within-group findings showed statistically significant improvements in chronic disease indicators after exposure to CHWs. In health center 1, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) decreased 0.15 millimoles per mole (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.24, -0.06), body mass index decreased 0.29 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.39, -0.20), and total cholesterol decreased 11.9 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -13.5, -10.2). In health center 2, HbA1c decreased 0.43 millimoles per mole (CI = -0.7, -0.17), body mass index decreased by 0.08 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.14, -0.02), and triglycerides decreased by 22.50 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -39.0, -6.0). Total cholesterol of 3.62 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -6.6, -0.6) in health center 1 was the only improvement tied to CHW contact. Although patients' chronic disease indicators consistently improved, between-group models provided no additional evidence of impact. EHRs' evolution may elucidate CHW contributions moving forward.

  12. Five-year evaluation of premarital screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the province of Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Bilgin, Adnan; Kızılok, Atakan; Arpacı, Abdullah; Yüreğir, Güneş T

    2006-06-05

    The prevalences of hemoglobin S (HbS) and β-thalassemia (β-thal) are high in Mersin, Turkey. In this study, the results of a five-year premarital screening program in Mersin province are reported. A total of 79,000 persons including 31,498 couples were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The results were given confidentially and at-risk couples were counselled on reproductive options and prenatal diagnosis. The carrier rates of hemoglobins (Hb) (HbS, HbD, HbE) and of β-thal were 1.21%, 0.17%, 0.04% and 2.04%, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four couples were at-risk, of whom 67.2% had health insurance. Twenty-seven couples did not become pregnant, six were divorced and 11 could not be reached. Of the 135 pregnancies, 80 had prenatal diagnosis. Five stillbirths occurred, and 18 homozygous babies were born to couples that did not seek prenatal diagnosis. Two families with prenatal diagnosis had affected babies: one was a late referral and the other due to religious reasons. For a successful screening program, emphasis must be on extensive and intensive informative programs for the public as a whole. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered free of charge as a basic public service. For a healthy population, knowledge and a shared responsibility between the public and the government are necessary.

  13. Health literacy and refugees' experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - a Swedish cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2015-11-23

    The purpose of the health examination for asylum seekers in most countries is to identify poor health in order to secure the well-being of seekers of asylum and to guarantee the safety of the population in the host country. Functional health literacy is an individual's ability to read information and instructions about health and to function effectively as a patient in the health system, and comprehensive health literacy is an individual's competence in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information. Little is known about refugees' health literacy and their experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers. The purposes of the study were to investigate refugees' experiences of communication during their health examination for asylum seekers and the usefulness of that examination, and whether health literacy is associated with those experiences. A cross-sectional study was made among 360 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the short European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Experiences of communication and the usefulness of the health examination were measured in several questions. Associations were sought using univariate and multivariate statistical models. In the health examination for asylum seekers, a poor quality of communication was experienced by 36 %, receiving little information about health care by 55 %, and receiving little new knowledge by 41 % and/or help by 26 %. Having inadequate as compared to sufficient comprehensive health literacy was associated with the experience of a poorer quality of communication (OR: 9.64, CI 95 %: 3.25-28.58) and the experience of receiving little valuable health care information (OR: 6.54, CI 95 %: 2.45-17.47). Furthermore, having inadequate as compared to sufficient comprehensive health literacy was associated with the experience of not receiving new knowledge (OR: 7.94, CI 95 %: 3

  14. The Danish preventive child health examination should expand on mental health and the well-being of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    ’sphysical health. The aim of this study was to explore howthe child’s physical, cognitive and psychosocial health areexamined and assessed at the health examinations of childrenaged 0-5 years in general practice. METHODS: Our study employed observations of the consultationsas well as individual interviews. A total...... of ninedoctors from seven clinics participated. We included 21 casesin our study, each consisting of a consultation and subsequentinterviews with the child’s parents and with thedoctor. RESULTS: The examination of the child’s physical health anddevelopment is an important feature of the health examination.......Motor, cognitive, social skills and mental health areassessed globally through observation and communicationwith the child, and, to a lesser degree, through conversationwith the parents. The child health examination rarely has afamily perspective, unless the doctor is already aware ofproblems in the family...

  15. Hospital admissions: An examination of race and health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gass

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of racial differences and differences in insurance status on source of hospital admissions.  The data source was the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey and included a sub-sample of 104,185 patients.  58.3% of patients were admitted through the emergency room, 75.0% of patients were White, 19.7% were Black, and 61.5% were on government insurance or uninsured.  Black patients were found to have significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (69.1%=p < .0001, regardless of insurance status (gov’t/self-pay, 73.7%=p < .0001, private insurance, 59.5%=p < .0001.  Patients on government insurance or self-payment had significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (65.8%=p < .0001.  Regression analysis showed that both race and insurance type are significant predictors (p < .0001 of Source of Admission to the hospital.  Percent probabilities confirmed this finding.  Thus, it was concluded that racial differences witnessed in source of admission were not mediated by insurance type and that race and insurance type are significant, independent predictors of hospital admission source.

  16. Hospital admissions: An examination of race and health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gass

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of racial differences and differences in insurance status on source of hospital admissions. The data source was the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey and included a sub-sample of 104,185 patients. 58.3% of patients were admitted through the emergency room, 75.0% of patients were White, 19.7% were Black, and 61.5% were on government insurance or uninsured. Black patients were found to have significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (69.1%=p < .0001, regardless of insurance status (gov’t/self-pay, 73.7%=p < .0001, private insurance, 59.5%=p < .0001. Patients on government insurance or self-payment had significantly higher levels of emergency room admissions (65.8%=p < .0001. Regression analysis showed that both race and insurance type are significant predictors (p < .0001 of Source of Admission to the hospital. Percent probabilities confirmed this finding. Thus, it was concluded that racial differences witnessed in source of admission were not mediated by insurance type and that race and insurance type are significant, independent predictors of hospital admission source.

  17. Can marriage education mitigate the risks associated with premarital cohabitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Allen, Elizabeth S

    2015-06-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., "precommitment cohabitation") for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between precommitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random assignment to intervention. After intervention, this precommitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, precommitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Furthermore, those with precommitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the 2-year follow-up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered.

  18. Pre-marital pregnancy, childspacing, and later economic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, L C; Freedman, R

    1970-11-01

    Abstract The nature of the first-birth interval has a persistent, if diminishing relation to the family's economic position at successive observations in a longitudinal study of Detroit. The pre-maritally pregnant (PMP) were at a disadvantage at either the first (1961) observation or the fourth (1966) as compared with other married couples with either a short or long first birth interval (short-spacers and long-spacers). The PMP disadvantage was much greater for assets than for income, but disadvantage in each area persisted and was not a result of age, duration of marriage, or other factors likely to disappear in time. Poor education combined with early age at marriage was probably responsible. On the other hand, the economic disadvantages of the short-spacers (not PMP) as compared with the long-spacers, diminished consistently between 1961 and 1965. The initial disadvantage results from shorter marriage and career duration for husbands at each parity. At comparable marriage durations the difference disappears. Nevertheless, this means substantially smaller resources per head at the actual time of birth of successive children.

  19. Perception of female students of king saud university towards premarital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Awatif A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of King Saud University female students towards the implementation of premarital screening (PMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two consecutive surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) were conducted two and nine months after the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA in 1/1/1425H. The female students of King Saud University were given health education lectures before the survey. The first survey was done with a designed close-ended questionnaire distributed at pre and post stages of the health education lecture. However, the second one explored the participants' perception of the same items in open-ended questions summarized as a "consensus statement". In fulfillment of their demands, the signed statement was mailed to the legislative authorities. A total of 140 university female students attended the first lecture. The response rate for both pre and post lecture surveys were 132 (94.3%) and 128 (91.4%) respectively. A total of 112 out of 132 (84.8%) students in the pre test and 111 out of 128 (86.7%) in the post-test were single. Of the married students 7/20 (35.0%) and 7/17 (41.2%) in pre and post tests had previously had PMS screening. The attitude of the students towards PMS was generally positive. One hundred and eight (81.8%) in the pre test and 110 (85.9%) in the post test saw the importance of PMS in controlling the commonest hereditary diseases. However, a smaller percentage of students (69.7% and 75.0%) in pre and post lecture respectively were in favor of the compulsory application of PMS in KSA. In spite of the positive attitude of all the students in the pre and post tests, fears were expressed towards the confidentiality of PMS test results and it was felt that social and psychological problems would ensue from abnormal results. This, however, does not represent the feeling of the entire population in KSA since the participants of the study formed a select group. The second

  20. How premarital children and childbearing in current marriage influence divorce of Swedish women in their first marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available By using a Swedish register data set and applying hazard models with unobserved heterogeneity, this study demonstrates that the partners' childbearing history plays an important role in predicting the divorce risks of families with various combination of premarital children. Families with premarital children definitely have a higher risk of divorce than do those without premarital children. Producing a common child reduces the divorce risk, but as the youngest common child gets older, his or her role in maintaining family bond weakens. Families which the wife has premarital children by another man decidedly have a higher risk of divorce than do families with other combinations of premarital children. Other findings deviate from what has been reported in the literature.

  1. Premarital education, marital quality, and marital stability: findings from a large, random household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Amato, Paul R; Johnson, Christine A; Markman, Howard J

    2006-03-01

    One of the limitations of experimental studies on the effectiveness of premarital education is the reliance on samples of mostly White, middle-class couples. In contrast, although survey methods allow only weak inferences about causal relations, representative surveys can yield important information about use and estimated effects across a diverse population. Using a large random survey of 4 middle American states, the authors found that participation in premarital education was associated with higher levels of satisfaction and commitment in marriage and lower levels of conflict-and also reduced odds of divorce. These estimated effects were robust across race, income (including among the poor), and education levels, which suggests that participation in premarital education is generally beneficial for a wide range of couples.

  2. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, M(age) = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood.

  3. School Social Work with Students with Mental Health Problems: Examining Different Practice Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…

  4. [The requirement for the health examination in work place to focus on mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 Mr. Nagatsuma, the former Minister of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan expressed his opinion that the health examination of work place should includes items to focus on mental disorders such as depression, just after the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology with related societies launched the Joint Declaration of Countermeasure for Depression. To carry out the examination the following requirement is necessary. 1) Keeping the results of the health examination in secret. 2) Enlightenment of mental disorders including depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorders. 3) Not only questionnaires for screening but also supportive and sympathetic interview methods that are reliable and valid. 4) Cooperation between work place and health professional In introduction of medical intervention and rehabilitation. The strategy to realize the above-mentioned requirements is as follows. 1) Education of the industrial mental health staff: public health nurses and psychologists. 2) Pilot study to examine the method of the health examination. 3) Research to establish the future preventive method of mental disrders. 4) Budgetary appropriation. As the health examination should be benefit for workers, hasty introduction of the examination should be avoided.

  5. Political ideologies and health-oriented beliefs and behaviors: an empirical examination of strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K

    2000-01-01

    The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.

  6. Examining changes in relationship adjustment and life satisfaction in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the association between relationship adjustment and life satisfaction before marriage to 6 years into marriage in a sample of 126 couples. Results showed that both premarital relationship adjustment and premarital life satisfaction uniquely predicted marital adjustment 6 years into marriage. Premarital life satisfaction, but not premarital relationship adjustment, predicted life satisfaction 6 years into marriage. While premarital relationship adjustment scores were not uniquely associated with future life satisfaction scores, changes in relationship adjustment were positively associated with future life satisfaction. These findings are supportive of the idea that helping people to improve their relationships may increase overall life satisfaction. The findings also suggest that, while an individual's base level of life satisfaction may set some parameters for the course of relationship adjustment, changes in life satisfaction over time impact marital adjustment. Starting marriage with higher life satisfaction may increase chances for a happier marriage. Overall, the findings suggest that life satisfaction plays a role in marital adjustment over time, and that it is important to consider life satisfaction as not only an outcome associated with relationship adjustment but also as a predictor of relationship adjustment.

  7. An examination of health inequities among college students by sexual orientation identity and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Brittain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB college students may have an increased number of health inequities compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date, no research has provided a comprehensive examination of health-related factors by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine physical, sexual, interpersonal relations/safety, and mental health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex among a national sample of college students. Design and methods. Participants (n=39,767 completed the National College Health Assessment II during the fall 2008/spring 2009 academic year. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine health inequities by sexual orientation identity and sex. Results. LGB students compared to heterosexual students, experienced multiple health inequities including higher rates of being verbally threatened and lower rates of physical activity and condom use. Conclusions. An understanding of health inequities experienced by LGB college students is critical as during these years of transition, students engage in protective (e.g., physical activity and risky (e.g., lack of condom use health behaviours, establishing habits that could last a lifetime. Future research should be used to design and implement targeted public health strategies and policies to reduce health inequities and improve health-related quality of life among LGB college students.

  8. Perceptions and health beliefs of Greek nursing students about breast self-examination: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavdaniti, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Breast self-examination is a screening option for young women. Among students, knowledge about breast self-examination ranges from insufficient to average. This descriptive study was planned in order to determine the health beliefs and perceptions of nursing students regarding breast self-examinations. We recruited 538 nursing students in a single Higher Technological Educational Institute in Greece. Data were collected using the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Parametric tests were used in the data analysis. We found significant differences in the results of the subscales of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale on comparing people with respect to nationality, previous education about breast self-examination, smoking status and semester in which they were studying. The 'confidence' subscale was positively associated with the frequency of breast self-examination. The results of the present study demonstrated that nursing students have knowledge about breast-self examination but inadequate practice.

  9. An international Delphi study examining health promotion and health education in nursing practice, education and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2008-04-01

    To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto

  10. Research and Theory on Mate Selection and Premarital Relationships in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surra, Catherine A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews major advances in research and theory on mate selection in the 1980s. Considers literature relevant to societal trends and influences on trends, social networks and premarital relationships, behavioral features of relationships, and individual attributions for relationship development. Throughout the review, two themes appear:…

  11. As Good as Married? A Model of Premarital Cohabitation and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, Padma Rao; Gu, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a two-sided search-matching model with imperfectly observed types and sequential learning. We use the metaphor of premarital cohabitation and assume that it is initiated to learn more about one's prospective spouse. We show that couples match within classes and that the classes

  12. Is Your Love in Vain? Another Look at Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the association between premarital cohabitation and subsequent risk of divorce. Theoretically couples who cohabit before marriage should have a lower subsequent risk of divorce since cohabitation enables you to gather information about the match quality, and only good matches evolve into…

  13. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  14. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A.; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (N=4,547) to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. We find that the nature and strength of the estimated effects of several risk factors for disruption differ across groups. In particular,…

  15. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship and Subsequent Marital Adjustment: A Replication and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roy E. L.; DeMeo, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated earlier study of couples in first year of marriage. Conducted follow-up study of couples in fourth year of marriage who had participated in original or replication studies. Concludes that premarital relationships of the couples, whether cohabitation or traditional courtship, does not appear to have had long-term effect on marital…

  16. The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and Its Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the influence of self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and its resolution. Results for 1,142 white adolescent girls show that self-esteem and attitudes toward schooling and family roles were…

  17. The Role of Mass Media in Iranian Youth’s Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth’s sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships. Also, 12 other participants who were involved in such an experience were recruited in this study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and the observation of youth’s sexual interactions in different fields. Conventional content analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were developed: “foreigner media as the role model”, “the ease of access to sexual contents and materials” and “the ease of interactions and relationships with the opposite sex”. Conclusion: The prominent role of mass media in the formation of premarital sexual relationships was described in this study. This issue needs to be taken into consideration by policy makers for taking necessary actions for reducing the impact of mass media on the youth’s engagement in premarital sexual relationships

  18. As Good as Married? A Model of Premarital Cohabitation and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, Padma Rao; Gu, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a two-sided search-matching model with imperfectly observed types and sequential learning. We use the metaphor of premarital cohabitation and assume that it is initiated to learn more about one's prospective spouse. We show that couples match within classes and that the classes

  19. Prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital screening in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suliman, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The Al-Hassa area is one of the regions in Saudi Arabia where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent. The Saudi Ministry Of Heath designed a protocol for premarital testing after the royal decree in December 2003. The protocol was implemented in a February 2004 order. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait among subjects coming for premarital screening in the Al-Hassa area. From February 2004 to November 2004, healthy subjects coming to six marriages consultation centers in the Al-Hassa area underwent routine mandatory tests. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 3.2%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured by a Coulter automated cell counter on the same day of hemoglobin collection. Electrophoresis was done on cellulose acetate. All Saudi participants (n=8918), including 4218 (47.3%) males and 4700 (52.7%) females were screened. The prevalence of beta-thassemia trait with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.4% (307/8918). In countries with a high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. With a 3.4% prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital couples, future comprehensive programs are needed to know the actual prevalence of beta-thalassemia in Al-Hassa.

  20. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  1. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  2. The Effects of a Premarital Relationship Enrichment Program on Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tugba; Kalkan, Melek

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a premarital relationship enrichment program on relationship satisfaction among couples. The experimental and control groups were totally composed of 20 individuals. In order to test whether there are any significant differences between the scores of pre-test and post-test within the control…

  3. Breast Self-Examination Beliefs and Practices, Ethnicity, and Health Literacy: Implications for Health Education to Reduce Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, Julie; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Vivian, James; Vergara, Cunegundo; Shaw, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively examine breast cancer screening practices, including breast self-examination (BSE), and health literacy among patients with chronic disease. Design: A prospective, multi-method study conducted with a targeted purposive sample of 297 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension from four…

  4. Breast Self-Examination Beliefs and Practices, Ethnicity, and Health Literacy: Implications for Health Education to Reduce Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, Julie; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Vivian, James; Vergara, Cunegundo; Shaw, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively examine breast cancer screening practices, including breast self-examination (BSE), and health literacy among patients with chronic disease. Design: A prospective, multi-method study conducted with a targeted purposive sample of 297 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension from four…

  5. Prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease in premarital couples in Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Nnaji, Ijf; Osakwe, J O; Nwigwe, A C; Onwurah, O W

    2013-01-01

    Premarital haemoglobin screening is an important strategy for the control of Sickle Cell Disease. To determine the prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease among premarital couples and to assess their attitude to the risk of sickle cell anaemia in their offspring. A cross sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and haemoglobin screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of every third premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, between November 2010 and October 2011 was used to select the subjects for the study. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis of data from 212 premarital couples or 424 subjects. The prevalence of HbAA and HbAS were 72.64% or 308/424 and 26.4% or 112/424, respectively, while HbSS was 0.94% or 4/424. In 95.3% of the couples there was no risk of offspring inheriting sickle cell anaemia. An equal percentage of males (χ2 = 24.704; df = 6; P = 0.000) and females (χ2 = 12. 684; df 6; P = 0.048) (67.9% or 144/212) would call-off their marriage if there was risk of their offspring being HbSS. Three quarters of the premarital couples had HbAA, while one quarter had Sickle cell trait. A very low percentage of the couples (2.8%) had 1:4 risk of their offspring inheriting SCA (HbSS). About 2/3 of the subjects would call-off the marriage if there was risk of their offspring inheriting SCA.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Teacher Organizational Commitment and School Health in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and school health in Turkish primary schools. The Organizational Commitment Scale and the Organizational Health Inventory were used to gather data from 323 randomly selected teachers employed in 20 primary schools in Ankara.…

  7. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  8. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey...

  9. Examining Mental Health Differences between Transfer and Nontransfer University Students Seeking Counseling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Kristin E.; Daltry, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article sought to examine the differences between transfer and nontransfer students on mental health factors, social involvement, and academic success. It was found that transfer students had significantly higher scores on several mental health factors as compared to nontransfer students. It was also found that transfer students were less…

  10. Examining fear and stress as mediators between disorder perceptions and personal health, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danielle

    2012-11-01

    Research examining the effect of neighborhoods on personal health has often focused on neighborhood disorder, or visual cues in neighborhoods perceived as personally threatening or noxious. Neighborhood disorderliness is thought to elevate individuals' fear of crime, thereby negatively impacting personal and mental health. Unfortunately, the pathways between disorder, fear of crime, and health have yet to be established. This study examines the pathways between neighborhood disorder, fear of crime, and three health outcomes. Using the Community, Crime and Health Survey, this study employs structural equation modeling to examine how general (being afraid of walking alone) and offense-specific fear of crime (being afraid of specific crimes) mediate the relationship between individuals' disorder perceptions and self-rated health, depression and anxiety. Results show that fear of crime does mediate the relationship between disorder perceptions, self-rated health and depression, though the mediating pathways are weak. This study suggests that the disorder-fear of crime-health nexus should be re-examined theoretically.

  11. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  12. National databases and rheumatology research II: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Krishnan, Eswar

    2004-11-01

    Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were conducted in the United States between 1971 and 1994 to provide data on the nutritional and health status of the population and on specific target conditions. This article describes features of the surveys and provides examples of research on musculoskeletal disorders that used the survey data.

  13. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  14. An examination of health selection among U.S. immigrants using multi-national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Fleischer, Nancy L; Blebu, Bridgette

    2016-06-01

    While migrants are widely believed to be positively selected on health, there has been very little empirical exploration of the actual health differential between migrants and non-migrants. This paper explored: 1) the extent of health selection by comparing US immigrants from 19 sending countries to their non-migrating counterparts still residing in the countries of origin; 2) country-level correlates of health selection; and 3) whether country-level health selection accounted for differences in self-rated health between immigrants and US-born Whites. We combined nationally-representative international data with data from US immigrants from the 2003-2007 Current Population Survey. The health selectivity measure was the Net Difference Index (NDI), which compares the distribution of self-rated health between migrants and non-migrants. We calculated Spearman correlation and bivariate regression coefficients between the NDI and economic, health, distance, and migration characteristics of the sending countries. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the association between country-level health selection and immigrants' current self-rated health. We found immigrants from South America to show the most positive health selection. Health selection was significantly correlated with visa mode of entry, where family networks decrease, but work-related networks increase health selection. There was little evidence that country-level health selection explained differences in the self-rated health of US immigrants relative to US-born Whites. Our findings do not support the idea that country-level health selection underlies the "healthy immigrant effect".

  15. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  16. Developing an Innovative Customer Relationship Management Model for Better Health Examination Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu JrJung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People emphasize on their own health and wish to know more about their conditions. Chronic diseases now take up to 50 percent of top 10 causes of death. As a result, the health-care industry has emerged and kept thriving. This work adopts an innovative customer-oriented business model since most clients are proactive and spontaneous in taking the “distinguished” health examination programs. We adopt the soft system dynamics methodology (SSDM to develop and to evaluate the steps of introducing customer relationship management model into a case health examination organization. Quantitative results are also presented for a case physical examination center and to assess the improved efficiency. The case study shows that the procedures developed here could provide a better service.

  17. Developing a Customer Relationship Management Model for Better Health Examination Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Jr-Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People emphasize on their own health and wish to know more about their conditions. Chronic diseases now take up to 50 percent of top 10 causes of death. As a result, the health-care industry has emerged and kept thriving. This work adopts a customer-oriented business model since most clients are proactive and spontaneous in taking the “distinguished” health examination programs. We adopt the soft system dynamics methodology (SSDM to develop and to evaluate the steps of introducing customer relationship management model into a case health examination organization. Quantitative results are also presented for a case physical examination center and to assess the improved efficiency. The case study shows that the procedures developed here could provide a better service.

