WorldWideScience

Sample records for premarital cohabitation history

  1. Premarital cohabitation and postmarital cohabiting union formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z

    1995-03-01

    "Previous research has indicated that premarital cohabitation decreases marital stability. This study examined the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabited with their first spouse prior to marriage have a greater propensity to cohabit after marital disruption than people who did not cohabit before their first marriage. Event history analysis of the postmarital union experiences of women and men from the Canadian 1990 Family and Friends Survey (FFS) supports this proposition. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for premarital cohabitants than for noncohabitants."

  2. Premarital Cohabitation and Postmarital Cohabitating Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of premarital cohabitation as a determinant of cohabitation after marital disruption. The author proposed that people who cohabitated prior to first marriage were more likely to cohabitate after marital disruption than those who did not. It was found that the hazard rate of postmarital cohabitation was over 50% higher for…

  3. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  4. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined four models of ways premarital cohabitation may affect marital quality using interview data from a national probability sample of 2,033 married persons. Found cohabitation was negatively related to marital interaction and positively related to marital disagreement, proneness to divorce, and the probability of divorce in nonminority…

  5. Premarital cohabitation and divorce: Support for the "Trial Marriage" Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    PJ Boyle; Hill Kulu

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies show that premarital cohabitation is associated with an increased risk of subsequent marital dissolution. Some argue that this is a consequence of selection effects and that once these are controlled for premarital cohabitation has no effect on dissolution. We examine the effect of premarital cohabitation on subsequent marital dissolution by using rich retrospective life-history data from Austria. We model union formation and dissolution jointly to control for unobserved s...

  6. Premarital cohabitation and divorce: Support for the "Trial Marriage" Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Boyle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies show that premarital cohabitation is associated with an increased risk of subsequent marital dissolution. Some argue that this is a consequence of selection effects and that once these are controlled for premarital cohabitation has no effect on dissolution. We examine the effect of premarital cohabitation on subsequent marital dissolution by using rich retrospective life-history data from Austria. We model union formation and dissolution jointly to control for unobserved selectivity of cohabiters and non-cohabiters. Our results show that those who cohabit prior to marriage have a higher risk of marital dissolution. However, once observed and unobserved characteristics are controlled for, the risks of marital dissolution for those who cohabit prior to marriage are significantly lower than for those who marry directly. The finding that premarital cohabitation decreases the risk of marital separation provides support for the "trial marriage" theory.

  7. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Stability in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Used data from probability sample of 10,472 ever-married Canadians to examine effects of premarital cohabitation on later marital stability. Results suggest that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on staying married. Positive effect remained when length of marriage and age at marriage were controlled. (Author/NB)

  8. Marriage and Cohabitation Following Premarital Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.

    1993-01-01

    Considered role of cohabitation in legitimation of premarital conceptions using data from 920 women. Found that, for white women in their twenties, pregnant cohabiting women were more likely to legitimate their first birth. Among black women and teenage white women, pregnant cohabiting women were no more likely to marry before their child was born…

  9. Can marriage education mitigate the risks associated with premarital cohabitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Allen, Elizabeth S

    2015-06-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., "precommitment cohabitation") for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between precommitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before random assignment to intervention. After intervention, this precommitment cohabitation effect was only apparent in the control group. Specifically, significant interactions between intervention condition and cohabitation history indicated that for the control group, but not the PREP group, precommitment cohabitation was associated with lower dedication as well as declines in marital satisfaction and increases in negative communication over time. Furthermore, those with precommitment cohabitation were more likely to divorce by the 2-year follow-up only in the control group; there were no differences in divorce based on premarital cohabitation history in the PREP group. These findings are discussed in light of current research on cohabitation and relationship education; potential implications are also considered.

  10. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  11. Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Examines association between intimate premarital relationships and subsequent marital dissolution. Results suggest neither premarital sex nor premarital cohabitation by itself indicate either preexisting characteristics or subsequent relationship environments that weaken marriages. Findings are consistent with the notion that premarital sex and…

  12. Sliding versus Deciding: Inertia and the Premarital Cohabitation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Markman, Howard J.

    2006-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has consistently been found to be associated with increased risk for divorce and marital distress in the United States. Two explanations for this "cohabitation effect" are discussed: selection and experience. We present an empirically based view of how the experience of cohabitation may increase risk for…

  13. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marria...

  14. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  15. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006 – 2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital cohabitation experiences were associated with marital instability among a recent contemporary (married since 1996) marriage cohort of men (N = 1,483) ...

  16. Dissolution of premarital cohabitation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Balakrishnan, T R

    1995-11-01

    The rapid increase in the number of unmarried cohabiting couples, indicated by recent evidence, is crucial to our understanding of changing marriage patterns. The levels and patterns of entry into cohabitation have been well documented over the last two decades, but little is known about the outcomes of nonmarital cohabitation. In this study we examine two competing outcomes of cohabitation relationships: union separation and legalization of the union through marriage. Our results show that the hazard rate of union dissolution is affected particularly by gender, fertility status, partner's marital status, religion, age at start of cohabitation, year cohabitation commenced, and region.

  17. Change in the Association between Premarital Cohabitation and Separation, Australia 1945 - 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Belinda; de Vaus, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate change in the association between premarital cohabitation and the risk of separation. Using retrospective marriage history data from the first wave (2001) of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australian survey, we examine 6,210 first marriages formed between 1945 and 2000. We find the association between premarital…

  18. Adolescent Premarital Sexual Activity, Cohabitation, and Attitudes toward Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D.; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2001-01-01

    Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage, specifically a greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements. This paper examines adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of…

  19. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  20. Reassessing the link between premarital cohabitation and marital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG.

  1. The Institutionalization of Premarital Cohabitation: Estimates from Marriage License Applications, 1970 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined extent to which couples who marry cohabit prior to marriage. Data indicate premarital cohabitation in Lane County, Oregon, increased from 13 percent to 53 percent during the decade. Trends and differentials for demographic subgroups are compared to national estimates. Findings suggest premarital cohabitation may be a new normative step…

  2. Cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian youth in South Africa today: a missional reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2011-01-01

    This article explored the rising trends of cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian and non-Christian youth in South Africa that is becoming more socially acceptable. Moving from a premise of engaging in these practices, which is not biblically justified, to what a missional Christian church can do, this article sought to bring the numbers of those who cohabit and engage in premarital sex down. The thesis of this article was that a missional church should view cohabitation and premar...

  3. Is Your Love in Vain? Another Look at Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the association between premarital cohabitation and subsequent risk of divorce. Theoretically couples who cohabit before marriage should have a lower subsequent risk of divorce since cohabitation enables you to gather information about the match quality, and only good matches evolve into…

  4. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  5. Cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian youth in South Africa today: A missional reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explored the rising trends of cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian and non-Christian youth in South Africa that is becoming more socially acceptable. Moving from a premise of engaging in these practices, which is not biblically justified, to what a missional Christian church can do, this article sought to bring the numbers of those who cohabit and engage in premarital sex down. The thesis of this article was that a missional church should view cohabitation and premarital sex as frontiers that need to be crossed to save the lives of our youth by minimising premarital pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (the Human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] pandemic included. This will also go a long way in saving the sinking image of marriage. It is the presupposition of this article that cohabitation and premarital sex are great threats to the institution of marriage.

  6. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  7. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability: A Test of the Unconventionality Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Alfred; MacDonald, William

    1993-01-01

    Examined whether greater instability of marriage begun by premarital cohabitation can be accounted for by cohabitors' greater unconventionality in family ideology. Hypothesis was largely unsupported. Family attitudes/beliefs did not account for differences in stability. Controlling for background differences, only serial cohabitation was…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Role of Cohabitation in Premarital Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1996-01-01

    Examines cohabitation in premarital childbearing among U.S. women. Utilized data from the National Survey of Families and Households and the New York Fertility, Employment, and Migration Survey. Marked racial and ethnic differences in the role of the cohabiting union in family building were evident. Interprets findings in terms of long-standing…

  9. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and…

  10. As Good as Married? A Model of Premarital Cohabitation and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, Padma Rao; Gu, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a two-sided search-matching model with imperfectly observed types and sequential learning. We use the metaphor of premarital cohabitation and assume that it is initiated to learn more about one's prospective spouse. We show that couples match within classes and that the classes

  11. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A.; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2005-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (N=4,547) to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. We find that the nature and strength of the estimated effects of several risk factors for disruption differ across groups. In particular,…

  12. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship and Subsequent Marital Adjustment: A Replication and Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roy E. L.; DeMeo, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Replicated earlier study of couples in first year of marriage. Conducted follow-up study of couples in fourth year of marriage who had participated in original or replication studies. Concludes that premarital relationships of the couples, whether cohabitation or traditional courtship, does not appear to have had long-term effect on marital…

  13. As Good as Married? A Model of Premarital Cohabitation and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, Padma Rao; Gu, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a two-sided search-matching model with imperfectly observed types and sequential learning. We use the metaphor of premarital cohabitation and assume that it is initiated to learn more about one's prospective spouse. We show that couples match within classes and that the classes

  14. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  15. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  16. Cohabitation: Its Impact on Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jeffrey M.; Chason, Karen J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of this research indicate that persons with a history of premarital cohabitation do not describe their marriages differently from persons without a history of cohabitation. The authors conclude that premarital cohabitation may not provide types of learning experiences that significantly alter an individual's success in marriage.…

  17. Cohabitation and premarital sex amongst Christian youth in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... noting, namely the youth in crisis, the factors contributing to cohabitation ... of them then become school dropouts. These children ..... sanctification of sex by College students', The International Journal for the. Psychology of ...

  18. Can Marriage Education Mitigate the Risks Associated with Premarital Cohabitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Allen, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested whether relationship education (i.e., the Prevention and Relationship Education Program; PREP) can mitigate the risk of having cohabited before making a mutual commitment to marry (i.e., “pre-commitment cohabitation”) for marital distress and divorce. Using data from a study of PREP for married couples in the U.S. Army (N = 662 couples), we found that there was a significant association between pre-commitment cohabitation and lower marital satisfaction and dedication before ...

  19. The negligible influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility in current Danish cohorts, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, J M; Selmer, R

    1984-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility by applying life table methods to data for cohorts of Danish women born in 1926-1955, collected in retrospective interviews made in 1975. For each five-year cohort, the data have been analyzed by duration of marriage or by duration since previous birth, for women who had no reported births before marriage. Our main empirical results are: (a) that women who married at age 15-19 had higher rates of marital first and second births than those married at ages 20-24, and (b) that premarital cohabitation had very little influence on births of these two first orders in our data.

  20. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  1. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V

    1990-05-01

    "This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  2. The Effect of Premarital Cohabitation on Marital Stability over the Duration of Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budinski, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishResearch has shown that premarital cohabitors who eventually marry are morelikely to divorce or separate than persons who do not cohabit prior to marriage.This study investigates the possibility that the difference in marital stabilitybetween cohabitors and non-cohabitors may change with increasing duration ofmarriage. Using Canadian 1995 General Social Survey data, variousProportional Hazards Models were specified to compare the marital dissolutionrisks of cohabitors and non-cohabitors, while controlling for a set of relevantfactors. Initially, it was found that both groups had virtually identical dissolutionrisks. However, further specification of the hazards model indicated that indeedcohabitors have a greater risk of marital dissolution than noncohabitors. Furthertests to differentiate between short- and long-term unions indicated thatpremarital cohabitors have a greater dissolution risk in the first ten years of theirunion, while non-cohabitors have a greater hazard after ten years of marriage.We discuss these findings in the context of the North American based literatureon cohabitation and marriage dissolution, and offer suggestions for furtherstudy.FrenchPlusieurs recherches ont démontré que les couples qui cohabitent avant lemariage et qui finissent par se marier courent un risque plus élevé de divorce oude séparation que les couples qui ne cohabitent pas avant le mariage. Cetteétude examine l’hypothèse que cette différence dans la stabilité des mariagesentre les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant pourrait changersuivant la durée du mariage. En s’appuyant sur les données de l’Enquête socialegénérale canadienne de 1995, différents modèles de régression à effetproportionnel ont été spécifiés pour comparer les risques de dissolution desmariages dans les couples cohabitant et les couples non-cohabitant. D’autresétudes qui ont été menées pour déterminer s’il y avait des diff

  3. Patterns of Premarital Cohabitation among Never-Married Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanfer, Koray

    1987-01-01

    Examined patterns of heterosexual cohabitation among a national sample of never-married young adult women. Found that heterosexual cohabitation was common; the prevalence of cohabitation varied with social, psychological, and demographic variables; and several factors differentiated cohabitors from noncohabitors. Cohabitation appeared to be a new…

  4. Premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution: a matter of self-selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, L A; Brien, M J; Waite, L J

    1995-08-01

    Married couples who began their relationship by cohabiting appear to face an increased risk of marital dissolution, which may be due to self-selection of more dissolution-prone individuals into cohabitation before marriage. This paper uses newly developed econometric methods to explicitly address the endogeneity of cohabitation before marriage in the hazard of marital disruption by allowing the unobserved heterogeneity components to be correlated across the decisions to cohabit and to end a marriage. These methods are applied to data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. We find significant heterogeneity in both cohabitation and marriage disruption, and discover evidence of self-selection into cohabitation.

  5. Reassessing the Link between Women’s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    OpenAIRE

    James, Spencer L; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while dec...

  6. Premarital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Stability in the United States: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Rao, K. Vaninadha

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relationship between cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution among 3,300 adults in United States. Consistent with results for Sweden, found that cohabitation in United States was associated with greater hazard of dissolution even after counting time spent in unmarried cohabitation as part of marital duration. (Author/NB)

  7. Cohabitation in Europe: a revenge of history?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.; Leinarte, D.

    2015-01-01

    Unmarried cohabitation is often seen as a radically ‘new’ phenomenon, originating in the 1960s, but in fact it has long historical antecedents. The question is, however, whether traditional and modern cohabitation are comparable and whether we can speak of persistence. This article offers a

  8. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roy E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  9. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Beaujouan, Éva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979–2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marr...

  10. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  11. Pre-engagement cohabitation and gender asymmetry in marital commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2006-12-01

    The authors longitudinally examined couples' (N = 197) dedication (interpersonal commitment) levels on the basis of their premarital cohabitation history. Findings suggested that men who cohabited with their spouse before engagement were less dedicated than men who cohabited only after engagement or not at all before marriage. Furthermore, these husbands were less dedicated to their wives than their wives were to them. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that such asymmetries were apparent before marriage and through the early years of marriage. Relationship adjustment and religiousness were related to dedication but did not account for the findings. The authors suggest that couples considering cohabitation before engagement could benefit from discussions about commitment and expectations about marriage.

  12. 大学生恋爱中的同居现象分析和引导%Analysis and Guide on the University Students' Premarital Cohabitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉娟

    2011-01-01

    高校大学生恋爱的现象愈加普遍,由于畸形的婚恋观、对性的好奇与渴望以及不良风气的影响,有同居经历的学生数量也在逐年上升。高校应该从帮助学生树立正确的恋爱观、对学生进行必要的系统的性教育、丰富校园文化活动,转移学生注意力以及警、校联合治理校园周边环境四个方面来进行教育和引导。%University students' falling love becomes a common phenomenon. Because of the abnormal concept on love and marriage, curiosity and desire for sex, and undesirable influences from the environment, the premarital cohabitation of university students is increasing year by year. Colleges and universities should help students establish correct concept on love, should carry out necessary systematic education of sex for the students, and should enrich cultural activities on campus to transfer students' attention. And the joint management of the police and the school campus is a good practice to improve the surrounding environment.

  13. Cohabitation and marriage in Britain since the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujouan, Eva; Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire

    2011-01-01

    The article presents an overview of trends in cohabitation and marriage in Britain over several decades, using a consistent set of retrospective histories from the General Household Survey 1979-2007. Time-trends are presented, for men and women, of: the experience of different types of partnership by specified ages, the frequency of premarital cohabitation, the average time spent in different types of partnership, the timing of life course transitions, and the outcome of cohabitation and marriage at the fifth and tenth anniversaries.

  14. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  15. Migration experience and premarital sexual initiation in urban Kenya: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2012-06-01

    Migration during the formative adolescent years can affect important life-course transitions, including the initiation of sexual activity. In this study, we use life history calendar data to investigate the relationship between changes in residence and timing of premarital sexual debut among young people in urban Kenya. By age 18, 64 percent of respondents had initiated premarital sex, and 45 percent had moved at least once between the ages of 12 and 18. Results of the event history analysis show that girls and boys who move during early adolescence experience the earliest onset of sexual activity. For adolescent girls, however, other dimensions of migration provide protective effects, with greater numbers of residential changes and residential changes in the last one to three months associated with later sexual initiation. To support young people's ability to navigate the social, economic, and sexual environments that accompany residential change, researchers and policymakers should consider how various dimensions of migration affect sexual activity.

  16. Excessive drinking and history of unemployment and cohabitation in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Osler, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies exist on social inequality of excessive drinking in Denmark and differences seem to be less pronounced than in other European countries. The aims of this study were to investigate how history of employment and cohabitation is associated with excessive drinking and to study...... interaction between both. Methods: Birth-cohort study of 6112 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up in 2004 on excessive drinking at age 51 years. RESULTS: Excessive drinking (between 22 and 35 units of alcohol per week) differed little depending on history of unemployment and cohabitation. Risk of very...

  17. Do cold feet warn of trouble ahead? Premarital uncertainty and four-year marital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Are the doubts that people feel before marriage signs of impending difficulties or normative experiences that can be safely ignored? To test these opposing views, we asked 464 recently married spouses whether they had ever been uncertain about getting married and then compared 4-year divorce rates and marital satisfaction trajectories among those partners with and without premarital doubts. Doubts were reported by at least one partner in two thirds of couples. Women with premarital doubts had significantly higher 4-year divorce rates, even when controlling for concurrent marital satisfaction, the difficulty of their engagement, history of parental divorce, premarital cohabitation, and neuroticism. Among intact couples, men's and women's doubts predicted less satisfied marital trajectories. Premarital doubts appear to be common but not benign, suggesting that valid precursors of marital distress are evident during couples' engagements.

  18. Effects of co-habitation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. To design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. This study explored the effect of co-habitation between An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus on different life history traits of both species under different densities and constant food supply in the habitats of the same size under semi-natural conditions. Methods Experiments were set up with three combinations; Cx. quinquefasciatus alone (single species treatment, An. gambiae s.s. alone (single species treatment; and An. gambiae s.s. with Cx. quiquefasciatus (co-habitation treatment in different densities in semi field situation. Results The effect of co-habitation of An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to principally affect three parameters. The wing-lengths (a proxy measure of body size of An. gambiae s.s. in co-habitation treatments were significantly shorter in both females and males than in An. gambiae s.s single species treatments. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, no significant differences in wing-length were observed between the single species and co-habitation treatments. Daily survival rates were not significantly different between co-habitation and single species treatments for both An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Developmental time was found to be significantly different with single species treatments developing better than co-habitation treatments. Sex ratio was found to be significantly different from the proportion of 0.5 among single and co-habitation treatments species at different densities. Single species treatments had more males than females emerging while in co-habitation

  19. The Relationship between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability: Change across Cohorts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Cohan, Catherine L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dysfunction a sample spouses in two marriage cohorts: those married between 1964 and 1980 (when cohabitation was less common) and those married between 1981 and 1997 (when cohabitation was more common). Spouses in both cohorts who cohabited prior to marriage reported poorer…

  20. The relationship between cohabitation and divorce: selectivity or causal influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1992-08-01

    Recent evidence linking premarital cohabitation to high rates of divorce poses a complex theoretical and empirical puzzle. We develop hypotheses predicting that premarital cohabitation is selective of those who are prone to divorce as well as hypotheses predicting that the experience of premarital cohabitation produces attitudes and values which increase the probability of divorce. Using multiwave panel data from a recent cohort of young men and women in the United States, we specify and test models of these predictions. The results are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that cohabitation is selective of men and women who are less committed to marriage and more approving of divorce. The results also are consistent with the conclusion that cohabiting experiences significantly increase young people's acceptance of divorce.

  1. Drug Use and Other Determinants of Premarital Pregnancy and Its Outcome: A Dynamic Analysis of Competing Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1987-01-01

    Examined determinants of occurrence and outcomes of premarital pregnancy. Found cohabitation, being black, poor grades and high peer activity in high school, use of illicit drugs other than marijuana and dropping out to be associated with increased risk of premarital pregnancy. Premarital births were overrepresented among blacks, as were abortions…

  2. The pre-engagement cohabitation effect: a replication and extension of previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2009-02-01

    Using a random telephone survey of men and women married within the past 10 years (N = 1,050), the current study replicated previous findings regarding the timing of engagement and the premarital cohabitation effect (see Kline et al., 2004). Those who cohabited before engagement (43.1%) reported lower marital satisfaction, dedication, and confidence as well as more negative communication and greater potential for divorce than those who cohabited only after engagement (16.4%) or not at all until marriage (40.5%). These differences were generally small, but could not be accounted for by length of marriage or by variables often associated with selection into cohabitation (i.e., age, income, education, and religiousness). Similar results were found in a subsample of individuals who cohabited only with the current spouse. There were no significant differences between those who cohabited after engagement and not at all before marriage, supporting a pre-engagement, but not a premarital cohabitation effect.

  3. Cohabitation and Divorce in Canada: Testing the Selectivity Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Zhao, John Z.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that cohabitors are a select group in ways that predispose them to divorce. Found that premarital cohabitation was associated with a greater risk of divorce even after accounting for the effects of parental divorce, marital status of first spouse, age heterogamy, and the presence of stepchildren. (RJM)

  4. Differential use of premarital education in first and second marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Although second marriages are more likely to end in divorce than first marriages, and thus represent an important target for intervention, there have been no detailed examinations of the use of premarital education in second marriages. Using random-digit dialing methods, 398 individuals currently in a second marriage and 1,342 individuals currently in a first marriage participated. Compared with those in first marriages, individuals in second marriages were significantly less likely to receive premarital education for their current marriage. This difference was fully mediated by differences between individuals in first and second marriages in pre-engagement cohabitation, education level, having children from a previous relationship, and being married by a religious leader. In both first and second marriages, those couples at most risk for subsequent marital distress and divorce were less likely to receive premarital education. Results suggest that more needs to be done to understand the barriers to the use of premarital education for second marriages.

  5. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  6. Trends in Cohabitation Outcomes: Compositional Changes and Engagement Among Never-Married Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    Cohabitation is now the modal first union for young adults, and most marriages are preceded by cohabitation even as fewer cohabitations transition to marriage. These contrasting trends may be due to compositional shifts among cohabiting unions, which are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of cohabitation order, engagement, and the presence of children, as well as across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The author constructs 5-year cohabitation cohorts for 18- to 34-year-olds from the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (n = 17,890 premarital cohabitations) to examine the outcomes of cohabitations over time. Compared to earlier cohabitations, those formed after 1995 were more likely to dissolve, and those formed after 2000 were less likely to transition to marriage even after accounting for the compositional shifts among individuals in cohabiting unions. Higher instability and decreased chances of marriage occurred among both engaged and non-engaged individuals, suggesting society-wide changes in cohabitation over time.

  7. Premarital HIV testing on prospective couples in a teaching hospital in sub Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Osakwe, O J; Nwigwe, A C; Ofiaeli, N G; Nnaji, I J F

    2014-01-01

    Most religious bodies insist on premarital screening for prospective couples. To determine the level of voluntary screening, prevalence and risk factors of HIV among premarital couples. A cross-sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and HIV screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of everythird premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic between November 2010 and October 2011. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis of 386 subjects. A majority of respondents (83.4% or 322); X2 = 172.446, df = 1, p screening was 5.7% (22); X2 = 303.018, df = 1, p premarital couples. Voluntary HIV testing was higher than mandatory request, while cohabitation and upper social class are risk factors for HIV transmission.

  8. Premarital rubella vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R L; Clark, S W

    1985-01-01

    A two-year Vermont program identified 494 (7 per cent) of 6,982 premarital female serologies that were seronegative (less than 1:8) to rubella by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer. All 494 susceptible patients and their physicians were notified of their results by letter. The State Health Department received reports that a total of 194 (39 per cent) of the susceptible patients had received rubella vaccinations as a result of their notifications. Intensive follow-up of susceptibles appears to be important factor in the success of premarital rubella screening programs. PMID:4025661

  9. Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the U.S., little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health, paying particular attention to the paternity status of the mother's partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black (but not Hispanic) women. We find no evidence that these negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered.

  10. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006–10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15–19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child’s third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as “single mothers” are actually in cohabiting relationships. PMID:25972620

  11. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  12. Early marriage, premarital fertility, and marital dissolution: results for Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, J D

    1983-03-01

    Based on data from the marital histories contained in the 1973 National Survey of Family Growth, this research investigates the impact of age at 1st marriage and premarital fertility status on subsequent marital dissolution for both black women and white women 1st married between 1950 and 1970. Results, using multivariate proportional hazards models, indicate that 1) premarital births, but not premarital pregnancies, increase the risk of marital dissolution; 2) an increasing age at the 1st marriage reduces the risk of marital separation and divorce, but not monotonically; 3) blacks differ from whites in that they are less responsive to the effects of a premarital birth or a young age at 1st marriage in increasing the likelihood of marital instability; and 4) an older age at 1st marriage offsets somewhat the destabilizing effects of a premarital birth. Variables used in the analysis include husband/wife age difference at marriage, education at marriage, farm versus nonfarm background, stability of parental marriage, religion, religiosity, work before marriage, number of siblings, urban or rural residence, western versus nonwestern region, 1st marriage cohort, premarital fertility status and age at 1st marriage. Policy implications include reducing the level of premarital births, and establishing support programs for those having a premarital birth without a legitimating marriage which will delay subsequent marriage, especially if the birth occurred at a young age.

  13. Diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Agnese; Aassve, Arnstein; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-04-01

    The article analyzes the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation in Norway, using municipality data over a 24-year period (1988-2011). Research has found substantial spatial heterogeneity in this phenomenon but also substantial spatial correlation, and the prevalence of childbearing within cohabitation has increased significantly over time. We consider several theoretical perspectives and implement a spatial panel model that allows accounting for autocorrelation not only on the dependent variable but also on key explanatory variables, and hence identifies the key determinants of diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation across space and over time. We find only partial support for the second demographic transition as a theory able to explain the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. Our results show that at least in the first phase of the diffusion (1988-1997), economic difficulties as measured by increased unemployment among men contributed to the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. However, the most important driver for childbearing within cohabitation is expansion in education for women.

  14. PREMARITAL GROUNDS AND LIFE PLANS OF YOUNG PEOPLE: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Kasarkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with life plans of young people in the modern society, in particular, the issues of marriage, childbearing and family formation are analyzed basing on sociological surveys conducted in Saransk, as well as on a comparative analysis of other Russian and foreign studies. It is noted that nowadays young people eager to realize their own professional interests, to achieve material well-being, independence, personal improvement and only then to realize their aspirations in family life. Many attributes of marriage and family are implemented in matrimonial behavior of young peoplein a distorted form. For example, the preservation of pre-marital chastity is questioned. A special role is given to premarital cohabitation, which is represented as a certain step before marriage, allowing young people to check the mutual feelings, attitudes and willingness of the partners to have a full marriage. Emotional contacts and sexual satisfaction per se are valuable for young people, and do not always correspond with the question of marriage and family. Nevertheless, the questionnaire shows that in their life plans, though giving priority to career and financial independence, young people seek to build a strong family based on wedlock. Despite the emergence of new views on marriage, the  society still has strong enough thousand-year experience of family traditions. 

  15. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be the case given the long history and enduring acceptance of cohabitation that is unrelated to modern ideals. While there are studies that have documented this history and current prevalence, there is no research examining the intersecting life course pathways from adolescence through early adulthood that lead to marriage or cohabitation. This is not surprising given that available data for Central American countries are not ideally suited to studying the process. Methods: We use retrospective questions from large, nationally representative Central American surveys (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to establish the timing of marriage or cohabitation and events that are closely tied to union formation. We utilize additive causespecific hazard models, and predicted transition probabilities based on selected covariate pathways, to study the competing risks of exiting from the status of never in union. Results: Our results identify sexual activity and pregnancy as the primary drivers of union formation and indicate that education serves as a protective factor against union formation. We also find distinct differences among countries and a strong indication that cohabitations are less stable unions.

  16. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  17. Change in the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions Following the Birth of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Michelmore, Katherine

    2015-10-01

    The share of births to cohabiting couples has increased dramatically in recent decades. How we evaluate the implications of these increases depends critically on change in the stability of cohabiting families. This study examines change over time in the stability of U.S. couples who have a child together, drawing on data from the 1995 and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We parse out the extent to which change in the stability of cohabiting and married families reflects change in couples' behavior versus shifts in the characteristics of those who cohabit, carefully accounting for trajectories of cohabitation and marriage around the couple's first birth. Multivariate event history models provide evidence of a weakening association between cohabitation and instability given that marriage occurs at some point before or after the couple's first birth. The more recent data show statistically indistinguishable separation risks for couples who have a birth in marriage without ever cohabiting, those who cohabit and then have a birth in marriage, and those who have a birth in cohabitation and then marry. Cohabiting unions with children are significantly less stable when de-coupled from marriage, although the parents in this group also differ most from others on observed (and likely, unobserved) characteristics.

  18. The Child Health Disadvantage of Parental Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses Fragile Families data (N = 2,160) to assess health differences at age 5 for children born to cohabiting versus married parents. Regression analyses indicate worse health for children born to cohabiting parents, including those whose parents stably cohabited, dissolved their cohabitation, and married, than for children with stably…

  19. How premarital children and childbearing in current marriage influence divorce of Swedish women in their first marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available By using a Swedish register data set and applying hazard models with unobserved heterogeneity, this study demonstrates that the partners' childbearing history plays an important role in predicting the divorce risks of families with various combination of premarital children. Families with premarital children definitely have a higher risk of divorce than do those without premarital children. Producing a common child reduces the divorce risk, but as the youngest common child gets older, his or her role in maintaining family bond weakens. Families which the wife has premarital children by another man decidedly have a higher risk of divorce than do families with other combinations of premarital children. Other findings deviate from what has been reported in the literature.

  20. Trends in marriage and cohabitation: the decline in marriage and the changing pattern of living in partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, J

    1995-01-01

    The number of marriages in England and Wales fell to its lowest level for 50 years in 1993 at just under 300 thousand. In addition, the number of marriages which were the first for both partners was the lowest recorded this century. This article examines the trends in marriage, cohabitation, and of living outside a partnership, to provide some background information to the decline in marriage. Seven out of ten first marriages in the early 1990s were preceded by premarital cohabitation, compared with only one in ten in the early 1970s. Of the couples who lived together before marriage, the median duration of premarital cohabitation was about 2 years for those who first married in the early 1990s, compared with about 1 year for those who first married in the early 1970s. Over one in 5 of non-married men and women were cohabiting in 1993, compared with under one in 7 in the mid-1980s. On the basis of these trends which have persisted for a number of years, as well as the growing tendency to live outside a partnership, the incidence of marriage, particularly at the younger ages, seems likely to decline further.

  1. Premarital health counseling: A must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sonia; Dhiman, Anupama; Bansal, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC) is emerging as a growing trend worldwide. The couples are provided with accurate and unbiased information and assistance, who are planning to get marry with the aim of screening, educating, and counseling about nutritional disorders, communicable diseases, medical conditions, hereditary/genetic disorders, and guiding for a healthy pregnancy. Premarital screening and adequate counseling are essential for changing attitudes toward consanguineous marriage particularly in places where consanguineous and "tribal" marriages are common, resulting in a high incidence of genetic disorders. Although making PMHC obligatory in India may appear to be a very exciting and promising proposal, its implementation still has various ethical issues and other barriers that need to be addressed.

  2. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  3. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  4. Dimensions of Rural-to-Urban Migration and Premarital Pregnancy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Mberu, Blessing U.; Goldberg, Rachel E.

    2013-01-01

    Rural-to urban migration is increasingly common among youth and could affect sexual activities. We use life history calendar data collected in Kisumu, Kenya, to investigate how the timing and number of rural-to-urban moves are associated with premarital pregnancy. Among sexually experienced young women aged 18-24 (N=226), 39 percent have experienced a premarital pregnancy and 60 percent experienced a move in the last 10 years. Results of the event history analysis show that those who experienced one or two moves or whose most recent move occurred in the last seven to 12 months are at increased risk of premarital pregnancy compared to nonmovers. Those whose last move occurred at age 13 or younger were also at an elevated risk. Migration brings about specific needs for youth, including the need for sexual and reproductive health education and services, which should be made available and accessible to new urban residents. PMID:24443586

  5. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Penelope M.; Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A.

    2011-01-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N = 138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit and examines potential gender differences in…

  6. Cohabitation and Marital Stability: Quality or Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Elizabeth; Colella, Ugo

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to examine cohabitation. Couples who cohabited before marriage reported lower quality marriages, lower commitment to institution of marriage, more individualistic views of marriage (wives only), and greater likelihood of divorce than couples who did not cohabit. Effects were generally…

  7. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to protect future generations and to guarantee the continuity of worshipping God. However, some people reject the compulsory test, considering them against Islam rules. In this letter to the editor, the authors explore the view of Islam towards premarital medical tests.

  8. Premarital rubella screening in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, E; Faich, G A; Simon, P R; Mullan, R J

    1981-04-03

    Rhode Island law requires that rubella serological screening be done for most female marriage license applicants. To evaluate the effect of the law, 203 rubella-susceptible women detected through premarital screening over a four-month period in 1978 were surveyed. Of those responding, 37% had been immunized, 21% were pregnant or infertile, and 42% were eligible for immunization but had not received vaccine. Premarital immunization occurred most frequently when physicians advised and directly offered vaccine. A survey of primary care physicians indicated that 24% immunized none of their rubella-susceptible patients detected by premarital screening.

  9. Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, R. Kelly; Frisco, Michelle L.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in children's experiences in cohabiting families, little is known about how living in such families affects children's academic success. Extrapolating from two theoretical frameworks that have been commonly used to explain the association between parental divorce and educational outcomes, the authors constructed…

  10. Assessment of personality and demographic aspects of cohabitation and marital success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, M D; Bentler, P M

    1980-02-01

    The outcomes of 68 marriages of four-year duration were compared on the basis of whether the partners had or had not cohabited premaritally. Background characteristics and personality data were assessed on those couples when there were newly married, and they were followed-up four years later to determine their current marital status, level of satisfaction, difficulty with various problem areas and the number of children born to them. No reliable differences on marital satisfaction or divorce rates between premarital cohabitors and noncohabitors were found. Cohabitors who divorced did so while reporting less marital distress than noncohabitors who divorced. Premarital cohabitors had significantly fewer children than noncohabitors. Degree of difficulty experienced on various problem areas differed between the groups. Certain personality and background variables predicted marital success differently for the two groups. Using the same selected set of six predictor variables, multiple regression equations were generated for cohabitors and noncohabitors. The cohabitors equation (R2 = .56) predicted marital success significantly more effectively than the noncohabitors equation (R2 = .28), When comparing the tri-weight vectors for these two equations, none of the predictor variables had the same influence in both groups. Theoretical implications of the findings were discussed.

  11. He Says, She Says: Gender and Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Penelope M; Smock, Pamela J; Manning, Wendy D; Bergstrom-Lynch, Cara A

    2011-02-01

    Cohabitation has become the modal path to marriage in the United States. However, little is known about what cohabitation means to young adults today. Drawing on data from 18 focus groups (N=138) and 54 in-depth interviews with young adults, this exploratory study investigates motivations to cohabit, and examines potential gender differences in those motivations and the meanings attached to them. We find that primary motives to cohabit include spending time together, sharing expenses, and evaluating compatibility. Strong gender differences emerge in how respondents discuss these themes and how they characterize the drawbacks of cohabitation, with men more concerned about loss of freedom and women with delays in marriage. Overall, our findings suggest that gendered cultural norms governing intimate relationships extend to cohabiting unions, and point to gender differences in the perceived role of cohabitation in union formation processes.

  12. Marriage and separation risks among German cohabiters: Differences between types of cohabiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters' intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent.

  13. PREMARITAL SCREENING TESTS: AN ISLAMIC VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Shammout

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide spread of many diseases, advancements in genetic engineering have led to considerable improvements in diagnosing these diseases. Therefore, pressure on prospective spouses to undergo premarital medical exams has increased significantly. Many Islamic countries have responded to this emerging need by making some premarital screening tests compulsory for a marriage. The adoption of these policies comes from the core message of Islam, which encourages counselling to p...

  14. A randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of premarital intervention: moderators of divorce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Peterson, Kristina M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effects of premarital relationship intervention on divorce during the first 8 years of first marriage. Religious organizations were randomly assigned to have couples marrying through them complete the Prevention and Relationship Education Program (PREP) or their naturally occurring premarital services. Results indicated no differences in overall divorce rates between naturally occurring services (n = 44), PREP delivered by clergy at religious organizations (n = 66), or PREP delivered by professionals at a university (n = 83). Three moderators were also tested. Measured premaritally and before intervention, the level of negativity of couples' interactions moderated effects. Specifically, couples observed to have higher levels of negative communication in a video task were more likely to divorce if they received PREP than if they received naturally occurring services; couples with lower levels of premarital negative communication were more likely to remain married if they received PREP. A history of physical aggression in the current relationship before marriage and before intervention showed a similar pattern as a moderator, but the effect was only marginally significant. Family-of-origin background (parental divorce and/or aggression) was not a significant moderator of prevention effects across the two kinds of services. Implications for defining risk, considering divorce as a positive versus negative outcome, the practice of premarital relationship education, and social policy are discussed.

  15. Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, self esteem, religiosity and premarital sex among young adults. ... The participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and three surveys: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a Religiosity Scale, and the premarital sex scale.

  16. How Similar are Cohabiting and Married Parents? Second Conception Risks by Union Type in the United States and Across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2014-01-01

    The increase in births within cohabitation in the United States and across Europe suggests that cohabitation and marriage have become more similar with respect to childbearing. However, little is known about additional childbearing after first birth. Using harmonized union and fertility histories from surveys in 15 countries, this study examines second conception risks leading to a live birth for women who have given birth within a union. Results show that women who continue to cohabit after birth have significantly lower second conception risks than married women in all countries except those in Eastern Europe, even when controlling for union duration, union dissolution, age at first birth, and education. Pooled models indicate that differences in the second conception risks by union type between Eastern and Western Europe are significant. Pooled models including an indicator for the diffusion of cohabitation show that when first births within cohabitation are rare, cohabiting women have significantly lower second conception risks than married women. As first births within cohabitation increase, differences in second conception risks for cohabiting and married women narrow. But as the percent increases further, the differentials increase again, suggesting that cohabitation and marriage are not becoming equivalent settings for additional childbearing. However, I also find that in all countries except Estonia, women who marry after first birth have second conception risks similar to couples married at first birth, indicating that the sequence of marriage and childbearing does not matter to fertility as much as the act of marrying itself.

  17. Cohabitation: parents following in their children's footsteps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle-and older-aged parents are “learning” cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child’s cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses.

  18. College Premarital Sex Versus Self-Esteem, Religion, and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Elizabeth D.

    Premarital sexual attitudes of a convenience sample of 95 young unmarried college women were examined to ascertain the association between liberality of premarital sexual attitudes, religiosity, conservatism, self-reported premarital sexual behavior, and self-esteem. SPSS Pearson Correlation analysis showed different patterns for the group as a…

  19. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  20. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertilit...

  2. Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)

  3. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Linda Rae

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how single women in the regional Indonesian city of Mataram express sexual desire in a social, cultural and political climate that idealizes the confinement of female sexuality within marriage. It is based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with single women, their families and health care providers. Success for young women in negotiating sexual desire is dependent upon their ability to maintain a faultless public reputation and mediate between their desires and those of men. Many single women find ways to pursue their desires by bending the rules of courtship conventions, performing sexual purity in public, while resisting from within the hegemonic sexual culture. However, women who visibly transgress dominant sexual ideals (and in doing so offend the status quo) are stigmatized and ostracized. Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage.

  4. Determining History of Victimization and Potential for Abusive Behavior in U.S. Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-20

    Premarital violence: The impact of family of origin violence, stress, and reciprocity. Violence and Victims, 5(1), 51-64. Marshall, W., Ward, T., Jones...Victimology, 2, 499-509. Stets, J. E., & Straus, M. A. (1987). The marriage license as a hitting license: A comparison of assaults in dating, cohabiting , and

  5. Intercultural Communication and Active Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Burtea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we initiate our approach is that the socio-cultural identity of the Romanian nation is configured by involving all participants to the act of coexistence, the Romany people having in turn a significant participation. In order to highlight this contribution, we propose in this paper operationalizing the concept of active cohabitation and the presentation of some Romany personalities, who have added value through their national culture. If, in our view, multiculturalism is none other but simply living together in the same area of two or more ethnic groups, two or more cultures, or two or more religions, between which there are established and produced relations of certain types, at certain times, the interculturalism being beyond the static or contemplative nature thereof, and basing on multiculturalism, it requires knowledge, appreciation, and mutual learning and conscious use of norms, values, customs, processes or technologies, leading to a common patrimony, each usable according to the moments, situations and circumstances, which increases the stock of mutual appreciation.

  6. Grasping the diversity of cohabitation: Fertility intentions among cohabiters across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, N.; Castro-Martin, T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the association between different meanings of cohabitation and fertility intentions. Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys on 5,565 cohabiters from 9 European countries (Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norway, Romania, and Russia), they propo

  7. Premarital fertility and HIV/AIDS in sub- Saharan Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    patterns. Compared with the average pattern, outlier countries had either high levels of premarital fertility and ... KEY WORDS: Premarital fertility, Adolescent fertility, HIV-AIDS, Sexual behaviour, Contraception, sub-Saharan ... widespread knowledge of disease transmission and ways to prevent it, as shown by numerous.