  18. Association of Health-related Quality of Life with Health Examination and Lifestyles of Government Managers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Changrong; L(U) Bin; LU Zuxun; QIN Shilong

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the association of each item of a health examination and lifestyles with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a cross-sectional survey by a self-administered questionnaire using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12, version 1) was conducted on 145 government managers that took health examinations in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China during 2005. The results showed that the determinations of organic functions including BMI, hemoglobin, blood platelet count,urine protein, urine WBC and lipid metabolism (LDL) were associated with HRQoL. The lifestyle items including age, sex, life satisfaction, drinking alcohol and kind of alcohol drunk, drinking tea,sleep quality and adhering to bedtime, working overtime, work stress were associated with HRQoL in the multiple regression models. Sex, age and life satisfaction were the lifestyle items most closely associated with HRQoL, while LDL, hemoglobin and urine protein were the health examination items most closely associated HRQoL. This study revealed that both lifestyle and health examination items were associated with HRQoL.

  19. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko

  20. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households.

  1. Perceived determinants of mental health for bisexual people: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Dobinson, Cheryl; Eady, Allison

    2010-03-01

    We examined the determinants of mental health, as perceived by bisexual people, in order to begin understanding the disparities in the rates of mental health problems reported by bisexual people versus those reported by heterosexual people, and, in many studies, gay men and lesbians. Our community-based participatory action research project comprised focus groups and semistructured interviews with 55 bisexual people across the province of Ontario, Canada. Perceived determinants of emotional well-being identified by participants could be classified as macrolevel (social structure), mesolevel (interpersonal), or microlevel (individual). In the context of this framework, monosexism and biphobia were perceived to exert a broad-reaching impact on participants' mental health. Like other marginalized populations, bisexual people perceive experiences of discrimination as important determinants of mental health problems. Additional research is required to examine the relationships between these perceived determinants of emotional well-being and specific mental health outcomes and to guide interventions, advocacy, and support for bisexual people.

  2. Psoriasis and Sexual Behavior in Men: examination of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Harskamp, Caitlin T; Schupp, Clayton W

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiologic data on sexual behavior in psoriasis patients are lacking. We aim to examine and compare the sexual behaviors between men with and without psoriasis in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2006 and 2009 to 2010. Responses from male participants to the dermatology and sexual behavior questionnaires of the NHANES were collated and analyzed. Outcome measures included sexual orientation, age of first sexual encounter, number of oral and non-oral sexual partners, and frequency of unprotected sex. Among 6,444 U.S. men that responded to the psoriasis question, 170 (2.6%) reported a physician-given diagnosis of psoriasis. Heterosexual men accounted for 95.5% and nonheterosexual men 4.5% of the overall study population. On multivariate analysis, psoriasis was not associated with differences in sexual orientation (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-4.15). Heterosexual men with psoriasis experienced first sexual encounter at an earlier age than those without psoriasis (weighted difference -0.9 years, P = 0.002). Heterosexual men with psoriasis had significantly fewer female oral sexual partners compared with heterosexual men without psoriasis on multivariate analysis (lifetime partner number: rate ratio [RR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.95; past-year partner number: RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97). No significant differences existed between heterosexual men with and without psoriasis regarding frequency of unprotected sex (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.09). Among nonheterosexual men with and without psoriasis, no significant differences existed in age first had sex, number of sexual partners, or frequency of unprotected sex. Heterosexual men with psoriasis have significantly fewer lifetime female oral sexual partners compared with those without psoriasis. Dermatologists and other healthcare providers need to examine the genital region routinely and initiate appropriate therapy to improve

  3. The health of the American slave examined by means of Union Army medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, F R

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended.

  4. Examining levels, distribution and correlates of health insurance coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazungu, Jacob S; Barasa, Edwine W

    2017-09-01

    To examine the levels, inequalities and factors associated with health insurance coverage in Kenya. We analysed secondary data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) conducted in 2009 and 2014. We examined the level of health insurance coverage overall, and by type, using an asset index to categorise households into five socio-economic quintiles with quintile 5 (Q5) being the richest and quintile 1 (Q1) being the poorest. The high-low ratio (Q5/Q1 ratio), concentration curve and concentration index (CIX) were employed to assess inequalities in health insurance coverage, and logistic regression to examine correlates of health insurance coverage. Overall health insurance coverage increased from 8.17% to 19.59% between 2009 and 2014. There was high inequality in overall health insurance coverage, even though this inequality decreased between 2009 (Q5/Q1 ratio of 31.21, CIX = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.0.71) and 2014 (Q5/Q1 ratio 12.34, CIX = 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.52). Individuals that were older, employed in the formal sector; married, exposed to media; and male, belonged to a small household, had a chronic disease and belonged to rich households, had increased odds of health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage in Kenya remains low and is characterised by significant inequality. In a context where over 80% of the population is in the informal sector, and close to 50% live below the national poverty line, achieving high and equitable coverage levels with contributory and voluntary health insurance mechanism is problematic. Kenya should consider a universal, tax-funded mechanism that ensures revenues are equitably and efficiently collected, and everyone (including the poor and those in the informal sector) is covered. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

  6. Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

  7. A prospective randomized trial examining health care utilization in individuals using multiple smartphone-enabled biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnamon S. Bloss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobile health and digital medicine technologies are becoming increasingly used by individuals with common, chronic diseases to monitor their health. Numerous devices, sensors, and apps are available to patients and consumers–some of which have been shown to lead to improved health management and health outcomes. However, no randomized controlled trials have been conducted which examine health care costs, and most have failed to provide study participants with a truly comprehensive monitoring system. Methods. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial of adults who had submitted a 2012 health insurance claim associated with hypertension, diabetes, and/or cardiac arrhythmia. The intervention involved receipt of one or more mobile devices that corresponded to their condition(s (hypertension: Withings Blood Pressure Monitor; diabetes: Sanofi iBGStar Blood Glucose Meter; arrhythmia: AliveCor Mobile ECG and an iPhone with linked tracking applications for a period of 6 months; the control group received a standard disease management program. Moreover, intervention study participants received access to an online health management system which provided participants detailed device tracking information over the course of the study. This was a monitoring system designed by leveraging collaborations with device manufacturers, a connected health leader, health care provider, and employee wellness program–making it both unique and inclusive. We hypothesized that health resource utilization with respect to health insurance claims may be influenced by the monitoring intervention. We also examined health-self management. Results & Conclusions. There was little evidence of differences in health care costs or utilization as a result of the intervention. Furthermore, we found evidence that the control and intervention groups were equivalent with respect to most health care utilization outcomes. This result suggests there are not large

  8. Investigation of RBC Indices and HbA2 Levels in Parents of Beta-Thalassemia Patients: Impacts on Premarital Genetic Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Izadyar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate RBC indices and HbA2 levels in parents of major beta-thalassemia patients to detect possible silent beta- thalassemia carriers and examine its potential impact on the premarital genetic counseling.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed at Children Medical Center from 2004 to 2006. After genetic counseling and getting informed consent, peripheral blood sampling was carried out on 185 carrier parents of regularly blood transfused thalassemia children. Then RBC indices and HbA2 concentration were measured. Samples with MCV and MCH higher than and/or HbA2 lower than cut off values were rechecked. Results: In one case, MCV and MCH indices were within the limits defined for non beta- thalassemia carriers. Furthermore, four other cases were found to have decreased values of MCV and MCH but normal HbA2 levels.Conclusion: About 3% of beta-thalassemia carriers in our country may potentially be missed using current screening methods. Further studies are required to assess the need for presenting a new threshold for thalassemia carrier screening. Defining the causative mutations using molecular methods would pave the way for establishing a protocol for a premarital screening program in conditions when one of couples is a confirmed carrier.

  9. Structuring a written examination to assess ASBH health care ethics consultation core knowledge competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce D; Jankowski, Jane B; Shelton, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    As clinical ethics consultants move toward professionalization, the process of certifying individual consultants or accrediting programs will be discussed and debated. With certification, some entity must be established or ordained to oversee the standards and procedures. If the process evolves like other professions, it seems plausible that it will eventually include a written examination to evaluate the core knowledge competencies that individual practitioners should possess to meet peer practice standards. The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) has published core knowledge competencies for many years that are accepted by experts as the prevailing standard. Probably any written examination will be based upon the ASBH core knowledge competencies. However, much remains to be done before any examination may be offered. In particular, it seems likely that a recognized examining board must create and validate examination questions and structure the examination so as to establish meaningful, defensible parameters after dealing with such challenging questions as: Should the certifying examination be multiple choice or short-answer essay? How should the test be graded? What should the pass rate be? How may the examination be best administered? To advance the field of health care ethics consultation, thought leaders should start to focus on the written examination possibilities, to date unaddressed carefully in the literature. Examination models-both objective and written-must be explored as a viable strategy about how the field of health care ethics consultations can grow toward professionalization.

  10. 北京市大学生婚前性行为影响因素分析%Influencing factors of premarital intercourse among the college students in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莎; 郭静; 杜正芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析北京市大学生婚前性行为影响因素,为高校开展学生生殖健康教育工作提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,对北京市6所高校1187名在校未婚大学生进行生殖健康知信行的问卷调查,统计分析采用单因素分析和二分类Logistic回归分析.结果 1187名调查对象中,有性行为者占13.80%.有性行为者对紧急避孕措施的知晓率最高(87.10%),其次为安全套的使用时机(85.81%),能够准确计算出安全期最低(44.44%),这3项的知晓率均高于无性行为者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).有性行为者能够接受“婚前性行为”(65.22%)、“未婚同居”(85.63%)和“未婚先孕”(32.50%)的比例均高于无性行为者,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析中性别、年级和对非婚性行为的态度是大学生婚前性行为的影响因素,男生发生性行为的比例高于女生(0R=3.5),大二、大三、大四学生和研究生发生性行为的比例均高于大一学生(OR分别为6.2,4.7,8.5,9.2),可以接受非婚性行为者发生性行为的比例高于不可以接受者(OR=11.8).结论 有必要在高校普遍开展针对不同性别和年级学生的生殖健康教育工作,同时注重大学生道德教育.%Objective To analyze the influencing factors of the college students' premarital sex behavior in Beijing, and provide a reference for the university students reproductive health education. Methods Through the stratified cluster sampling method, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 1187 unmarried college students from 6 universities in Beijing. The questionnaire contents included reproductive related knowledge, attitude and premarital intercourse. Single factor analysis and Binary Logistic Regression were used for statistic analysis. Results The premarital sex percentage in 1187 respondents was 13. 80%. The highest awareness was about emergency contraception in respondents

  11. Examination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Care Content in North Carolina Schools of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B; Enweana, Ijeoma; Alston, Celeste Kaysha; Baldwin, Dee M

    2017-04-01

    Nursing students require academic and clinical training in preparation for the increased demand for culturally competent care. One group that is in need of culturally knowledgeable health care providers is lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine how LGBT health care content is integrated into North Carolina schools of nursing curricula and to examine the existence of specific LGBT policies. A survey was mailed to 70 deans and directors of RN programs in North Carolina. Over 90% of the schools indicated that LGBT health care issues were taught in the curricula. The majority of the content was taught as an "other" course (37%). More than two thirds of the schools devoted less than 5 hours teaching LGBT content. LGBT health care content is being taught, yet the presence of specific LGBT practice policies is basically nonexistent. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):223-226.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Associate Director for Science Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Kathryn S. Porter, M.D., M.S., Director ...

  13. Examining the Value of Subsidies of Health Plans and Cost-Sharing for Prescription Drugs in the Health Insurance Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Mort, Jane R

    2016-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated federally and state-run health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, with health plans offering subsidies for plan members as well as coverage for essential health benefits, to help individuals, families, and small businesses find health plans that fit their specific needs. A recent study found that the value of these healthcare subsidies varied with the number of health plans in the different geographic rating areas, but that study only examined the premiums and the deductibles of those health plans. To examine the value of subsidies of health plans, including cost-sharing for prescription drugs in the health insurance marketplace. We have used publicly available health plan data from HealthCare.gov and from county population data obtained from the US Census Bureau in June 2015. The average-weighted premium; medical deductible; medical maximum out-of-pocket spending; and cost-sharing for generic drugs, preferred and nonpreferred brand-name drugs, and specialty drugs were calculated for the second lowest-cost silver plan in each geographic rating area. These were then compared across geographic areas with different numbers of plans to determine the value of the subsidies. We also compared the difference between the cost of the average silver plan and the second lowest-cost silver plan for each area to determine the cost to enrollees if they selected the average silver plan. The monetary value of the subsidies provided by health plans was lower in areas with a larger number of plans, because the second lowest-cost silver plans in these areas tended to have lower premiums and higher deductibles. For the most common type of cost-sharing for generic and for preferred brand-name drugs, plan enrollees would likely have a lower or similar copayment if they selected the average-cost silver plan instead of the second lowest-cost silver plan. However, they may end up paying approximately $8 less in copayment for nonpreferred branded

  14. The picture of health: examining school-based health environments through photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontak, Julia C H; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Penney, Tarra L; Kuhle, Stefan; Kirk, Sara F L

    2016-04-22

    Health-promoting schools (HPS) is an effective approach to enhance the health and well-being of children and youth, but its measurement remains a challenge considering contextual differences across school environments. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the physical features of the school environment through photographs of schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. This study used a descriptive approach, wherein physical features of the school environment were distilled through visual images and qualitatively analyzed. School environment data were collected from 18 elementary schools (10 HPS, 8 comparison schools) from a school board in rural Nova Scotia (Canada). Evaluation assistants captured photographs of the physical school environment as part of a broader environment audit. Overarching themes included the promotion, access and availability of opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity, healthy school climate and safety and accessibility of the school. The photographs characterized diverse aspects of the school environment and revealed differences between schools that had implemented an HPS approach compared with schools that had not. There were increased visual cues to support healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being, and indications of a holistic approach to health among schools that implemented an HPS approach. This research adds to understanding the environmental elements of HPS. The use of photographic data to understand school environments provided an innovative method to explore the physical features of schools that had implemented an HPS approach.

  15. Sexual and gender minority's social media user characteristics: Examining preferred health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Rodgers, Shelly; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin

    2017-05-03

    The authors examined the influence of social media involvement on health issues in sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). Demographic and technological characteristics of social media users and nonusers were identified, and the influence of social media involvement on these factors was assessed for its potential to influence health information needs and preferences. A survey of 2,274 SGM individuals revealed that age, sexual orientation, number of Internet access points, and use of smartphones predicted levels of social media involvement. Results suggest that a broader range of traditional and nontraditional communication channels is needed to meet a diversity of health information needs in SGMs.

  16. Examining Clinicians' Experiences Providing Sexual Health Services for LGBTQ Youth: Considering Social and Structural Determinants of Health in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and…

  17. The negligible influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility in current Danish cohorts, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, J M; Selmer, R

    1984-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility by applying life table methods to data for cohorts of Danish women born in 1926-1955, collected in retrospective interviews made in 1975. For each five-year cohort, the data have been analyzed by duration of marriage or by duration since previous birth, for women who had no reported births before marriage. Our main empirical results are: (a) that women who married at age 15-19 had higher rates of marital first and second births than those married at ages 20-24, and (b) that premarital cohabitation had very little influence on births of these two first orders in our data.

  18. Migration experience and premarital sexual initiation in urban Kenya: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2012-06-01

    Migration during the formative adolescent years can affect important life-course transitions, including the initiation of sexual activity. In this study, we use life history calendar data to investigate the relationship between changes in residence and timing of premarital sexual debut among young people in urban Kenya. By age 18, 64 percent of respondents had initiated premarital sex, and 45 percent had moved at least once between the ages of 12 and 18. Results of the event history analysis show that girls and boys who move during early adolescence experience the earliest onset of sexual activity. For adolescent girls, however, other dimensions of migration provide protective effects, with greater numbers of residential changes and residential changes in the last one to three months associated with later sexual initiation. To support young people's ability to navigate the social, economic, and sexual environments that accompany residential change, researchers and policymakers should consider how various dimensions of migration affect sexual activity.

  19. A tale of two cultures: examining patient-centered care in a forensic mental health hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D.; Nijdam-Jones, Alicia; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Several questions remain unanswered regarding the extent to which the principles and practices of patient-centered care are achievable in the context of a forensic mental health hospital. This study examined patient-centered care from the perspectives of patients and providers in a forensic mental health hospital. Patient-centered care was assessed using several measures of complementary constructs. Interviews were conducted with 30 patients and surveys were completed by 28 service providers in a forensic mental health hospital. Patients and providers shared similar views of the therapeutic milieu and recovery orientation of services; however, providers were more likely to perceive the hospital as being potentially unsafe. Overall, the findings indicated that characteristics of patient-centered care may be found within a forensic mental health hospital. The principles of patient-centered care can be integrated into service delivery in forensic mental health hospitals, though special attention to providers’ perceptions of safety is needed. PMID:22815648

  20. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Asao; Amandine Sambira Marekani; Jessica VanCleave; Amy E. Rothberg

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food...

  1. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  2. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  3. Prevention of homozygous beta thalassemia by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Parag M; Agarwal, Sarita; Arya, Vandana; Kumar, Ravindra; Gupta, U R; Agarwal, S S

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of premarital screening for beta thalassemia/related hemoglobinopathies followed by prenatal diagnosis in India. Premarital testing for thalassemia carrier state was carried out in (1) extended family members (EFM) of diagnosed cases of thalassemia/hemoglobinopathies, (2) unmarried adult cases of anemia attending the hospitals' outpatient department (OPD) and (3) adult college students (CG). Hemoglobin, red cell indices were measured by a cell counter and hemoglobin fractionation was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In cases with HbA2>3.5%, or with variant hemoglobin, mutation screen was done by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). In high-risk prospective couples, premarital genetic counseling was done and prenatal diagnosis possibilities were explained. The yield of carriers from EFM, OPD and CG groups was 78.17% (308/394), 19.51% (263/1348) and 4.04% (38/939), respectively. The number of prospective high-risk couples detected were 154, 48 and 2 from EFM, OPD and CG, respectively. As much as 99% of prospective carrier couples married even after knowing their high-risk status and opted for prenatal diagnosis. The program averted the birth of 33 thalassemic children; 28 in EFM group (by screening of 394 individuals), 4 in the OPD group (by screening 1348 anemic patients), and 1 in CG group (by screening of 939 students). Premarital screening in extended family members, followed by prenatal diagnosis is acceptable and the most effective strategy for control of thalassemia in developing countries like India. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 高校女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘缨; 张建芳; 张媛媛; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students, so as to provide evidence for their reproductive health interventions. Methods An anonymous survey was conducted with self-designed questionnaires among 838 female college students aged 18-24 from 5 randomly selected universities in Xi' an. Altogether 786 effective questionnaires were collected. Results Among the students surveyed, 5. 3% students had unplanned pregnancy, 17. 1% students had sexual behavior but were not pregnant, and 77. 6% students had no sexual behavior. The correct rate of sexual knowledge of sexual behavior group ( not pregnant ) was remarkably higher than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2=9. 317-17. 126,P =0. 000-0. 003 ), and the sexual tolerance of former group ( not pregnant ) was also remarkably higher than that of latter group( χ2 =22.497, P = 0. 000 ). In sexual attitude towards the influence of premarital sex on body and mind and future family, the cognition of sexual behavior group was remarkably lower than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2 =7. 162-16. 876,P = 0. 000-0. 022 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that grade, knowledge of contraception,side effect of premarital sex on future family and sexual tolerance were influencing factors of premarital sex. Conclusion Sexual attitude is an important influencing factor of premarital sex of female college students.%目的 探讨影响高校女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为大学女性生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法 采用自编问卷调查法,随即抽取西安5所高校的838名18~24岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果 收回786份有效问卷进行分析,结果为①5.3%的女大学生承认有计划外妊娠行为,17.1%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,77.6%无性经历;②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未妊娠)高于无性经历组(χ2=9.317~17.126,P=0.000~0.003);③在对婚前性行为的容许度方面,

  5. Reasons for Divorce and Recollections of Premarital Intervention: Implications for Improving Relationship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    The study presents findings from interviews of 52 divorced individuals who received the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) while engaged to be married. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the study sought to understand participant reasons for divorce (including identification of the "final straw") in order to understand if the program covered these topics effectively. Participants also provided suggestions based on their premarital education experiences so as to improve future relationship education efforts. The most commonly reported major contributors to divorce were lack of commitment, infidelity, and conflict/arguing. The most common "final straw" reasons were infidelity, domestic violence, and substance use. More participants blamed their partners than blamed themselves for the divorce. Recommendations from participants for the improvement of premarital education included receiving relationship education before making a commitment to marry (when it would be easier to break-up), having support for implementing skills outside of the educational setting, and increasing content about the stages of typical marital development. These results provide new insights into the timing and content of premarital and relationship education.

  6. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kayseri: a city in Middle Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakukcu, Cigdem; Kocer, Derya; Altuner Torun, Yasemin; Karakukcu, Musa; Yokus, Osman; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies in Kayseri province, which is located in Middle Anatolia of Turkey, as part of the premarital screening program. The study included subjects admitted to Family Planning Center for premarital screening test between January 2009 and March 2010. Blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the marriage office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and capillary electrophoresis. A total of 10,261 people were screened. The prevalence of patients with the β-thalassemia trait was 1.71% (175/10261). Moreover, HbD Punjab and HbO Arab were the most common Hb variants after β-thalassemia trait with the frequencies of 0.36% and 0.09%, respectively. Only 2 HbS were detected in 15 months of screening time. In 2 couples both partners were found to be carriers of β-thalassemia trait, and both partners of 1 couple to be carrier of HbD. Kayseri is not a high-risk region according to Mediterranean parts of Turkey, but the city takes migrations apart from neighbor cities, migrations from East and South provinces because of its geographic and industrial situation. For that reason detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  7. Usability and eHealth Literacy Evaluation of a Mobile Health Application Prototype to Track Diagnostic Imaging Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Janessa; Monkman, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of a pan-Canadian electronic health record, unnecessary duplicate diagnostic imaging (DI) examinations are sometimes ordered when a physician is not aware of prior DI or prior DI is not available. Research suggests that physicians may ask their patient to recall their DI history; however, patient recall of DI can be unreliable. As a potential solution, a patient-facing mobile health application (app) prototype was developed for users to record their DI. The app was designed to be usable and inclusive to users of all health literacy levels. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how eHealth literacy and usability heuristics can be used during the design phases of app development.

  8. Never Going Back: An Examination of Financial Health at Selected Private South Carolina Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David C., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the leadership styles and overall financial health of the three South Carolina Baptist Convention universities. Each university share a similar story of financial exigency prior to the current president's arrival. Each institution has increased enrollment, endowment, and facilities over the last decade. This case study…

  9. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergra

  10. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergra

  11. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  12. Never Going Back: An Examination of Financial Health at Selected Private South Carolina Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David C., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the leadership styles and overall financial health of the three South Carolina Baptist Convention universities. Each university share a similar story of financial exigency prior to the current president's arrival. Each institution has increased enrollment, endowment, and facilities over the last decade. This case study…

  13. Using Facebook for Sexual Health Social Marketing in Conservative Asian Countries: A Systematic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Zain-Ul-Abdin; Ali, Khudejah Iqbal; Khan, Shanze

    2017-02-01

    Social marketing related to sexual health is a problematic task, especially in religiously and/or culturally conservative countries. Social media presents a possible alternative channel for sexual health efforts to disseminate information and engage new users. In an effort to understand how well sexual health campaigns and organizations have leveraged this opportunity, this study presents a systematic examination of ongoing Facebook-based sexual health efforts in conservative Asian countries. It was discovered that out of hundreds of sexual health organizations identified in the region, less than half had created a Facebook page. Of those that had, only 31 were found to have posted sexual health-relevant content at least once a month. Many of these 31 organizations were also unsuccessful in maintaining regular official and user activity on their page. In order to assess the quality of the Facebook pages as Web-based information resources, the sexual health-related official activity on each page was analyzed for information (a) value, (b) reliability, (c) currency, and (d) system accessibility. User responsiveness to official posts on the pages was also used to discuss the potential of Facebook as a sexual health information delivery platform.