  8. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2011-12-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers' multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so.

  9. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers’ multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so. PMID:22081737

  10. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  11. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Cohabitation and Repartnering among Low-Income Black Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Serial cohabitation has increased dramatically in the U.S., especially in the low-income Black population. The purpose of the study is to understand cohabiting and co-parenting relationships among unmarried cohabiting low-income urban Black families on their own terms, identifying the strengths, challenges, and unique needs of these families. Though cohabitation patterns varied widely, most participants had extensive periods living without a partner. This finding provides more support for the...

  13. Understanding diversity in the meaning of cohabitation across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity in the meanings attached to cohabitation across Europe. Utilizing a sample of 9,113 cohabiters between ages 18 and 79 from 10 European countries that participated in the Generations and Gender Surveys, we develop a typology of different meanings of cohabitation

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Premarital Counseling for Sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    yahoo.com; gooludare@cmul.edu.ng; Phone: + ... practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude ... A person that receives ... rate of affected infants17. ... By excluding children, adults, married youths, and.

  15. Premarital Sexual Behaviour of Youths in Bolgatanga Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Research Centre Mental Health Nursing, In Holland University of Applied Sciences,. Amsterdam ... engage in premarital relationships and unsafe sex. ..... Popular places for 'marketing' – a term used.

  16. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  17. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Jyotsna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39% reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57% had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5 more

  18. The Effects of Religiosity on Perceptions about Premarital Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Das

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Opinions about premarital sex have been attributed to several social factors. Religiosity is thought to be one influence on peoples’ sexual behavior. Many studies confirm that religiosity reduces the number of sexual acts outside of marriage, but there is a scarcity of studies that examine the social ideology surrounding sexual acts. In an effort to fill the gap in explaining beliefs about premarital sex, the main objective of the current research is to investigate the extent to which religiosity affects views about premarital sex. Using the General Social Survey datasets for 1988, 1998, and 2008, the present paper examines the effects of religiosity and other selected control factors on the opinions of ordinary Americans about premarital sex. The results of the regression analysis indicate that religiosity is the single most important factor that determines one’s beliefs about premarital sex. The effects of control variables, such as age, sex, race, social class, marital status, and education were found to be inconsistent over time, and did not seem to mediate the effects of religiosity on the beliefs about premarital sex

  19. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity.

  20. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.

  1. Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopez-Gay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries. Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We created this map for several reasons. (i First, our examination of the geography of cohabitation reveals considerable spatial heterogeneity, and challenges the explanatory frameworks which may work at the international level, but which have low explanatory power with regard to intra-national variation. (ii Second, we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii Finally, our map serves as an initial step in efforts to determine whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions, or whether it has different roots that suggest that a new geography may be evolving. Methods: Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pooled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. Results: The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia, and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all of the countries, the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicate that there is substantial spatial heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results lead us to ask what forces may have shaped these patterns, and they remind us that these forces need to be taken into account when seeking to explain recent cohabitation patterns, and especially the rise in

  2. Traditional and modern cohabitation in Latin America: A comparative typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The existence of cohabitation is a historical feature of nuptiality in Latin America. Traditionally, cohabitation was common in less developed regions, among the lower social classes. But today its occurrence is increasing and in social groups and regions in which it was not common. The features of this latter type of cohabitation remain unclear. Objective: We differentiate types of cohabitation in Latin America on the basis of relationship context at its outset and its outcomes in terms of childbearing. The comparability of these types over countries is attested, as well as their evolution over time and the educational and age profiles of cohabitants. Methods: Demographic and Health Survey data for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s for up to eight countries are analyzed by means of Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis. Results: Three types of cohabitation are found. The traditional type includes young and lower-educated women who start to cohabit during adolescence. They have more children at younger ages. The remaining two types of cohabitation included higher-educated women and are considered modern. The innovative type groups women from all age groups, with fewer children born at a higher age and never as a single woman. Blended cohabitation refers to older women, who could negotiate a marriage, but do not. They start to cohabit during adulthood, but always after single pregnancy. Conclusions: The persistence of historical trends is attested. Traditional cohabitation is related to socioeconomic deprivation and prevails in Central American and Caribbean countries.However, two modern types of cohabitation are emerging in the region. They are concentrated in the South and related to women's independence.

  3. Knowledge and attitude of university students towards premarital screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. A cross-sectional study conducted at the students' clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  4. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al Kindi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79% were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%, media (n=209; 35%, family and friends (n=197; 33%, and/or health services (n=181, 31%. The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92% thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53% favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36% favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  5. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; Vander Weele, Tyler J

    2013-03-11

    To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premarital screening program. The premarital screening rate was 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 31.0% to 38.5%). Several demographic factors (age, residence, profession), awareness, knowledge, and attitudes towards premarital screening all had significant influence on participation in the premarital screening program. Promotion activities and health education to improve knowledge and attitudes to premarital screening will help increase the rate of voluntary premarital screening.

  6. Social context of premarital fertility in rural South-Africa | Zwang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major social changes, in particular loss of authority of parents and increasing ... Much stigma was associated with premarital fertility, from friends, institutions ... In extreme cases, premarital fertility might lead to exclusion and deviant behavior.

  7. Young Pioneers: Cohabitation and Family Life Pathways in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using a life course perspective, I examine cohabitation in a cohort of Danish women and menborn in 1954, whom formed families as cohabitation became normative in the Danish context. Inaddition, this cohort was among the first cohorts to come of age in a well-established Danishwelfare state, which...... logistic regression and latent class clusteranalysis to examine the likelihood of ever forming a cohabiting union, to situate cohabitation inthe larger context of family life pathways, and to explore social circumstances as well aspersonal aspirations as determinants of the identified family life pathways...

  8. Trends in Cohabitation Outcomes: Compositional Changes and Engagement Among Never-Married Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is now the modal first union for young adults, and most marriages are preceded by cohabitation even as fewer cohabitations transition to marriage. These contrasting trends may be due to compositional shifts among cohabiting unions, which are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of cohabitation order, engagement, and the presence of children, as well as across socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The author constructs 5-year cohabitation cohorts for 18- to 34-year-olds fr...

  9. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  10. Knowledge regarding the national premarital screening program among university students in western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Al-Nabulsi, Baraa K; Alyousef, Mohammad A; Asiri, Nawal A; Al-Blewi, Sawsan M

    2008-11-01

    To explore the knowledge of university students in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia, regarding the national premarital screening (PMS) program. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 800 students at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the first semester of the academic year 2005--2006. This included questions regarding socio-demographic data, personal history of hereditary disease, or premarital screening, knowledge on hereditary diseases, and on the national PMS program. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Eighty-five percent of the students believed that gene mutations may lead to hereditary disorders, and 84% of the respondents believed that consanguinity can increase the risk for genetic diseases. Fifty-six percent were aware that hereditary disease could affect any body system. Less than one-third of the students knew which disorders are tested for by the PMS, and 54% of the students thought that PMS detects all hereditary diseases. Only 35% knew what a non-compatible test result meant, while 59% believed that a compatible result meant freedom from all hereditary diseases. Most of the students at KAU have good general knowledge concerning hereditary diseases, but had inadequate knowledge in relation to the national PMS program. The majority did not know which diseases were tested for, and what the test result meant. Public education regarding the disorders tested for, and the implication of screening is essential for the success of the premarital program.

  11. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  12. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these…

  13. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  14. How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Increasing rates of cohabitation in the United States raise important questions about how cohabitation fits in with the definition of family. Answers to this question depend in part upon the extent to which cohabitors behavior differs from that of other family types. Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, we compare the expenditure…

  15. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  16. Sexual Frequency and the Stability of Marital and Cohabiting Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Gager, Constance T.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research found that lower sexual frequency and satisfaction were associated with higher rates of divorce, but little research had examined the role of sexual activity in the dissolution of cohabiting unions. We drew upon social exchange theory to hypothesize why sexual frequency is more important in cohabitation: (a) cohabitors' lower costs…

  17. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  18. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  19. Financial Issues and Relationship Outcomes among Cohabiting Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined how financial relationship issues are associated with cohabiting individuals' risk of union dissolution or marriage. Competing-risks Cox regressions using the cohabiting data in the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 483) found that financial disagreements predicted union dissolution, whereas disagreements…

  20. Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Vannier-Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together.

  1. Premarital sexual activity and contraceptive use in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, J M; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

    1992-01-01

    The Santiago Young Adult Reproductive Health Survey was conducted in 1988 to examine the sexual behavior of and contraceptive use among young adults in Chile. The survey was based on multistage household probability samples of 865 women and 800 men aged 15-24 who were living in Santiago in 1988. Findings show that 35 percent of females and 65 percent of males had had premarital intercourse. Among those who had done so, the median age at first experience was 18.4 years for women and 16.4 years for men. Only 20 percent of females and 19 percent of males used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. Use of contraceptives increased with age at the time of that event. Fertility data reveal that 70 percent of first births were premaritally conceived, and more than one-third of these were born prior to union. The high rates of premarital and unintended pregnancy among young women and the low prevalence of effective contraceptive use indicate a need for greater emphasis on sex education and family planning services directed at adolescents and unmarried young adults in Santiago.

  2. Cultural Differences in Premarital Attributions regarding Successful Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Cal D.; Beasley, Ron

    Previous research and literature have shown that college students' and premarital couples' perceptions and attitudes toward marriage and family are only partially understood by researchers and educators. This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Mexican American and Anglo American college students regarding marriage partners. Students…

  3. Premarital Sexual Involvement: A Developmental Investigation of Relational Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, F. Scott; Cate, Rodney M.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differential impact of premarital relationship dimensions on sexual expression among 54 monogamously dating adolescent couples. Couples retrospectively responded to measures of love, conflict, maintenance behaviors, ambivalence, relationship satisfaction, and sexual intimacy for four stages of dating. Found conflict played major role in…

  4. Premarital Contraceptive Use: A Test of Two Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, John; Maccorquodale, Patricia

    1978-01-01

    Tests the utility of two models for explaining contraceptive use by sexually active women (N=391). Significant relationships were found between use and permissive premarital standards and standard-behavior consistency. Neither model is particularly applicable to the contraceptive reports of sexually active males (N=354). (Author)

  5. The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation.

  6. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care ... health care visit in the past 12 months. Marriage was associated with greater likelihood of a health ...

  8. Premarital HIV screening in Johor--(2002-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khebir, B V; Adam, M A; Daud, A R; Shahrom, C M D

    2007-03-01

    A descriptive study was conducted on premarital HIV screening programme in Johor over a three year period. HIV screenings were done at government clinics and confirmed by accredited laboratories. As a result, 123 new HIV cases were detected (0.17%) from 74,210 respondents. In 2004, 24 cases (64.9%) advanced to marriage (n = 37) after they underwent counselling and six of them married among themselves. Positivity rate from this programme (0.17%) is higher than antenatal screening (0.05%). Despite the implementation of the premarital HIV screening programme, marriage application in Johor rose 2.8% in 2004 compared with 2002. This programme had partly contributed to public awareness against HIV and provides another option in early detection of the disease.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma Al Kindi; Salha Al Rujaibi; Maya Al Kendi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about...

  10. The reproductive context of cohabitation in comparative perspective : Contraceptive use in the United States, Spain, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, Megan M.; Castro-Martin, Teresa; Mills, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Discussions of cohabitation's place in family formation regimes frequently emphasize comparisons of reproductive behavior among married versus cohabiting couples. Many argue that the rise in cohabitation may have been fueled by availability of highly effective contraception, but that diff

  11. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    Full Text Available How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide and local (termitarium scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder's diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants.

  12. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Smock, Pamela J; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term "unplanned cohabitation." Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals' expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change.

  13. A Literature Review of the Strengths and Limitations of Premarital Preparation: Implications for a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy R.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of marital dissolution and dissatisfaction point to a need for interventions, such as premarital preparation, to improve marital quality. Although several studies support the potential for premarital preparation to improve couples' marital satisfaction and interpersonal skills, results from other studies are mixed. Moreover,…

  14. Remarried Couples in Premarital Education: Does Our Content Match Participant Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Winifred Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Premarital education has been found to be an effective way to reduce risk factors of divorce, yet limited research existed on the use of premarital education with individuals who divorced and later remarried. Thus, remarrying couples, already at a higher risk of divorce than couples entering their first marriage, may be entering remarriage…

  15. Acceptability of HIV/AIDS Counseling and Testing among Premarital Couples in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Xu, Chen; Lou, Wei; Detels, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Premarital counseling is required for couples wishing to be married in China. The counseling primarily provides information about contraception. We evaluated adding premarital HIV/AIDS counseling and voluntary HIV testing to the standard counseling. The test was offered free to one group and at the standard cost to the other. The proportion of…

  16. A Literature Review of the Strengths and Limitations of Premarital Preparation: Implications for a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy R.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of marital dissolution and dissatisfaction point to a need for interventions, such as premarital preparation, to improve marital quality. Although several studies support the potential for premarital preparation to improve couples' marital satisfaction and interpersonal skills, results from other studies are mixed.…

  17. Religion, Pledging, and the Premarital Sexual Behavior of Married Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2008-01-01

    Social scientists know little about the effect of religion and abstinence pledging on premarital sex beyond adolescence. Evidence from a sample of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,079) reveals that premarital sex is widespread even among religious Americans and abstinence pledgers. Nevertheless,…

  18. Americans' attitudes toward premarital sex and pornography consumption: a national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    National panel data gathered in 2008 (T1) and 2010 (T2) from 420 Black and White US adults aged 18-89 years (M = 45.37, SD = 15.85) were employed to assess prospective associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes. Premarital sex attitudes were indexed via a composite measure of perceptions of the appropriateness of adults and teenagers having premarital sex. Wright's (2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of media sexual socialization was used as the guiding theoretical framework. The 3AM maintains that sexual media may be used by consumers to inform their sexual scripts but that attitude change from exposure to sexual media is less likely when media scripts are incongruent with consumers' preexisting scripts. Consistent with these postulates, the association between pornography consumption at T1 and more positive attitudes toward premarital sex at T2 was strongest for younger adults, who are less oppositional to premarital sex than older adults. Contrary to the position that associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes are due to individuals who already have positive attitudes toward premarital sex selecting content congruent with their attitudes, premarital sex attitudes at T1 did not predict pornography consumption at T2.

  19. Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Bumpass

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 1995 and 2002 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth to examine recent trends in cohabitation in the United States. We find increases in both the prevalence and duration of unmarried cohabitation. Cohabitation continues to transform children's family lives, as children are increasingly likely to be born to a cohabiting mother (18Å  during 1997-2001 or to experience their mother's entry into a cohabiting union. Consequently, we estimate that two-fifths of all children spend some time in a cohabiting family by age 12. Because of substantial missing data in the 2002 NSFG, we are unable to produce new estimates of divorce and children's time in single-parent families. Nonetheless, our results point to the steady growth of cohabitation and to the evolving role of cohabitation in U.S. family life.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of premarital counseling for sickle cell disease among youth in Yaba, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludarei, Gabriel O; Ogili, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    Nigeria accounts for 50% of sickle cell disease (SCD) births worldwide and about 2.3% of her population suffers from SCD with 25% of Nigerians being healthy carriers. This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice of youths in Yaba, Nigeria towards pre-marital genetic counseling. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing both open ended and closed ended questions. The questionnaires (n= 280) were analyzed by frequency counts, percentages and chi-square. The study shows that 80% of youths had knowledge, 86% had positive attitude and 65% had practiced things related to SCD and premarital counseling. There was a significant association between respondents' educational qualification and knowledge, attitude and practices related to SCD and SCD premarital counseling, and between age and attitude and practices related to SCD premarital counseling. In conclusion, public education on the role of premarital genetic counseling should continue and avenues to allow individuals carry out genotype test should still be encouraged.

  1. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  2. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation : The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union ty

  3. Shared Beliefs and the Union Stability of Married and Cohabiting Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.

    2006-01-01

    Cohabiting couples and couples who cohabit prior to marriage have less stable relationships than married couples who did not cohabit, and these differences in stability may be linked to different processes within the relationships. This research examines the similarity of partners' beliefs about the division of household labor using the National…

  4. Unmarried cohabitation and union stability: testing the role of diffusion using data from 16 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Dourleijn, E.

    2006-01-01

    Cohabitors and married people who cohabited before marriage have higher risks of union dissolution than people who married without prior cohabitation. However, these differences in union stability vary markedly between countries. We hypothesize that the impact of cohabitation on union stability depe

  5. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  6. The impact of attitudes on the transition to marriage among cohabiting couples in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, G.B.D.; Bernhardt, E.

    2003-01-01

    Cohabitation among unmarried couples is very prevalent in Sweden. Yet, marriage seems to remain a positive option for a majority of the cohabiting couples. This paper analyses whether, and in which way, values matter in explaining the transition to marriage among cohabiting couples in Sweden. We use

  7. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyegbade, Olanrewaju; Bello, Ibrahim; Osakwe, Chiddude

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile-Ife. Method This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7%) of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner's sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy. Conclusion This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make

  8. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Abioye-Kuteyi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire.Results: 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7% of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner’s sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy.Conclusion: This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending

  9. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  10. Intergenerational cohabitation in modern Indonesia: filial support and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Meliyanni; Maruyama, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    Informal filial care plays an important role for elderly parents facing health challenges. Ageing, however, exacerbates the burden of filial care because the ratio of older to younger individuals is higher and disabled parents live longer. The well-being of elderly parents is even more insecure in Asian developing countries that are undergoing unprecedented ageing and drastic changes in social norms and values, whereas old-age support systems have yet to be developed. In this paper, we investigate factors that influence cohabitation decision by elderly parents and their adult children using the longitudinal Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). Focusing on new cohabitation in which a parent who lives independently starts to cohabitate with a child, we conduct transition analysis to make a more convincing causal interpretation than the standard cross-sectional approach. We find that, while parental needs are important, cohabitation is influenced to a larger extent by the costs and gains of children. The elderly facing health and economic challenges are at higher risk of not receiving filial support than other elderly individuals.

  11. Better Parents, More Stable Partners: Union Transitions among Cohabiting Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Lauren Rinelli

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,702 couples) are employed to examine the association between mother- and father-reported parenting characteristics (father involvement and coparenting) and transitions out of cohabitation through marriage or separation in the 5 years after a child is born. Father involvement and…

  12. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  13. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  14. Premarital screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies, HIV and hepatitis viruses: review and factors affecting their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is a comprehensive summary of premarital (prenuptial) screening programmes for the most prevalent hereditary haemoglobinopathies, namely thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, and the important infections HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and hepatitis viruses B and C (HBV and HCV). It describes the background to premarital screening programmes and their value in countries where these diseases are endemic. The use of premarital screening worldwide is critically evaluated, including recent experiences in Saudi Arabia, followed by discussion of the outcomes of such programmes. Despite its many benefits, premarital testing is not acceptable in some communities for various legal and religious reasons, and other educational and cultural factors may prevent some married couples following the advice given by counsellors. The success of these programmes therefore depends on adequate religious support, government policy, education and counselling. In contrast to premarital screening for haemoglobinopathies, premarital screening for HIV and the hepatitis viruses is still highly controversial, both in terms of ethics and cost-effectiveness. In wealthy countries, premarital hepatitis and HIV testing could become mandatory if at-risk, high-prevalence populations are clearly identified and all ethical issues are adequately addressed.

  15. Internal migration and health: premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna; White, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The high rates of youth migration to urban and economic centers, in the context of persistent poverty and devastating HIV/AIDS burden, have raised intricate social policy challenges in developing countries. Using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and discrete-time hazard regression models, this study examines the patterns of internal migration and sexual initiation among never-married Nigerian youth aged 15-24. We find that migrants generally show stronger association than non-migrants, and urban-rural and rural-rural migrants particularly show the strongest independent association with premarital sexual initiation. Other significant covariates are age, religion, ethnic origin, educational attainment, independent living arrangement, formal employment and exposure to the mass media. The findings highlight the direct importance of youth migration in understanding and addressing the challenges of premarital sexual behavior and the need for behavior change policies and programs to be sensitive to the complex contextual nuances across youth groups in one country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. School-based survey of adolescents' opinion on premarital sex in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... opinion on premarital sex in selected secondary schools in Yakurr local government area, Cross river state, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire with a reliability ...

  17. Attitudes towards premarital screening for hepatitis B virus infection in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Hedayati, Saeid; Mohseni, Masood

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the attitudes of the young adult population towards premarital screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Premarital counselling for reproductive health and testing for thalassaemia is required for couples wishing to be married in Iran. We added an information session about hepatitis B to the routine counselling programme, and then evaluated the attitudes of the enrolled population towards premarital screening for hepatitis B, through a self-administered questionnaire. From a total of 1342 participants, 1316 individuals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 98.1%). In total, 73.2% of participants were in agreement with HBV screening. Male sex and higher level of education were associated with more positive attitudes towards HBV testing. Conducting a universal premarital HBV screening programme would be highly acceptable in Iran.