  14. Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling program: knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction of attendees of governmental outpatient clinics in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Bashawri, Jamel; Al Bar, Hussein; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Al Bar, Adnan; Qadi, Mahdi; Milaat, Waleed; Feda, Hashim

    2013-02-01

    Premarital care (PMC) is a worldwide activity that aims to diagnose and treat unrecognized disorders and reduce the transmission of diseases to couples and children. To assess the knowledge and attitude of individuals attending governmental outpatient clinics regarding the Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling (PMSGC) programs, to identify predictors of high knowledge scores and to determine the satisfaction and recommendations of clients of the program. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009. Individuals who attended three governmental hospital outpatient clinics on the day of the interview and agreed to participate in the study were recruited. The three hospitals were the two hospitals in Jeddah that offer the PMSGC programs and the King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Ethical considerations were followed and data were collected through an interview questionnaire that had been constructed for the study. The questionnaire asked for personal and socio-demographic data and for responses, on a 5-point Likert scale, to 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements. Individuals who participated in the PMSGC program were asked questions regarding the services and activities of the program to ascertain their satisfaction with the program and their recommendations for program improvement. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The sample included 655 participants, of whom 38.8% completed the PMSGC program. The participants' knowledge about the program was generally low. Education was the first predictor of a high knowledge score; individuals having ≥ university degree obtained a higher score (aOR=2.73; 95% CI: 1.77-4.20). The second predictor was the nationality of the participants, with Saudis gaining a higher score (aOR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.002-4.16). The third predictor was monthly income. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of participants (96.0%) strongly agreed on the importance of the

  15. Sport, health and drugs: a critical re-examination of some key issues and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanstad, Dag Vidar; Waddington, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    One of the major justifications for the ban on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport has been that relating to the protection of the health of athletes. This paper subjects this argument to critical analysis by putting it in the context of the broader relationship between sport and health. More particularly, the paper seeks to unravel some of the complexities of this relationship by an examination of: (i) some aspects of sports sponsorship, particularly with alcohol and tobacco companies; (ii) the health risks associated with elite level sport; and (iii) the widespread and legal use within the sporting context of drugs that can have dangerous side effects. The paper concludes with an examination of some aspects of anti-doping policies within sport and it is suggested that a more imaginative approach to athlete education is needed to prevent the misuse of drugs.

  16. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  17. Non-participation in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2008-01-01

    , and older siblings) and parental characteristics (age, educational level, attachment to labour market, ethnicity, household income, and number of adults in the household). Results. Children of young and single parents were less likely to receive a preventive child health examination. Increased odds ratios......Objective. To examine demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and children in families not participating in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in a society with free and easy access to healthcare. Design. Population-covering register linkage study...... for non-participation were found for children of parents outside the labour market, with low educational level, and especially for the combination of these. Non-participation increased with decreasing household income and with the number of older siblings. Conclusion. Despite the fact that Denmark has...

  18. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years with Disabilities in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Kang

    Full Text Available There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai.This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons' Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1 basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2 differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant.Individuals with visual disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%, and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96 in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure.Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types.

  19. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years) with Disabilities in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jun; Yu, Huijiong

    2016-01-01

    Aims There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai. Methods This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons’ Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2) differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%), and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96) in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p hearing and speech impairment group and the other groups with respect to most health outcomes, except chronic pharyngitis, hepatic cysts, and high blood pressure. Conclusion Significant differences of selected health outcomes between groups with different types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types. PMID:27196419

  20. Examining clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R E; Shoveller, J A; Carson, A M; Contreras-Whitney, J G

    2014-08-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency-either implicitly (e.g., by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g., by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable.

  1. Examining clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth’s experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency—either implicitly (e.g. by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g. by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. PMID:24412811

  2. The development of a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for BSN graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chun-Yi; Chung, Ue-Lin

    2008-12-01

    Under the current nursing education system in Taiwan, a fair and objective evaluation of group health teaching competency has been lacking for a long time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for baccalaureate graduates. Action research was the main research methodology used in this study. The research consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a development committee was established. Based on routine discussions, literature reviews and realistic cases, a draft examination model with quasi-clinical situation model content and procedure was developed. Examination Facility Preparations, Simulated Scenarios and Client Recruitments, Examination Result Evaluation (evaluated by teachers) and Learning Guidelines were also prepared. This draft was reviewed twice for expert opinion, a pilot test was done and both the draft and pilot testing were reviewed again before the draft was finalized. The second phase involved refining the examination model by actually practicing the completed draft examination model in a simulated group-teaching setting in order to examine the model's reliability and validity. Fifteen people were involved in this experiment: three nursing personnel each having at least two years' clinical and teaching experience; three nursing students who did not have actual clinical experience and had not taken the course of teaching principles; three senior teachers; and six virtual patients. The responses from the nursing personnel, nursing students, teachers, and virtual patients who participated in the testing were gathered and integrated to refine the model. The model has content, expert and discriminative validity. The reliability of the model was proven by the high consistency in administration and scoring of the model by clinical examiners. This examination model is not only applicable for the proof of students' credit point exemption, but also as an alternative

  3. Examining the complementarity of 'children's rights' and 'bioethics' moral frameworks in pediatric health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A; Manjavidze, Irma

    2015-12-10

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has inspired numerous initiatives to recognize children's health-related rights. Whereas children's rights have served as the dominant moral framework for child health concerns in Europe, pediatric bioethics has emerged as the principal framework used in North America. Despite their similarities, these two frameworks differ significantly. Children's rights initiatives tend to be universalists, highlighting substantive standards for all children, while pediatric bioethics has developed norms, models, and procedures for the ethical analysis and management of individual cases. The aim of this article is to critically examine the respective contributions and intersections of children's rights and pediatric bioethics moral frameworks in child health. We describe our collaboration bridging our work with these two frameworks to address pediatric health-care concerns in the Republic of Georgia. We conclude with recommendations for how the complementarity of these two frameworks can be further bridged and promoted internationally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A systematic examination of the use of Online social networking sites for sexual health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellard Margaret E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years social networking sites (SNSs have grown rapidly in popularity. The popularity of these sites, along with their interactive functions, offer a novel environment in which to deliver health promotion messages. The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which SNSs are currently being used for sexual health promotion and describe the breadth of these activities. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published scientific literature, electronic sources (general and scientific search engines, blogs and SNSs (Facebook, MySpace to identify existing sexual health promotion activities using SNSs. Health promotion activities were eligible for inclusion if they related to sexual health or behaviour, utilised one or more SNSs, and involved some element of health promotion. Information regarding the source and type of health promotion activity, target population and site activity were extracted. Results 178 sexual health promotion activities met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review; only one activity was identified through a traditional systematic search of the published scientific literature. Activities most commonly used one SNS, were conducted by not-for-profit organisations, targeted young people and involved information delivery. Facebook was the most commonly used SNS (used by 71% of all health promotion activities identified, followed by MySpace and Twitter. Seventy nine percent of activities on MySpace were considered inactive as there had been no online posts within the past month, compared to 22% of activities using Facebook and 14% of activities using Twitter. The number of end-users and posts in the last seven days varied greatly between health promotion activities. Conclusions SNSs are being used for sexual health promotion, although the extent to which they are utilised varies greatly, and the vast majority of activities are unreported in the scientific literature. Future studies

  5. Qualitative inquiry into premarital sexual behaviours and contraceptive use among multiethnic young women: implications for education and future research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. METHODS: A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%, Chinese (34%, and Indian (31% young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. RESULTS: The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs.

  6. Postmarital follow-up survey on high risk patients subjected to premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Saeedi, Mohammad; Al Suliman, Ahmed; Owaidah, Tarek

    2010-05-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are the most inherited disorders worldwide including Saudi Arabia which can be preventable with application of screening programmers. Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia had initiated premarital screening program (PMS) in all country regions. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the PMS program and genetic counseling on couples at risk for thalassaemia and sickle cell anima in an area of the country with high hemoglobinopathy prevalence. A total of 129 candidates identified by PMS to be at risk were included. Out of this cohort, 98% proceeded with marriage. Culture pressure was the main reason in more than 48%. Over a period of 4 years, these marriages resulted in 15 diseased children. Although most of the candidates did not receive genetic counseling yet, the concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of them. This study showed some early benefits of the PMS in prevention of the targeted diseases and the program helped in early detection of the disease in their offspring.

  7. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  8. Health of adults in Los Angeles County: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn S; Curtin, Lester R; Carroll, Margaret D; Li, Xianfen; Mohadjer, Leyla; Shih, Margaret; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-09-01

    Los Angeles County has the largest population of any county in the nation. Population-based estimates of health conditions for Los Angeles County are based primarily on telephone surveys, which are known to underestimate conditions of public health importance. This report presents the prevalence of selected health conditions for civilian noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 and over living in Los Angeles County households and group quarters, based on survey data using direct physical measurements. Combined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, were used for this report. Sample weights were recalculated for participants examined in Los Angeles County using population totals provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, excluding the institutionalized population. Compared with the nation as a whole, adults in Los Angeles County had similar rates of health conditions even after age and age-race adjustment, with a few exceptions. A significantly smaller proportion of Los Angeles County adults were obese (age-adjusted rate, 23.8%) compared with the United States (31.0%); this difference held after age-race adjustment. The age-adjusted rate of diagnosed diabetes for men was higher in Los Angeles County (9.1%) than in the nation (7.3%); however, this difference did not hold after age-race adjustment. The rates of total diabetes adjusted for age and age-race were similar for men in Los Angeles County and the United States. The rates of selected health conditions in this report were similar for adults in Los Angeles County compared with adults in the United States, with the exception of obesity. The rates of obesity adjusted for age and age-race were lower among Los Angeles County adults compared with national rates. Health estimates based on direct physical measurements can be useful

  9. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  10. Four perspectives of women's health. Workshop participants talk about women's health issues in four countries. [Malaysia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    The program officer of the SIEC Project of the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPA,M) granted an interview to JOICFP News during JOICFP's IEC Workshop for the Production of Video Script for Women's Health in Tokyo, Japan. FFPA,M provides comprehensive reproductive health services, including family planning services, pap smear screenings, breast examination, annual medical checkups, and premarital and marital counseling for women. Around 50% of married women use family planning. More than 90% of contraceptive users are familiar with at least one family planning method. FFPA,M is focusing on marginalized women. As Malaysia industrializes, rural-urban migration occurs. Young women comprise many of the new factory workers. FFPA,M provides family life education for these women and strives to help them achieve reproductive health and rights. The enthusiasm for women's issues exhibited at the workshop by both male and female participants pleased FFPA,M's program officer.

  11. The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well-being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well-supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.

  12. The relationships between work characteristics and mental health: Examining normal, reversed and reciprocal relationships in a 4-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the causal relationships between job demands, job control and supervisor support on the one hand and mental health on the other. Whereas we assumed that work characteristics affect mental health, we also examined reversed causal relationships (mental health influence

  13. The relationships between work characteristics and mental health: Examining normal, reversed and reciprocal relationships in a 4-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the causal relationships between job demands, job control and supervisor support on the one hand and mental health on the other. Whereas we assumed that work characteristics affect mental health, we also examined reversed causal relationships (mental health

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, Zsigmond; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Diószegi, Judit; Roberts, Bayard; Szabó, Zoltán; Sándor, János; Ádány, Róza

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the health status of the Roma people with that of the general population in Hungary. A health examination survey to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was performed in a representative random sample (n = 646) of the Roma population aged 20-64 years living in segregated colonies, and data were compared with that obtained in a representative random sample (n = 1819) of the Hungarian population. The risks for central obesity, hypertension and raised triglyceride level among Roma adults were not different from the Hungarian references, while raised fasting plasma glucose or known type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.65, 95%CI 1.90-3.69), reduced HDL cholesterol level or treated lipid disorder (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.65-2.79) were significantly more frequent in all age groups in the Roma sample. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.83) was also significantly higher among Roma than in the general Hungarian population. Besides tackling the socio-economic determinants of the poor health of Roma people, specific public health interventions considering increased genetic susceptibility to metabolic disturbances are needed to improve their health status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. National health and nutrition examination survey: plan and operations, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, George; Chiappa, Michele; Porter, Kathryn S; Ostchega, Yechiam; Lewis, Brenda G; Dostal, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Background-Starting in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, ongoing annual survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident population of the United States. A continuous survey allowed content to change to meet emerging needs. Objective-This report describes how NHANES for 1999-2010 was designed and implemented. NHANES is a national survey designed to provide national estimates on various health-related topics. Methods-The survey used in-person face-to-face interviews and physical examinations for data collection. Approximately 5,000 people per year participated in NHANES. The 5,000 people surveyed each year are representative of the entire U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  16. Predictors of breast self - examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhane, Negussie; Mamo, Abebe; Girma, Eshetu; Asfaw, Shifera

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. It is the second leading cause of death in women worldwide. Approximately one out of eight women develops breast cancer all over the world. Majority of cases of cancer of the breast are detected by women themselves, stressing the importance of breast self-examination. The main objective of this study was to assess predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Kafa Zone, South West part of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 315 female teachers. Self administered a structured questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about breast cancer and perception of teachers on breast self examination using the Champion's revised Health Belief Model sub scales used as data collection instrument. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of breast self -examination performance. Three hundred and fifteen female teachers were participated in this study. Their mean age was 33 SD [±7] years. Only 52 (16.5 %) participants ever heard about breast self examination and from those who heard about breast self examination 38 (73.07 %) of them ever performed breast self examination. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that knowledge towards breast self examination, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and the net perceived benefit were found to be the major predictors of breast self examination. This study revealed that breast self examination performance among female teachers was very low. Therefore, behavior change communication and interventions that emphasize different domains that increase the perceived threat to breast cancer as well as on the benefits of breast self-examination to increase the perception of the teachers in an integrated manner may be the most effective strategies that should be considered by the health offices and educational offices. These

  17. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pfasting plasma glucose level had significantly lower mean daily MVPA than individuals at the ideal levels (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining CAM use disclosure using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2013-10-01

    To improve understanding of factors that may influence disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the U.S. Cross-sectional survey. Data are from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), a nationally representative study of adults aged 18 and older living in the continental United States. Using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, we conducted multivariate logistic regressions to identify factors associated with disclosing CAM use among the sub-sample of recent CAM users (n=1995). Disclosure of CAM use. Most CAM users (71.0%) disclosed their use of CAM to their doctors. Contextual, individual, and health behavior factors were associated with CAM use disclosure. Of particular interest, disclosure was significantly more likely among those who perceived high quality relationships with their providers (AOR=1.59, CI: 1.01, 2.49) and among those who had a regular source of medical care (AOR=1.54, CI: 1.03, 2.29). The odds of disclosure were also higher among those who used practitioner-provided CAM, with (AOR=2.02, CI: 1.34, 3.06) or without (AOR=1.52, CI: 1.05, 2.20) concurrent herbal medicine use, compared to those who used herbal medicines only. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use is a useful framework for examining factors that may influence disclosure of CAM use. Further research should examine these relationships using more comprehensive measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Beliefs of Nursing Faculty Students about Breast Cancer and Self Breast Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardahan, Melek; Dinc, Hulya; Yaman, Askin; Aykir, Emrah; Aslan, Baver

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer usually shows a slow development rate and when it is recognized in early stages very successful treatment results can be achieved. This research was planned to research the health beliefs of nursing faculty students about breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE). The first class students of nursing faculty formed the basis for this descriptive research (N=347). Sample selection was not made and all female students who wanted to participate voluntarily in the research during March-May of 2014 were included (n=331). It was determined that 85.5% of students had knowledge about cancer, 79.5 % knew of breast cancer, and 65.3% were aware of how BSE is performed. According to the responses of students to the scale of the health belief model that is used to determine the health beliefs of students, item-point averages of trust and obstacle sub-dimensions were high. It is determined that more than half of students had knowledge about breast cancer and breast self-examination. Their health beliefs were affected by trust and obstacle perceptions, knowledge level about cancer, and awareness about how BSE is done. These factors should be considered in planning trainings that will be given to students. Social responsibility projects should have designed to create the awareness that cancer is a treatable disease.

  20. Low uptake of periodic health examinations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether Saudis receive health examinations periodically. To inform health authorities on the health-seeking behavior of the Saudi population, we investigated patterns of periodic health examination (PHE use by Saudis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a nationally representative multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older on sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure associations between PHE and sociodemographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 12,000 households were contacted, and 10,735 participants completed the survey (response rate of 89.4%. Among participants, 2542 (22.9%, representing more than 2.7 million Saudis aged 15 years or older, received a PHE during the past 2 years. Moreover, 7463 (73.5% participants, representing 9.1 million Saudis, visited a healthcare setting in the past 2 years due to illness or injury. The likelihood of receiving a PHE in the past 2 years increased with age, education, being married, consumption of five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, diagnoses of prediabetes, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, and a visit to a healthcare setting within the last 2 years due to an illness or an injury. Discussion: This is the first national study to investigate the use of PHE in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA where healthcare is freely available. Few Saudis seek preventive healthcare and most healthcare visits are for injuries or sickness. KSA may reduce its health expenditures by routinizing PHE and detecting chronic conditions at early stages.

  1. Convict bastards, common-law unions, and shotgun weddings: premarital conceptions and ex-nuptial births in nineteenth-century Tasmania.

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    Kippen, Rebecca; Gunn, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    This article uses reconstituted family data from birth, death, and marriage registers to measure ex-nuptial fertility and premarital pregnancies in nineteenth-century Tasmania. It also examines the extent to which convict origins of European society on the island caused a departure from English norms of family formation behavior, during a period when men greatly outnumbered women. Illegitimacy was high during the convict period. From the mid-1850s, after the convict system collapsed, levels of ex-nupital births were relatively constant until the end of the century, as indicated both by the illegitimacy rate and by the proportion of marriages associated with prenuptial births. By the end of the nineteenth-century, rates of illegitimacy and prenuptial conceptions in Tasmania were well within the range of those of contemporary English-speaking populations.

  2. An educational program about premarital screening for unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis Ragab; Al-Bar, Hussein; Al-Fakeeh, Ali; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Qadi, Mahdi; Al-Bar, Adnan; Milaat, Waleed

    2011-03-01

    The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University (KAU) towards premarital screening (PMS) program, to determine predictors of high students' knowledge scores and to improve their knowledge about PMS through conduction of an educational campaign. Multi-stage stratified random sample method was used with recruitment of 1563 students from all faculties of KAU, during the educational year 2008-2009. The Pre-test included 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements with student's response through a 5-point Likert scale. Health education was conducted using audiovisual aids through pre-designed educational materials. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Students' knowledge about the program was generally low before the educational campaign. The predictors of high knowledge scores were being a health science student (aOR=4.15; 95% CI: 2.97-5.81), age ≥20 years (aOR=2.78; 95% CI: 2.01-3.85), family history of hereditary diseases and income ≥10,000 SR/month. Regarding attitude, almost all students (99.0%) agreed on the importance of PMS. After the educational program, students' knowledge about PMS was markedly improved. The mean students' knowledge score was 9.85 ± 5.36 in Pre-test and improved to 18.45 ± 4.96 in Post-test, with a highly statistical significant difference (paired t=25.40, p<0.000). The educational program was successful in improving students' knowledge about the PMS. Conduction of similar educational programs and adding PMS in the curriculum of secondary and university education are recommended. Copyright © 2010 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes Toward and Experience of Singles with Premarital Sex: A Population-Based Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

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    Honarvar, Behnam; Salehi, Forough; Barfi, Rahele; Asadi, Zahra; Honarvar, Hossein; Odoomi, Neda; Arefi, Nafiseh; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2016-02-01

    The population of Iran is young and millions of youths are at risk for unprotected sexual relationships and their consequences. This questionnaire-based study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran. Singles were asked about premarital sex (PMS) and sexual health issues. A total of 1076 participants (634 males, 58.9%) with a mean age of 24 ± 5.8 years participated in this study. One out of 2 singles reported PMS and 1 out of 2 singles with PMS reported multiple partners. Median age at first sexual contact was 18 years. Of all singles, 452 (41.9%) were heterosexual, 61 (5.6%) were bisexual, 366 (33.9%) were alcohol users, 252 (23.3%) were smokers, 57 (5.2%) were opium users, and 392 (36.3%) did not know about preventive methods for HIV. Of 528 singles who had PMS, 126 (23.8%) never used a condom, 223 (42.2%) used it inconsistently, and 59 (11.1%) used it mainly against sexually transmitted diseases. In the regression analysis, alcohol use was the strongest associated factor of PMS in singles (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.3-7.4), followed by lack of religious beliefs (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8). As a result, the PMS situation in our setting is cause for alarm and to protect singles against the risks associated with PMS, a multidisciplinary intervention including improving access to sexual behavioral counseling centers, education about sexual health and especially condom use, abstinence from alcohol use, and commitment to religious values is urgently needed to be established by health policymakers.

  4. The numeracy demands of health education information: an examination of numerical concepts in written diabetes materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joram, Elana; Roberts-Dobie, Susan; Mattison, Sue J; Devlin, Michele; Herbrandson, Kristy; Hansen, Kim; Eslinger, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of numerical concepts that appear in written health educational materials is an important aspect of health literacy. Health materials that include many advanced numerical concepts may place high demands on readers, especially those with low health literacy levels. The purpose of this study was to examine and document the types of numerical concepts that appear in passages selected from written diabetes educational materials that varied in their type of content. Readability of the passages was also analyzed. One hundred and fifty passages of 100 words each were selected from 50 diabetes-related educational documents, produced by major health organizations. Passages were coded for type of numerical concept, SMOG Reading Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, and features that elaborated the numerical concepts, such as pictures or explanations. Findings indicate that passages containing general information about diabetes and its prevention contained significantly more advanced numerical concepts, the highest reading grade level, the lowest reading ease scores, and the lowest frequency of elaborative features, relative to many other types of content. Recommendations are made for enhancing the presentation of numerical concepts in written diabetes educational materials.

  5. Examining non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents with mental health needs, in Ontario, Canada.

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    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents with mental health needs and specific factors associated with NSSI among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who received mental health services in adult mental health facilities in Ontario, Canada. Data on 2,013 adolescents were obtained from the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) and were analyzed using logistic regression. Approximately, 20.2% (407 adolescents) of the sample engaged in NSSI within the last 12 months. Results from multivariate logistic regression indicate that females were 2.19 times more likely to engage in NSSI than males. Intentional misuse of prescription medication emerged as the most important factor associated with NSSI. Other factors found to be associated with NSSI included multiple psychiatric admissions, sexual abuse, use of alcohol, mood disorders (e.g., depression), adjustment disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of depression. The article discusses the implications of the findings, with suggestions for future research.

  6. EXAMINATION OF THE HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS STUDENTS

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    Rezvan EMAMVERDİ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at examining theHealth-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL of physical education and sports students in terms of educational variables.The sample group consisted of a total of 526 students studying at school of physical education and sport.The data of this study was collected via the Personal Information Form and SF-36 questionnaire. The evaluation of the data was performed by using ANOVA, the independent-samples t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient.Study results suggested Recreation education program students at the scales of Vitality, Mental health, Social functioning and Pain had significant high scores compared to the other programs. The second grade (the years of education students compared to the first grade students had significantly high score in General health. The mean scores of the Vitality, Mental health and General health scales for students who joined at sports club were significantly higher than those who do not. There was no significant relationship between the Academic success of the students and the HRQOL scales. The lesson content of the physical education and sports programmes could have an effect on the HRQOL of the students. In addition to university programmes of physical education and sport, Joining at a sport club could also improve the HRQOL.