  18. Premarital screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies, HIV and hepatitis viruses: review and factors affecting their success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alswaidi, Fahad M; O'brien, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is a comprehensive summary of premarital (prenuptial) screening programmes for the most prevalent hereditary haemoglobinopathies, namely thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, and the important infections HIV...

  19. Does premarital education decrease or increase couples' later help-seeking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hannah C; Trail, Thomas E; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-02-01

    Interventions intended to prevent relationship distress are expected to enhance relationship satisfaction and, in turn, reduce the need for later couples counseling. We test this prediction against an alternative possibility: participation in preventive interventions may operate as a gateway for later help-seeking, paradoxically increasing receipt of later couples counseling. A cross-sectional study of 2,126 married individuals examined whether participation in premarital education covaried inversely or directly with couples counseling. Consistent with the gateway hypothesis, receiving premarital education covaried with an increased likelihood of receiving couples counseling. The association between receipt of premarital education and pursuit of couples counseling was moderated by demographic indicators, with the association being stronger for African Americans and for individuals with lower incomes and less formal education. Encouraging the use of premarital interventions may increase the use of therapeutic interventions later in the relationship, especially among high-risk populations.

  20. Religion, religiosity and premarital sexual attitudes of young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexual attitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality.

  1. Cohabitation, post-conception unions, and the rise in nonmarital fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T; Sassler, Sharon; Turner, Richard N

    2014-09-01

    The majority of U.S. nonmarital births today are to cohabiting couples. This study focuses on transitions to cohabitation or marriage among pregnant unmarried women during the period between conception and birth. Results using the newly-released 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth show that nonmarital pregnancy is a significant precursor to cohabitation before childbirth (18%), exceeding transitions to marriage (5%) by factor of over three. For pregnant women, the boundaries between singlehood, cohabitation, and marriage are highly fluid. The results also reveal substantial variation in post-conception cohabiting and marital unions; e.g., disproportionately low percentages of black single and cohabiting women transitioned into marriage, even when conventional social and economic risk factors are controlled. The multivariate analyses also point to persistent class differences in patterns of family formation, including patterns of cohabitation and marriage following conception. Poorly educated women, in particular, are much more likely to become pregnant as singles living alone or as partners in cohabiting unions. But compared with college-educated women, pregnancies are less likely to lead to either cohabitation or marriage. This paper highlights the conceptual and technical challenges involved in making unambiguous interpretations of nonmarital fertility during a period of rising nonmarital cohabitation.

  2. 北京市大学生婚前性行为影响因素分析%Influencing factors of premarital intercourse among the college students in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莎; 郭静; 杜正芳

    2011-01-01

    having premarital sex, which was 87. 10%. The second was the time when to use the condoms (85. 81% ), and the lowest was how to calculate the safety period accurately (44. 44% ). All of those percentages were higher than those who didn' t have premarital sex, statistical difference between them was significantly (P < 0. 01) . The percentages of accepting premarital sex (65. 22% ), unmarried cohabitation (85.63% ) and premarital pregnancy (32. 50% ) in college students having premarital sex were all higher than those didn't have premarital sex, the statistical difference between them were significantly (P <0. 01). By multivariate analysis, gender, grade and attitudes to the premarital sex were found as influencing factors to college students' sex behavior. Male students had higher rate of premarital sex than female students ( OR = 3. 5 ) , the percentage of the sophomores, junior students, senior students and the graduate student were all higher than the freshmen (OR=6. 2, 4. 7, 8. 5, 9.2). Those who could accept premarital sex had higher sex behavior percentage than those who couldn't accept (OR =11.8). Conclusion It's necessary to carry out different reproductive health education intervention to male and female college students in the universities. And at the same time, we should pay more attention to the college student' s moral education.

  3. Do Cold Feet Warn of Trouble Ahead? Premarital Uncertainty and Four-Year Marital Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lavner, Justin A.; Karney, Benjamin R.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Are the doubts that people feel prior to marriage signs of impending difficulties or normative experiences that can be safely ignored? To test these opposing views, we asked 464 recently-married spouses whether they had ever been uncertain about getting married and then compared four-year divorce rates and marital satisfaction trajectories among those partners with and without premarital doubts. Doubts were reported by at least one partner in two-thirds of couples. Women with premarital doubt...

  4. PERCEPTION TOWARDS PREMARITAL MEDICAL SCREENING: A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN QUETTA CITY, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Adeel Ahmed, Fahad Saleem* Qaiser Iqbal , Sajjad Haider , Adeela Anwer , Mohammed Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the perception of young adults toward premarital medical screening in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study design was adopted. Perception of young adults towards premarital medical screening was assessed through a pre-validated questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 1266 respondents of both genders. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All analyses were performed ...

  5. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Methods: Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the prem...

  6. Factors influencing the decision to participate in medical premarital examinations in Hubei Province, Mid-China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peigang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Min; Vander Weele, Tyler J

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the attitudes of premarital couples towards the premarital screening program after the abolition of compulsory screening in China and to study the factors influencing participation. Methods Between July 1st 2010 to August 31st 2010, 650 people who registered for marriage at the civil affairs bureau of Wuhan, Suizhou, Zaoyang in Hubei province were studied using questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to examine the factors influencing participation in the premar...

  7. Attitudes towards mandatory national premarital screening for hereditary hemolytic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aama, Jumana Y

    2010-09-01

    A compulsory national premarital screening (PMS) program for hereditary hemoglobinopathies was established in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in February 2004. Termination of pregnancy of affected fetuses is not widely acceptable. Many couples decide to get married regardless of the result. A trend towards coercive interference with this decision is emerging. To examine the attitude of young educated individuals regarding the national PMS program and its implementation. Eight hundred university students (aged 18-29) filled in a self-administered structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the EPI Info Statistical Package version 6. A P-value Screening singles on admission to university prior to any commitment may be preferable than screening immediately before the marriage certificate is issued.

  8. Same-sex partners in Hungary Cohabitation and registered partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Szeibert-Erdős

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Same-sex partners cannot enter into marriage according to current Hungarian law. However, they can live together in unmarried cohabitation, which does have certain limited legal consequences for example in the field of civil law. In December 2007, the Hungarian Parliament approved the Act on Registered Partnership, which will enter into force in January 2009. Registered partnership, being a new institution in Hungarian Law, grants almost the all the rights of marriage to both same-sex and different-sex couples. The property consequences will be identical, but registered partners will neither be able to bear each other’s surname nor jointly adopt a child. This submission offers a survey of the rules on cohabitation as well as the rules of the new Registered Partnership Act, taking into account the decisions of the Constitutional Court and the stages of the codification process of the new Civil Code relevant to the status of homosexuals.

  9. Cohabitation effect on the slowdown of the Neolithic expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern, N.; Fort, J.

    2011-12-01

    We introduce the effect of cohabitation between generations to a previous model on the slowdown of the Neolithic transition in Europe. This effect consists on the fact that human beings do not leave their children alone when they migrate, but on the contrary they cohabit until their children reach adulthood. We also use archaeological data to estimate the variation of the Mesolithic population density with distance, and use this information to predict the slowdown of the Neolithic front speed. The new equation leads to a substantial correction, up to 37%, relative to previous results. The new model is able to provide a satisfactory explanation not only to the relative speed but also to the absolute speed of the Neolithic front obtained from archaeological data.

  10. Cohabitation versus marriage: Marriage matching with peer effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Mourifie; Aloysius Siow

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an easy to estimate Cobb Douglas marriage matching function (MMF). Special cases include the Choo Siow (CS) MMF, CS with peer effects, CS with frictional transfers, the Dagsvik Menzel non-transferable utility MMF and Chiappori, Salanie and Weiss MMF. Given population supplies and admissible parameters, the Cobb Douglas MMF exists and is unique. This MMF is estimated on US marriage and cohabitation data by states from 1990 to 2010. CS with peer effects is not rejected. Ther...

  11. Thalassemia and premarital screening: potential for implementation of a screening program among young people in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Arslan; Ghani, Alina; Pal, Anam; Sami, Abeer; Hannan, Sana; Ashraf, Zohaib; Iqbal, Sulala; Malik, Umair Zafar; Hayat, Umar; Fatmi, Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has a high prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) but lacks a screening program for its prevention. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in six randomly chosen non medical universities to assess the students' knowledge of β-thal and premarital screening, and their attitude towards such a program. Comparison was made between the respondents' attitude towards premarital screening before and after providing them some information regarding the disease. Only 54.5% (207) of 380 students had heard of β-thal, with a mean knowledge score of 13.0 ± 4.4 out of 27 questions. Most respondents were aware of the concept of premarital screening. Out of 207 students, 60.4% wanted to know if they were carriers, 69.1% wanted to know their spouse's carrier status and 59.4% wanted premarital screening to be made mandatory in Pakistan. These figures increased to 72.5, 78.3 and 67.6%, respectively after provision of written information (p values: 0.03, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). The positive attitude towards premarital screening with low background knowledge of the disease highlights the need of a mass awareness campaign and subsequent implementation of a premarital screening program.

  12. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Aden; Sara Karrar; Omar Shafey; Farida Al Hosni

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi′s Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants...

  13. Cohabitation patterns among patients with severe psychiatric disorders in the entire Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A F; Olsbjerg, M; Andersen, P K

    2012-01-01

    (5.0%) out of 3 204 633 individuals were given a psychiatric diagnosis during the study period. Diagnosed individuals had an overall rate ratio (RR) of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-2.00] for women and 1.65 (95% CI 1.61-1.69) for men......, when compared with unaffected individuals. The overall RR of receiving a psychiatric diagnosis while cohabitating with a psychiatric patient was 2.40 (95% CI 2.31-2.49) for women and 2.91 (95% CI 2.81-3.01) for men, when compared with those cohabitating with unaffected individuals. Individuals...... with schizophrenia and men with bipolar disorder had the highest RR of commencing cohabitation with a cohabitant with a similar diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cohabitation among individuals with severe psychiatric disorders is increased. This has implications for research and for the clinical management of patients....

  14. First union formation in urban Burkina Faso: Competing relationship transitions to marriage or cohabitation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Emmanuèle Calvès

    2016-01-01

    Background: In several African cities the prevalence of unmarried cohabitation among youth has risen considerably. Because of its potentially negative implications for women and their children, in some countries cohabitation has even become a matter of heated public debate and policy concern. In contrast to industrialized countries, however, the choice between marriage and cohabitation in the region has attracted little attention. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore the risin...

  15. Couples’ Reasons for Cohabitation: Associations with Individual Well-Being and Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a new measure to examine how different types of reasons for cohabitation were associated with individual well-being and relationship quality in a sample of 120 cohabiting heterosexual couples (N = 240). Spending more time together and convenience were the most strongly endorsed reasons. The degree to which individuals reported cohabiting to test their relationships was associated with more negative couple communication and more physical aggression as well as lower relationship...

  16. Free to stay, free to leave: Insights from Poland into the meaning of cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mynarska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that in Poland cohabitation is most of all a transitory step or a testing period before marriage. Polish law does not recognize this living arrangement and it has been portrayed as uncommitted and short-lived. However, few studies have investigated what cohabitation means for relationships, especially with respect to freedom. Objective: We explore how young people in Poland understand and evaluate freedom in cohabitation. We investigate how they view the role freedom plays in couple dynamics and in relationship development. Methods: We analyze data from focus group interviews conducted in Warsaw with men and women aged 25-40. We identify passages in which opinions on cohabitation and marriage are discussed, and use bottom-up coding and the constant comparative method to reconstruct different perspectives on the issue of freedom in cohabitation. Results: The respondents argued that cohabitation offers the partners freedom to leave a union at any time with few repercussions. On the negative side, the freedom related to cohabitation brings insecurity, especially for young mothers. On the positive side, it offers relaxed conditions for testing a relationship, grants partners independence, and encourages cohabitors to keep their relationship interesting, precisely because it is fragile and easy to dissolve. Conclusions: The open nature of cohabitation offers benefits to partners, but does not provide secure conditions for childbearing. As long as the couple is not planning to have children, however, the benefits of cohabitation are likely to be seen as outweighing the disadvantages.

  17. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age.

  18. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  19. Comparing violence over the life span in samples of same-sex and opposite-sex cohabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, P; Thoennes, N; Allison, C J

    1999-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative telephone survey that was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996, this study compares lifetime experiences with violent victimization among men and women with a history of same-sex cohabitation and their counterparts with a history of marriage and/or opposite-sex cohabitation only. The study found that respondents who had lived with a same-sex intimate partner were significantly more likely than respondents who had married or lived with an opposite-sex partner only to have been: (a) raped as minors and adults; (b) physically assaulted as children by adult caretakers; and (c) physically assaulted as adults by all types of perpetrators, including intimate partners. The study also confirms previous reports that intimate partner violence is more prevalent among gay male couples than heterosexual couples. However, it contradicts reports that intimate partner violence is more prevalent among lesbian couples than heterosexual couples. Overall study findings suggest that intimate partner violence is perpetrated primarily by men, whether against same-sex or opposite-sex partners.

  20. Pre-marital pregnancy, childspacing, and later economic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, L C; Freedman, R

    1970-11-01

    Abstract The nature of the first-birth interval has a persistent, if diminishing relation to the family's economic position at successive observations in a longitudinal study of Detroit. The pre-maritally pregnant (PMP) were at a disadvantage at either the first (1961) observation or the fourth (1966) as compared with other married couples with either a short or long first birth interval (short-spacers and long-spacers). The PMP disadvantage was much greater for assets than for income, but disadvantage in each area persisted and was not a result of age, duration of marriage, or other factors likely to disappear in time. Poor education combined with early age at marriage was probably responsible. On the other hand, the economic disadvantages of the short-spacers (not PMP) as compared with the long-spacers, diminished consistently between 1961 and 1965. The initial disadvantage results from shorter marriage and career duration for husbands at each parity. At comparable marriage durations the difference disappears. Nevertheless, this means substantially smaller resources per head at the actual time of birth of successive children.

  1. What You Don't Know May Kill You: The Importance of Including Sexual Health in Premarital Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, LaTrina M.; Cummings Aholou, Tiffiany M.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual health is a widespread concern for intimate partners. As couples transition to marriage, it is vitally important to explore issues related to sexual health. Moreover, premarital counselors are encouraged to facilitate a sexual health discussion with premarital couples. This article presents the importance of raising the topic of sexual…

  2. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  3. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment? Dutch focus group research on cohabitation and marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, N.; Keizer, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. OBJECTIVE We examine Dutch adults‘ perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe

  4. Couples' Reasons for Cohabitation: Associations with Individual Well-Being and Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new measure to examine how different types of reasons for cohabitation are associated with individual well-being and relationship quality in a sample of 120 cohabiting heterosexual couples (N = 240). Spending more time together and convenience are the most strongly endorsed reasons. The degree to which individuals report…

  5. Contemporaneous versus Retrospective Reports of Cohabitation in the Fragile Families Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Koball, Heather

    2006-01-01

    We compare contemporaneous and retrospective reports of cohabitation among unmarried mothers in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 2,524). We find that (a) many mothers revise their reports of whether they cohabited at the time of the birth of their child and (b) revisions in reports are systematically related to individuals'…

  6. Cohabitation and marriage in Austria: Assessing the individualization thesis across the life course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Berghammer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cohabitation has spread rapidly in Austria during the past decades, it is more a prelude than an alternative to marriage. The individualization thesis serves as a conceptual framework for explaining the rise of cohabiting unions. Objective: Our aim is to understand what motivates people to cohabit and marry from an individualization perspective. The present study was designed to investigate in which ways key notions of the individualization thesis such as commitment, romantic love and risk are reflected in discourses on cohabitation and marriage. Methods: Research is based on data from eight focus group discussions (71 participants conducted in Vienna, Austria, in 2012. This data was analyzed with the help of qualitative methods. Results: The focus group participants regarded cohabitation and marriage as different life course strategies. They felt that young adulthood is a period characterized by uncertain external circumstances, in which people build up commitment in cohabitation without feeling limited in terms of opportunities. As dissolving a cohabiting union entails lower costs, the risk posed by this type of union was considered low. The respondents associated marriage with security and long-term commitment and saw it as an ideal for a later stage in life. They argued that romantic love and individual satisfaction should prevail throughout the entire marriage. Core terms of the individualization thesis - commitment, romantic love, and risk - were perceived differently between cohabitation and marriage. We conclude that the individualization thesis best fits young adulthood and is less relevant for later life stages.

  7. Dissolution risks in first and higher order marital and cohabiting unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde

    2007-01-01

    More and more people enter multiple unions during their lives, and then they may choose to either cohabit or marry. We examine the implications of this diversity in partnership trajectories by assessing dissolution risks in first and higher order marital and cohabiting unions. We use recent Norwegia

  8. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  9. A Case for Cohabitative Security: The Philippine and Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Intal Magcamit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explore and analyse the evidence for cohabiting the human security concept into the national security frameworks of ASEAN countries. Using the Philippines and Malaysia as case studies, the article determines the extent to which public officials and policymakers have redefined and reenvisioned national security by incorporating non-traditional, people-centered elements of human security. The word 'cohabitation' refers to national governments' efforts to amalgamate statist and humanist dimensions of security when articulating and implementing their national security rhetoric and agenda. It argues that human security naturally complements state security, and vice versa. As such, human security and state security co-exist in a constructive manner that enhances the overall level of national security. In other words, they are mutually constitutive rather than mutually corrosive. Both cases underscore a two-pronged assumption. First, the meaning and provision of national security can neither be eloquently articulated nor completely substantiated without considerations for 'below the state' actors and issues. And second, the eminent status vis-à-vis power of the state in providing national security can neither be trivialized nor undermined.

  10. Premarital education, marital quality, and marital stability: findings from a large, random household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Amato, Paul R; Johnson, Christine A; Markman, Howard J

    2006-03-01

    One of the limitations of experimental studies on the effectiveness of premarital education is the reliance on samples of mostly White, middle-class couples. In contrast, although survey methods allow only weak inferences about causal relations, representative surveys can yield important information about use and estimated effects across a diverse population. Using a large random survey of 4 middle American states, the authors found that participation in premarital education was associated with higher levels of satisfaction and commitment in marriage and lower levels of conflict-and also reduced odds of divorce. These estimated effects were robust across race, income (including among the poor), and education levels, which suggests that participation in premarital education is generally beneficial for a wide range of couples.

  11. Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.

  12. Social change in adolescent sexual behavior, mate selection, and premarital pregnancy rates in a Kikuyu community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, C M; Whiting, J W

    1987-06-01

    This report documents an example of interactions of cultural change with adolescent fertility and marriage patterns in an East African community. Between 1950 and 1980 the rate of unwed motherhood in Ngeca, Kenya, showed a marked increase from 0% in the 1940s to 11.4% in the 1960s. The authors present evidence of recent changes in Kikuyu culture that may account for this change. Traditional Kikuyu culture structured adolescence through status and role changes bounded and reinforced by ritual and instruction. Abandonment of traditional initiation rites and attenuation of the age-set system have most markedly altered the structure of adolescent experience by shifting the content and context of socialization. Major agents for change in this process have been the school, church, and modern economy. Responsibility for mate selection has remained with young people, but the determinants of partner desirability and gender ratios in partner availability have shifted considerably. Traditional criteria of male desirability included ability to pay bridewealth and to provide the wife with land; diligence and demeanor measured female attractiveness. At present, education and wage earning capacity affect partner attractiveness of each sex. The decline of polygyny has both shifted the balance of competition for spouses toward females, and has had significant repercussions in the marital and reproductive histories of males. Decreases in brideprice and reversals in direction of transfers of wealth at marriage are tangible signs of change in the marriage market. Deritualization of genital operations and attendant weakening of the age-set system have interrupted the flow of information on sex behavior and reproduction, controlled physical intimacy, and partner selection reinforced by peer pressure. Denial of contraception, the continued importance of marriage and fertility, and ambivalence toward sexual activity in adolescence all support adolescent sexual experimentation and

  13. Cohabitation reaction-diffusion model for virus focal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    The propagation of virus infection fronts has been typically modeled using a set of classical (noncohabitation) reaction-diffusion equations for interacting species. However, for some single-species systems it has been recently shown that noncohabitation reaction-diffusion equations may lead to unrealistic descriptions. We argue that previous virus infection models also have this limitation, because they assume that a virion can simultaneously reproduce inside a cell and diffuse away from it. For this reason, we build a several-species cohabitation model that does not have this limitation. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis for the most relevant parameters of the model, and we compare the predicted infection speed with observed data for two different strains of the T7 virus.

  14. Exploring the relationship between premarital sex and cigarette/alcohol use among college students in Taiwan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao Chi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette/alcohol use and premarital sex, and their subsequent consequences on the well-being of college students, are international health promotion issues. However, little is known about the temporal relationship of these risk behaviors among Taiwanese college students. Methods This study utilizes data from the Taiwan Youth Project, a cohort sample of 20-year-olds (N = 2,119 with a 2-year follow-up, to explore the relationship between adolescent cigarette/alcohol use, and subsequent premarital sex. To incorporate the Taiwanese context where the normative value of abstinence until marriage remains strong, multivariate logistic regression models included data on premarital sex attitudes, stressful life events, peer influence, as well as family and individual factors which might influence this relationship. Results The sample consists of 49% male and 51% female college students. About 16% of the sample report having had premarital sex by age 20. After excluding sexually active youth, 20% of males and 13% of females report engaging in premarital sex in the 2-year follow-up interview. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal adolescent alcohol use is significantly associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in premarital sex for both genders; adolescent smoking is significantly associated with premarital sexual activity among males, but not females. Our results indicate liberal premarital sexual attitudes and stressful personal events are also significantly associated with premarital sexual activity. Conclusions These findings suggest health promotion programs for college students need to take developmental and gender perspectives into account. Future research to incorporate a broader, multi-cultural context into risk reduction materials is recommended.

  15. The Viewpoints of Sexually Active Single Women About Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study in the Iranian Context

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    Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.

  16. The influence of parents on cohabitation in Italy - Insights from two regional contexts

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    Christin Schröder

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the demographic changes that affect all European countries, the diffusion of new living arrangements such as non-marital cohabitation is particularly interesting. In this article we concentrate on Italy, a country that is characterized by a low pace in the diffusion of cohabitation. Earlier studies found statistical evidence of the impact of parents' characteristics on young adults' decisions for cohabitation. However, there is only limited empirical knowledge about the actual mechanism through which parents influence the choices of their children. We employ qualitative research methods and focus on two regional contexts in order to analyze if and how parents intervene in the choices of young adults.

  17. Research and Theory on Mate Selection and Premarital Relationships in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surra, Catherine A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews major advances in research and theory on mate selection in the 1980s. Considers literature relevant to societal trends and influences on trends, social networks and premarital relationships, behavioral features of relationships, and individual attributions for relationship development. Throughout the review, two themes appear:…

  18. Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire: Premarital Sexual Behaviour of Youths in Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geugten, Jolien van der; Meijel, Berno van; Uyl, Marion H.G. den; Vries, Nanne K. de

    2013-01-01

    Youths in Bolgatanga municipality in the Upper East Region in the rural north of Ghana suffer health and social problems that are caused by their premarital and unsafe sexual behaviour. This study provides more knowledge of and insight into the youths’ conceptions, motives and practices concerning p

  19. The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and Its Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the influence of self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and its resolution. Results for 1,142 white adolescent girls show that self-esteem and attitudes toward schooling and family roles were…

  20. The Role of Mass Media in Iranian Youth’s Premarital Sexual Relationships: A Qualitative Study

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    Fariba Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth’s sexual behaviors have various consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections. Little information is available about the impact of mass media in the development of premarital sexual relationships. This study aimed to explore the role of mass media on premarital sexual relationships among Iranian youth. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with 26 single boys and girls aged 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan, Iran and have already been started their sexual relationships. Also, 12 other participants who were involved in such an experience were recruited in this study. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and the observation of youth’s sexual interactions in different fields. Conventional content analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were developed: “foreigner media as the role model”, “the ease of access to sexual contents and materials” and “the ease of interactions and relationships with the opposite sex”. Conclusion: The prominent role of mass media in the formation of premarital sexual relationships was described in this study. This issue needs to be taken into consideration by policy makers for taking necessary actions for reducing the impact of mass media on the youth’s engagement in premarital sexual relationships

  1. Clients′ viewpoints about the quality of services in the premarital counseling classes in Tabriz health centers

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    Parvin Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study results can provide suitable information for health policy providers to improve the quality of premarital counseling classes. In order to develop a relatively stable behavior in young couples, it is recommended that the quality of the classes would be overemphasized.

  2. Family Adult Awareness of Adolescents' Premarital Romantic and Sexual Relationships in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Roche, Kathleen M.; Blake, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the circumstances under which family adults in Ghana were aware of their adolescent children's involvement in premarital relationships. It was hypothesized that factors related to the seriousness and social acceptability of the relationship would influence the likelihood of family adults' awareness in gender-specific ways. Data…

  3. Prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital screening in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suliman, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The Al-Hassa area is one of the regions in Saudi Arabia where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent. The Saudi Ministry Of Heath designed a protocol for premarital testing after the royal decree in December 2003. The protocol was implemented in a February 2004 order. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait among subjects coming for premarital screening in the Al-Hassa area. From February 2004 to November 2004, healthy subjects coming to six marriages consultation centers in the Al-Hassa area underwent routine mandatory tests. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 3.2%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured by a Coulter automated cell counter on the same day of hemoglobin collection. Electrophoresis was done on cellulose acetate. All Saudi participants (n=8918), including 4218 (47.3%) males and 4700 (52.7%) females were screened. The prevalence of beta-thassemia trait with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.4% (307/8918). In countries with a high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. With a 3.4% prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital couples, future comprehensive programs are needed to know the actual prevalence of beta-thalassemia in Al-Hassa.

  4. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  5. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  6. The Effects of a Premarital Relationship Enrichment Program on Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tugba; Kalkan, Melek

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a premarital relationship enrichment program on relationship satisfaction among couples. The experimental and control groups were totally composed of 20 individuals. In order to test whether there are any significant differences between the scores of pre-test and post-test within the control…

  7. Single women's experiences of premarital pregnancy and induced abortion in Lombok, Eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L R

    2001-05-01

    Induced abortion is widely practiced in Indonesia by both married and unmarried women. This paper draws on ethnographic research, conducted between 1996 and 1998, which focused on reproductive health and sexuality among young single women on the island of Lombok in Eastern Indonesia. While abortion for married women is tacitly accepted, especially for women with two or more children, premarital pregnancy and abortion remain a highly stigmatised and isolating experience for single women. Government family planning services are not legally permitted to provide contraception to single women and their access to reproductive health care is very limited. Abortion providers were highly critical of unmarried women who sought abortions, despite their willingness to carry out the procedure. The quality of abortion services offered to single women was compromised by the stigma attached to premarital sex and pregnancy. Women who experienced unplanned premarital pregnancy faced personal and familial shame, compromised marriage prospects, abandonment by their partners, single motherhood, a stigmatised child, early cessation of education, and an interrupted income or career, all of which were not desirable options. Young women were only able to legitimately continue premarital pregnancy through marriage. In the absence of an offer of marriage, single women necessarily resorted to abortion to avoid compromising their futures.

  8. Report on Ten Years' Experience of Premarital Hemoglobinopathy Screening at a Center in Antalya, Southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran; Delibas, Serpil

    2016-08-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a major public health problem in Turkey. Hemoglobinopathy prevention programs (HPPs) were started in 33 provinces situated in Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions of Turkey in 2003. A premarital hemoglobinopathy test is mandatory and free of charge in this program. According to the Ministry of Health reports, 46 first level hemoglobinopathy diagnostic centers were established for premarital tests. Within the last 10 years, approximately 79.0% of married individuals per year were screened by the centers. While the percentage of premarital screening tests was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. The number of newborn with thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies were 272 in 2002 and dropped to 25 in 2013. There has been a 90.0% reduction in affected births. Our hemoglobinopathy diagnostic center was established in 2003 and licensed by the Ministry of Health in 2004. We studied a total of 89,981 blood samples from premarital tests for 10 years and the incidence of β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) trait was found to be 6.57 and 3.56%, respectively. The distribution of the most common abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) was: Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) (0.31%), Hb D-Los Angeles (HBB: c.364G > C) (0.15%), Hb G-Coushatta (HBB: c.68A > C) (0.06%) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) (0.02%). A total of 60 couples, both carrying β-thal trait, were directed to the prenatal diagnosis (PND) center in 10 years. The premarital hemoglobinopathy screening program is running successfully at our center and other centers in Turkey.

  9. Prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease in premarital couples in Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Nnaji, Ijf; Osakwe, J O; Nwigwe, A C; Onwurah, O W

    2013-01-01

    Premarital haemoglobin screening is an important strategy for the control of Sickle Cell Disease. To determine the prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease among premarital couples and to assess their attitude to the risk of sickle cell anaemia in their offspring. A cross sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and haemoglobin screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of every third premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, between November 2010 and October 2011 was used to select the subjects for the study. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis of data from 212 premarital couples or 424 subjects. The prevalence of HbAA and HbAS were 72.64% or 308/424 and 26.4% or 112/424, respectively, while HbSS was 0.94% or 4/424. In 95.3% of the couples there was no risk of offspring inheriting sickle cell anaemia. An equal percentage of males (χ2 = 24.704; df = 6; P = 0.000) and females (χ2 = 12. 684; df 6; P = 0.048) (67.9% or 144/212) would call-off their marriage if there was risk of their offspring being HbSS. Three quarters of the premarital couples had HbAA, while one quarter had Sickle cell trait. A very low percentage of the couples (2.8%) had 1:4 risk of their offspring inheriting SCA (HbSS). About 2/3 of the subjects would call-off the marriage if there was risk of their offspring inheriting SCA.

  10. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  11. Cohabitation and marriage in the Americas : geo-historical legacies and new trends

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Palós, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an innovative study of the rise of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Using an extensive sample of individual census data for nearly all countries on the continent, it offers a cross-national, comparative view of this recent demographic trend and its impact on the family. The book offers a tour of the historical legacies and regional heterogeneity in unmarried cohabitation, covering: Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, Colomb...

  12. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  13. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Uludağ; A Uysal; YH Ertekin; M Tekin; B Kütük; F Silan; Ö Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    ...) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β...

  14. Prevalence and mutations of [beta]-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Uludag; A Uysal; YH Ertekin; M Tekin; B Kütük; F Silan; Ö Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    ...) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β...

  15. The impact of the transition to cohabitation on relationship functioning: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2012-06-01

    Most Americans now live together before they marry but little is known about how the transition from dating to cohabiting affects relationships. In two studies, we compared dating and cohabiting relationships in terms of commitment and several indices of relationship quality. In Study 1, we used a nationally representative sample of 1,294 unmarried individuals in opposite sex relationships who completed surveys by mail. Findings showed that cohabiting relationships were characterized by more commitment, lower satisfaction, more negative communication, and more physical aggression than dating (noncohabiting) relationships; controlling for selection factors mitigated some of these differences. Study 2 used a subsample of the Study 1 sample to longitudinally examine how transitioning from dating to cohabiting changes a relationship on the same dimensions. Six waves of mailed surveys spanning 20 months were employed. Findings of Study 2 indicated that individuals experienced declines in most indices of relationship quality as well as in interpersonal commitment after cohabitation began, though the frequency of sex increased temporarily. Constraints to stay together substantially increased with cohabitation and over time. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  16. Two period measures for comparing the fertility of marriage and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Laplante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diffusion of cohabitation and, presumably, of childbearing within cohabitation, inspires interest in measuring the respective contribution of childbearing within marriage and within cohabitation to overall fertility. However, there is no consensus on a proper way to do so. Objective: Contribute to the development of tools for assessing the relative importance of marriage and cohabitation to overall fertility by developing period measures closely related to age-specific fertility rates and the total fertility rate. Methods: We introduce two measures: 1 the contribution of the conjugal state (living alone, living in a cohabiting union, being married to age-specific fertility rates (CASFR and 2 the contribution of the conjugal state to the TFR (CTFR. These measures are similar in construction to the marital (legitimate fertility rates and marital (legitimate TFR, but they are weighted by the proportion of women living alone, cohabiting, or being married at each age, so that their sum is the overall TFR. Taken together, they represent the fertility of the average woman of a synthetic cohort who moves across the various conjugal states (living alone, cohabiting, being married over her life course. They provide "realistic" estimates of completed fertility within each conjugal state. Conclusions: CASFRs provide a description of the fertility, over her life course, of a synthetic woman who would have spent her reproductive years living alone, cohabiting, and being married as the average woman of the synthetic cohort. CTFR provides a decomposition of the cumulative fertility of this synthetic woman. Over her life course, she would have had exactly the number of children computed using the overall TFR, but CTFR details the proportion of these children she would have had while living alone, while cohabiting, and while being married. Comments: Despite being defined as a conditional ASR weighted by the age-specific proportion of women living

  17. Proposed low-cost premarital screening program for prevention of sickle cell and thalassemia in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz; Al-Hadi, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In Yemen, the prevalence of sickle cell trait and β-thalassemia trait are high. The aim of this premarital program is to identify sickle cell and thalassemia carrier couples in Yemen before completing marriages proposal, in order to prevent affected birth. This can be achieved by applying a low-cost premarital screening program using simple blood tests compatible with the limited health resources of the country. If microcytosis or positive sickle cell is found in both or one partner has microcytosis and the other has positive sickle cell, so their children at high risk of having sickle cell or/and thalassemia diseases. Carrier couples will be referred to genetic counseling. The outcomes of this preventive program are predicted to decrease the incidence of affected birth and reduce the health burden of these disorders. The success of this program also requires governmental, educational and religious supports. PMID:25003062

  18. Proposed low-cost premarital screening program for prevention of sickle cell and thalassemia in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz; Al-Hadi, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In Yemen, the prevalence of sickle cell trait and β-thalassemia trait are high. The aim of this premarital program is to identify sickle cell and thalassemia carrier couples in Yemen before completing marriages proposal, in order to prevent affected birth. This can be achieved by applying a low-cost premarital screening program using simple blood tests compatible with the limited health resources of the country. If microcytosis or positive sickle cell is found in both or one partner has microcytosis and the other has positive sickle cell, so their children at high risk of having sickle cell or/and thalassemia diseases. Carrier couples will be referred to genetic counseling. The outcomes of this preventive program are predicted to decrease the incidence of affected birth and reduce the health burden of these disorders. The success of this program also requires governmental, educational and religious supports.

  19. Frequency of haemoglobinopathies at premarital health screening in Dohuk, Iraq: implications for a regional prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, N A; Al-Dousky, A A

    2010-04-01

    beta-thalassaemia major and sickle-cell disease are important health problems in Iraq. To provide information for a prevention programme, the frequency of haemoglobin disorders was mapped in Dohuk governorate. A total of 591 couples (1182 individuals) attending health centres for premarital health screening were tested; 44 (3.7%) were found to be carriers of ,-thalassaemia, 14 (1.2%) of the sickle-cell gene and 1 (0.1%) of deltabeta3-thalassaemia. A total of 3 couples (i.e. 5/1000) were at risk of having a child with beta-thalassaemia major, and the estimated number of affected children with a major haemoglobinopathy was 39 per year. The findings stress the importance of a regional prevention programme for haemoglobinopathies based on premarital screening, counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  1. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy; Brown, Susan; Stykes, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life. PMID:27383844

  2. Prevention of homozygous beta thalassemia by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Parag M; Agarwal, Sarita; Arya, Vandana; Kumar, Ravindra; Gupta, U R; Agarwal, S S

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of premarital screening for beta thalassemia/related hemoglobinopathies followed by prenatal diagnosis in India. Premarital testing for thalassemia carrier state was carried out in (1) extended family members (EFM) of diagnosed cases of thalassemia/hemoglobinopathies, (2) unmarried adult cases of anemia attending the hospitals' outpatient department (OPD) and (3) adult college students (CG). Hemoglobin, red cell indices were measured by a cell counter and hemoglobin fractionation was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In cases with HbA2>3.5%, or with variant hemoglobin, mutation screen was done by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). In high-risk prospective couples, premarital genetic counseling was done and prenatal diagnosis possibilities were explained. The yield of carriers from EFM, OPD and CG groups was 78.17% (308/394), 19.51% (263/1348) and 4.04% (38/939), respectively. The number of prospective high-risk couples detected were 154, 48 and 2 from EFM, OPD and CG, respectively. As much as 99% of prospective carrier couples married even after knowing their high-risk status and opted for prenatal diagnosis. The program averted the birth of 33 thalassemic children; 28 in EFM group (by screening of 394 individuals), 4 in the OPD group (by screening 1348 anemic patients), and 1 in CG group (by screening of 939 students). Premarital screening in extended family members, followed by prenatal diagnosis is acceptable and the most effective strategy for control of thalassemia in developing countries like India. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  4. Reasons for Divorce and Recollections of Premarital Intervention: Implications for Improving Relationship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    The study presents findings from interviews of 52 divorced individuals who received the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) while engaged to be married. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the study sought to understand participant reasons for divorce (including identification of the "final straw") in order to understand if the program covered these topics effectively. Participants also provided suggestions based on their premarital education experiences so as to improve future relationship education efforts. The most commonly reported major contributors to divorce were lack of commitment, infidelity, and conflict/arguing. The most common "final straw" reasons were infidelity, domestic violence, and substance use. More participants blamed their partners than blamed themselves for the divorce. Recommendations from participants for the improvement of premarital education included receiving relationship education before making a commitment to marry (when it would be easier to break-up), having support for implementing skills outside of the educational setting, and increasing content about the stages of typical marital development. These results provide new insights into the timing and content of premarital and relationship education.

  5. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kayseri: a city in Middle Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakukcu, Cigdem; Kocer, Derya; Altuner Torun, Yasemin; Karakukcu, Musa; Yokus, Osman; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies in Kayseri province, which is located in Middle Anatolia of Turkey, as part of the premarital screening program. The study included subjects admitted to Family Planning Center for premarital screening test between January 2009 and March 2010. Blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the marriage office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and capillary electrophoresis. A total of 10,261 people were screened. The prevalence of patients with the β-thalassemia trait was 1.71% (175/10261). Moreover, HbD Punjab and HbO Arab were the most common Hb variants after β-thalassemia trait with the frequencies of 0.36% and 0.09%, respectively. Only 2 HbS were detected in 15 months of screening time. In 2 couples both partners were found to be carriers of β-thalassemia trait, and both partners of 1 couple to be carrier of HbD. Kayseri is not a high-risk region according to Mediterranean parts of Turkey, but the city takes migrations apart from neighbor cities, migrations from East and South provinces because of its geographic and industrial situation. For that reason detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  6. Premarital Screening of Beta Thalassemia Minor in north-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemizadeh, H; Noori, R

    2013-01-01

    Beta thalassemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000Patients who are homozygote for β-thalassaemia and 3,750,000 carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta thalassemia minor among men who underwent premarital screening in Quchana city in Khorasan Razavi region of Iran. This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From 2010 to 2011, all participants (1000) under marriage coming to health center of Quchan underwent routine mandatory tests. Participants were considered to have beta-thalassemia minor on the condition that hey had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 3.5%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured with a Coulter automated cell counter. Electrophoresis was performed on cellulose acetate. Mean and SD of hemoglobin, MCV and MCH were 16±2.9, 91±4 and 28.4±2, respectively. Hemoglobin A2 Higher than 3.5 percent was reported as 3.5%.The prevalence of beta-thassemia minor with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.5% (P-value). In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. Detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  7. A Test of Stellar Cohabitation in Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered over 2,300 exoplanet candidates, including more than 885 associated with target stars with multiple transiting planet candidates. While these putative multiple planet systems are predicted to have an extremely low false positive rate, it is important to test what fraction are indeed transiting a single star and what fraction are some sort of blend (e.g., one transiting planet and an eclipsing binary, or two planet-hosting stars blended within the photometric aperture). We perform such a test for stellar cohabitation using the observed distribution of ξ, the period-normalized transit duration ratio of pairs of transiting planet candidates. We developed a Bayesian framework to estimate the probability that two candidates orbit the target star based on the observed orbital periods and light curve properties with an emphasis on ξ. For priors distributions, we use empirical planet, binary star, and hierarchical triple star occurrence rates and galactic population synthesis models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the implied distributions of ξ for all plausible blend scenarios; i.e., a planet around the target star and a background or physically associated eclipsing binary star, a planet around the the target star and a planet around a background or physically associated secondary star, as well as a single star with two planets and no blend. Finally, we compute the posterior probability that a given pair of transiting planet candidates are indeed a pair of planets in orbit around the target star given the observed values. We present the results of our test for a selection Kepler multiple planet candidates and for systems confirmed through other methods, such as transit timing variations. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for the confirmation and characterization of multiple transiting planet systems.

  8. 婚前医学检查行为的影响因素研究%Influencing factors on the voluntary premarital medical examination among Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁; 顾亚明; 周驰; 周旭东; 郑卫军; 杨廷忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing the premarital medical examination in Chinese population and to discuss the related possible intervention strategies.Methods Data were collected through self-designed questionnaires on 2572 newly married respondents,selected under a stratified randomized sampling method,at Marriage Registration Office in 12 counties in Zhejiang province.Predictive factors were derived from the integrating complementary constructs of Health Belief Model,Theory of Reasoned Action as well as individual demographic characteristics.Multiple logistic multilevel analyses was used as the main statistical method,with individuals as the ' low' and counties as the 'high' levels.Results Behaviors on premarital medical examination showed a clustering trait at the county level (P=0.018) and variance partition coefficients (VPC) of each variables was between 15.40% and 17.58%.There were no statistical significances found in the rates of premarital medical examination among gender,age,residence of Household Registration,education,income,health insurance and history of premarital medical examination.However,significant correlation was seen on occupation of the respondents.The rate of premarital medical examination among the respondents who had not attended medical examination during the last six moths was 1.31times (95% confidence intervals,1.05 -1.65 ) more than those who had,with OR (odds ratio) as 1.51 (95%CI:1.14-2.00) for the pregnant respondents in their first marriage and 0.35 (95%CI:0.23-0.51 )for remarried respondents,compared with women at first marriage but remained unpregnant.Regarding premarital medical examination,the respondents reported greater benefits,less barriers,greater positive behavioral attitudes and normative beliefs to it,with an ORs as 2.32 (95% CI:1.18-4.60),0.71 (95%CI:0.57-0.90),1.69 (95%CI:1.10-2.58) and 1.72 (95%CI:1.34-2.20)respectively,but with no significant association with perceived susceptibility

  9. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1,998 for mothers and 1,764 for fathers). Overall, cohabitation and marital dissolution were both associated with increased maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, though for married mothers, depressive symptoms returned to predissolution levels with time. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated no differences in the magnitude of the increase in depressive symptoms by type of dissolution, though pooled difference models suggested that married fathers increased in depressive symptoms more than cohabiting fathers. Potential time-variant mediators did not account for these associations, though greater family chaos was associated with increased maternal depressive symptoms, and decreased social support and father - child contact were associated with increased paternal depressive symptoms.