  7. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey: Study Design and Methods

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    Vanessa L. Short

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD morbidity and mortality in subnational areas is limited. A model for regional CVD surveillance is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations underrepresented in current monitoring systems. The Mississippi Delta Cardiovascular Health Examination Survey (CHES is a population-based, cross-sectional study on a representative sample of adults living in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, a rural, impoverished area with high rates of poor health outcomes and marked health disparities. The primary objectives of Delta CHES are to (1 determine the prevalence and distribution of CVD and CVD risk factors using self-reported and directly measured health metrics and (2 to assess environmental perceptions and existing policies that support or deter healthy choices. An address-based sampling frame is used for household enumeration and participant recruitment and an in-home data collection model is used to collect survey data, anthropometric measures, and blood samples from participants. Data from all sources will be merged into one analytic dataset and sample weights developed to ensure data are representative of the Mississippi Delta region adult population. Information gathered will be used to assess the burden of CVD and guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of cardiovascular health promotion and risk factor control strategies.

  8. Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T

    2017-06-12

    The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Association Between Shift Work and Health Behavior: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myung-Ji; Shin, Jin-Young; Choi, Bo-Young; Keum, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift workers are increasing worldwide, and various negative health effects of shift work have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between shift work and health behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 11,680 Korean adults (6,061 men and 5,619 women) aged ≥20 years old who participated in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between shift work and health behavior after adjusting for covariates. Results In men, shift work was associated with an increased risk of inadequate sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.40) compared to day work. In women, shift work was associated with an increased risk of smoking (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.22) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47) compared to day work. In an age-stratified subgroup analysis, female shift workers aged ≥50 years old demonstrated an increased risk of smoking (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 3.60 to 8.55), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.23), and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.05) compared to female day workers. Conclusion Shift work is associated with worse health behavior, and this is most evident in women aged ≥50 years. Targeted strategies to reduce the negative health effects of shift work should be implemented, with consideration of shift workers' demographic characteristics. PMID:28360984

  10. Participation inequality in the National General Health Examination based on enterprise size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Joong; Park, Jong Heun; Eom, Huisu; Choi, Bohwa; Lee, Seyoung; Lee, Ji-Won; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Health examinations are performed so that diseases can be identified and treated earlier. Several studies have evaluated the determinants of participation in health examinations including cancer screening, but few have evaluated the relationship between the size of the enterprise and their participation in Workers' General Health Examinations (WGHE). The aim of the present study was to estimate the association of WGHE participation with the size of the enterprise and the type of policyholder. The eligible population from 2006 through 2013 was extracted from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. The population size ranged from 14-17 million. After adjustment for age and gender, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios of participating in the WGHE (by age group) based on the type of policyholder (reference: public officers) and the size of the enterprise (reference: enterprise size ≥300 employees), respectively. Workers employed at enterprises with enterprises with ≥300 persons. After policyholders were stratified by type (non-office workers vs. public officers), a disparity in the WGHE participation rate was found between the different types of policyholders at enterprises with enterprises with ≥300 employees); the odds ratios for subjects in their 40s and 50s were 0.2-0.3 for non-office workers vs. 0.8-2.0 for public officers. Workplace policyholders at small enterprises comprised a vulnerable group less likely to participate in WGHEs. Efforts should be made to raise the WGHE participation rate among the vulnerable employees belonging to small enterprises, as well as among their dependents.

  11. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  12. Knowledge regarding the national premarital screening program among university students in western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Al-Nabulsi, Baraa K; Alyousef, Mohammad A; Asiri, Nawal A; Al-Blewi, Sawsan M

    2008-11-01

    To explore the knowledge of university students in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia, regarding the national premarital screening (PMS) program. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 800 students at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the first semester of the academic year 2005--2006. This included questions regarding socio-demographic data, personal history of hereditary disease, or premarital screening, knowledge on hereditary diseases, and on the national PMS program. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Eighty-five percent of the students believed that gene mutations may lead to hereditary disorders, and 84% of the respondents believed that consanguinity can increase the risk for genetic diseases. Fifty-six percent were aware that hereditary disease could affect any body system. Less than one-third of the students knew which disorders are tested for by the PMS, and 54% of the students thought that PMS detects all hereditary diseases. Only 35% knew what a non-compatible test result meant, while 59% believed that a compatible result meant freedom from all hereditary diseases. Most of the students at KAU have good general knowledge concerning hereditary diseases, but had inadequate knowledge in relation to the national PMS program. The majority did not know which diseases were tested for, and what the test result meant. Public education regarding the disorders tested for, and the implication of screening is essential for the success of the premarital program.

  13. Acceptability of HIV/AIDS testing among pre-marital couples in Iran (2012

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    Jamshid Ayatollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is a lifestyle-related disease. This disease is transmitted through unprotected sex, contaminated needles, infected blood transfusion and from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery. Prevention of infection with HIV, mainly through safe sex and needle exchange programmes is a solution to prevent the spread of the disease. Knowledge about HIV state helps to prevent and subsequently reduce the harm to the later generation. The purpose of this study was to assess the willingness rate of couples referred to the family regulation pre-marital counselling centre for performing HIV test before marriage in Yazd. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive study, a simple random sampling was done among people referred to Akbari clinic. The couples were 1000 men and 1000 women referred to the premarital counselling centre for pre-marital HIV testing in Yazd in the year 2012. They were in situations of pregnancy, delivery or nursing and milking. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software and chi-square statistical test. Results: There was a significant statistical difference between the age groups about willingness for HIV testing before marriage (P < 0.001 and also positive comments about HIV testing in asymptomatic individuals (P < 0.001. This study also proved a significant statistical difference between the two gender groups about willingness to marry after HIV positive test of their wives. Conclusion: The willingness rate of couples to undergo HIV testing before marriage was significant. Therefore, HIV testing before marriage as a routine test was suggested.

  14. Further examination of predictors of turnover intention among mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchus, N J; Periard, D; Osatuke, K

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data. Mainly fragmented evidence is available about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intention (i.e. different mental health occupations examined in separate studies). Only two existing studies that examined broader mental health provider groups were limited by including few workforce settings, small sample sizes and insufficiently rigorous statistical analyses. We examined four occupations (mental health nurses, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists), each represented through a large sample in multiple settings, all within one large healthcare network with complex patients. Our contribution is finding additional predictors (supervisory support, emotional exhaustion) of job satisfaction/turnover intention. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Organizations can consider using culture change initiatives to increase civility at work; this includes leadership support and role modelling of workplace behaviours. Leaders should monitor staffing levels and high workloads to pre-empt emotional exhaustion, which predicts turnover. Hiring and training supervisors should involve not only technical expertise, but also 'soft skills' necessary for creating civil and supportive work environments. Leaders and managers should use employee feedback data (e.g. organizational surveys) to learn about the workplace environments, and address areas of employees' concern. Introduction Given the global shortage of mental health professionals, high turnover

  15. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  16. Valued social roles and measuring mental health recovery: examining the structure of the tapestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Marcia G; Stein, Catherine H

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the concept of mental health recovery often makes it difficult to systematically examine recovery processes and outcomes. The concept of social role is inherent within many acknowledged dimensions of recovery such as community integration, family relationships, and peer support and can deepen our understanding of these dimensions when social roles are operationalized in ways that directly relate to recovery research and practice. This paper reviews seminal social role theories and operationalizes aspects of social roles: role investment, role perception, role loss, and role gain. The paper provides a critical analysis of the ability of social role concepts to inform mental health recovery research and practice. PubMed and PsychInfo databases were used for the literature review. A more thorough examination of social role aspects allows for a richer picture of recovery domains that are structured by the concept social roles. Increasing understanding of consumers' investment and changes in particular roles, perceptions of consumers' role performance relative to peers, and consumers' hopes for the future with regards to the different roles that they occupy could generate tangible, pragmatic approaches in addressing complex recovery domains. This deeper understanding allows a more nuanced approach to recovery-related movements in mental health system transformation.

  17. Medical regulation and health outcomes: the effect of the physician examination requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotet, Anca M; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2013-04-01

    This article investigates the effect on health outcomes of the regulation prohibiting physicians from prescribing drugs without a prior physical examination. This requirement could improve health by reducing illegal access to prescription drugs. However, it reduces access to health care by making it more difficult for patients and physicians to use many forms of telemedicine. Thus, this regulation generates a trade-off between access and safety. Using matching techniques, we find that the physician examination requirement leads to an increase of 1% in mortality rates from disease, the equivalent of 8.5 more deaths per 100,000 people, and a decrease of 6.7% in injury mortality, the equivalent of 2.5 deaths per 100,000 people. The magnitude of these effects is larger in rural areas and in areas with low physician density and is accompanied by an 18% increase in the number of days lost each month to illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2016-01-01

    Built environment factors constrain individual level behaviors and choices, and thus are receiving increasing attention to assess their influence on health. Traditional regression methods have been widely used to examine associations between built environment measures and health outcomes, where a fixed, prespecified spatial scale (e.g., 1 mile buffer) is used to construct environment measures. However, the spatial scale for these associations remains largely unknown and misspecifying it introduces bias. We propose the use of distributed lag models (DLMs) to describe the association between built environment features and health as a function of distance from the locations of interest and circumvent a-priori selection of a spatial scale. Based on simulation studies, we demonstrate that traditional regression models produce associations biased away from the null when there is spatial correlation among the built environment features. Inference based on DLMs is robust under a range of scenarios of the built environment. We use this innovative application of DLMs to examine the association between the availability of convenience stores near California public schools, which may affect children's dietary choices both through direct access to junk food and exposure to advertisement, and children's body mass index z scores.

  19. The physical examination content of the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey: temporal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hisako; Imai, Shino; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2016-12-01

    Survey items of the Japan National Nutrition Survey (J-NNS) have changed over time. Several papers on dietary surveys have been published; however, to date, there are no in-depth papers regarding physical examinations. Therefore, we investigated changes in the survey items in the physical examinations performed in the J-NNS and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS), with the aim of incorporating useful data for future policy decisions. We summarized the description of physical examinations and marshalled the changes of survey items from the J-NNS and NHNS from 1946 to 2012. The physical examination is roughly classified into the following six components: some are relevant to anthropometric measurements, clinical measurements, physical symptoms, blood tests, lifestyle and medication by interview, and others. Items related to nutritional deficiency, such as anaemia and tendon reflex disappearance, and body weight measurements were collected during the early period, according to the instructions of the General Headquarters. From 1989, blood tests and measurement of physical activity were added, and serum total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood glucose, red blood corpuscles and haemoglobin measurements have been performed continuously for more than 20 years. This is the first report on the items of physical examination in the J-NNS and NHNS. Our research results provide basic information for the utilization of the J-NNS and NHNS, to researchers, clinicians or policy makers. Monitoring the current state correctly is essential for national health promotion, and also for improvement of the investigation methods to apply country-by-country comparisons.

  20. Computerized training in breast self-examination: a test in a community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet; Trockel, Mickey; King, Tyreasa; Remmert, David

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-eight women recruited from a community health center completed either a brief interactive multimedia training program on breast self-examination using a breast model and computer guided feedback on accuracy of lump detection or read a National Cancer Institute pamphlet on breast self-examination and breast lumps. Women using the computer program as compared to the pamphlet group reported a higher sense of self-efficacy for being able to perform a breast self-examination immediately after their educational session and 1 month later. However, the increase in self-efficacy for the computer group diminished over 4 weeks, underscoring the importance of an environment that reminds and reinforces learning for women about the performance of regular breast self-examination. The increase in sense of self-efficacy to perform breast self-examination with roughly 20 minutes of computer-based training and the partial maintenance of that self-efficacy 30 days later suggests the utility of incorporating short, focused interventions in busy primary healthcare settings.

  1. The Evaluation of Results of the Premarital Screening of Hemoglobinopathies Trait in Kahramanmaras

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    Ekrem Guler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed in order to determine hemoglobipathy trait in Kahramanmaras. METHOD: In this study premarital screening of hemoglobinopathies was performed in 11040 subjects between March 2006 and February 2007 who were planning to get married. RESULTS: Thalassemia trait was detected in 261 subjects; hence the rate was determined to be 2.35 %. Sickle cell anemia trait was detected in 59 subjects; hence the rate was determined to be 0.54%. CONCLUSION: These rates are similar to the overall rates of Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 243-244

  2. Multilevel examination of facility characteristics, social integration, and health for older adults living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedahl, Skye N; Chapin, Rosemary K; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    Testing a model based on past research and theory, this study assessed relationships between facility characteristics (i.e., culture change efforts, social workers) and residents' social networks and social support across nursing homes; and examined relationships between multiple aspects of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social engagement, social support) and mental and functional health for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected at nursing homes using a planned missing data design with random sampling techniques. Data collection occurred at the individual-level through in-person structured interviews with older adult nursing home residents (N = 140) and at the facility-level (N = 30) with nursing home staff. The best fitting multilevel structural equation model indicated that the culture change subscale for relationships significantly predicted differences in residents' social networks. Additionally, social networks had a positive indirect relationship with mental and functional health among residents primarily via social engagement. Social capital had a positive direct relationship with both health outcomes. To predict better social integration and mental and functional health outcomes for nursing homes residents, study findings support prioritizing that close relationships exist among staff, residents, and the community as well as increased resident social engagement and social trust. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Functional interactivity in social media: an examination of Chinese health care organizations' microblog profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai

    2017-09-08

    Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prognostic value of heart rate variability in comparison with annual health examinations in very elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Akira; Takase, Bonpei; Kodani, Eitaro; Iwahara, Shinichiro; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic value of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac conditions has been investigated for many years. However, the HRV is superior to annual health examinations for predicting the longevity of very elderly residents of long-term care facilities is unknown. Annual health examinations and subsequently ambulatory Holter ECG recording were performed in 2008 for 71 very elderly subjects, who were then followed up for 3 to 48 months. The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of whether they were alive (86 ± 14 years, n=37) or deceased (90 ± 16 years, n=34) at end of follow-up. To assess cardiac autonomic function, HRV was obtained with the MemCalc/Chiram software program after Holter ECG. Age, sex, body-mass index, plasma levels of C-reactive protein and albumin, and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN) and the coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CVRR) were higher in living subjects than in deceased subjects (SDNN: 73.2 ± 13.5 milliseconds vs. 53.2 ± 9.8 milliseconds, CVRR: 9.3% ± 1.7% vs. 7.6% ± 1.3%, p<0.05). The relative risks with an SDNN <65 milliseconds was 1.85 (p<0.05) and that with a CVRR <8% was 1.84 (p<0.05). Kaplan Meier analysis showed that SDNN and CVRR were useful markers for the longevity of very elderly subjects. The present data suggest that annual health examination data does not predict longevity, but that HRV does. The modulation of parasympathetic tone in daily activities plays an important role in the longevity of very elderly residents of long-term care facilities.

  5. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods: Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results: Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion: Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and

  6. Functional Foods Examined: The Health Claims Being Made for Food Products and the Need for Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they possess a health or\\ud nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include the recently-promoted ‘functional’ foods —\\ud such as those with added bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of\\ud benefit to the eater — as well as foods which have for some time been promoting themselves as\\ud having the benefit of added nutrients or being a rich source of certain nutrients.\\ud That a food product should ...

  7. EXAMINING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF COLQUITT'S ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE SCALE IN A PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR CONTEXT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, Colquitt developed an Organizational Justice Scale that intended to measure procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice. The dimensionality of the scale has been tested in subsequent studies with diverging results. Given the fact that contextual differences may account for more variation across research sites than individual differences, the deviating research findings may be due to context. This study examined the dimensionality of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale in a new context: the public health sector. The procedural and informational justice dimensions were highly correlated, but confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor solution provided a better fit than a three-factor solution. All fit indices for the four-factor model were consistent with a good model. There was, however, evidence of a potential omitted factor, procedural-voice justice, which has also been found in a previous examination of the measure in the public sector.

  8. Health communication, information technology and the public’s attitude toward periodic general health examinations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT, health communications and the public’s attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government’s subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Elderly Health Examination Program: The Example of Hypertension Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Hwa Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Insurance (NHI and social welfare agencies have implemented the Elderly Health Examination Program (EHEP for years. No study has ever attempted to evaluate whether this program is cost-effective. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to understand the prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension and, secondly, to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the EHEP, focusing on hypertension screening. The data sources were: (1 hypertension and clinical information derived from the 1996 and 1997 EHEP, which was used to generate prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension; and (2 claim data of the NHI that included treatment costs of stroke patients (in-and outpatients. Hypothetical models were used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the hypertension screening program in various conditions. Sensitivity analysis was also employed to evaluate the effect of each estimation indicator on the cost and effectiveness of the hypertension screening program. A total of 28.3% of the elderly population in Kaohsiung (25,174 of 88,812 participated in the 1996 EHEP; 14,915 of them participated in the following 1997 EHEP, with a retention rate of 59.3%. Criteria from the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 160/95mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs were used; we found that prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension were 24.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Hypertension rates are increasing in the aging process as shown in both prevalence and incidence models. In comparison with non-participants, the prevalence model indicates that each hypertension patient who had attended the EHEP not only saved NT$34,570–34,890 in medical and associated costs, but also increased their lifespan by 128 days. The present findings suggest that the EHEP is a cost-effective program with health and social welfare policy

  10. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and…

  11. Examining the scope of multibusiness health care firms: implications for strategy and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorein Inamdar, S

    2007-08-01

    Use theory and data to examine the scope of corporate strategies for multibusiness health care firms, also known as organized or integrated health care delivery systems. Data are from the 2000 HIMSS Analytics Annual Survey of integrated health care delivery systems (IHDS), which provides complete information on businesses owned by IHDS. Scope defined as the breadth and type of businesses in which a firm chooses to compete is measured across seven separate business areas: (1) health plans, (2) ambulatory, (3) acute, (4) subacute, (5) home health, (6) other related nonpatient care businesses, and (7) external collaborations. Theories on strategy and organizational configurations along with measures of scope and a novel dataset were used to classify 796 firms into five mutually exclusive groups. The bases for classification were two competitive dimensions of scope: (1) breadth of businesses and (2) mix of existing core businesses versus new noncore businesses. Unit of analysis is the multibusiness health care firm. Sample consists of 796 firms, defined as nonprofit organizations that own two or more direct patient care businesses in two or more separate areas across the health care value chain. Firms were clustered into five mutually exclusive organizational configurations with unique scope characteristics revealing a new taxonomy of corporate strategies. Analysis of the scope variables revealed five strategic types (along with the number of firms and distinguishing features of each strategy) defined as follows: (1) Core Service Provider (340 firms with the smallest scope providing core set of patient care services), (2) Mission Based (52 firms with the next smallest scope offering core set of services to underserved populations), (3) Contractor (266 firms with medium scope and contracting with physician groups), (4) Health Plan Focus (83 firms with large scope and providing health plans), and (5) Entrepreneur (55 firms with the largest scope offering both a core set

  12. Systematic reviews examining implementation of research into practice and impact on population health are needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-07-01

    To examine the research translation phase focus (T1-T4) of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Briefly, T1 includes reviews of basic science experiments; T2 includes reviews of human trials leading to guideline development; T3 includes reviews examining how to move guidelines into policy and practice; and T4 includes reviews describing the impact of changing health practices on population outcomes. A cross-sectional audit of randomly selected reviews from CDSR (n = 500) and DARE (n = 500) was undertaken. The research translation phase of reviews, overall and by communicable disease, noncommunicable disease, and injury subgroups, were coded by two researchers. A total of 898 reviews examined a communicable, noncommunicable, or injury-related condition. Of those, 98% of reviews within CDSR focused on T2, and the remaining 2% focused on T3. In DARE, 88% focused on T2, 8.7% focused on T1, 2.5% focused on T3, and 1.3% focused on T4. Almost all reviews examining communicable (CDSR 100%, DARE 93%), noncommunicable (CDSR 98%, DARE 87%), and injury (CDSR 95%, DARE 88%) were also T2 focused. Few reviews exist to guide practitioners and policy makers with implementing evidence-based treatments or programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health disparities in the forensic sexual assault examination related to skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Baker, Rachel B.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Buschur, Carol; Zink, Therese M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of skin color in the forensic sexual assault examination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anogenital injury prevalence and frequency vary by skin color in women after consensual sexual intercourse. The sample consisted of 120 healthy (63 Black, 57 White) women who underwent a forensic sexual assault examination following consensual sexual intercourse. Experienced sexual assault forensic examiners using visual inspection, colposcopy technique with digital imaging, and toluidine blue application documented the number, type, and location of anogenital injuries. Although 55% of the total sample was observed to have at least one anogenital injury of any type following consensual intercourse, the percentages significantly differed for White (68%) and Black (43%) participants (p 0.02). When the presence of anogenital injury was analyzed by specific anatomical region, a significant difference between White and Black participants was only evident for the external genitalia (White = 56%, Black = 24%, p = .003), but not for the internal genitalia (White = 28%, Black = 19%, p = .20) or anus (White = 9%, Black = 10%, p = 0.99). A one standard deviation-unit increase in L* values (lightness) was related to a 150% to 250% increase in the odds of external genitalia injury prevalence (p dark skin color rather than race was a strong predictor for decreased injury prevalence. Sexual assault forensic examiners, therefore, may not be able to detect injury in women with dark skin as readily as women with light skin, leading to health disparities for women with dark skin. PMID:19947958

  14. HIV prevalence and risk factors among premarital couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, 2010%云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的HIV感染率及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚渝蓉; 杨育燕; 袁成; 寸东霞; 杨菊春; 段松; 何纳; 杨玲; 高洁; 项丽芬; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 白雪; 许娟; 蒋成芹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the HIV prevalence and risk factors among people receiving premarital medical examinations in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods Data were collected for HIV infection test, and questionnaire survey was conducted among premarital couples. Results In 2010, among 23,223 participants in the premarital examinations, 0. 78%(180) were tested as HIV positive . Among them, 70. 0% were sero-disaccord couples. 83. 3%(150) of HIV positive couples were infected with heterosexual transmission. The premarital sexual behavior was common with 56. L%(13,025) among all participants and 11. 9%(l,340) of the female participants were pregnant. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV prevalence was higher in drug users than in non drug users, and that among those aged > 25 years was higher than-among those aged <25 years, The HIV prevalence was also higher among the unemployed and among Burmese than among farmers and among local residents. Conclusion The HIV prevalence among premarital couples in 2010 was still at a high level. As one of the key way to detect HIV infections, premarital HIV testing should be promoted in HIV highly epidemic areas to prevent HIV transmission through sex and mother to child transmission.%目的 了解云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染状况及其影响因素.方法 利用德宏州2010年参加婚前体检人群的婚检资料,对该人群HIV感染率及相关因素进行分析.结果 23 223名婚前体检者HIV感染率为0.78%(180人),其中HIV单阳性比例为70.0%;83.3%(150/180)是通过异性性行为感染.婚检人群中有56.1%(13 025人)有婚前性行为,11.9%(1 340人)的女性婚检者已怀孕.Logistic多因素回归分析显示:HIV感染率为有吸毒行为者高于无吸毒行为者,25岁以上者高于25岁以下者,无业者高于农民,缅甸籍高于国内者.结论 2010年德宏州婚检人群的HIV感染率仍较高,吸毒、高年龄、无业与缅甸籍

  15. The unbearable lightness of health science reporting: a week examining Italian print media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Iaboli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although being an important source of science news information to the public, print news media have often been criticized in their credibility. Health-related content of press media articles has been examined by many studies underlining that information about benefits, risks and costs are often incomplete or inadequate and financial conflicts of interest are rarely reported. However, these studies have focused their analysis on very selected science articles. The present research aimed at adopting a wider explorative approach, by analysing all types of health science information appearing on the Italian national press in one-week period. Moreover, we attempted to score the balance of the articles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected 146 health science communication articles defined as articles aiming at improving the reader's knowledge on health from a scientific perspective. Articles were evaluated by 3 independent physicians with respect to different divulgation parameters: benefits, costs, risks, sources of information, disclosure of financial conflicts of interest and balance. Balance was evaluated with regard to exaggerated or non correct claims. The selected articles appeared on 41 Italian national daily newspapers and 41 weekly magazines, representing 89% of national circulation copies: 97 articles (66% covered common medical treatments or basic scientific research and 49 (34% were about new medical treatments, procedures, tests or products. We found that only 6/49 (12% articles on new treatments, procedures, tests or products mentioned costs or risks to patients. Moreover, benefits were always maximized and in 16/49 cases (33% they were presented in relative rather than absolute terms. The majority of stories (133/146, 91% did not report any financial conflict of interest. Among these, 15 were shown to underreport them (15/146, 9.5%, as we demonstrated that conflicts of interest did actually exist. Unbalanced

  16. An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

  17. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P

    1986-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  18. Prevalence of Abnormity of Blood Lipid and Associated Factors in Health Examination Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Kang; Jie-shi Zhang; Xin-xin Liu; Min-shan Wang; Ming-li Zhao; Jian-chun Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of abnormity of blood lipid and associated factors in healthy population in Beijing.Methods Totally,38462 individuals who received health examination were enrolled in our study.We divided them into eight groups according to their ages.The levels of serum total cholesterol,triglyceride,high density lipoprotein cholesterol,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were tested,and the relationship of blood lipid abnormity with body mass index(BMI)and fasting blood glucose was analyzed.Results The incidences of hypercholesterolemia,hyperglyceridemia,low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia,and hyper low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia presented increasing trend in this population.The incidence rate of abnormity of blood lipid in health examination population increased with BMI increase.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid in overweight and obesity population was significantly higher than that in low weight and normal weight populations(P<0.05).Meanwhile,the trend of abnormal blood lipid incidence coincided with that of abnormal fasting blood glucose.Conclusions The prevalence of overweight,obesity,and abnormity of blood lipid in Beijing presents increasing trend.The incidence of abnormity of blood lipid increases with BMI increase,in coincidence with that of fasting blood glucose.

  19. Examining the Relationship Between Flexible Resources and Health Information Channel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how variations in flexible resources influence where individuals begin their search for health information. Access to flexible resources such as money, power, and knowledge can alter the accessibility of channels for health information, such as doctors, the Internet, and print media. Using the HINTS 3 sample, whether information channel utilization is predicted by the same factors in two groups with distinct levels of access to flexible resources, as approximated by high and low levels of education, is investigated. Differences in access to flexible resources are hypothesized to produce variations in channel utilization in bivariate analyses, as well as changes in coefficient strength and statistical significance in multivariate models. Multinomial logit models were used to assess how a number of variables influence the probability of using a specific information channel first in either flexible resource group. Results suggest that individuals with higher levels of education, a proxy for flexible resources, are more likely to report seeking information from the Internet first, which is consistent with research on the digital divide. It appears that diminished access to flexible resources is also associated with heightened utilization of offline channels, including doctors. A handful of differences in predictors were found between the low and high flexible resource groups when multivariate models were compared. Future research should take into account the distinctions between different offline channels while also seeking to further understand how social inequality relates to the utilization of different channels and corresponding health outcomes.

  20. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-01-23

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. PREMARITAL EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS ACTUAL DIRECTION OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Aldakimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyze the actual problem of modern society ‒ premarital education of youth in educational institutions of the system. For consideration presented the problem of social orphanhood of children. A statistical data that reflects the relevance and importance of this research and the need for preventive measures towards preventing such terrible events as the abandonment of children by their parents. Allocated problem-giving vector for preventive measures, namely, the process of formation of readiness of girls to fulfill the social role of the mother. It disclosed the feasibility of this concept on the example of the introduction of training and educational courses for female students in the senior classes of a comprehensive school. The questions about premarital upbringing, formation of competence girl in the direction of responsible motherhood, the place of women in modern society and in the socio-cultural environment, demographics, socio-economic, legal, pedagogical and psychological aspects of formation and development of modern youth.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Mandatory Premarital Screening Among University Students in North Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Sireen M; Khatatbeh, Moawia M; Berggren, Vanja E M; Taha, Hana A

    2016-01-01

    A mandatory National Premarital Thalassemia Screening Program was implemented in Jordan in 2004. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of university students in North Jordan toward this program. Data was collected from 542 students from four universities (two public and two private universities) located in North Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Results of t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that while respondents had adequate knowledge of and positive attitudes toward the premarital screening program, there was still a lack of knowledge about the disease itself. Nearly half the respondents were under the impression that β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a disease that can be treated simply. One-third of the respondents believed that if both partners were carriers of β-thal they should proceed with marriage. Negative attitude was revealed when many respondents believed that diagnosing a family member as a carrier affects other family members' future marriage opportunities. Significant associations were detected between the knowledge scores and gender, urban/rural residence, and the university where the students were enrolled. Students in private universities showed significantly lower attitude scores. Consideration of prenatal diagnostic services as part of a β-thal prevention program is necessary. It would also be helpful to include information about β-thal as a preventable inherited illness with a severe debilitating impact on the family in the high school curriculum. There is also a need for social marketing of the program.

  3. Examining Burnout, Depression, and Self-Compassion in Veterans Affairs Mental Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David M; Rodman, John L; Thuras, Paul D; Shiroma, Paulo R; Lim, Kelvin O

    2017-07-01

    Burnout, a state of emotional exhaustion associated with negative personal and occupational outcomes, is prevalent among healthcare providers. A better understanding of the psychological factors that may be associated with resilience to burnout is essential to develop effective interventions. Self-compassion, which includes kindness toward oneself, recognition of suffering as part of shared human experience, mindfulness, and nonjudgment toward inadequacies and failures, may be one such factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between burnout, depression, and self-compassion in Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health staff. Cross-sectional study. VA medical center and affiliated community-based clinics. VA mental health staff. The 19-item Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 2-item depression screen. Demographic information included age, sex, years worked in current position, and number of staff supervised. One hundred and twenty-eight of a potential 379 individuals (33.8%) responded. Clerical support, nursing, social work, psychology, and psychiatry were the major professions represented. Self-compassion was inversely correlated with burnout (r = -0.41, p burnout remained significant even after accounting for depressive symptoms and demographic variables in a multiple linear regression model. Of all the variables examined, self-compassion was the strongest predictor of burnout. The results of this study support the hypothesis that self-compassion may be associated with resilience to burnout. Alternatively, decreased self-compassion may be a downstream effect of increased burnout. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directional relationship between these factors, and whether interventions that cultivate self-compassion may decrease burnout and/or protect against its negative personal and professional outcomes.

  4. The Effect of Premarital Cohabitation on Marital Stability over the Duration of Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinski, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishResearch has shown that premarital cohabitors who eventually marry are morelikely to divorce or separate than persons who do not cohabit prior to marriage.This study investigates the possibility that the difference in marital stabilitybetween cohabitors and non-cohabitors may change with increasing duration ofmarriage. Using Canadian 1995 General Social Survey data, variousProportional Hazards Models were specified to compare the marital dissolutionrisks of cohabitors and non-cohabitors, while controlling for a set of relevantfactors. Initially, it was found that both groups had virtually identical dissolutionrisks. However, further specification of the hazards model indicated that indeedcohabitors have a greater risk of marital dissolution than noncohabitors. Furthertests to differentiate between short- and long-term unions indicated thatpremarital cohabitors have a greater dissolution risk in the first ten years of theirunion, while non-cohabitors have a greater hazard after ten years of marriage.We discuss these findings in the context of the North American based literatureon cohabitation and marriage dissolution, and offer suggestions for furtherstudy.FrenchPlusieurs recherches ont démontré que les couples qui cohabitent avant lemariage et qui finissent par se marier courent un risque plus élevé de divorce oude séparation que les couples qui ne cohabitent pas avant le mariage. Cetteétude examine l’hypothèse que cette différence dans la stabilité des mariagesentre les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant pourrait changersuivant la durée du mariage. En s’appuyant sur les données de l’Enquête socialegénérale canadienne de 1995, différents modèles de régression à effetproportionnel ont été spécifiés pour comparer les risques de dissolution desmariages dans les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant. D’autresétudes qui ont été menées pour déterminer s’il y avait des diff

  5. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V

    1990-05-01

    "This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  6. Premarital Sexuality: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study of Attitudes and Behavior by Dating Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John P.; Ramsbey, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 268 college students about premarital sex in 1988 and compared findings to those from similar sample in 1983. Females in 1988 showed lower levels of sexual intercourse at all five dating stages than did 1983 counterparts. Males in 1988 reported higher levels of intercourse for first four dating stages than did 1983 males. (Author/NB)

  7. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  8. Nurturing the Relationships of All Couples: Integrating Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns into Premarital Education and Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Fallon, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that premarital counseling programs help engaged couples develop interpersonal and problem-solving skills that enhance their marital relationships. Yet, there are limited services for same-sex couples. This article assumes an integrated humanistic and social justice advocacy stance to explore the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual…

  9. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  10. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  11. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, A; Uysal, A; Uludağ, A; Ertekin, Y H; Tekin, M; Kütük, B; Silan, F; Özdemir, Ö

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) carriers in Turkey varies according to region but in general it is 2.0%. Çanakkale is a city in the Aegean region of Turkey but no study about β-thal frequency in Çanakkale has been published to date. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of β-thal mutations in this province. A total of 4452 couples (8904 individuals) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β-thal carriers seen at the Medical Genetics Clinic, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, for genetic counseling, 46 participated in the study. The remaining 79 patients could not be reached. The prevalence for β-thal carriers in Çanakkale was identified as 1.4% (125/8904). One couple were both β-thal carriers. β-Globin gene analysis of 46 carriers found the total frequency of the three most common mutations was 45.6%. These mutations were found to be HBB: c.93-21G>A [IVS-I-110 (G>A)], 26.08% (12/46); HBB: c.17_ 18delCT [codon 5 (‒CT)], 10.85% (5/46); HBB: c.20delA [codon 6 (‒A)] 8.69% (4/46). This is the first report on the frequency and mutation profiles of β-thal for Çanakkale. The incidence of β-thal carriers in Çanakkale is below the average for Turkey. The most frequently observed mutation profile and rate of β-thal in our region is different from the other regions of Turkey.

  12. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uludağ A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal carriers in Turkey varies according to region but in general it is 2.0%. Çanakkale is a city in the Aegean region of Turkey but no study about β-thal frequency in Çanakkale has been published to date. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of β-thal mutations in this province. A total of 4452 couples (8904 individuals applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Of 125 β-thal carriers seen at the Medical Genetics Clinic, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, for genetic counseling, 46 participated in the study. The remaining 79 patients could not be reached. The prevalence for β-thal carriers in Çanakkale was identified as 1.4% (125/8904. One couple were both β-thal carriers. β-Globin gene analysis of 46 carriers found the total frequency of the three most common mutations was 45.6%. These mutations were found to be HBB: c.93-21G>A [IVS-I-110 (G>A], 26.08% (12/46; HBB: c.17_ 18delCT [codon 5 (‒CT], 10.85% (5/46; HBB: c.20delA [codon 6 (‒A] 8.69% (4/46. This is the first report on the frequency and mutation profiles of β-thal for Çanakkale. The incidence of β-thal carriers in Çanakkale is below the average for Turkey. The most frequently observed mutation profile and rate of β-thal in our region is different from the other regions of Turkey.

  13. Cyberchondriasis: fact or fiction? A preliminary examination of the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Kate; McManus, Freda; Leung, Christie; Meghreblian, Ben; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information online, a phenomenon dubbed 'cyberchondria'. The majority of those with 'high' (n=46) and 'low' (n=36) levels of health anxiety reported seeking health information online. However, those with higher levels of health anxiety sought online health information more frequently, spent longer searching, and found searching more distressing and anxiety provoking. Furthermore, more responses in the high than low health anxiety group related to searching for information on diagnosed and undiagnosed medical conditions, descriptions of others' experiences of illnesses and using message boards/support groups, although the largest proportion of responses in both groups was accounted for by seeking information on symptoms. Linear regression (n=167) revealed significant relationships between health anxiety and the frequency, duration and distress and anxiety associated with searching for health information online. This preliminary data suggests that searching for health information online may exacerbate health anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 ...

  15. Adoption and Use of Internet Technologies in Health Communication: Examining Disparities in Diffusion Patterns, Health Information Sources, and Patient-Provider Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip Minter

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of internet technologies on the field of health communication. Access and use of health communication technologies has and will continue to become increasingly important to manage and treat chronic conditions and other ailments, particularly in the context of health care reform that promotes improved quality…

  16. Adoption and Use of Internet Technologies in Health Communication: Examining Disparities in Diffusion Patterns, Health Information Sources, and Patient-Provider Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip Minter

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of internet technologies on the field of health communication. Access and use of health communication technologies has and will continue to become increasingly important to manage and treat chronic conditions and other ailments, particularly in the context of health care reform that promotes improved quality…

  17. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  18. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  19. EXAMINATION OF HAND FUNCTION AFTER POLLICIZATION USING INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shvedovchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the results of 63 pollicizations to 51 children with congenital and posttraumatic pathology of the hand with the age from 6 months till 18 years old. To examine the hand function before and after pollicization we used International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Authors determined criteria and analyzed the ability to live restrictions before and after pollicization. The carried out analysis has shown that before operative treatment in most cases (94% patients had heavy and absolute difficulties of infringement of function of force of the hand isolated muscles and muscular groups, infringement of change of structure and difficulty of hand use. At an estimation of the remote pollicization results positive outcomes have been reached at 49 (96% patients from 51. Formation of bilateral pinch possibility at patients kept only easy and moderate difficulties of infringement of function of the hand.

  20. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  1. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  2. Breast self-examination among nurses and midwives in Odemis health district in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ertem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The second leading cause of death due to cancer in Turkey is breast cancer, which accounts for 24% of female cancers. Aims: To determine the practices of nurses and midwives and their attitude toward breast self-examination (BSE. Setting and Design: The descriptive survey was conducted to determine the practices of nurses and midwives and their attitude toward BSE. It tried to cover the total population rather than sampling part of it. However, 15 nurses and midwives, where there were errors detected in their data coding papers, and who did not accept to join the study, were excluded from the study. A total of 80 nurses and midwives were included in the study group. Materials and Methods: This survey was carried out at the State Hospital, all Public Health Cabins, and Family Health Centers, in the rural area of Izmir, a city located in the western region of Turkey. The data was collected between 15 March and 1 April 2004. Statistical Analysis: The analysis included descriptive statistics, to examine the association between BSE and medical history, knowledge of BSE, and attitude toward BSE. Results: The results of the study indicated that 52% of the sample performed BSE. Approximately 35% of those who performed BSE reported that they acquired information regarding BSE during their work experience. A significant relationship was found between higher levels of work experience and BSE practice. Except for age, no significant relation was found between the sociodemographic factors and BSE practice. The sample showed a strong belief in the breast lump being the cause of breast cancer and it had a significant correlation with BSE practice. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between nursing work experience and their practice alongside BSE medical professionals. Almost all the nurses and midwives knew how to conduct BSE, but did not prioritize practicing it.

  3. Language as a determinant of participation rates in Finnish health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2017-08-01

    A high participation rate is considered as a prerequisite for representative survey results, especially when it is known that non-participation is selective. In many countries migration is increasing and the proportion of people speaking other language(s) than the official language(s) of the country is also increasing. How does this affect survey participation rates? Data from four cross-sectional health examination surveys (the FINRISK Study) were used to evaluate the effect of the registered mother tongue to participation in the survey. Finland has two official languages (Finnish and Swedish). Between 1997 and 2012, the proportion of the population with some other language as their registered mother tongue has increased significantly. Participation rates in the health surveys have been highest among the Finnish language group (68% in men in 1997 and 76% in women in 1997), while lowest among the foreign language group (43% in men in 1997 and 57% in women in 1997). In 2012, the participation rates had declined in all language groups: for men, 58%, 62% and 41% for Finnish, Swedish and foreign groups respectively, and for women 68%, 75% and 56%. The participation rate for the foreign language group was significantly lower than for the Finnish and Swedish groups. In future surveys it will be important to include actions to promote participation, e.g. providing survey material in several languages. These actions will increase costs but will be essential to ensure high participation rates and reliable results for the total population.

  4. The potential implementation of radio-frequency identification technology for personal health examination and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2009-11-16

    This paper presents several possible applications of the radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health examination and monitoring. One application involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another one uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Another application involves simultaneous assessment and monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting using networks of RFID sensors. All the assessment and monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and in a timely fashion to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously assessed and monitored information provides medical professionals with more complete and long-term studies of patients. The proposed ideas promise to result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also in significant reduction of medical expenditure.

  5. Health beliefs and breast self-examination among female university nursing students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Nulufer; Bolukbas, Nurgul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the health beliefs and knowledge about breast self examination (BSE) and the actual BSE habits of female university nursing students. The study sample recruited 189 nursing students who agreed to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test, one way ANOVA test, t test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyse the data. 83.1% of nursing students had knowledge about breast cancer (BC) and BSE in the study. BSE was practiced by 70.4% of nursing students; 21.8% of them performed BSE regularly. A fear of developing BC was an incentive for 85% of nursing students to practice BSE. The confidence subscale scores in the third and fourth years of students' university education were higher, and the barrier subscale score in these same years was lower than their first years of study. Perception of benefit of nursing students experiencing breast-related discomfort exerted a positive effect. Nursing students with lower perception of barriesr performed BSE regularly. In conclusion, nursing students' years of university study, breast cancer knowledge, history of breast cancer in family, and BSE practice status were factors affecting their health beliefs. These study results indicate the importance of developing education and training programs which educate not only nursing students but all women about breast cancer, its symptoms, the importance of early diagnosis and of regular BSE.

  6. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p employee's perceived stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources

  7. Health beliefs, perceived self-efficacy, and breast self-examination among Thai migrants in Brisbane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirojwong, Sansnee; MacLennan, Robert

    2003-02-01

    Women in Thailand have a relatively low risk of developing breast cancer; however, death rates from breast cancer are increasing. Rates in many migrant groups are also known to be on the increase. Little is known about breast cancer screening, particularly breast self-examination (BSE), among Thai migrant women in other countries. In Australia, non-English-speaking-background migrants are known to be low users of preventive health services. To investigate, using the health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy as a theoretical framework, the use of BSE in a recent migrant group, Thai women in Australia, and to identify sociodemographic variables that influence the women's regular use of BSE. In 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 Thai women in Brisbane recruited through a snowball-sampling method, which used personal contacts and key persons within the Thai community. The study was approved by the University Human Ethics Review Committee. Data were collected through designed closed-ended questions. Only 25% of the women performed BSE regularly. HBM indices were strongly associated with BSE. Beliefs in high personal susceptibility to breast cancer strongly increased the likelihood of BSE. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, cues or triggers to undertake BSE and self-efficacy, or the ability to do BSE were found to be important determinants of regular BSE. Study limitations, including data collection methods, are discussed. A low percentage of women practised BSE regularly. The HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE. Strategies that increase the confidence of women to undertake preventive health behaviour or increase self-efficacy are likely to increase their regular screening for breast cancer.

  8. 女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Research on influencing factors to premarital sexual behavior of female students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婉秋; 张河川

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the influencing factors to premarital sex of female students and to provide evidence for their sex education and reproductive health. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 840 female students who collected at random form 6 universities in Yunnan. Results: ①Among the students surveyed, 5. 1% students had unwanted pregrant, 16. 2% students had sex behavior but hadn't pregrant and 78. 7% students hadn't sex behavior. ②The correct rate of sexual knowledge, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ~ 0. 002); In sexual tolerance, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ); In sexual attitude about effect of premarital sex to health and future family, the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 028/P = 0. 000 ); About of the standpoint of reproductive health that female is emphasis and male is participation activity'. the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000) . ③Logistic showed that grade, knowledge of contraception, effect of premarital sex to future family and sexual tolerance were risk factors to premarital sex Conclusion: Sex attitude is important factor of premarital sex of female students. Traditional virginity value still play an impact role in the sex behavior. The education of sex moral would play an important role in our intervention of sex health and reproductive health.%目的:探讨影响女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为女大学生性健康/生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法:采用自编问卷调查法,整群随机抽取云南省6所高校的840名18~25岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果:①5.1%的女大学生承认有非意愿妊娠行为,16.2%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,78.7%报告无性经历.②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未

  9. Examining the Role of Mental Health and Clinical Issues within Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andy; MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave; Rodgers, Sheelagh

    2015-01-01

    Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importance of early intervention and effective treatment, and the potentially devastating consequences of clinical issues going undiagnosed, the implications for talent identification and development (TID) become obvious. With this in mind, this study sought to examine the range of mental health issues that may impact upon developing athletes and potential consequences for the development process, specific risk and protective factors associated with talent development, along with an examination of current practices concerning the identification of mental health issues in such environments. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively sampled clinicians (n = 8) experienced in working with adolescents and/or young athletes. Inductive content analysis was undertaken, identifying four main themes: key behavioral indicators; associated risk factors; associated protective factors; and issues around identification and diagnosis. Key behavioral indicators included behavioral change, along with behaviors associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Risk factors centered on family background, the performance environment, and issues surrounding adolescence. Protective factors were primarily social in nature. Finally, a lack of awareness and understanding of clinical issues, multiple causes of symptoms, non-disclosure and the need for triangulation of assessment were identified. The need for improved identification and intervention strategies was apparent, with coaches

  10. Examining the Role of Mental Health and Clinical Issues within Talent Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eHill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importance of early intervention and effective treatment, and the potentially devastating consequences of clinical issues going undiagnosed, the implications for talent identification and development become obvious. With this in mind, this study sought to examine the range of mental health issues that may impact upon developing athletes and potential consequences for the development process, specific risk and protective factors associated with talent development, along with an examination of current practices concerning the identification of mental health issues in such environments. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively sampled clinicians (n = 8 experienced in working with adolescents and/or young athletes. Inductive content analysis was undertaken, identifying four main themes: key behavioral indicators; associated risk factors; associated protective factors; and issues around identification and diagnosis. Key behavioral indicators included behavioral change, along with behaviors associated with eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Risk factors centered on family background, the performance environment, and issues surrounding adolescence. Protective factors were primarily social in nature. Finally, a lack of awareness and understanding of clinical issues, multiple causes of symptoms, non-disclosure and the need for triangulation of assessment were identified. The need for improved identification and intervention strategies was apparent, with

  11. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Laryngitis: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Seong-Soo; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of chronic laryngitis (CL) with MetS and its components in a representative Korean population.Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010) were analyzed. A total of 10,360 adults who had undergone otolaryngological examination were evaluated.The prevalence of CL in the study population was 3.1%. The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in patients with CL than in those without CL for both sexes (men: 34.7 ± 4.0% versus 25.9 ± 0.8%, P = 0.0235; women: 40.6 ± 5.3% versus 23.7 ± 0.7%, P = 0.0003). Elevated fasting glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure, however, were only significantly associated with CL in women. After controlling for confounders, CL was only significantly associated with MetS in women (odds ratio: 2.159; 95% confidence interval: 1.2974, 3.594). Furthermore, the association between CL and MetS was most robust in women who were classified as obese.In Korea, MetS and its components are significantly associated with CL in women.

  13. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  14. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  15. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  16. Six-year outcome of the national premarital screening and genetic counseling program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Saeedi, Mohammad Y

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β...

  17. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    ...), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011...

  18. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults ...