  10. Adolescent premarital sex and health outcomes among Taiwanese youth: perception of best friends' sexual behavior and the contextual effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2011-09-01

    This study explores premarital sex among adolescents and its health outcomes in a typical East Asian society, Taiwan. As a collective society in terms of cultural heritage, a particular target of this study was perceived peer pressure and its contextual influence. The data were taken from the Taiwan Youth Project, 2004 and 2007, and never married youth aged 20 years constituted our sample (N=3530). Best friends' sexual behavior and other context-related factors, such as school attendance and community participation, are presumed to influence adolescent premarital sex as well as their health status. Logistic regression models show a positive and significant association between the perception of friends' sexual behavior and the likelihood of adolescent premarital sex engagement, after adjusting for the youth's own sex-related experience and attitudes, individual characteristics, and family background. The analysis also confirms that school attendance and community participation are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having premarital sex. Furthermore, adolescent premarital sex was found to be linked to the perceived health status of the youth (self-rated health, smoking, and drinking), as expected. These findings demonstrate the importance of peers and social context, which suggests that HIV prevention and health promotion programs for youth need to take friendship networks and social context into consideration.

  11. Recruitment of Engaged Couples for Premarital Counseling: An Empirical Examination of the Importance of Program Characteristics and Topics to Potential Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T.; Anderson, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Study seeks to understand what potential participants perceive are attractive characteristics in premarital prevention approaches. Results indicate that leader characteristics, content, and topics such as communication, finances, and problem solving are the most important elements of premarital counseling to couples. Differences based on gender…

  12. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

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    Joseph Gbenga S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out in 2008. A total of 375 religious leaders were used. Multistage sampling technique involving five stages sampling procedures was used to select participants. The research instrument was structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using EPI-INFO computer software and data were presented in form of tables, cross tabulation and test of statistical significance. RESULTS: Result showed that the awareness of religious leaders on HIV/AIDS, premarital HIV screening and Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing (VCCT was high. Most of the premarital HIV screening was initiated by the religious leaders. Also, majority of leaders made premarital HIV screening compulsory which is against the right of the members. More than half of the respondents said they will conduct marriage without premarital HIV screening and more than half also said that they will conduct marriage if one of the partners is tested positive. Religion was found to influence respondents’ attitude in making premarital HIV screening mandatory, rejection among respondents members on premarital HIV screening and conduction of marriage without premarital HIV screening. CONCLUSION: In as much as premarital HIV screening is good; members should be convinced to do this screening and not to be coerced by these religious leaders, thus, stepping on one of their human right. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 129-134

  13. An educational program about premarital screening for unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis Ragab; Al-Bar, Hussein; Al-Fakeeh, Ali; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Qadi, Mahdi; Al-Bar, Adnan; Milaat, Waleed

    2011-03-01

    The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University (KAU) towards premarital screening (PMS) program, to determine predictors of high students' knowledge scores and to improve their knowledge about PMS through conduction of an educational campaign. Multi-stage stratified random sample method was used with recruitment of 1563 students from all faculties of KAU, during the educational year 2008-2009. The Pre-test included 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements with student's response through a 5-point Likert scale. Health education was conducted using audiovisual aids through pre-designed educational materials. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Students' knowledge about the program was generally low before the educational campaign. The predictors of high knowledge scores were being a health science student (aOR=4.15; 95% CI: 2.97-5.81), age ≥20 years (aOR=2.78; 95% CI: 2.01-3.85), family history of hereditary diseases and income ≥10,000 SR/month. Regarding attitude, almost all students (99.0%) agreed on the importance of PMS. After the educational program, students' knowledge about PMS was markedly improved. The mean students' knowledge score was 9.85 ± 5.36 in Pre-test and improved to 18.45 ± 4.96 in Post-test, with a highly statistical significant difference (paired t=25.40, p<0.000). The educational program was successful in improving students' knowledge about the PMS. Conduction of similar educational programs and adding PMS in the curriculum of secondary and university education are recommended. Copyright © 2010 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Premarital screening for hemoglobinopathies: experience of a single center in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Al-Doski, Adnan A S; Markous, Raji S D; Mohamad Amin, Khyria A K; Eissa, Adil A Z; Badi, Ameer I A; Asmaro, Rafal R H; Hamamy, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    A program for the prevention of major hemoglobinopathies was initiated in 2008 in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. This study reports on the achievements and challenges of the program. A total of 102,554 individuals (51,277 couples) visiting a premarital center between 2008 and 2012 were screened for carrier status of hemoglobinopathies, and at-risk couples were counseled. A total of 223 (4.3/1,000) couples were identified and counseled as high-risk couples. Available data on 198 high-risk couples indicated that 90.4% proceeded with their marriage plans, and 15% of these married couples decided to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) in subsequent pregnancies with the identification of 8 affected fetuses; all were terminated as chosen by the parents. Thirty affected births were recorded among the high-risk couples. The premarital program managed to reduce the affected birth rate of major hemoglobinopathies by 21.1%. Of the 136 affected babies born during the study period, 77.9% were born to couples married prior to the start of the program, while 22.1% were born to couples identified as having a high risk. The main reason for not taking the option of PND was unaffordable costs. Financial support would have increased opting for PND by high-risk couples. Further reduction in affected birth rates could be achieved by including parallel antenatal screening programs to cover those married before the initiation of the premarital program and improving the public health education and counseling programs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Acceptability of HIV/AIDS testing among pre-marital couples in Iran (2012

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    Jamshid Ayatollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is a lifestyle-related disease. This disease is transmitted through unprotected sex, contaminated needles, infected blood transfusion and from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery. Prevention of infection with HIV, mainly through safe sex and needle exchange programmes is a solution to prevent the spread of the disease. Knowledge about HIV state helps to prevent and subsequently reduce the harm to the later generation. The purpose of this study was to assess the willingness rate of couples referred to the family regulation pre-marital counselling centre for performing HIV test before marriage in Yazd. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive study, a simple random sampling was done among people referred to Akbari clinic. The couples were 1000 men and 1000 women referred to the premarital counselling centre for pre-marital HIV testing in Yazd in the year 2012. They were in situations of pregnancy, delivery or nursing and milking. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software and chi-square statistical test. Results: There was a significant statistical difference between the age groups about willingness for HIV testing before marriage (P < 0.001 and also positive comments about HIV testing in asymptomatic individuals (P < 0.001. This study also proved a significant statistical difference between the two gender groups about willingness to marry after HIV positive test of their wives. Conclusion: The willingness rate of couples to undergo HIV testing before marriage was significant. Therefore, HIV testing before marriage as a routine test was suggested.

  16. Premarital Sexual Practice among Unmarried First Year Undergraduate Students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Endalew Gemechu Sendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premarital sexual practice among unmarried College students has markedly increased recently in Ethiopia. College students are recognized as one of the age groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of premarital sexual activity and predisposing factors in the circumstance of private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of premarital sexual practice and predisposing factors among unmarried undergraduate first year students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2013. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 207 unmarried first year undergraduate students, and was analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. Results were summarized in frequencies and percentages and presented in tables. RESULTS: A total of 207 students took part in the survey. The mean age of respondents was 21.8 ±2.0 years. More than half of survey respondents (60.9% reported that they have had premarital sex. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that male respondents were more than seven times to ever have sexual intercourse as compared to female respondents (AOR= 7.6; 95%CI: 4.51, 34.87. However, age less than 18 years was found to be protective against premarital sexual practice (AOR=0.42.; 95%CI: 0.27-0.73. Compared to respondents who do not use alcohol, those who are alcohol users after joining college were 3.8 times (AOR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32 as likely to begin premarital sex. Similarly, ever chewing khat after joining college was found to be positively associated with premarital sex in this study. (AOR=2.60.; 95%CI: 0.62-1.43. CONCLUSION: A significant number of students had started

  17. The Evaluation of Results of the Premarital Screening of Hemoglobinopathies Trait in Kahramanmaras

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    Ekrem Guler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed in order to determine hemoglobipathy trait in Kahramanmaras. METHOD: In this study premarital screening of hemoglobinopathies was performed in 11040 subjects between March 2006 and February 2007 who were planning to get married. RESULTS: Thalassemia trait was detected in 261 subjects; hence the rate was determined to be 2.35 %. Sickle cell anemia trait was detected in 59 subjects; hence the rate was determined to be 0.54%. CONCLUSION: These rates are similar to the overall rates of Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 243-244

  18. Assortative mating among Dutch married and cohabiting same-sex and different-sex couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, E.; Kalmijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared male and female same-sex and different-sex couples in the Netherlands with respect to age and educational homogamy. Because many same-sex couples in the Netherlands are married, differences between married and cohabiting couples were analyzed for all 3 groups. Analyses of data f

  19. Effects of Divorce and Cohabitation Dissolution on Preschoolers' Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth cohort ("N" = 6,450), the present study hypothesized that 48-month-old children of divorced mothers would score lower on emerging literacy than the children of formerly cohabiting mothers, compared with the children of mothers in stable marriage. The children of mothers who…

  20. Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

  1. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality - an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens Simon; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    2002-01-01

    .25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect...

  2. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  3. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples: A comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included

  4. Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples : A comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included

  5. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  6. Relatievormen in Nederland, 1984 ( ORIN ) [Ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands, 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijzing, F.K.H.; Kaa, D.J.; Keilman, N.W.; Moors, H.G.; Kuijsten, A.C.; Leeuwen, van L.Th.; Akker, P.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Background and characteristics of various ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands. R's nr. of marriages / having lived together with partner before marriage / nr. of times of having lived together with a partner / having an intimate relationship without living together / plans about going to live

  7. The Reproductive Context of Cohabitation in the United States: Recent Change and Variation in Contraceptive Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Megan M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from 2 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 11,065), the current research addressed 2 overarching questions about the reproductive context of cohabitation in the United States. First, did patterns of contraceptive use among cohabitors change during the last 2 decades of the 20th century? Second, did patterns of…

  8. Relatievormen in Nederland, 1984 ( ORIN ) [Ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands, 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijzing, F.K.H.; Kaa, van der D.J.; Keilman, N.W.; Moors, H.G.; Kuijsten, A.C.; Leeuwen, van L.Th.; Akker, van der P.A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Background and characteristics of various ways of cohabitation in the Netherlands. R's nr. of marriages / having lived together with partner before marriage / nr. of times of having lived together with a partner / having an intimate relationship without living together / plans about going to live to

  9. Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…

  10. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  11. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  12. Cohabitation and Children's Externalizing Behavior in Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomby, Paula; Estacion, Angela

    2011-01-01

    We consider the association of cohabitation experience with externalizing behavior among children of Latina mothers whose ethnic origin is in Mexico, Puerto Rico, or the Dominican Republic. Data were drawn from three waves of the Three-City Study (N = 656 mother-child pairs). Children of Mexican-origin mothers had greater externalizing problems in…

  13. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  14. Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…

  15. Diverse bacterial communities exist on canine skin and are impacted by cohabitation and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Torres

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown. This study sampled the skin bacterial communities of 40 dogs belonging to 20 households longitudinally across three seasons (spring, summer, and winter. Significant differences in bacterial community structure between samples were identified when stratified by season, but not by dog sex, age, breed, hair type, or skin site. Cohabitating dogs were more likely to share bacteria of the skin than non-cohabitating dogs. Similar to human bacterial microbiomes, dogs’ microbiomes were more similar to their own microbiomes over time than to microbiomes of other individuals. Dogs sampled during the same season were also more similar to each other than to dogs from different seasons, irrespective of household. However, there were very few core operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified across all dogs sampled. Taxonomic classification revealed Propionibacterium acnes and Haemophilus sp. as key members of the dog skin bacterial community, along with Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study shows that the skin bacterial community structure of dogs is highly individualized, but can be shared among dogs through cohabitation.

  16. Who's in the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how family structure affected children's delinquency and math test scores, parenting practices as a mediator, and racial differences in these effects. Findings indicated that single parenthood related to reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation related to greater…

  17. For Better or for Worse? The Consequences of Marriage and Cohabitation for Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Nicholson, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the mental and physical health of single mothers benefit from marriage or cohabitation compared to childless women who marry. Results indicate that marrying is associated with similar declines in psychological distress for single mothers and childless women, but only when that marriage endures. Single mothers do not…

  18. Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution and Parental Depressive Symptoms in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of divorce are pronounced for parents of young children, and cohabitation dissolution is increasing in this population and has important implications. The mental health consequences of union dissolution were examined, by union type and parental gender, using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ("n" = 1,998 for mothers…

  19. Marriage, cohabitation and incidence trends of invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma in Denmark 1978-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulff-Møller, Constance J; Simonsen, Jacob; Frisch, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Few population-based studies have investigated the relation between living arrangements and risk of invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma (iP-SCC). Using long-term national cancer registry data in Denmark we examined incidence trends of iP-SCC. Furthermore, we examined the relation between marital status, cohabitation status and risk of iP-SCC using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained in Cox proportional hazards regression analyses as our measure of relative risk. Overall, 1,292 cases of iP-SCC were identified during 65.6 million person-years of observation between 1978 and 2010. During this period, the WHO world age-standardized incidence remained relatively stable (p-trend = 0.41) with an average incidence of 1.05 cases per 100,000 person-years. When compared to married men, those who were unmarried (HR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13-1.66), divorced (HR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79) or widowed (HR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13-1.63) were at increased risk of iP-SCC. Regarding cohabitation status, single-living men were at increased risk of iP-SCC compared to men in opposite-sex cohabitation (HR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.26-1.62). Risk increased with increasing numbers of prior opposite-sex (p-trend = 0.02) and same-sex (p-trend cohabitations. In conclusion, single-living Danish men and men who are not currently married are at increased risk of iP-SCC, and the risk increases with the number of prior cohabitations, perhaps reflecting less stable sexual relations in these subgroups.

  20. PREMARITAL EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS ACTUAL DIRECTION OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Aldakimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyze the actual problem of modern society ‒ premarital education of youth in educational institutions of the system. For consideration presented the problem of social orphanhood of children. A statistical data that reflects the relevance and importance of this research and the need for preventive measures towards preventing such terrible events as the abandonment of children by their parents. Allocated problem-giving vector for preventive measures, namely, the process of formation of readiness of girls to fulfill the social role of the mother. It disclosed the feasibility of this concept on the example of the introduction of training and educational courses for female students in the senior classes of a comprehensive school. The questions about premarital upbringing, formation of competence girl in the direction of responsible motherhood, the place of women in modern society and in the socio-cultural environment, demographics, socio-economic, legal, pedagogical and psychological aspects of formation and development of modern youth.

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Mandatory Premarital Screening Among University Students in North Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldi, Sireen M; Khatatbeh, Moawia M; Berggren, Vanja E M; Taha, Hana A

    2016-01-01

    A mandatory National Premarital Thalassemia Screening Program was implemented in Jordan in 2004. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of university students in North Jordan toward this program. Data was collected from 542 students from four universities (two public and two private universities) located in North Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Results of t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that while respondents had adequate knowledge of and positive attitudes toward the premarital screening program, there was still a lack of knowledge about the disease itself. Nearly half the respondents were under the impression that β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a disease that can be treated simply. One-third of the respondents believed that if both partners were carriers of β-thal they should proceed with marriage. Negative attitude was revealed when many respondents believed that diagnosing a family member as a carrier affects other family members' future marriage opportunities. Significant associations were detected between the knowledge scores and gender, urban/rural residence, and the university where the students were enrolled. Students in private universities showed significantly lower attitude scores. Consideration of prenatal diagnostic services as part of a β-thal prevention program is necessary. It would also be helpful to include information about β-thal as a preventable inherited illness with a severe debilitating impact on the family in the high school curriculum. There is also a need for social marketing of the program.

  2. Premarital screening for thalassemia and sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman; Almazrou, Yagob Yousaf; Alswaidi, Fahad Mohammad; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sickle cell disorders and beta thalassemia, with their regional distribution, in the adult population screened as part of the Saudi Premarital Screening Program. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted as part of the National Premarital Screening Program. It covered all the individuals who applied for a marriage license during the years 1425 and 1426 Hijra (February 2004 to January 2005). A network of 123 reception centers in the Ministry of Health facilities and 70 laboratories all over Saudi Arabia was involved in data collection. Of a total of 488,315 individuals screened, 4.20% had sickle cell trait, 0.26% had sickle cell disease, 3.22% had thalassemia trait, and 0.07% had thalassemia disease. Both the diseases were focused mainly in the eastern, western, and southwestern parts of the country. Among the 207,333 couples who were issued certificates for matching, 2.14% were declared high risk. Among the 2,375 high-risk couples contacted by telephone, 89.6% married each other, despite the known high-risk status. The results showed excellent access to the target population. However, the program's objective of decreasing high-risk marriages was not as successful, indicating the need for improvement of health education programs for the public, more efforts in counseling high risk couples, and changes in the strategy of timing of screening in relation to marriage.

  3. Attitudes of adolescents and parents towards premarital sex in rural Thailand: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Crozier, Kenda; Pfeil, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore attitudes of Thai parents and adolescents towards premarital sex. Data were collected from 11 focus groups with 30 Thai parents and 36 adolescents aged 15-19 years old in rural areas of Udon Thani province, Thailand and examined using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified from the data: the social judgement of girls; boys have nothing to lose; considering risks and parents as problem solvers. All themes relate to the continuing existence of double standards concerning the social norm for premarital sex as applied to young women on one side and young men on the other. The influence of traditional values is still very strong in rural north-eastern Thailand. The findings highlight teenagers' need for more support from their parents. The promotion of open, honest communication between parents and teens is important to overcome difficulties of social judgements and align thinking between old and new social values. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with attitude toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Premarital Sexuality: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study of Attitudes and Behavior by Dating Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John P.; Ramsbey, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 268 college students about premarital sex in 1988 and compared findings to those from similar sample in 1983. Females in 1988 showed lower levels of sexual intercourse at all five dating stages than did 1983 counterparts. Males in 1988 reported higher levels of intercourse for first four dating stages than did 1983 males. (Author/NB)

  6. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  7. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  8. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-11-01

    This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  9. Nurturing the Relationships of All Couples: Integrating Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns into Premarital Education and Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Fallon, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that premarital counseling programs help engaged couples develop interpersonal and problem-solving skills that enhance their marital relationships. Yet, there are limited services for same-sex couples. This article assumes an integrated humanistic and social justice advocacy stance to explore the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual…

  10. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  11. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  12. Naive Realism in the Unmarried Cohabitation Controversy in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. McCracken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We explored the role of “naïve realism” in perceptions of attitudinal differences between proponents and opponents of unmarried cohabitation (UC in the United States. Participants were presented with UC vignettes, asked to describe their own impressions of the couple in each scenario, and then to speculate about the impressions of the typical UC proponent and opponent. A comparison of these impressions yielded a pattern of false polarization in their perceptions, such that partisans’ self-reported sympathy was reliably more similar than the degree of sympathy either side attributed to the other. Partisans also exhibited egocentric bias regarding the basis for each side’s stances on UC. The relevance of this misperception and faulty assumptions toward the resolution of the debate over unmarried cohabitation is discussed.

  13. Aggression by a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male declines within 27 h following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1993-02-01

    Females that had become aggressive as a result of cohabiting with a sterile male were ovariectomized and implanted with empty Silastic tubes. Control groups were either sham ovariectomized or ovariectomized and implanted with Silastic tubes providing replacement levels of estradiol and testosterone. Twenty-seven hours following surgery, all animals were tested for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female rat. The aggression of ovariectomized females without hormone replacement declined to a minimal level postoperatively and was significantly lower than that of sham-ovariectomized females or ovariectomized females with estradiol and testosterone replacement. Both sham-ovariectomized females and ovariectomized females given hormone replacement displayed a level of aggression close to that observed preoperatively. The aggression of a female rat cohabiting with a sterile male appears to be highly sensitive to the removal of gonadal hormones. This corresponds with observations made on pregnant females and contrasts with those made on lactating females.