  19. Pre-marital screening for sickle cell haemoglobin and genetic counseling: awareness and acceptability among undergraduate students of a Nigerian University

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease which is more prevalent in developing countries. Pre-marital screening for sickle cell disorder is helpful in the prevention and control of the condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and acceptability of premarital genetic counseling and screening for sickle cell haemoglobin among undergraduate students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, South eastern, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectio...

  20. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5 using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01. Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05. ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  1. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  2. Rat Models of Cardiometabolic Diseases: Baseline Clinical Chemistries, and Rationale for their Use in Examining Air Pollution Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first of a series of 8 papers examining susceptibility of various rodent cardiometabolic disease models to ozone induced health effects. Individuals with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (CVD) are shown to be more susceptible to adverse health effects o...

  3. Periodic health examination, 1996 update: 1. Prenatal screening for and diagnosis of Down syndrome. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, P. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations to physicians providing prenatal care on (1) whether prenatal screening for and diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) is advisable and (2) alternative screening and diagnosis manoeuvres. OPTIONS: "Triple-marker" screening of maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol; fetal ultrasonographic examination; amniocentesis; and chorionic villus sampling (CVS). OUTCOMES: Accuracy of detection of DS in fetuses, and ri...

  4. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

    1990-01-01

    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children.

  5. Methodology for adding glycemic index to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey nutrient database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chii-Shy; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Brown, Lisa S; Kaye, Elizabeth A; Nunn, Martha E; Millen, Barbara E

    2012-11-01

    Generating valid estimates of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) has been a challenge in nutritional epidemiology. The methodologic issues may have contributed to the wide variation of GI/GL associations with health outcomes observed in existing literature. We describe a standardized methodology for assigning GI values to items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient database using the new International Tables to develop research-driven, systematic procedures and strategies to estimate dietary GI/GL exposures of a nationally representative population sample. Nutrient databases for NHANES 2003-2006 contain information on 3,155 unique foods derived from the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference versions 18 and 20. Assignment of GI values were made to a subset of 2,078 carbohydrate-containing foods using systematic food item matching procedures applied to 2008 international GI tables and online data sources. Matching protocols indicated that 45.4% of foods had identical matches with existing data sources, 31.9% had similar matches, 2.5% derived GI values calculated with the formula for combination foods, 13.6% were assigned a default GI value based on low carbohydrate content, and 6.7% of GI values were based on data extrapolation. Most GI values were derived from international sources; 36.1% were from North American product information. To confirm data assignments, dietary GI and GL intakes of the NHANES 2003-2006 adult participants were estimated from two 24-hour recalls and compared with published studies. Among the 3,689 men and 4,112 women studied, mean dietary GI was 56.2 (men 56.9, women 55.5), mean dietary GL was 138.1 (men 162.1, women 116.4); the distribution of dietary GI was approximately normal. Estimates of population GI and GL compare favorably with other published literature. This methodology of adding GI values to an existing population nutrient database

  6. Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Myung Hun; Friedman, David; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. Objective To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005–2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES). The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. Results Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67). The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82). Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32) compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. Conclusions Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma. PMID:25393836

  7. Diabetes, glucose metabolism, and glaucoma: the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes may affect vascular autoregulation of the retina and optic nerve and may be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma,but the association of prediabetes, insulin resistance, markers of glucose metabolismwith glaucoma has not beenevaluated in general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between diabetes, pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and its components and the levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR with the prevalence of glaucoma in the general U.S. population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,299 adult men and women from the 2005-2008 National Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES. The presence of diabetes, prediabetes, the metabolic syndrome and its individual components and biomarkers of glucose metabolisms were based on standardized questionnaire and physical exam data and laboratory tests. The history of glaucoma was assessed through questionnaire during the home interview. RESULTS: Diabetes was strongly associated with prevalent glaucoma.In fully adjusted models, the odds ratiofor glaucoma comparing participants with diabetes with participants in the reference group with neither pre-diabetes nor diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.67. The corresponding odd ratio comparing participants with pre-diabetes to those in the reference group was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.82. Patients with 5 or more years of diabetes duration hadan OR for glaucoma of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.63, 9.32 compared with patients with <5 years of diabetes duration. We also found a hockey-stick shaped associations between biomarkers of glucose metabolisms and the prevalence of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with higher risk of glaucoma. Participants without diabetes but at the higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR spectrum may also be at greater risk of glaucoma.

  8. Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Albuminuria: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Min; Won, Jong Chul; Kim, Mi Kyung; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P sarcopenia was also more prevalent in participants with albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38-8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria.This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa.

  9. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  10. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  11. Retrospective Reports of Weight Change and Inflammation in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the association between weight change and inflammation in a nationally representative population of US adults aged 40 and older. Methods. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008, logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between high levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and infection (white blood cell count [WBC] with 1- and 10-year change in self-reported weight status. Results. Change in 1- and 10-year weight was associated with high CRP but not high WBC. Individuals who gained or lost ≥10 kg had an odds of having high CRP that was 1.96 (95% CI 1.11–3.50 and 1.61 (95% CI 1.02–2.46 as high, respectively, as those who maintained a stable weight (<4 kg change in the past year. The increased risk of elevated CRP among individuals who experienced at least 10 kg of weight loss or weight gain was also observed for weight change that occurred over the past 10 years; however, weight loss over the 10-year period was no longer associated with high inflammation. Conclusions. These results suggest that adult respondents who retrospectively self-reported weight loss or gain had higher levels of inflammation relative to their weight stable counterparts.

  12. Extermination strategies reported in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Nancy L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    It is likely that household extermination is a major source of pesticide exposure for urban residents. Little is known about the predictors of residential pest control strategies in urban areas, and greater knowledge of these may help identify who is at risk for higher pesticide exposure. Study data is from the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a cross-sectional, population-based study using a three-stage sampling scheme. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of pesticide use overall, and of application strategy: (1) consumer-applied pesticides only, (2) use of a professional exterminator only, or (3) use of both. Consumer-applied extermination was more prevalent than professional or both professional and consumer (39.9% versus 27.8% and 15.9%, respectively, and non-exclusively). In multivariate models among those who used any extermination, consumer application was associated with age 60 years+, being black or Asian, and being widowed, divorced, or single. Lower income households were more likely to use both strategies, and less likely to use professional extermination only. Urban residents may benefit from targeted education on how and when to self-apply pesticides, and on best-practice pest control to avoid unnecessary pesticide exposure. Higher prevalence of consumer-applied and conjoint consumer and professionally applied extermination in low-income households may reflect both economic determinants of first recourse and higher neighborhood infestation levels.

  13. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  14. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  15. Integrating microfinance and health strategies: examining the evidence to inform policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Sheila; Metcalfe, Marcia; Geissler, Kimberley; Dunford, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Single solutions continue to be inadequate in confronting the prevalent problems of poverty, ill health and insufficient health system capacity worldwide. The poor need access to an integrated set of financial and health services to have income security and better health. Over 3500 microfinance institutions (MFIs) provide microcredit and financial services to more than 155 million households worldwide. Conservative estimates indicate that at least 34 million of these households are very poor by the definition in the Millennium Development Goals, representing around 170 million people, many in remote areas beyond the reach of health agencies, both private and governmental. A small but increasing number of MFIs offer health-related services, such as education, clinical care, community health workers, health-financing and linkages to public and private health providers. Multiple studies indicate the effectiveness of microfinance and its impact on poverty. A small but growing number of studies also attempt to show that MFIs are capable of contributing to health improvement by increasing knowledge that leads to behavioural changes, and by enhancing access to health services through addressing financial, geographic and other barriers. While these studies are of uneven quality, they indicate positive health benefits in diverse areas such as maternal and child health, malaria and other infectious disease, and domestic violence. While more rigorous research is needed to inform policy and guide programme implementation to integrate microfinance and health interventions that can reliably enhance the well-being of the poor, there is useful evidence to support the design and delivery of integrated programmes now. Worldwide, current public health programmes and health systems are proving to be inadequate to meet population needs. The microfinance sector offers an underutilized opportunity for delivery of health-related services to many hard-to-reach populations.

  16. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2016-01-01

    of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross......Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors......-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against...

  17. The Electronic Health Record Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Assessing Student Competency in Patient Interactions While Using the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioli, Frances E.; Elliot, Diane L.; Palmer, Ryan T.; Graichen, Carla C.; Rdesinski, Rebecca E.; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Galper, Ari B.; Tysinger, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Because many medical students do not have access to electronic health records (EHRs) in the clinical environment, simulated EHR training is necessary. Explicitly training medical students to use EHRs appropriately during patient encounters equips them to engage patients while also attending to the accuracy of the record and contributing to a culture of information safety. Approach Faculty developed and successfully implemented an EHR objective structured clinical examination (EHR-OSCE) for clerkship students at two institutions. The EHR-OSCE objectives include assessing EHR-related communication and data management skills. Outcomes The authors collected performance data for students (n = 71) at the first institution during academic years 2011–2013 and for students (n = 211) at the second institution during academic year 2013–2014. EHR-OSCE assessment checklist scores showed that students performed well in EHR-related communication tasks, such as maintaining eye contact and stopping all computer work when the patient expresses worry. Findings indicated student EHR skill deficiencies in the areas of EHR data management including medical history review, medication reconciliation, and allergy reconciliation. Most students’ EHR skills failed to improve as the year progressed, suggesting that they did not gain the EHR training and experience they need in clinics and hospitals. Next Steps Cross-institutional data comparisons will help determine whether differences in curricula affect students’ EHR skills. National and institutional policies and faculty development are needed to ensure that students receive adequate EHR education, including hands-on experience in the clinic as well as simulated EHR practice. PMID:27332870

  18. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  19. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Kraus, Caroline L; McKenzie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  20. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  1. Are We There Yet? An Examination of Online Tailored Health Communication

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    Suggs, L. Suzanne; McIntyre, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, the Internet is playing an important role in consumer health and patient-provider communication. Seventy-three percent of American adults are now online, and 79% have searched for health information on the Internet. This study provides a baseline understanding of the extent to which health consumers are able to find tailored…

  2. An Examination of the Relationship between Family and U.S. Latinos’ Physical Health

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    Georgiana Bostean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Latinos, especially immigrant Latinos, have lower mortality rates and some better health outcomes than U.S.-born Latinos and whites, a situation called the Latino Paradox. One explanation for the advantage is that Latinos’ family orientation protects health. However, because few large-scale studies examine Latinos’ family relationships by nativity, the extent to which family factors contribute to Latinos’ health outcomes is unclear. Additionally, while a large literature focuses on family cohesion, fewer studies address both cohesion and conflict, which may be particularly important among immigrants, whose migration and adaptation experiences can strain family relations. This study examines the relationship between family context and U.S. Latinos’ physical health outcomes. Using nationally representative data on Latinos, it explores the relationship between chronic conditions and activity limitation and nativity, ethnicity, and family factors—both subjective, such as cohesion and conflict, and objective, such as household size, marital status, and language spoken with family. Results reveal that family conflict in particular is related to poorer health. Furthermore, objective measures of family context, such as marital status and household size, do not capture the effects of family relationships (cohesion, conflict, social support. These findings emphasize the importance of family relationships and the need for makers of both immigration and health policy to take into account the complex effects of these relationships on society from a public health perspective.Les Latinos, et en particulier les immigrants latinos, affichent des taux de mortalité plus faibles et un meilleur état de santé que les Blancs et les Latinos nés aux Etats-Unis. Cette situation est connue sous le nom de Paradoxe latino. L’une des explications à ce paradoxe est que la cohésion familiale des Latinos aurait un effet bénéfique sur la santé. Toutefois,

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  4. Thyroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic Parameters: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Cheng, Alan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5th, 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. Conclusions Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes. PMID:23593140

  5. Thyroid hormones and electrocardiographic parameters: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

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    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5(th, 20(th, 40(th, 60(th, 80(th, and 95(th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and total cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick O; Murage, Mwangi J; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    Although metabolic syndrome incidence has substantially increased during the last few decades, it largely remains unclear whether this metabolic disorder is associated with total cancer mortality. The present study was carried out to investigate this important question. A total of 687 cancer deaths were identified from 14,916 participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by linking them to the National Death Index database through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total cancer mortality in relation to metabolic syndrome and its individual components. After adjustment for confounders, a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was associated with 33% elevated total cancer mortality. Compared with individuals without metabolic syndrome, those with 3, 4 and 5 abnormal components had HRs (95% CIs) of 1.28 (1.03-1.59), 1.24 (0.96-1.60), and 1.87 (1.34-2.63), respectively (p-trend = 0.0003). Systolic blood pressure and serum glucose were associated with an increased risk of death from total cancer [HR (95% CI) for highest vs. lowest quartiles: 1.67 (1.19-2.33), p-trend = 0.002 and 1.34 (1.04-1.74), p-trend = 0.003, respectively]. Overall null results were obtained for lung cancer mortality. The effects of metabolic syndrome and its components on non-lung cancer mortality were generally similar to, but somewhat larger than, those for total cancer mortality. Our study is among the first to reveal that metabolic syndrome is associated with increased total cancer mortality.

  7. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03, 46.9 (0.34, 128.7 (1.09, and 131.4 (2.20 mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp. but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.. Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  8. Engagement of National Board of Examinations in strengthening public health education in India: present landscape, opportunities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  9. Engagement of national board of examinations in strengthening public health education in India: Present landscape, opportunities and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  10. Credit with Health Education in Benin: A Cluster Randomized Trial Examining Impacts on Knowledge and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Thuysbaert, Bram; Gray, Bobbi

    2017-02-08

    We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs. No significant changes in health behavior were observed except an increase in HIV/AIDS prevention behavior, a result predominantly driven by an increase in respondents' self-reported ability to procure a condom, likely an indicator of increased perceived access rather than improved preventative behavior. Women in villages assigned to mixed-gender groups had significantly lower levels of social capital, compared with villages assigned to female-only groups. This suggests there may be an important trade-off to consider for interventions seeking improved health outcomes and social capital through provision of services to mixed-gender groups. Although bundling health education with microcredit can expand health education coverage and lower service-delivery costs, the approach may not be sufficient to improve health behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. The level of health in Elementary School Students in Training and Research Areas and Evaluation of School Screening Examination Results

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    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The research was planned in order to evaluate the level of health’s elementary schools located in Eskisehir Osmangazi University School of Medicine Public Health Department Training and Research Areas and the school health services they have been receiving for the last eight years. METHOD: 1st, 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students studying in 12 elementary schools located in the Training and Research Areas in 2009-2010 academic year were enrolled to the study. On days of the screenings, a total of 1405 students available (1405/1569: %89.5 in the schools were reached. Growth, seeing, hearing, mouth-teeth health, systemic physical examination and by consulting to the teachers, state of mind and existence of chronic diseases were researched. For each child, information containing the existence of school enrolment examination, the number of periodic examinations that have been conducted on the child, and also the results of the examination of the same year was inquired. RESULTS: 1.0 % of the students were detected as very weak, 4.8 % as weak, 75.9 % as normal, 15.8 % as overweight and 2.5 % as obese. In eye examinations, 10.5% of the students had refractive error, 6.2 % had amblyopia and 3.1% had diplopia. In the ear examination, it was determined that 48.7 % of the students had plug, 2.5 % had perforated tympanum, and 3.1 % had hearing loss. In mouth and teeth examination, it was detected that 64.8% of the students had tooth decay. All of the students who were claimed to have undergone school enrolment examination were first grade students and that examinations included examination results of this year. Health forms containing the results of school enrolment examination and periodic examinations of 2nd, 7th and 8th grade students were not found. School screening were conducted only in two district elementary schools. The eye examination results reported in the records appeared to be inconsistent with screning results. CONCLUSION: It was shown

  12. Race and health profiles in the United States: an examination of the social gradient through the 2009 CHIS adult survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A B; Moser, R; Chou, W-Y

    2014-12-01

    To examine the role of the social gradient on multiple health outcomes and behaviors. It was predicted that higher levels of SES, measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, physical activity, and diet) and health status (i.e., limited physical activity due to chronic condition, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, BMI, and perceived health condition). The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Cross-sectional study. The data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Findings indicated that, in general, Whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than Whites. Predicted marginals indicated that Asians in the upper two strata of social class display the healthiest outcomes of health status among all other racial/ethnic groups. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for Whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and

  13. Examining the breastfeeding support resources of the public health nursing services in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Helen; Phelan, Agnes; Corcoran, Paul; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to review breastfeeding support provided by Public Health Nurses in Ireland. The objectives were to identify the availability of appropriate guiding policies, educational preparation, attitude of Public Health Nurses and the availability and use of other supportive services. Breastfeeding rates in Ireland are among the lowest in Europe. The main source of formal support for breastfeeding mothers in the community in Ireland is from Public Health Nurses who can make referral to other non-statutory resources. The nature of this support is determined by policies guiding clinical practice and education that increases breastfeeding confidence and competence of all personnel. Consequently, an assessment of breastfeeding resources requires an analysis of all these variables. A large quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted, involving Public Health Nurses and mothers. This paper represents the results from the perspective of Public Health Nurses. Directors of Public Health Nursing (n = 24) and Public Health Nurses (n = 204) completed self-report questionnaires by mail and online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. Public Health Nurses are well educated to support breastfeeding and have a positive attitude and a high degree of self-assessed confidence and competence. A wide variety of non-statutory support exists for breastfeeding but is not always used to their full potential. Standardising educational requirements for Public Health Nurses in supporting breastfeeding is an area that requires attention. Ultimately, service delivery in relation to supporting breastfeeding mothers would benefit from being more timely and responsive. Awareness of support resources is necessary for Public Health Nurses to make appropriate referrals for breastfeeding mothers. Furthermore, Directors of Public Health Nursing need to encourage the breastfeeding supportive

  14. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Educational Program Status of Premarital Counseling Centers in Hamadan Province Based on Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA

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    Mohamad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Divorce, unwanted pregnancies, and unsuccessful marriages create mental, emotional, physical, and financial problems for individuals, families, and ultimately the community. Premarital education and counseling is one of the most effective ways for the prevention of such problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a premarital educational program by using the TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action. Materials and Methods: Four hundred couples who attended premarital education and counseling classes voluntarily participated in this descriptive and analytical study. Variables such as attitude, subjective norms, and intention, were collected by using a validated questionnaire based on the TRA components. The questionnaire was filled out before and after the educational classes. Results: The mean age of the couples was 23.16 ± 5.64 years old. Statistically significant differences were found in knowledge, attitude, and subjective norms before and after participation in the classes (p value 0.05. Conclusion: Although the mean knowledge and attitude of the couples under study increased after the classes, the increase was not high and only 20% of the couples gained acceptable knowledge. The effectiveness of such classes in the current manner is very low. Application of appropriate educational methods and media-based models and theories is highly recommended.

  16. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  17. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  18. Where Do U.S. Adults Who Do Not Use the Internet Get Health Information? Examining Digital Health Information Disparities From 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    With more people turning to the Internet for health information, a few questions remain: Which populations represent the remaining few who have never used the Internet, and where do they go for health information? The purpose of this study is to describe population characteristics and sources of health information among U.S. adults who do not use the Internet. Data from 3 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1,722) are used to examine trends in health information sources. Weighted predicted probabilities demonstrate changes in information source over time. Older adults, minority populations, and individuals with low educational attainment represent a growing percentage of respondents who have looked for health information but have never used the Internet, highlighting trends in digital information disparities. However, 1 in 10 respondents who have never used the Internet also indicate that the Internet was their first source of health information, presumably through surrogates. Findings highlight digital disparities in information seeking and the complex nature of online information seeking. Future research should examine how individuals conceptualize information sources, measure skills related to evaluating information and sources, and investigate the social nature of information seeking. Health care organizations and public health agencies can leverage the multifaceted nature of information seeking to better develop information resources to increase information access by vulnerable populations.

  19. Examining the Breadth and Depth of Environmental Health through a Modified Delphi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental health, a crucial part of our everyday lives, is a multidisciplinary field with many discrepancies as to what encompasses the core areas. Purpose: This study intended to establish core areas and corresponding topics of environmental health as a preliminary step to identifying knowledge, attitude and behavior questions for…

  20. Boards of directors under fire: an examination of nonprofit board duties in the health care environment.

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    Ono, N

    1998-01-01

    Attorney Ono presents a detailed discussion of fiduciary duty principles as applied to the directors of nonprofit health care corporations in the current health care environment. The article reviews general corporate responsibilities, the implication of the taxpayer's Bill of Rights 2, the care of In re Caremark International Inc. Derivative Litigation and particular issues faced by boards in nonprofit conversions.

  1. Examining the importance of incorporating emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into allied health curricula.

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    Curtis, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and healthcare professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To date, there is no core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies that have been standardized at all levels across the various allied health curricula disciplines. To identify if emergency preparedness and disaster training content are currently being taught in allied health program courses, to identify possible gaps within allied health curricula, and to explore the perceptions of allied health college educators for implementing emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into their existing curricula, if not already included. A quantitative Internet-based survey was conducted in 2013. Convenient sample. Fifty-one allied health college educators completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the majority of allied health college instructors do not currently teach emergency preparedness and disaster training core competency content within their current allied health discipline; however, their perceived level of importance for inclusion of the competencies was high. The results of this study supported the need for developing and establishing a basic national set of standardized core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies at all levels across various allied health curricula disciplines to ensure victims receive the best patient care and have the best possible chance of survival.

  2. Examining Client Motivation and Counseling Outcome in a University Mental Health Clinic

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    Ilagan, Guy E.

    2009-01-01

    University mental health clinics have experienced a marked increase in demand for services without an increase in resources to meet the rising demand. Consequently, university mental health centers need strategies to determine the best allocation of their limited resources. Transtheoretical Model, based on client motivation, may offer valuable…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Electronic Health Record Interoperability and Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Bernice M.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of interoperability impairs data quality among health care providers' electronic health record (EHR) systems. The problem is whether the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 principles relate to the problem of interoperability in implementation of EHR systems. The purpose of the nonexperimental quantitative research…

  4. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  5. Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, L.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are

  6. Examining the Relationship between Electronic Health Record Interoperability and Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Bernice M.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of interoperability impairs data quality among health care providers' electronic health record (EHR) systems. The problem is whether the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 principles relate to the problem of interoperability in implementation of EHR systems. The purpose of the nonexperimental quantitative research…

  7. Engaging with nature to promote health: bridging research silos to examine the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Ketchum, Patricia A; Halpenny, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-01

    While there is considerable research on environmental contamination and degradation, there is equally credible evidence on the healthful qualities of the environment. Being in and caring for nature can be health promoting for individuals, families, communities, ecosystems and the planet. In this paper, we use a conceptual model for nature-based health promotion and a socio-ecological model of health promotion to guide the scope, organization and critique of relevant literature on nature-based health promotion in several fields and generate recommendations for practice, policy and research. We conclude that participatory community-based research is needed to build local knowledge and create systemic change in practice and policy to support healthy living for people and the planet.

  8. Patients' perceptions of service quality dimensions: an empirical examination of health care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, M D; Ozanne, L K; Laurensen, W L

    2001-01-01

    The 1984 liberalization of the New Zealand economy has resulted in a health care sector that has become very competitive (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). The private sector is now able to supply health care services and, as a result, a greater value is being placed on patient satisfaction (Zwier and Clarke, 1999). However, despite the increasing focus on customer satisfaction, research into health care patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality is scarce. This can be problematic, as quality of care is an essential issue in the strategic marketing of health care services (Turner and Pol, 1995). This study takes a step towards addressing this deficiency by identifying patients' perceptions of the dimensions of service quality in health care. The findings of this study are based on the empirical analysis of a sample of 389 respondents interviewed by telephone. The findings indicate that the service quality dimensions identified in this health care specific study differ in number and dimensional structure from the widely adopted service quality dimensions first identified by Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml (1988): reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles. The service quality dimensions identified in this study were: reliability, tangibles, assurance, empathy, food, access, outcome, admission, discharge and responsiveness. In addition, health care patients perceive the service quality dimensions relating to the core product in health care delivery (for example, outcome and reliability) as more important than the service quality dimensions relating to the peripheral product in health care delivery (for example, food, access and tangibles). Finally, the results of this study suggest that patients with different geographic, demographic, and behavioristic characteristics have different needs and wants during health care delivery and therefore perceive different service quality dimensions as important.

  9. [Quality and compliance with the regulations of workers'health examinations in relation to their preventive purpose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jareño, Mari Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; De Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether examinations for health surveillance in Catalonia are carried out with a high enough degree of quality as to comply with the preventive aim of the regulations, and to identify potential differences by type of prevention service. Qualitative and quantitative techniques. Body of data: Spanish regulations related to health surveillance, and a self-reported questionnaire answered by occupational health professionals who performed health examinations in their usual practice. Content analysis of regulations, identifying concepts, and linking them to survey questions. Quality criteria were established for each concept, referring to the minimum that must be met to ensure that the professional practice can be of quality; quality indicators (percentage of professionals whose practice met the quality criteria) were calculated globally and by type of prevention service; and quality standards (fulfilment of quality criteria by 75% or more of the professionals) were set. The concepts identified were: availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity, identification of workers with special susceptibilities, referral to mutual insurance companies for appropriate diagnosis and treatment, development of preventive proposals, and professional independence and non detriment for workers. Quality indicators ranged between 0 and 88%. None of the concepts globally reached the quality standard. The quality of health examinations performed for health surveillance in Catalonia, doesn't seem to be high enough as to comply with the preventive aim of the regulations. The situation is worse in external prevention services. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  10. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt-Nave Christa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic

  11. Examining e-Health literacy and the digital divide in an underserved population in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm; Crosby, Martha E

    2014-02-01

    Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as "the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem." In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai'i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and "on demand", a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations.

  12. The design and methods of the mental health module in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Frank; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Höfler, Michael; Siegert, Jens; Bürkner, Ariane; Preiss, Stephanie; Spitzer, Kathrin; Busch, Markus; Hapke, Ulfert; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    DEGS1-MH is part of the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) covering all relevant health issues. Aims of DEGS1-MH are to supplement DEGS1 by describing (1) the distribution and frequency, the severity and the impairments of a wide range of mental disorders, (2) risk factors as well as patterns of help-seeking and health care utilization, and (3) associations between mental and somatic disorders, (4) and by comparisons with a similar survey in the late 1990s (GHS-MHS), longitudinal trends and changes in morbidity over time. Out of all eligible DEGS1 respondents (nationally representative sample aged 18-79), N = 5318 subjects (conditional response rate 88%) were examined at their place of residence by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the standardized, computer-assisted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DEGS-CIDI). Innovative additions were: a comprehensive neuropsychological examination, a broader assessment of psychosis-like experiences, disorder-specific disabilities, help-seeking and health care utilization. The mental health module and its combination with the assessment of somatic and other health issues in DEGS1 allow for internationally unique, detailed and comprehensive analyses about mental disorders and the association of mental and somatic health issues in the community, constituting an improved basis for regular future surveys of this sort. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. An Overview of Ophthalmologic Survey Methodology in the 2008-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Choi, Won; Lee, Hyo Seok; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Oh, Kyung Won; Kang, Se Woong

    2015-12-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized population of South Korea. The KNHANES was initiated in 1998 and has been conducted annually since 2007. Starting in the latter half of 2008, ophthalmologic examinations were included in the survey in order to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of common eye diseases such as visual impairment, refractive errors, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye disease, and color vision deficiency. The measurements included in the ophthalmic questionnaire and examination methods were modified in the KNHANES IV, V, and VI. In this article, we provide detailed information about the methodology of the ophthalmic examinations in KNHANES in order to aid in further investigations related to major eye diseases in South Korea.

  14. The cultural production of health inequalities: a cross-sectional, multilevel examination of 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Amick, Benjamin C; Harrist, Ronald B; Franzini, Luisa; Roberts, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    In a 2001 report, the U.S. National Institutes of Health called for more integration of the social sciences into health-related research, including research guided by theories and methods that take social and cultural systems into consideration. Based on a theoretical framework that integrates Hofstede's cultural dimensions with sociological theory, the authors used multilevel modeling to explore the association of culture with structural inequality and health disparities. Their results support the idea that cultural dimensions and social structure, along with economic development, may account for much of the cross-national variation in the distribution of health inequalities. Sensitivity tests also suggest that an interaction between culture and social structure may confound the relationship between income inequality and health. It is necessary to identify important cultural and social structural characteristics before we can achieve an understanding of the complex, dynamic systems that affect health, and develop culturally sensitive interventions and policies. This study takes a step toward identifying some of the relevant cultural and structural influences. More research is needed to explore the pathways leading from the sociocultural environment to health inequalities.

  15. Examining the Supply of and Demand for Physiotherapy in Saskatchewan: The Relationship between Where Physiotherapists Work and Population Health Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brighid; Jones McGrath, Kendra; Lowe, Teghan; Thiessen, Carla; Irinici, Steven; Shah, Tayyab; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bath, Brenna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined the association between the distribution of physiotherapists in Saskatchewan relative to population health characteristics and self-reported physiotherapy use. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, de-identified data were collected from the 2013 Saskatchewan College of Physical Therapy membership renewals (n=643), and Saskatchewan population health characteristics data were obtained from the 2009-2012 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHSs). Age- and sex-adjusted proportions of selected population health characteristics were calculated and stratified by health region and rural-urban location; both were determined, for physiotherapists and CCHS participants, using postal codes. The association between physiotherapy distribution and physiotherapy use was calculated, and geospatial mapping techniques were used to display physiotherapist distribution across the province relative to population health characteristics. Results: Across health regions, a positive correlation (r=0.655, psupply and distribution of physiotherapists and population health needs and demands. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy in Saskatchewan among the distribution of physiotherapists, self-reported physiotherapy use, and population health characteristics, especially in rural settings. These findings provide insight into which areas are in need of increased physiotherapy services.

  16. Assessing the impact of adolescent pregnancy and the premarital conception stress complex on birth weight among young mothers in Gibraltar's civilian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, L A; Burke, S D; Benady, S

    1997-10-01

    The impact of young maternal age and the timing of conception relative to marriage on birth weight was assessed in a sample of 295 primiparous married women from Gibraltar, who gave birth before 25 years of age. Mean birth weight was 3344.15 g. After controlling for sex, gestational age, and socioeconomic status, the infants of mothers 20 years of age and over who conceived after marriage weighed 57.78 g above the referent group mean. Older mothers who conceived a child before marriage delivered infants weighing 75.67 g below the group mean. Mothers under 20 years of age who conceived within marriage had infants who weighed 37.32 g less than the mean, while those delivered by young mothers who conceived before marriage had infants weighing 133.66 g less than the overall mean birth weight. The only significant group difference by conception timing was between young mothers who conceived before marriage and older mothers who conceived after marriage. This finding suggests that conception prior to marriage in traditional small-scale communities such as Gibraltar can be a behavioral risk factor, termed the premarital conception stress complex, that contributes to reduced birth weight. During the interval between conception and marital resolution, the effects of increased stress, heightened anxiety, and reduced nutritional intake are hypothesized to coalesce and adversely affect maternal health and fetal development in the crucial first trimester of pregnancy.

  17. [Defense and illustration of a health examination in adolescents as observed in the course of secondary education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, P

    1990-05-01

    In France, children's health is carefully looked after by periodical examinations from birth to six years old. But the french children cannot have afterwards a systematic health examination during the course of their compulsory attendance at school, except those preparing a technical teaching. The author suggests that an examination during the first period of adolescence (between 11 and 15 years old) should be a vector of information very useful to subjects themselves and knowledge in Public Health not much documented at this stage. To assert this statement and draw useful conclusions, the Institut Regional pour la Santé de Tours, whose the author is the founder, and the departmental School Health Service have co-ordinated their actions for an examination on 56 classes in second forms (randomised among 321) of 1316 schoolchildren (662 boys-654 girls). This clinical, paraclinical and biological survey pointed out bad habits of nutrition, alcoholic drinks, smoking, excess of corpulence and blood pressure, visual and auditive trouble unknown or neglected, dental caries not treated, statics trouble and high hypercholesterolemia, as well. All these pathological elements are unknown and not taken over on the whole, at the present time. But these discoveries cannot really justify the systematic generalisation of an health examination, if, on the one hand, there is not an efficient follow-up that affects family physicians, pediatricians, local Health Educational Services, and, on the other hand, a short and mean-dated estimation. Such a completed and systematic examination could then be essential both from the individual benefit point of view and to the literature in Public Health (analytical and descriptive epidemiology). The author also refers to a similar study, as productive as the former, led one year before in the first form. Whatever the form--first or second ones--systematization of a good examination must fill the blank: it can be validly made by the coordinated

  18. Attitude similarity and familiarity and their links to mental health: An examination of potential interpersonal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon M; Uchino, Bert N; Baucom, Brian R W; Behrends, Arwen A; Sanbonmatsu, David

    2017-01-01

    Similarity and familiarity with partner's attitudes are linked to positive relationship outcomes, while interpersonal variables have been linked to mental health. Using multilevel models (MLMs), we modeled the associations between these attitudinal variables and mental health outcomes in 74 married couples. We found that higher levels of attitude similarity in couples were linked to lower depression, while higher levels of attitude familiarity in couples were associated with greater satisfaction with life. Mediational analyses indicated marital satisfaction and interpersonal stress mediated the link between attitude similarity and depression. Marital satisfaction also mediated the link between familiarity and satisfaction with life. This study is the first linking attitude familiarity to mental health and provides evidence that familiarity and similarity have mental health effects partly due to their interpersonal consequences.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF BREAST SELF EXAMINATION AND BREAST CANCER AWARENESS AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tejaswi Vittal; Gayathri; Seema; Linganagouda; Sathyanand; Hamsa; Dhruva; Gautam

    2015-01-01

    .... To assess breast cancer awareness among health care professionals. METHODOLOGY : A questionnaire based cross sectional study in which 133 women belonging to various medical and allied specialties were included. RESULTS...

  20. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish), substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies). Recent evidence indicate...

  1. Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Beverly; Lorenzo, Javier; Macario, Alex

    2015-12-01

    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine.

  2. Be SMART: examining the experience of implementing the NHS Health Check in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; Pattison, Helen M; Holland, Carol; Cooke, Richard

    2015-01-22

    The NHS Health Check was designed by UK Department of Health to address increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease by identifying risk levels and facilitating behaviour change. It constituted biomedical testing, personalised advice and lifestyle support. The objective of the study was to explore Health Care Professionals' (HCPs) and patients' experiences of delivering and receiving the NHS Health Check in an inner-city region of England. Patients and HCPs in primary care were interviewed using semi-structured schedules. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four themes were identified. Firstly, Health Check as a test of 'roadworthiness' for people. The roadworthiness metaphor resonated with some patients but it signified a passive stance toward illness. Some patients described the check as useful in the theme, Health check as revelatory. HCPs found visual aids demonstrating levels of salt/fat/sugar in everyday foods and a 'traffic light' tape measure helpful in communicating such 'revelations' with patients. Being SMART and following the protocolrevealed that few HCPs used SMART goals and few patients spoke of them. HCPs require training to understand their rationale compared with traditional advice-giving. The need for further follow-up revealed disparity in follow-ups and patients were not systematically monitored over time. HCPs' training needs to include the use and evidence of the effectiveness of SMART goals in changing health behaviours. The significance of fidelity to protocol needs to be communicated to HCPs and commissioners to ensure consistency. Monitoring and measurement of follow-up, e.g., tracking of referrals, need to be resourced to provide evidence of the success of the NHS Health Check in terms of healthier lifestyles and reduced CVD risk.

  3. Linkages to Survival : : An Examination of the Reproductive and Maternal Health Continuum of Care

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, Lotus Padma

    2014-01-01

    Background : Each year, an estimated 287,000 women and 3 million newborns in low and middle income countries die of largely preventable causes. Global organizations have adopted a continuum of care model to mitigate these deaths, in which health interventions are conceptualized as a continuous stream of services. This approach remains untested in practice, however. This research aims to explore utilization and linkages within the reproductive and maternal health continuum of care (RMH CoC), a...

  4. An examination of the health information seeking experiences of women in rural Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Wathen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women are active information seekers, particularly in the context of managing health for themselves and their families. Rural living may present particular challenges and opportunities for women in their health information seeking. Method. Forty women living in a rural part of Ontario, Canada were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. They were asked about their health information seeking for both chronic and acute concerns. Analysis. Interview transcripts were organized using NVivo software (version 6 and analysed using a coding scheme iteratively developed by both authors. Results. Emerging themes included: the context of rural living, information and health literacy, the role of unanticipated information intermediaries in the search process, and the mis-match between assumptions made by 'the system' about sources of information, and women's lived realities. Conclusion. . There are unique challenges and enablers to health information seeking for women living in rural areas, including the role of formal, informal and ICT-based information intermediaries, the availability to women of required literacies for health information seeking and uptake. Research findings such as those presented in this paper can assist in better understanding both the contexts of information seeking, as well as the preferences and behaviour of those with information needs.

  5. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin; Trenerry, Brigid; Truong, Mandy; Karlsen, Saffron; Kelly, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Racial discrimination is increasingly recognised as a determinant of racial and ethnic health inequalities, with growing evidence of strong associations between racial discrimination and adult health outcomes. There is a growing body of literature that considers the effects of racial discrimination on child and youth health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine relationships between reported racial discrimination and child and youth health. We describe the characteristics of 121 studies identified by a comprehensive search strategy, including definitions and measurements of racial discrimination and the nature of reported associations. Most studies were published in the last seven years, used cross-sectional designs and were conducted in the United States with young people aged 12-18 years. African American, Latino/a, and Asian populations were most frequently included in these studies. Of the 461 associations examined in these studies, mental health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety) were most commonly reported, with statistically significant associations with racial discrimination found in 76% of outcomes examined. Statistically significant associations were also found for over 50% of associations between racial discrimination and positive mental health (e.g. self esteem, resilience), behaviour problems, wellbeing, and pregnancy/birth outcomes. The field is currently limited by a lack of longitudinal studies, limited psychometrically validated exposure instruments and poor conceptualisation and definition of racial discrimination. There is also a need to investigate the complex and varying pathways by which reported racial discrimination affect child and youth health. Ensuring study quality in this field will allow future research to reveal the complex role that racial discrimination plays as a determinant of child and youth health.

  6. Religion and Health: An Examination of the Effect of Religiosity on Health in a Sample of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Serajzadeh

    2013-07-01

    So the findings of the present study based on a positive and significant relationship between religion and health confirm that ascetic content of religion about controlling carnal desires and avoiding illegal affairs causes religious people to control their instinctive desires and prevents them from high-risk behaviors and consequently is more physically healthy.

  7. A qualitative examination of the health workforce needs during climate change disaster response in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Michele; Fletcher, Stephanie M; Thiessen, Jodi; Gero, Anna; Kuruppu, Natasha; Daly, John; Buchan, James; Willetts, Juliet

    2014-02-12

    There is a growing body of evidence that the impacts of climate change are affecting population health negatively. The Pacific region is particularly vulnerable to climate change; a strong health-care system is required to respond during times of disaster. This paper examines the capacity of the health sector in Pacific Island Countries to adapt to changing disaster response needs, in terms of: (i) health workforce governance, management, policy and involvement; (ii) health-care capacity and skills; and (iii) human resources for health training and workforce development. Key stakeholder interviews informed the assessment of the capacity of the health sector and disaster response organizations in Pacific Island Countries to adapt to disaster response needs under a changing climate. The research specifically drew upon and examined the adaptive capacity of individual organizations and the broader system of disaster response in four case study countries (Fiji, Cook Islands, Vanuatu and Samoa). 'Capacity' including health-care capacity was one of the objective determinants identified as most significant in influencing the adaptive capacity of disaster response systems in the Pacific. The research identified several elements that could support the adaptive capacity of the health sector such as: inclusive involvement in disaster coordination; policies in place for health workforce coordination; belief in their abilities; and strong donor support. Factors constraining adaptive capacity included: weak coordination of international health personnel; lack of policies to address health worker welfare; limited human resources and material resources; shortages of personnel to deal with psychosocial needs; inadequate skills in field triage and counselling; and limited capacity for training. Findings from this study can be used to inform the development of human resources for health policies and strategic plans, and to support the development of a coordinated and collaborative

  8. Differences in participation rates and lessons learned about recruitment of participants--the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ahonen, Sanna; Jentoft, Susie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heldal, Johan

    2015-03-01

    In the 1980s, participation rates in health interview and health examination surveys were around 80% while now they are around 50-60%. There is also evidence that non-participation is selective. Low participation rates and selective non-participation may cause bias to our survey results based on participants alone. We aim to increase knowledge on cultural differences in acceptance and feasibility of different recruitment methods. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, conducted in 2009-2012, included pilot surveys in 12 countries among people aged 25-64 years. Information about recruitment methods and participation rates in these surveys was collected. Participation rates ranged from 16% to 57% for men and from 31% to 74% for women, where in most surveys women had higher participation rates than men. A variety of recruitment and promotion methods were used to obtain as high participation rates as possible. Combinations of phone calls, invitation letter and home visits were used to recruit invitees. Obtaining valid phone numbers for survey invitees was difficult in several countries. Incentives, websites and promotion in local media were used to promote the surveys. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot surveys showed that obtaining a participation rate above 50% for a representative population sample is possible but it requires hard work and a well-planned recruitment strategy. Recruitment methods used in one country may not be possible to use in another country due to cultural norms and national regulations. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. SERVICE ATTRIBUTES AND THE CHOICE FOR STD HEALTH-SERVICES IN PERSONS SEEKING A MEDICAL-EXAMINATION FOR AN STD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G

    1994-01-01

    This article examines choice for STD health services among patients suspecting a STD. A total of 825 patients who sought medical treatment at an STD clinic, a Family Planning Clinic or a General Practitioner participated in this study. Special STD clinics are not well known among patients visiting t

  10. SERVICE ATTRIBUTES AND THE CHOICE FOR STD HEALTH-SERVICES IN PERSONS SEEKING A MEDICAL-EXAMINATION FOR AN STD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G

    This article examines choice for STD health services among patients suspecting a STD. A total of 825 patients who sought medical treatment at an STD clinic, a Family Planning Clinic or a General Practitioner participated in this study. Special STD clinics are not well known among patients visiting

  11. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (Brief MBSR) Program on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Possemato, Kyle; Cheon, Sanghyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine potential psychological health benefits of participating in a brief (5-week) mindfulness-based stress reduction (brief MBSR) program integrated into an academic course. Participants: Participants were 119 undergraduate students (treatment: "n" = 72; control: "n" = 47) enrolled…

  12. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  13. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  14. Analysis of risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome in the elderly undergoing health examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalences of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.Methods A total of 490 elderly men undergoing health examination in our hospital from January 2010 to

  15. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  16. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  17. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  18. Immigrants' health in Europe: A cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (20022008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified mult

  19. Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Russell, Laurie H

    2016-03-01

    Searching for medical information online is a widespread activity that increases distress for many individuals. Researchers have speculated that this phenomenon, referred to as cyberchondria, overlaps substantially with both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This study sought to examine: (1) the distinguishability of cyberchondria from health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and (2) the components of health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms that cluster most strongly with cyberchondria. The sample consisted of community adults in the United States with no current reported medical problems (N=375). Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) support the idea that cyberchondria is distinct from, yet related to, health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results from zero-order correlations and regression analyses suggest that cyberchondria clusters with the affective (health worry) component of health anxiety. Regression results diverged from prior findings, as obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not share associations with cyberchondria after accounting for negative affect and health anxiety. The present results indicate that cyberchondria is possibly discernible from both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while also providing insight into areas of potential overlap.

  20. Reducing uncertainty in triaging mental health presentations: examining triage decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne-Marie; Clarke, Diana E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how emergency department (ED) nurses make decisions and even less is known about triage nurses' decision-making. There is compelling motivation to better understand the processes by which triage nurses make decisions, particularly with complex patient populations such as those with frequently emotive mental health and illness issues. While accuracy and reliability of triage decisions generally have been improved through the introduction of standardised triage scales and instruments, other factors such as lack of knowledge or confidence related to mental health issues, past experiences that may elicit transference and countertransference, judgments about individuals based on their behavioural presentations may impact on decisions made at triage. In this paper, we review the current research regarding the effectiveness of triage tools particularly with mental health presentations, present a theoretical framework that may guide research in understanding how triage nurses approach decision-making, and apply that framework to thinking about research in mental health-related triage. Developing a better understanding of how triage nurses make decisions, particularly in situations where issues related to mental health and illness may raise the levels of uncertainty, is crucial to ensure that they have the skills and tools they need to provide the most effective, sensitive, and compassionate care possible.

  1. Examining Psychometric Characteristics of a Menopausal Health Questionnaire: Translation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Persian Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Nasibeh; Khazaeian, Somayyeh; Khazaeian, Safoura; Masjoudi, Marzieh; Kazemi, Azita Fathnejad; Nia, Anvar-Sadat Nayebi

    2017-01-01

    Menopause is a natural event in a woman's life which affects her general health and quality of life. However, currently there is no Persian instrument for measuring health status during this period. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Menopausal Health Questionnaire in Iran. The questionnaire was translated to Persian with the approach of Jones et al and its validity was assessed by a panel of experts. The Persian version was tested among 300 patients who had referred to the gynecological clinic at the Ali ibn Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan. Convenience method was used for sampling. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity of collected data. Test-retest method was used to determine reliability in two-week intervals and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to check the internal consistency. According to research findings, the exploratory factor analysis showed an acceptable fitness. Varimax rotation indicated 6 factors with Eagan values more than 1, which explained 49.27% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire tool was 0.84 and it was from 0.50 to 0.82 for the subcategories. All factors had a significant case-total correlation. Results of test-retest showed the stability of the questionnaire and its subcategories, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was assessed to be 0.93. The 14-item Menopausal Health Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to assess postmenopausal women's health.

  2. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI......) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region......), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development...

  3. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-04-17

    Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults aged 20-35 who attended primary healthcare institutions at the South Batinah Governorate in Oman. The majority of the participants (84.5%) believed that PMCS was necessary, and about half of them (49.5%) supported the view of making PMCS compulsory. On the contrary, approximately one third (30.5%) of the participants reported that they were not in favor of taking the blood screening test. Overall, unwillingness to perform pre-marital testing was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, less education, and increased income. Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, about one third of the participants were still reluctant to carry out premarital testing. Such attitude calls for immediate need for community-based campaigns to encourage the public to do premarital testing.