  14. IPV--bridging the juridical gap between scratches and DNA detection under fingernails of cohabitating partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, M; Cappel-Hoffmann, S; Makuch, D; Schmidt, P; Ramsthaler, F

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health issue with lifetime prevalences of physical and sexual violence against women of 12-71% in various populations. Due to its clandestine nature third party eye witnesses are scarce and prosecution of these cases has to rely on medical examination results, e.g. injury patterns of the victim and the perpetrator. Medicolegal assessment of DNA of the male partner found in fingernail specimen of the female partner after an assault is difficult since cohabitating couples are known to carry DNA of the respective partner in 17% of examined couples. In this study, male and total DNA content in fingernail specimen of 34 couples was analyzed after vigorous scratching of the male partners flank. Scratching and non-scratching fingers showed a highly significant difference in absolute and relative male DNA content allowing for the differentiation of DNA transfer caused by normal cohabitation and scratching during an assault.

  15. Marriage and cohabitation: demographic and socioeconomic differences in Quebec and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyser, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishCohabitation has become so prevalent in Canada that it is now the most commonmode of entry into conjugality. Yet in drawing comparisons across Canadianprovinces, cohabitation is far more prevalent in the province of Quebec thanelsewhere. With this in mind, the purpose of the current paper is three fold. First,we set out to briefly situate the recent growth in the number of common-lawunions in Canada and Quebec into a broader historical and international context.Secondly, we review available information from the 2001 Census and the 1998General Social Survey on some of the key socioeconomic and demographiccharacteristics of persons who cohabit relative to those that marry. Thirdly, weconsider how these changes are important to public policy, and of direct interest to legislators andthe Canadian legal system. Major differences are documentedin comparing Quebec with elsewhere in Canada in terms of the education, laborforce participation, median income, income poverty and homeownership. Thedifferences documented between persons who marry relative to cohabiters arefound to be much less in Quebec than elsewhere, in a context wherebycohabitation has become far more widespread, an observation with directimplications for public policy.FrenchLa cohabitation est devenue tant prévalente au Canada qu’elle représenteactuellement le mode d’entrée dans la vie conjugale le plus répandu. Cependant,quand on compare entre les provinces canadiennes, la cohabitation est beaucoupplus prévalente dans la province de Québec que dans le reste du pays. En tenantcompte de ce fait, cet article a les trois buts suivant : Premièrement, nousdonnons un bref aperçu de la récente hausse du nombre d’unions de fait dansson plus large contexte historique et international ; deuxièmement, nous révisonsl’information recueillie par le Recensement de 2001 et l’Enquête socialenationale de 1998 au sujet de certaines caractéristiques socioéconomiques etd

  16. Shifting family definitions: the effect of cohabitation and other nonfamily household relationships on measures of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, K J

    1999-08-01

    The current official poverty measure compares income to needs within a family. Some have suggested including cohabiting couples as part of this family. Others have suggested that the household be used as the unit of analysis for poverty measurement. I explore issues involved in expanding the unit of analysis, including the stability of cohabiting and other nonfamily household relationships and the degree of resource sharing that takes place among different types of people within households. Instability in households with nonfamily members is not a serious problem for inferring poverty from cross-sectional studies. On the other hand, income from people in nonfamily household roles contributes slightly less to helping other household members avoid financial hardship, implying that nonfamily housemates have a greater tendency to keep income to themselves.

  17. The Influence of Men's Income and Employment on Marriage and Cohabitation: Testing Oppenheimer's Theory in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses Oppenheimer's theory on marriage timing, reviews the way this theory was received in European demography and family sociology, and develops a new test of the theory using annual panel data from 13 European countries for the period 1994-2001. Several indicators of men's economic status are used, including school enrollment, employment, type of labor contract, work experience, income, and education. Effects of these indicators are estimated for the transition to marriage and cohabitation, as well as for the transition from cohabitation to marriage. Country differences in these effects are examined as well. The evidence provides strong support for the male breadwinner hypothesis on the one hand, and for Oppenheimer's career uncertainty hypothesis on the other. However, the relevance of these hypotheses also depends on the national context, and especially on the way gender roles are divided in a society.

  18. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Lykke-Sylvest, Randi; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34–39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen....... A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards...... family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a ‘ticking biological clock’ and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing...

  19. Cohabitation status and onset of disability among older Danes: is social participation a possible mediator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation. METHOD...... of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability. DISCUSSION: Our...

  20. Stable maternal cohabitation, couple relationship quality, and characteristics of the home environment in the child's first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausli, Julia F; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2009-02-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was used to address how cohabitation of unmarried 2-biological-parent families is associated with characteristics of young children's family environment using longitudinal assessments of maternal depression and observed parenting sensitivity collected across the child's first 2 years and mothers' reports of couple relationship conflict and ambivalence. We compared 43 cohabiting 2-biological-parent families and 877 married 2-biological-parent families, all of whom had stable relationships over the child's first 2 years. Demographic factors of lower parental education, non-White race/ethnicity, and low income characterized the cohabiting parents, in comparison with married parents. After controlling for these demographic differences, we found that stably cohabiting mothers reported more depressive symptoms and were less sensitive with their child than were married mothers. Cohabiting couple relationships were characterized by more ambivalence and conflict, each of which partially mediated associations of cohabitation with maternal depression and parenting sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Big wigs and small wigs: Time, sex, size and shelter affect cohabitation in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Nicole L; Iyengar, Vikram K

    2017-01-01

    Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera), an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation) or one shelter (habitat limitation) to determine their propensity for cohabitation at times of peak activity and times of quiescence. Females, whose high levels of aggression are often associated with maternal care, were particularly averse to cohabitation, whereas males were generally more tolerant of other earwigs. Females initially preferred not to cohabitate when placed with a male, but were more tolerant of cohabitation later, regardless of the number of shelters. Same-sex pairs, on the other hand, were less likely to cohabitate with only one shelter present, but males were again more tolerant of conspecifics than females regardless of habitat limitation. When competition for one shelter did not lead to cohabitation, the lone occupant was more likely to be the larger individual in same-sex trials and females in mixed-sex trials. Understanding the tolerance for close proximity under these varying conditions may provide insight into aggregative behavior and spatial distribution patterns in the maritime earwig.

  2. Horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus between turbot Scophthalmus maximus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using cohabitation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Karlsbakk, Egil; Nylund, Are; Nerland, Audun Helge

    2012-05-15

    Experimental horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) originating from halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was studied through cohabitation of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected fish with uninfected fish for 125 d. The experimental groups consisted of i.p. injected turbot Scophthalmus maximus or i.p. injected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with turbot, salmon or Atlantic cod Gadus morhua cohabitants. The initial weights were cod 10 g, salmon 40 g and turbot 3 g. NNV was detected in brain, eye and spleen by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in cod cohabitated with i.p. injected turbot after 90 and 125 d, suggesting NNV infection was transmitted horizontally from the turbot to cod. NNV was not detected in salmon that were cohabitated with i.p. challenged turbot or salmon. This study shows that NNV strains belonging to the Barfin Flounder Nervous Necrosis Virus (BFNNV) clade may be transmitted from halibut to cod via water. Hence there is a potential risk of horizontal transmission of the virus from farmed halibut to farmed and wild cod. The lack of detection of NNV in cohabitant salmon suggests that this fish species is less susceptible than cod, or not susceptible, to horizontal NNV transmission. This result might be influenced by the size of salmon, viral load in i.p. injected cohabitants or insufficient duration of the experiment.

  3. Measuring cohabitation and family structure in the United States: assessing the impact of new data from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheela; Fitch, Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the Current Population Survey (CPS) introduced a measure that identifies all cohabiting partners in a household, regardless of whether they describe themselves as "unmarried partners" in the relationship to householder question. The CPS now also links children to their biological, step-, and adoptive parents. Using these new variables, we analyze the prevalence of cohabitation as well as the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of different-sex cohabiting couples during the years 2007-2009. Estimates of cohabitation produced using only unmarried partnerships miss 18 % of all cohabiting unions and 12 % of children residing with cohabiting parents. Although differences between unmarried partners and most newly identified cohabitors are small, newly identified cohabitors are older, on average, and are less likely to be raising shared biological or adopted children. These new measures also allow us to identify a small number of young, disadvantaged couples who primarily reside in households of other family members, most commonly with parents. We conclude with an examination of the complex living arrangements and poverty status of American children, demonstrating the broader value of these new measures for research on American family and household structure.

  4. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition.

  5. The Pill and Partnerships: The impact of the birth control pill on cohabitation

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on cohabitation behavior of the introduction and dispersion of the birth control pill in the US during the 1960s and early 1970s. A theoretical model generates several predictions that are tested using the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. Empirically, the causal effect is identified by exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in state laws granting access to the pill to unmarried women under age 21. The evidence shows that the pi...

  6. A longitudinal study of the effects of premarital communication, relationship stability, and self-esteem on sexual satisfaction in the first year of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J H; Anderson, S M; Holman, T B; Niemann, B K

    1998-01-01

    This study examined select premarital factors from the ecosystemic perspective hypothesized to influence marital sexual satisfaction in the first year of marriage. A sample of 70 couples was administered by the Preparation of Marriage Questionnaire (PREP-M) a few months prior to marriage to measure premarital levels of empathy, self-disclosure, open communication, relationship stability, and self-esteem. At 1 year of marriage, their sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS). Using multiple regression analyses it was found that the best premarital predictors of husband's marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and wives' relationship stability. The best predictors for wives' marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and husbands' empathic communication. Conclusions and implications for premarital counselling and family life education are discussed.

  7. Six-year outcome of the national premarital screening and genetic counseling program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Saeedi, Mohammad Y

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β...

  8. Trends in the economic consequences of marital and cohabitation dissolution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M; Eads, Alicia

    2015-04-01

    Mothers in the United States use a combination of employment, public transfers, and private safety nets to cushion the economic losses of romantic union dissolution, but changes in maternal labor force participation, government transfer programs, and private social networks may have altered the economic impact of union dissolution over time. Using nationally representative panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from 1984 to 2007, we show that the economic consequences of divorce have declined since the 1980s owing to the growth in married women's earnings and their receipt of child support and income from personal networks. In contrast, the economic consequences of cohabitation dissolution were modest in the 1980s but have worsened over time. Cohabiting mothers' income losses associated with union dissolution now closely resemble those of divorced mothers. These trends imply that changes in marital stability have not contributed to rising income instability among families with children, but trends in the extent and economic costs of cohabitation have likely contributed to rising income instability for less-advantaged children.

  9. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Costa

    Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  10. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gbenga S.; Abu-Saeed Kamaldeen; Joseph Folake L.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carrie...

  11. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults ...

  12. Pre-marital screening for sickle cell haemoglobin and genetic counseling: awareness and acceptability among undergraduate students of a Nigerian University

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease which is more prevalent in developing countries. Pre-marital screening for sickle cell disorder is helpful in the prevention and control of the condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and acceptability of premarital genetic counseling and screening for sickle cell haemoglobin among undergraduate students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, South eastern, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectio...

  13. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

    1990-01-01

    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children.

  14. Premarital screening of beta-thalassemia trait in the province of Denizli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, A; Türk, T; Polat, A; Koyuncu, H; Saracoglu, B

    2000-01-01

    A premarital screening program aiming at reducing the incidence of thalassemia major was started under the auspices of the Regional Health Administration in 1995 in the city of Denizli in the Aegean region of Turkey. In this report we assessed the 4-year results of the screening program. All couples who applied for marriage procedures were screened for beta-thalassemia trait by automatic red cell indices and Hb A(2) determination. The couples at risk were counseled and offered prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy in case of an affected fetus. From October 1995 to August 1999, a total of 19,804 subjects (9,902 couples) were recruited for this study. The prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait with increased Hb A(2) was found to be 2.6% (514/19,804). In addition to the thalassemia trait, 22 patients (0.11%) had sickle trait. In 15 of the 9,902 couples, both partners were found to be carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. After genetic counseling, 2 of the 15 planned carrier marriages were canceled. Seven couples declared that they do not want to have a child at present. Prenatal diagnosis was sought by 6 couples. One fetus was found to be normal, 4 had thalassemia minor and 1 had thalassemia major; this pregnancy was terminated by elective abortion. This study indicated that premarital screening is a very useful tool for detecting carrier couples and an effective way of controlling thalassemia major. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Awareness among parents of β-thalassemia major patients, regarding prenatal diagnosis and premarital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Fouzia; Abid, Hasnain; Kokab, Farkhanda; Akhtar, Adil; Mahmood, Shahid

    2012-04-01

    To assess the knowledge among parents of thalassemia major patients about prenatal diagnosis, premarital screening for carrier detection and impact of consanguineous marriage on disease transmission. Descriptive study. The Thalassemia Centre, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to September 2009. One hundred and fifteen parents of β-thalassemia major patients were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was developed and parents were interviewed to assess their knowledge about preventive measures against thalassemia major. Parents of patients with all other types of blood disorder were excluded from the study. There were 74 male (64.3%) and 41 female (35.7) patients with mean age of 9.5 ± 5.1 years. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) were accompanied by mothers and the rest by their fathers. Seventy-four parents (32.1%) were illiterate; among the literates only 7 were highly educated (3%). Ninety-four couples (81.7%) had consanguineous marriage. Fiftytwo parents (44.6%) knew that thalassemia is an inherited disorder. Thirty-eight (33%) had heard about the test for detecting thalassemia carrier. Premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis was known to 97 (84.3%) and 88 (76.5%) parents respectively. Ninety-nine parents (86.1%) knew about the termination of pregnancy on positive prenatal test but only 69 considered it acceptable religiously (60%). Major source of information to the parents were doctors. Parental knowledge about thalassemia and its preventive measures was inadequate; this requires intervention in the form of public health education programs concentrating on high risk/targeted population.

  16. Premarital HIV testing in Malaysia: a qualitative exploratory study on the views of major stakeholders involved in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmania, Sima; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2017-05-10

    HIV screening has existed in numerous methods as an important part of HIV prevention efforts over the years. Premarital HIV testing for couples who wish to marry has been implemented in a number of regions, which often operate in a mandatory rather than voluntary basis and is considered a contentious issue, with viewpoints held in favour and against. One such region is Malaysia which has a policy of mandatory premarital HIV testing of prospective Muslim married couples. The purpose of this study is to understand stakeholders' views on premarital HIV testing given the Malaysian Islamic context. 35 in-depth face to face semi-structured interviews were undertaken with key stakeholder groups involved in HIV prevention policy in Malaysia, namely, officials from the Ministry of Health, religious leaders and people living with HIV. Participants were recruited from the Klang Valley area, from July to December 2013, using purposive sampling techniques. Inclusion criteria necessitated that participants were over the age of 18 and provided full consent. Interviews were audiotaped, followed a standardised topic guide, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework analysis. Participants identified pre-marital HIV testing as an effective HIV prevention policy implemented in Malaysia and was viewed, for the most part, as a positive initiative across all stakeholders. Religious leaders were supportive of testing as it provides a protective mechanism, in line with the teachings of the Shariah, while Ministry of Health officials considered it a normal part of their HIV prevention screening initiatives. However, there were concerns surrounding issues such as confidentiality, counselling and discrimination surrounding the test described by the PLHIV group. The findings of this study show that among the participants interviewed was strong support for mandatory premarital HIV testing, which could possibly expose the vulnerability to HIV, reluctance to test and other areas in the

  17. [A comprehensive prevention programs on AIDS, HBV and syphilis among pregnant women and couples experienced premarital medical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xi-En; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Yang, Rong-Rong; Rezivan, Silafu; Li, Feng-Liang; Qin, Ai-Hua; Li, Li; Wu, Li-Zhen; Zong, Li-Li

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive prevention programs on HIV, HBV and syphilis transmission from mother to child and between premarital couples. HIV, HBV and syphilis were screened among pregnant women with interventional measure for infected women; HIV, HBV and syphilis (TP) were screened among premarital couples with medical advice. The HIV, HBsAg and TP positive rates were 8.4‰ (111/13 280), 54‰ (711/13 186) and 12.8‰ (159/12 401) respectively among pregnant women and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 73.8‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate (P premarital couples and the total positive rate of the three diseases was 131.5‰ which was significantly higher than HIV positive rate alone (P < 0.001). Comprehensive prevention was more economical than prevention for HIV alone. The comprehensive strategies for prevention of HIV, HBV and syphilis was feasible, effective and economical that could help to actively conduct the preventive measures.

  18. Educational Program Status of Premarital Counseling Centers in Hamadan Province Based on Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Divorce, unwanted pregnancies, and unsuccessful marriages create mental, emotional, physical, and financial problems for individuals, families, and ultimately the community. Premarital education and counseling is one of the most effective ways for the prevention of such problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a premarital educational program by using the TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action. Materials and Methods: Four hundred couples who attended premarital education and counseling classes voluntarily participated in this descriptive and analytical study. Variables such as attitude, subjective norms, and intention, were collected by using a validated questionnaire based on the TRA components. The questionnaire was filled out before and after the educational classes. Results: The mean age of the couples was 23.16 ± 5.64 years old. Statistically significant differences were found in knowledge, attitude, and subjective norms before and after participation in the classes (p value 0.05. Conclusion: Although the mean knowledge and attitude of the couples under study increased after the classes, the increase was not high and only 20% of the couples gained acceptable knowledge. The effectiveness of such classes in the current manner is very low. Application of appropriate educational methods and media-based models and theories is highly recommended.

  19. 大学生婚前同居观念的现状调查与对策研究%Investigation and countermeasures of undergraduates'concept of premarital cohabitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗媛; 李鹏程

    2013-01-01

    采用自编《大学生婚前同居观念调查问卷》,对328名在校大学生进行了抽样调查.结果显示:大学生对婚前同居现象的态度更加开放和宽容,但实际的婚前同居行为则比较理性和谨慎;男生比女生更愿意接受婚前同居行为;农村大学生比城市大学生更赞同婚前同居现象;赞同婚前同居的比率随年级的增高呈上升趋势,大四学生的赞同率最高;“试婚”和同伴影响是大学生选择或认同婚前同居的主要原因.

  20. The Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking Across Three Cohabitant Generations: A Count Data Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escario, José-Julián; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which parent and grandparent smoking influences adolescent smoking and its quantitative implications for tobacco control. It extends similar prior studies by investigating the effects on the probability of becoming a smoker and on the number of cigarettes smoked. Count regressions were used to assess the intergenerational transmission of smoking across three cohabitant generations, simultaneously, using data from the 2010 survey "Encuesta Estatal Sobre Uso De Drogas en Estudiantes de Enseñanzas Secundarias". This survey, of 32,234 students, constitutes a representative sample of Spanish students between 14 and 18 years of age. Living with a mother who smokes, a father who smokes, or a grandparent who smokes reduces the odds of being a non-smoker by 36.1% (OR 0.639), 26.1% (OR 0.739) and 20.3% (OR 0.797), respectively. Parental smoking increases cigarette consumption levels among adolescents. Having a cohabitant mother who smokes increases the number of cigarettes smoked by children by around 18.7% (IRR 1.187), while having a cohabitant father who smokes increases the number by around 12.1% (IRR 1.121). Estimates support the hypothesis that visibility of smoking among parents and grandparents is a strong predictor of smoking among adolescents. Accordingly, quitting smoking by parents and grandparents before children become adolescents appears to be a powerful means to both reduce smoking rates among adolescents and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers; such decisions appear to exert a stronger influence on the prevalence of smoking and consumption levels than exposure to smoking prevention campaigns at school.

  1. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, João

    2014-11-01

    The bidirectional relationship between the nervous system and the immune system is relevant for homeostatic organism maintenance. Studies from our laboratory showed that 14days of cohabitation with a sick partner (injected with Ehrlich tumor cells-TAE) produced behavioral, neurochemical, endocrinological and immunological changes. This study analyzes the effects of cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing animal on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Pairs of male mice were divided into three groups: naïve, control and experimental. Animals of the naïve group were kept undisturbed being used for the assessment of basal parameters. One animal of each experimental and control pair of mice was immunized with OVA. On ED(0), these OVA-immunized animals received an OVA booster. At this day (D(0)) the experimental mice that were kept undisturbed were inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells; their immunized cage-mates were then referred as to CSP ("companion of sick partner"). The undisturbed mice of each control pair were i.p. treated on D(0) with 0.9% NaCl; their sensitized cage-mates were subsequently referred as CHP ("companion of health partner"). The OVA challenge was performed on CSP and CHP mice on ED(12) and ED(13); blood and tissue collection were performed on ED(14). Fourteen days after cohabitation, in comparison to the CHP mice, the CSP mice displayed the following: (1) an increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the BAL, (2) a decreased bone marrow cell count, (3) increased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in the BAL supernatant, (5) increased levels of IgG1-OVA, decreased levels of IgG2a-OVA and no changes in OVA-specific IgE in the peripheral blood, (6) increased expression of L-selectin in the BAL granulocytes, (7) decreased tracheal reactivity to methacholine measured in vitro, (8) no changes in plasma corticosterone levels and (9) increased levels of plasmatic noradrenaline. These

  2. An Economic Analysis of Co-Parenting Choices: Single Parent, Visiting Father, Cohabitation, Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the determinants of choice between four co- parenting arrangements: father absence, father’s non-residential visitations, cohabitation, and marriage. In our theoretical framework, we use an adaptation of Becker’s Demand & Supply (D&S) model of marriage and a hierarchy of co-parenting arrangements--ranked in terms of degree of fathers’ involvement in the lives of mother or child--as an observable price measure for women’s work as mothers. We predict effects on co-pare...