  4. Financial sustainability versus access and quality in a challenged health system: an examination of the capitation policy debate in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Vercillo, Siera; Antabe, Roger; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-11-01

    Policy makers in low and middle-income countries are frequently confronted with challenges of increasing health access for poor populations in a sustainable manner. After several years of trying out different health financing mechanisms, health insurance has recently emerged as a pro-poor health financing policy. Capitation, a fixed fee periodically paid to health service providers for anticipated services, is one of the payment policies in health insurance. This article examines claims and counter-claims made by coalitions and individual stakeholders in a capitation payment policy debate within Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme. Using content analysis of public and parliamentary proceedings, we situate the debate within policy making and health insurance literature. We found that the ongoing capitation payment debate stems from challenges in implementation of earlier health insurance claims payment systems, which reflect broader systemic challenges facing the health insurance scheme in Ghana. The study illustrates the extent to which various sub-systems in the policy debate advance arguments to legitimize their claims about the contested capitation payment system. In addition, we found that the health of poor communities, women and children are being used as surrogates for political and individual arguments in the policy debate. The article recommends a more holistic and participatory approach through persuasion and negotiation to join interests and core evidence together in the capitation policy making in Ghana and elsewhere with similar contexts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Current Status of Pathologic Examinations in Korea, 2011–2015, Based on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-ju Byeon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pathologic examinations play an important role in medical services. Until recently, the overall status of pathologic examinations in Korea has not been identified. I conducted a nationwide survey of pathologic examination status using the insurance reimbursements (IRs dataset from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA. The aims of this study were to estimate current pathologic examination status in Korea and to provide information for future resource arrangement in the pathology area. Methods I asked HIRA to provide data on IR requests, including pathologic examinations from 2011 to 2015. Pathologic examination status was investigated according to the following categories: annual statistics, requesting department, type of medical institution, administrative district, and location at which pathologic examinations were performed. Results Histologic mapping, immunohistochemistry, and cervicovaginal examinations have increased in the last 5 years. Internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and urology were the most common medical departments requesting pathologic examinations. The majority of pathologic examinations were frequently performed in tertiary hospitals. About 60.3% of pathologic examinations were requested in medical institutions located in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan. More than half of the biopsies and aspiration cytologic examinations were performed using outside services. The mean period between IR requests and 99 percentile IR request completion inspections was 6.2 months. Conclusions This survey was based on the HIRA dataset, which is one of the largest medical datasets in Korea. The trends of some pathologic examinations were reflected in the policies and needs for detailed diagnosis. The numbers and proportions of pathologic examinations were correlated with the population and medical institutions of the area, as well as patient preference. These data will be helpful for future

  6. The influence of health knowledge in shaping political priorities: examining HIV/AIDS knowledge and public opinion about global health and domestic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Janet; Buffington, Sandra de Castro; Cloum, Heather M; Mendenhall, Brett M; Toboni, Michael; Valente, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Public opinion polls have historically indicated that the US public favours domestic over global priorities. It is not known what influence health knowledge has in shaping public opinion about domestic and global health policy. This study examines how knowledge of HIV/AIDS is related to the rated importance of domestic and global health issues. Participants were recruited to participate in an electronic survey (N = 995) and were predominantly White (86.3%), married (61.9%) and female (71.8%). HIV/AIDS knowledge was significantly associated with both domestic (β = 0.12, p research has implications for ways to gain support for implementation of public health policy through increasing health knowledge.

  7. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

    2017-08-01

    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  8. Knowledge and attitude toward the hemoglobinopathies premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia: population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages.

  9. Premarital and prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis: experience in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Ruth; Ekstein, Josef; Edelmann, Lisa; Desnick, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Dor Yeshorim (DY) and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) have conducted premarital and prenatal carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population as part of their genetic testing programs, respectively. Together, over 170,000 screenees have been tested. In this study, we report the CF mutation frequencies in over 110,000 screenees who reportedly were of 100% AJ descent from the DY program and MSSM. In addition, the CF mutation frequencies in a group of > 7,000 screenees for AJ diseases who were of T (0.0020), and N1303K (0.0016), among screenees who were 100% AJ was 1 in 26; when D1152H and the rare 1717-1G>A were included, the overall carrier frequency increased to approximately 1 in 23. In four families with D1152H, five compound heterozygotes for D1152H and W1282X (n = 2), DeltaF508 (1) or 3849+10kb C>T (1) were identified. In contrast, the carrier frequency for screenees reporting screening the AJ population should be considered because compound heterozygosity is associated with a variable disease phenotype. Further studies to delineate the phenotype of CF patients with this mutation are needed.

  10. Field issues for the plan and operation of the laboratory component of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, G M; Gunter, E W; Lannom, L

    1990-11-01

    The design of the laboratory component of a mobile examination survey such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey requires that the physical limitation of the mobile examination center be balanced against the requirements of the laboratory analyses needed to fulfill the goals of the survey. In order to include an analysis in the survey, the scientific merit of the laboratory test must be established and a consensus must be reached on the appropriateness of the technology for the six years of the survey. The public health importance of the analysis and the subsequent results are also evaluated before inclusion into the laboratory protocol. Finally, the feasibility of incorporating the analysis into the protocol is reviewed. The laboratory component of NHANES III is discussed, addressing these points with descriptions of the reasons for inclusion and exclusion of key analytes.

  11. The discursive construction of diabulimia: a corpus linguistic examination of online health communication

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, Gavin John

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first of its kind to examine the discursive construction of diabulimia. Diabulimia is a contested disease characterised by the deliberate restriction of insulin dosage by people with insulin-dependent diabetes in order to control their weight. The analysis takes a mixed methods approach, combining quantitative corpus linguistic techniques with qualitative discourse analytic methods to examine how diabulimia is discursively constructed in three English-speaking diabetes inter...

  12. Family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia: examining the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cindy C; Wallhagen, Margaret I

    2014-01-01

    To identify strategies to assist family caregivers of individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in dealing with their caregiving demands, nurses must understand these family members' unique needs and how they currently deal with their demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping and caregiver physical and mental health among FTD family caregivers. Participants were primary caregivers of individuals with FTD (with behavioral symptoms) living at home (N = 61). A small positive association was noted between problem-focused coping and caregiver physical health (r = 0.29, p caregiver mental health (r = 0.21, p = 0.10). However, multiple regression analysis showed that emotion-focused coping (β = 0.46, p caregiver mental health and explained approximately 14% of its variance. These findings support the potential value of emotion-focused coping strategies when dealing with behavioral symptoms manifested by individuals with FTD.

  13. What about causality? : examining longitudinal relations between work characteristics and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Mental health problems constitute one of the three leading causes of work disability worldwide and have negative consequences for the individual as well as the companies they work for. The Netherlands reports one of the higher and also growing percentages (38%) of work incapacitation due to mental h

  14. What caused the breach? An examination of use of information technology and health data breaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss

    2014-01-01

    Data breaches arising from theft, loss, unauthorized access/disclosure, improper disclosure, or hacking incidents involving personal health information continue to increase every year. As of September 2013, reported breaches affecting individuals reached close to 27 million since 2009, when compilation of records on breaches began. These breaches, which involved 674 covered entities and 153 business associates, involved computer systems and networks, desktop computers, laptops, paper, e-mail, electronic health records, and removable/portable devices (CDs, USBs, x-ray films, backup tapes, etc.). Even with the increased use of health information technology by health institutions and allied businesses, theft and loss (not hacking) constitute the major types of data breaches encountered. Removable/portable devices, desktop computers, and laptops were the top sources or locations of the breached information, while the top six states-Virginia, Illinois, California, Florida, New York, and Tennessee-in terms of the number of reported breaches accounted for nearly 75 percent of the total individual breaches, 33 percent of breaches in covered entities, and about 30 percent of the total breaches involving business associates.

  15. Emerging Mental Health Diagnoses and School Disruption: An Examination among Clinically Referred Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Klassen, Janell; Hamza, Chloe

    2016-01-01

    Previous research linking school disruption with mental health problems has largely relied on assessments of academic achievement to measure school disruption. Early disruptive classroom behaviour (e.g., conflict with school staff, negative attitudes toward school), however, may precipitate poor academic performance and may stem from emerging…

  16. Defining the Scope of Public Engagement: Examining the "Right Not to Know" in Public Health Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Clarissa; Sénécal, Karine; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the concept of a "right not to know" on a population rather than individual level. We argue that a population level "right not to know" is a useful concept for helping to define the appropriate boundaries of public engagement initiatives in the emerging public health genomics context.

  17. Users' Adoption of Mental Health Apps: Examining the Impact of Information Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ying; Bashir, Masooda

    2017-06-28

    Numerous mental health apps have been developed and made available to users on the current app market. Users may find it difficult and overwhelming to select apps from the hundreds of choices that are available in the app marketplace. Clarifying what information cues may impact a user's selection and adoption of mental health apps is now a critical and pressing issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of information cues on users' adoption of anxiety apps using observational data from the Android app market. A systematic search of anxiety apps was conducted on the Android app store by using keywords search. The title and metadata information of a total of 274 apps that met our criteria were collected and analyzed. Three trained researchers recorded the app rankings from the search results page on different dates and Web browsers. Our results show that ratings (r=.56, Papp prices have significant negative correlations with installs (r=-.36). The results also reveal that lower-priced apps have higher ratings (r=-.23, Papp permission requests (r=.18, P=.002) from the device. For app titles, we found that apps with titles related to symptoms have significantly lower installs than apps with titles that are not related to symptoms (Papps by analyzing observational data. As the first of its kind, we found impactful indicators for mental health app adoptions. We also discovered a labeling effect of app titles that could hinder mental health app adoptions and which may provide insight for future designs of mental health apps and their search mechanisms.

  18. Users’ Adoption of Mental Health Apps: Examining the Impact of Information Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous mental health apps have been developed and made available to users on the current app market. Users may find it difficult and overwhelming to select apps from the hundreds of choices that are available in the app marketplace. Clarifying what information cues may impact a user’s selection and adoption of mental health apps is now a critical and pressing issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of information cues on users’ adoption of anxiety apps using observational data from the Android app market. Methods A systematic search of anxiety apps was conducted on the Android app store by using keywords search. The title and metadata information of a total of 274 apps that met our criteria were collected and analyzed. Three trained researchers recorded the app rankings from the search results page on different dates and Web browsers. Results Our results show that ratings (r=.56, Papp prices have significant negative correlations with installs (r=−.36). The results also reveal that lower-priced apps have higher ratings (r=−.23, Papp permission requests (r=.18, P=.002) from the device. For app titles, we found that apps with titles related to symptoms have significantly lower installs than apps with titles that are not related to symptoms (Papps by analyzing observational data. As the first of its kind, we found impactful indicators for mental health app adoptions. We also discovered a labeling effect of app titles that could hinder mental health app adoptions and which may provide insight for future designs of mental health apps and their search mechanisms. PMID:28659256

  19. The impact of human development on individual health: a causal mediation analysis examining pathways through education and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2017-01-01

    The macro environment we live in projects what we can achieve and how we behave, and in turn, shapes our health in complex ways. Policymaking will benefit from insights into the mechanisms underlying how national socioeconomic context affects health. This study examined the impact of human development on individual health and the possible mediating roles of education and body mass index (BMI). We analyzed World Health Survey data on 109,448 participants aged 25 or older from 42 low- and middle-income countries with augmented human development index (HDI) in 1990. We used principal components method to create a health score based on measures from eight health state domains, used years of schooling as education indicator and calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight. We used causal mediation analysis technique with random intercepts to account for the multilevel structure. Below a reference HDI level of 0.48, HDI was negatively associated with good health (total effect at HDI of 0.23: b =  - 3.44, 95% CI [-6.39--0.49] for males and b =  - 5.16, 95% CI [-9.24,--1.08] for females) but was positively associated with good health above this reference level (total effect at HDI of 0.75: b = 4.16, 95% CI [-0.33-8.66] for males and b = 6.62, 95% CI [0.85-12.38] for females). We found a small positive effect of HDI on health via education across reference HDI levels (b ranging from 0.24 to 0.29 for males and 0.40 to 0.49 for females) but not via pathways involving BMI only. Human development has a non-linear effect on individual health, but the impact appears to be mainly through pathways other than education and BMI.

  20. Examining the relationship between sport and health among USA women:An analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer R. Pharr; Nancy L. Lough

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted linking sports participation and health in childhood and adolescence;however, little is known about the contribution of sport to women’s health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport and women’s health in the USA by analyzing data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of the 2013 national BRFSS survey. Unlike the BRFSS core component from previous years, in 2013, participants were questioned extensively about their physical activity behaviors. Seventy-six different activities were identifie by the participants. Two researchers categorized the 76 activities as sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, or household tasks based on previously identifie categories. Logistic regression was utilized to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases based on physical activity category. Results: Women who participated in sport had better health outcomes with significant y lower odds for all chronic diseases except asthma and better general health than women who participated in conditioning exercise, household tasks, or recreation, and many of the significan differences remained after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusion: Sport participation was associated with more positive health outcomes among women in the USA compared with the other categories. As a means to improve health of women, the USA could focus on efforts to increase sport participation among women.

  1. Fear and loathing in New England: examining the health-care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Little anthropological research has been conducted on the health care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas. The aim of the present study is to elicit health-care beliefs, and examine overall health experience among a sample of current or recently homeless people in rural New Hampshire. Thirteen qualitative interviews were conducted, 11 with single men. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Despite a massive burden of disease and illness, almost all participants reported an abiding aversion to doctors, hospitals and professional health care. Participants reported numerous negative encounters with doctors and health care professionals, often of a demeaning and disparaging nature. Participants noted that these encounters resulted in frequent cases of misdiagnosis and iatrogenesis. In contrast, participants spoke more fondly of other social and voluntary services, for example homeless organizations. Like other rural New Englanders, participants made their own individual efforts to maintain and promote health, for example by pursuing hobbies or prayer. The findings are contextualized within literature suggesting that these perspectives are generally shared by other poor rural people. Consistent with this literature, the findings suggest that homelessness in rural areas is often temporary and episodic. As such, this paper brings into question the distinctiveness and overall utility of the concept: 'the rural homeless'. The key determinant of negative attitudes to health care may not be recent homelessness. It may be entrenched socio-economic marginalization, and the resultant social stigma, that are shared amongst the rural poor, regardless of their current housing status.

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  3. Examining Clinicians' Experiences Providing Sexual Health Services for LGBTQ Youth: Considering Social and Structural Determinants of Health in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and…

  4. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Steckler, Allan; Black, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Process evaluation was used to examine the implementation of a randomized, controlled trial of an education intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered the multi-component intervention as part of usual care in the government health centers. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine process indicators, which included the extent of delivery (dose), fidelity to intervention protocol, barriers to implementation and context. Results demonstrated that most intervention components were delivered at a level of 50-90% of expectations. Fidelity to intervention protocol, where measured, was lower (28-70% of expectations). However, when compared with existing nutrition education, as represented by the control centers, significant improvements were demonstrated. This included both improved delivery of existing educational activities as well as delivery of new intervention components to strengthen overall nutrition education. Barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation were explored with health personnel and helped to explain results. This study demonstrates the importance of examining actual versus planned implementation in order to improve our understanding of how interventions succeed. The information gained from this study will inform future evaluation designs, and lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs for child health.

  5. Examining the relationship between health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury and the mental health of their caregivers in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Harper, Leia A; Perrin, Paul B; Olivera, Silvia L; Perdomo, Jose L; Arango, Jose A; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    Although considerable research has been carried out on family caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, spinal cord injury (SCI) caregivers have received considerably less attention in terms of research, especially in regions such as Latin America. This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with SCI and their family caregiver's mental health in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty-four individuals with SCI and their primary caregivers (34 dyads; n=68) from the Foundation for the Integral Development of People with Disabilities in Neiva, Colombia, were included in this study. Individuals with SCI completed eight subscales of the SF-36 that assessed HRQOL. Five aspects of caregiver mental health were assessed, including burden (Zarit Burden Interview), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). A series of multiple regressions uncovered strong associations among the HRQOL of individuals with SCI and various aspects of caregiver mental health. In these regressions, patient physical functioning and pain were independently related to caregiver burden; patient pain and general health were independently related to caregiver satisfaction with life; and patient pain was independently related to caregiver anxiety. HRQOL in individuals with SCI was robustly related to their caregiver's mental health, suggesting that the two sets of variables are closely linked. These findings suggest that caregiver mental health should be a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, especially in Latin America.

  6. Social stratification, development and health in Pakistan: an empirical exploration of relationships in population-based national health examination survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Wilbur C; Pappas, Gregory; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2003-11-01

    There is a growing literature on an overall direct relationship between health and social position in developed countries. The relationship, however, is less well documented in developing countries where social hierarchies are changing more rapidly, demographic and health transitions are less advanced, and this topic has received less attention from researchers than in some developed countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between social stratification and social development and population health using data on over 6000 adults from the National Health Survey of Pakistan, a nationally representative health examination survey of people in that country. We analyze four indicators of poor nutrition in adults from this data set. The findings reveal complex relationships among social development, social stratification and the consequences for the health of the people of Pakistan. Underweight is related to economic status, anemia to education and social development, and both severe dental caries and a monotonous diet are related to both development and economic status which interact with each other. These results suggest that continued conceptual refinement and the development of standardized measures of stratification and development would contribute to building cross-nationally comparable data sets addressing issues of the relationship among health and economic development and health transitions.

  7. Predictors of breast self - examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model

    OpenAIRE

    Birhane, Negussie; Mamo, Abebe; Girma, Eshetu; Asfaw, Shifera

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. It is the second leading cause of death in women worldwide. Approximately one out of eight women develops breast cancer all over the world. Majority of cases of cancer of the breast are detected by women themselves, stressing the importance of breast self-examination. The main objective of this study was to assess predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Kafa Zone, South West part of Ethiopia. Methods ...

  8. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    2017-09-12

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-examining health IT policy: what will it take to derive value from our investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Loren; Koppel, Ross; Riskin, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Despite substantial investments in health information technology (HIT), the nation's goals of reducing cost and improving outcomes through HIT remain elusive. This period of transition, with new Office of National Coordinator for HIT leadership, upcoming Meaningful Use Stage III definitions, and increasing congressional oversight, is opportune to consider needed course corrections in HIT strategy. This article describes current problems and recommended changes in HIT policy, including approaches to usability, interoperability, and quality measurement. Recommendations refrain from interim measures, such as electronic health record adoption rates, and instead focus on measurable national value to benefit the economy, to reduce healthcare costs, and to improve clinical efficiency and care quality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Examining the social construction of surveillance: a critical issue for health visitors and public health nurses working with mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Peckover, Sue

    2017-08-17

    In this paper we will critically examine surveillance practices of health visitors (HV) in the UK and public health nurses (PHNs) in Canada. The practice and meaning of surveillance shifts and changes depending on the context and intent of relationships between mothers and HVs or PHNs. We present the context and practice of HVs in the UK and PHNs in Canada and provide a comprehensive literature review regarding surveillance of mothers within public health systems. We then present our critique of the meaning and practice of surveillance across different settings. Concepts from Foucault and discourse analysis are used to critically examine and discuss the meaning of surveillance RESULTS: Surveillance is a complex concept that shifts meaning and is socially and institutionally constructed through relations of power CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers need to understand the different meanings and practices associated with surveillance to effectively inform practice. Health care providers should be aware of how their positions of expert and privilege within health care systems affect relationships with mothers. A more comprehensive understanding of personal social and institutional aspects of surveillance will provide opportunities to reflect upon and change practices that are supportive of mothers and their families. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in self-reported health in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Reichmann

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess self-reported health status (SRHS in two cohorts of participants with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA and examine the extent that differences in SRHS are due to study design. METHOD: We used data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES-III; population-based national survey and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; prospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were age 60-79 and presence of radiographic knee OA. SRHS, elicited as a five-item domain (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, was analyzed by dichotomizing the general health status measure as "fair/poor" versus all other states. We estimated the proportion of participants in fair/poor health from each study. Propensity score methodology was used to adjust for the differences in sampling strategies between the two studies. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent (N = 1,608 of OAI and 29% (N = 756 of NHANES-III participants satisfied inclusion criteria. The proportion in fair/poor health was higher in NHANES-III (28% than in OAI (5%. After adjusting for the propensity score, the proportion in fair/poor health was four times higher in NHANES-III than in OAI. CONCLUSION: SRHS was substantially better in OAI than in NHANES-III. Self-selection bias may contribute to overestimation of SRHS in prospective cohort studies such as OAI.

  12. Examining the Role of Mental Health and Clinical Issues within Talent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, A.; MacNamara, Á.,; Collins, D.; Rodgers, S

    2016-01-01

    Although significant research supports the association between physical activity and mental wellbeing, current literature acknowledges that athletes are no less susceptible to mental illness than the general population. Despite welcomed initiatives aimed at improving mental health within elite sport, these programs often fail to target young athletes; an important concern given that the genesis of many mental illnesses are recognized to occur during this critical period. Given the importanc...

  13. Examining trust in health professionals among family caregivers of nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Jannie A; Werner, Perla; Zisberg, Anna; van der Steen, Jenny T

    2017-07-20

    In a context of increasing emphasis on shared decision-making and palliative care in dementia, research on family caregivers' trust in health professionals in advanced dementia is surprisingly scant. The aim of the present study was to assess trust in nursing home health professionals of family caregivers of nursing home residents with advanced dementia, and possible correlates, such as family caregivers' satisfaction, involvement in care, care burden and patients' symptom burden. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured questionnaires administered through the telephone. Generalized estimating equation analyses with adjustment for nursing home clustering were applied to assess the most important associations with family caregivers' trust. A total of 214 family caregivers of persons with dementia residing in 25 nursing homes participated in the study. The majority of the participants (67%) were women and adult children (75%). The majority of the family caregivers trusted physicians, nurses and nurses' aides at a moderate-to-high level. Approximately half to one-third reported moderate-to-low levels of trust. Higher levels of trust were associated with more positive care outcomes, such as higher family satisfaction with care and more positive evaluations of physician-family communication. The present study showed the importance of family caregivers trusting nursing home health professionals for their experiences as caregivers. Although causation cannot be established, increased family caregivers' trust in nursing home health professionals by improving communication and exchange of information might provide a good basis for providing optimal palliative care in advanced dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  15. The effects of peer education on university students' knowledge of breast self-examination and health beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Ayla Akkaş; Yiğitbaş, Cağla; Yilmaz, Fatma; Erdöl, Hacer; Bulut, Hacer Kobya; Mumcu, Havva Karadeniz; Calik, Kiymet Yesilçiçek; Kahriman, Ilknur; Hintistan, Sevilay; Nural, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of peer education on breast self-examination (BSE) knowledge and health beliefs. 180 female university students were trained in BSE by the nursing students. Students instructed in groups by their peers showed a much higher degree of BSE knowledge. It was also found that perceived confidence of the students educated both individually and in groups increased afterward. Study results further revealed that the methods used for peer instruction do not affect students' sub-dimensions of health beliefs differently after the education.

  16. Mutually Dependent Health Beliefs Associated with Breast Self-Examination in British Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Jones, Leonnie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Whereas research suggests young women's beliefs about breast cancer (susceptibility/severity) and its early detection (barriers/benefits) reliably distinguish breast self-examiners from nonexaminers, this study assessed whether these impressions are interreliant, especially in the context of familial risk. Participants: The sample…

  17. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J McCunney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT; initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting

  18. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting.

  19. Non-prescription syringe sales in California: a qualitative examination of practices among 12 local health jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Valerie J; Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

    2010-07-01

    Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others' efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

  20. Use of Item Response Theory to Examine a Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Measure for Adolescents with Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Fitzpatrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular health knowledge measure for adolescents using item response theory. The measure was developed in the context of a cardiovascular lifestyle intervention for adolescents with elevated blood pressure. Sample consisted of 167 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years who completed the Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Assessment (CHKA, a 34-item multiple choice test, at baseline and post-intervention. The CHKA was unidimensional and internal consistency was .65 at pretest and .74 at posttest. Rasch analysis results indicated that at pretest the items targeted adolescents with variable levels of health knowledge. However, based on results at posttest, additional hard items are needed to account for the increase in level of cardiovascular health knowledge at post-intervention. Change in knowledge scores was examined using Rasch analysis. Findings indicated there was significant improvement in health knowledge over time [t(119 = -10.3, p< .0001]. In summary, the CHKA appears to contain items that are good approximations of the construct cardiovascular health knowledge and items that target adolescents with moderate levels of knowledge.  DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i1.16111