  3. Active-duty military service, cohabiting unions, and the transition to marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A small but growing body of research has begun to identify the consequences of military service during the all-voluntary era. In this article, we examine the relationship between military service and the likelihood that cohabiting unions will be converted into marriages. Our paper extends previous research by making a distinction between the effects of active-duty verses reserve-duty service on the transition to marriage using data from the 1979-2004 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY. Our findings indicate that there is a positive relationship between active-duty service and cohabitors transitioning to marriage.

  4. The course of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood among borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Wedig, Michelle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood reported by recovered and nonrecovered borderline patients, the age first undertaken, and the stability of these relationships. Borderline patients were interviewed about these topics during their index admission and eight times over 16 years of prospective follow-up. Recovered borderline patients were significantly more likely than nonrecovered borderline patients to have married/lived with an intimate partner and to have become a parent. In addition, they first married/cohabited and became a parent at a significantly older age. They were also significantly less likely to have been divorced or ended a cohabiting relationship. In addition, they were significantly less likely to have given up or lost custody of a child. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that stable functioning as a spouse/partner and as a parent are strongly associated with recovery status for borderline patients.

  5. A comparison of intimate partner violence and associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women: a 5-year medical chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak; Choi, Edmond Pui Hang; Wong, John Kit-Shing; So, Fung Ling; Lau, Chu-Leung; Kam, Chak-Wah

    2016-11-29

    Cohabitation, referring to a co-residential romantic relationship between two intimate partners without a marriage license, has become widely accepted in contemporary societies. It has been found that cohabitating women have a higher risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) than married women. However, as yet, no studies have investigated the level and pattern of IPV-associated physical injuries and its mental health impact on cohabitating women. Therefore, we aim to compare IPV-associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women by conducting a review of 5-year medical records from the emergency departments of two major public hospitals in Hong Kong. This is a retrospective cohort study. Using two computerized systems, we identified the medical charts of 1011 women who had experienced IPV and presented at emergency departments between 2010 and 2014, of which, 132 were cohabitating and 833 were married. Cohabitating women were significantly younger (p-value family structure, including the growing acceptance of cohabitation, it is essential that a screening program for IPV is established for cohabitating women, as well as the inclusion of IPV content in medical and nursing curriculums and in-service training.

  6. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-04-17

    Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults aged 20-35 who attended primary healthcare institutions at the South Batinah Governorate in Oman. The majority of the participants (84.5%) believed that PMCS was necessary, and about half of them (49.5%) supported the view of making PMCS compulsory. On the contrary, approximately one third (30.5%) of the participants reported that they were not in favor of taking the blood screening test. Overall, unwillingness to perform pre-marital testing was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, less education, and increased income. Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, about one third of the participants were still reluctant to carry out premarital testing. Such attitude calls for immediate need for community-based campaigns to encourage the public to do premarital testing.

  7. Five-year evaluation of premarital screening program for hemoglobinopathies in the province of Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Bilgin, Adnan; Kızılok, Atakan; Arpacı, Abdullah; Yüreğir, Güneş T

    2006-06-05

    The prevalences of hemoglobin S (HbS) and β-thalassemia (β-thal) are high in Mersin, Turkey. In this study, the results of a five-year premarital screening program in Mersin province are reported. A total of 79,000 persons including 31,498 couples were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The results were given confidentially and at-risk couples were counselled on reproductive options and prenatal diagnosis. The carrier rates of hemoglobins (Hb) (HbS, HbD, HbE) and of β-thal were 1.21%, 0.17%, 0.04% and 2.04%, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four couples were at-risk, of whom 67.2% had health insurance. Twenty-seven couples did not become pregnant, six were divorced and 11 could not be reached. Of the 135 pregnancies, 80 had prenatal diagnosis. Five stillbirths occurred, and 18 homozygous babies were born to couples that did not seek prenatal diagnosis. Two families with prenatal diagnosis had affected babies: one was a late referral and the other due to religious reasons. For a successful screening program, emphasis must be on extensive and intensive informative programs for the public as a whole. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered free of charge as a basic public service. For a healthy population, knowledge and a shared responsibility between the public and the government are necessary.

  8. Knowledge and attitude toward the hemoglobinopathies premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia: population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages.

  9. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  10. Premarital and prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis: experience in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Ruth; Ekstein, Josef; Edelmann, Lisa; Desnick, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Dor Yeshorim (DY) and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) have conducted premarital and prenatal carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population as part of their genetic testing programs, respectively. Together, over 170,000 screenees have been tested. In this study, we report the CF mutation frequencies in over 110,000 screenees who reportedly were of 100% AJ descent from the DY program and MSSM. In addition, the CF mutation frequencies in a group of > 7,000 screenees for AJ diseases who were of T (0.0020), and N1303K (0.0016), among screenees who were 100% AJ was 1 in 26; when D1152H and the rare 1717-1G>A were included, the overall carrier frequency increased to approximately 1 in 23. In four families with D1152H, five compound heterozygotes for D1152H and W1282X (n = 2), DeltaF508 (1) or 3849+10kb C>T (1) were identified. In contrast, the carrier frequency for screenees reporting screening the AJ population should be considered because compound heterozygosity is associated with a variable disease phenotype. Further studies to delineate the phenotype of CF patients with this mutation are needed.

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes of Sana'a University Medical Students towards Premarital Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz A. Al-Nood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of Sana’a University medical students towards premarital screening (PMS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the students of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, during the academic year 2012/2013. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 516 Yemeni students. The questionnaire was composed of three parts; the first part was about socio-demographic data, the second part was about the students’ knowledge about PMS and the third part was about their attitudes towards the PMS. Results: Most of the respondents (92% knew that PMS reduces hereditary and sexually-transmitted diseases, believed that it is important to carry out and agreed to do it. Making PMS mandatory and legal prevention of marriage in case of positive results were accepted by 82% and 62% of the respondents, respectively. Conclusions: Although the majority of Sana’a University medical students favored PMS and had a fair knowledge about most of its aspects, a small proportion of them refused its mandating or legally preventing at-risk marriages. These negative attitudes could be reversed by health education of medical students on PMS.

  12. Laboratory cohabitation challenge model for shrimp hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salachan, Paul Vinu; Jaroenlak, Pattana; Thitamadee, Siripong; Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-01-05

    Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. It is probably endemic in Australasia and was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009. Later, it was also found to infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but information from shrimp farmers indicates that it is associated with significant growth retardation that is not clearly noticeable until 2-3 months of cultivation. In order to study modes of HPM transmission and to test possible control measures, a laboratory challenge model was needed that would mimic the mode of infection in shrimp ponds. We describe successful transmission in a cohabitation model with natural E. hepatopenaei (EHP)-infected shrimp in closed, perforated plastic containers placed in aquaria together with free-swimming, uninfected shrimp. After a period of 14 days all the free-swimming shrimp tested positive by PCR (approximately 60% with heavy infections evident by 1-step PCR positive test results) and gave positive histological and in situ hybridization results for E. hepatopenaei (EHP) in the hepatopancreas. A laboratory cohabitation model for studying E. hepatopenaei (EHP) has been developed and used to confirm that E. hepatopenaei (EHP) can be directly transmitted horizontally among shrimp via water. The model will facilitate studies on methods to prevent the E. hepatopenaei (EHP) transmission.

  13. Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, L A; Schmitt, J P

    1986-10-01

    The relationship quality of partners in 44 married, 35 heterosexual cohabiting, 50 gay, and 56 lesbian monogamous couples was studied. Each couple lived together and did not have children living with them. Relationship quality was dimensionalized as love for partner, liking of partner, and relationship satisfaction. Cohabiting partners had the lowest Love for Partner and Relationship Satisfaction scores. Differences were also found among partner types on: barriers to leaving the relationship, alternatives to the relationship, a belief that mindreading is expected in the relationship, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, dyadic attachment, shared decision making, and perceived social support from family. The four partner groups did not differ in psychological adjustment. For each type of partner, love for partner was related to many barriers to leaving the relationship and high dyadic attachment; liking of partner was related to few alternatives to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making; and relationship satisfaction was related to many attractions, few alternatives, few beliefs regarding disagreement is destructive to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making. Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to identify the best set of predictors for each partner type. Results are discussed in the context of existing models of relationship quality.

  14. Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

    2012-05-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta.

  15. Effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality in Rizhao City%日照市婚前检查对孕产妇死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永英; 刘杰; 厉君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婚前检查对孕产妇死亡的预防指导作用及效果。方法:分析日照市1998-2013年婚前医学检查和孕产妇死亡资料,分析婚前医学检查对孕产妇死亡的影响。结果:孕产妇死亡率呈逐年缓慢下降的趋势,当婚检率变化较大时,孕产妇死亡率有显著变化(P<0.05)。结论:婚前检查是一级预防措施,应引导广大青年自觉接受婚前医学检查,接受优生优育指导,从而减少孕产妇死亡风险。%Objective:To explore the prevention guidance function and effect of premarital examination on maternal mortality. Methods:The premarital medical examination and maternal death data from 1998 to 2013 in Rizhao City were analyzed.The effect of premarital medical examination on maternal mortality was analyzed.Results:The maternal mortality was a slow downward trend year by year.When the premarital examination rate change was large,there was significant change in maternal mortality(P<0.05). Conclusion:Premarital examination is primary prevention measure.We should guide the youth to consciously accept the premarital medical examination,and accept the eugenic and superior nurture guidance,to reduce the risk of maternal death.

  16. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  17. Hemoglobinopathy carrier prevalence in the United Arab Emirates: first analysis of the Dubai Health Authority premarital screening program results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhoul, Khawla M; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alraei, Rafeeiah F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy carriers in United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals subjected to mandatory premarital screening in Dubai over a 4-year period. Data from UAE nationals who underwent premarital screening by the Dubai Health Authority between January 2007 and December 2010 were collected and analyzed. Premarital screening in Dubai is based on complete blood counts (CBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 6,420 UAE nationals screened, 8.5% (n = 545) were suspected to be carriers. The following carrier frequencies were observed: β-thalassemia (β-thal), 4.56% (n = 293); Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T], 2.9% (n = 186); Hb D-Punjab [β121(GH4)Glu→Gln, GAA>CAA; HBB: c.364G>C], 0.78% (n = 50); Hb Lepore (δβ hybrid gene) with an undetermined molecular genotype, 0.17% (n = 11); Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], 0.03% (n = 2); and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH), 0.016% (n = 1). Hb E-Hb S and Hb E-β-thal also occurred at a rate of 0.016% (n = 1) each; and 0.87% (n = 56) subjects were suspected of carrying silent β-thal. The prevalence of β-thal trait was consistent with the prevalence published by others in the region. Silent β-thal is challenging for screening programs, and is expected to arise in populations with a high prevalence of β-thal carriers. The prevalence of Hb S trait observed in this study was lower than that in other reports for the region. New cases of β-thal major (β-TM) still arise because many fertile couples got married before the screening programs were implemented, and pregnancy termination is not widely practiced in the UAE due to religious restraints. Moreover, some couples choose not to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) or pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), even if they are aware of their risk status. The prevalence of β-thal trait in the UAE is high. This justifies efforts to control the disease by

  18. Perception of female students of king saud university towards premarital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Awatif A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of King Saud University female students towards the implementation of premarital screening (PMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two consecutive surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) were conducted two and nine months after the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA in 1/1/1425H. The female students of King Saud University were given health education lectures before the survey. The first survey was done with a designed close-ended questionnaire distributed at pre and post stages of the health education lecture. However, the second one explored the participants' perception of the same items in open-ended questions summarized as a "consensus statement". In fulfillment of their demands, the signed statement was mailed to the legislative authorities. A total of 140 university female students attended the first lecture. The response rate for both pre and post lecture surveys were 132 (94.3%) and 128 (91.4%) respectively. A total of 112 out of 132 (84.8%) students in the pre test and 111 out of 128 (86.7%) in the post-test were single. Of the married students 7/20 (35.0%) and 7/17 (41.2%) in pre and post tests had previously had PMS screening. The attitude of the students towards PMS was generally positive. One hundred and eight (81.8%) in the pre test and 110 (85.9%) in the post test saw the importance of PMS in controlling the commonest hereditary diseases. However, a smaller percentage of students (69.7% and 75.0%) in pre and post lecture respectively were in favor of the compulsory application of PMS in KSA. In spite of the positive attitude of all the students in the pre and post tests, fears were expressed towards the confidentiality of PMS test results and it was felt that social and psychological problems would ensue from abnormal results. This, however, does not represent the feeling of the entire population in KSA since the participants of the study formed a select group. The second

  19. Premarital screening for beta-thalassaemia in Southern Iran: options for improving the programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Jamalian, Nima; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Askarnejad, Abdolrasoul; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Hashemi, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    beta-thalassaemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000 homozygote beta-thalassaemia patients and 3,750,000 carriers. To assess the 10-year results of the screening programme, which has been operating in Southern Iran since 1995. All couples wanting to marry were required to be checked for beta-thalassaemia by their red blood cell indices in order to receive a permit for marriage registration. The results were reported to the nearest counselling team. If the results were conspicuous, haemoglobin A(2)(HbA(2)) and, in some subjects, Hb electrophoresis was performed. Couples in which both partners were carriers received counselling. For those who, in spite of the recommendation, decided to marry, prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy in case of an affected fetus was offered. The latter was offered only in the last three years. In 1995, 1999 and 2004, 296, 94 and 56 beta-thalassaemia homozygotes, respectively, were born (2.53, 1.07 and 0.82 patients per 1000 births). This programme has decreased the birth prevalence of beta-thalassaemia, but has unfortunately not eliminated the disease altogether. The reasons for the birth of new cases, in spite of the screening programmes, are: (i) premarital screening programme started in 1995; therefore, carrier couples who married before this did not receive counselling and gave birth to homozygote beta-thalassaemia children; (ii) unwanted pregnancy among the carrier couples; (iii) the couples knew about their problem, but they married for cultural and religious causes (illegal marriages).

  20. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Marriage and family attitudes and premarital values of Finno-Ugric youth in a modern city / Брачно-семейные установки и добрачные ценности финно-угорской молодежи современного города

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarkina Elena Nikolaevna / Касаркина Елена Николаевна

    2014-01-01

    Premarital subculture of the Finno-Ugric youth in a modern city has its own particular style expressed in values, traditions, plans, clothing, language-specific communication, norms and patterns of behavior closely related to traditional culture and at the same time different from it. Ethnic traditions affect needs, values and interests of premarital youth behavior, motives and goals of premarital courtship, samples and standards of premarital choice, premarital social statuses and roles, ...

  2. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  3. Relational Uncertainty, Perceived Fairness, and the Division of Household Labor in Cohabiting and Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yen-Chi; Aune, Krystyna S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between relational uncertainty and perceptions of division of household labor (DHL) in cohabiting and married couples. Specifically, research questions explored perceived fairness in DHL and relational uncertainty, perceptual convergence of contributions, convergence of perceptions and relational uncertainty, and convergence of perceptions and relationship satisfaction. A behavioral methodology called the Household Portrait Technique was employed to examine how couples discuss how they decide who does what in the household. A total of 33 couples independently completed a self-report instrument and jointly participated in the Household Portrait activity. Results showed that husbands and wives were agreed in their perceptions of fairness. Couples agreed that husbands do more of the outdoor work and automobile maintenance whereas wives do more of the childcare. Convergent perceptions regarding DHL was positively associated with relational certainty and marginally associated with relationship satisfaction. PMID:25083172

  4. Relational Uncertainty, Perceived Fairness, and the Division of Household Labor in Cohabiting and Married Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna S. Aune

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between relational uncertainty and perceptions of division of household labor (DHL in cohabiting and married couples. Specifically, research questions explored perceived fairness in DHL and relational uncertainty, perceptual convergence of contributions, convergence of perceptions and relational uncertainty, and convergence of perceptions and relationship satisfaction. A behavioral methodology called the Household Portrait Technique was employed to examine how couples discuss how they decide who does what in the household. A total of 33 couples independently completed a self-report instrument and jointly participated in the Household Portrait activity. Results showed that husbands and wives were agreed in their perceptions of fairness. Couples agreed that husbands do more of the outdoor work and automobile maintenance whereas wives do more of the childcare. Convergent perceptions regarding DHL was positively associated with relational certainty and marginally associated with relationship satisfaction.

  5. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality--an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens

    2002-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random...... sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality...... on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality...

  6. Cohabitation and marital status as predictors of mortality - an eight year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens Simon; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random...... sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality...... on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality...

  7. The cellular composition of the human immune system is shaped by age and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward J; Dooley, James; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lee, James C; Wouters, Carine; Meyts, Isabelle; Goris, An; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Linterman, Michelle A; Liston, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Detailed population-level description of the human immune system has recently become achievable. We used a 'systems-level' approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. We report a high level of interindividual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. Despite the profound effects of antigen exposure on individual antigen-specific clones, the cellular subset structure proved highly elastic, with transient vaccination-induced changes followed by a return to the individual's unique baseline. Notably, the largest influence on immunological variation identified was cohabitation, with 50% less immunological variation between individuals who share an environment (as parents) than between people in the wider population. These results identify local environmental conditions as a key factor in shaping the human immune system.

  8. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds.

  9. The Underlying Ecological Processes of Gut Microbiota Among Cohabitating Retarded, Overgrown and Normal Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Zhu, Jinyong; Liu, Keshao; Dong, Chunming; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence of tight links among the gut microbiota, obesity, and host health has emerged, but knowledge of the ecological processes that shape the variation in microbial assemblages across growth rates remains elusive. Moreover, inadequately control for differences in factors that profoundly affect the gut microbial community, hampers evaluation of the gut microbiota roles in regulating growth rates. To address this gap, we evaluated the composition and ecological processes of the gut bacterial community in cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimps from identically managed ponds. Gut bacterial community structures were distinct (P = 0.0006) among the shrimp categories. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that changes in the gut bacterial community were positively related to digestive activities, which subsequently affected shrimp growth rate. This association was further supported by intensified interspecies interaction and enriched lineages with high nutrient intake efficiencies in overgrown shrimps. However, the less phylogenetic clustering of gut microbiota in overgrown and retarded subjects may offer empty niches for pathogens invasion, as evidenced by higher abundances of predicted functional pathways involved in disease infection. Given no differences in biotic and abiotic factors among the cohabitating shrimps, we speculated that the distinct gut community assembly could be attributed to random colonization in larval shrimp (e.g., priority effects) and that an altered microbiota could be a causative factor in overgrowth or retardation in shrimp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an integrated overview of the direct roles of gut microbiota in shaping shrimp growth rate and the underlying ecological mechanisms.

  10. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  11. Prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin in premarital screening in the province of Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Genc, Ahmet; Taşyürek, Nilgün; Türkyilmaz, Bediha

    2013-02-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of the β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin in couples who applied for premarital screening in the third largest Turkish province of Izmir in the Aegean region. From January 2011 to March 2012, we tested 19,277 couples at the Karşıyaka Public Health Laboratory, Thalassemia Unit for the β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin using a high-performance liquid chromatograph, a hematology analyzer. The β-thalassemia trait with increased HbA2 (>3.5%) and abnormal hemoglobin was found in 4.96% (1912/38,554) and 0.53% (206/38,554) people, respectively. Of abnormal hemoglobin findings, HbS was determined in 128 people (0.33%), HbD in 50 (0.13%), HbE in 24 (0.06%), and HbC in four (0.01%). Furthermore, in 20 of the 19,277 couples (0.05%), both partners had the β-thalassemia trait and were referred to counseling. The prevalence of the β-thalassemia trait in the province of Izmir is high compared with other cities of Turkey. Izmir is a high-risk province for β-thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia. Therefore, premarital screening is essential to prevent new hereditary hemoglobinopaties.

  12. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kocaeli, Turkey: a crowded industrial center on the north coast of Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Nazan; Şenkal, Vijdan; Güray, Fatih; Şahin, Özcan; Bayram, Jülide

    2009-06-05

    Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening is one of the important procedures of hemoglobinopathy control program. This is the first report about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Kocaeli. Study covered screening from July 2005 to the end of the December 2008. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Regional Health authorities blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the wedding office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and high pressure liquid chromotography technique. A genetic counseling was given to carriers of abnormal hemoglobins. A total of 88888 people were screened. The frequency of β -thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait were 0.89% and 0.05% respectively. The frequency of high risk couples was 0.01%. The prevalence of β -thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait was quite low as a reflection of the frequency of eastern and northern Anatolia and migration to Kocaeli from these geographic regions. Although frequency is low, chronic transfusion requirement, high cost of chelating, organ damage, painful crisis and other crisis, availability of stem cell transplantation for a limited number of patients with compatible sibling donors justify premarital screening studies even in less prevalent regions as Kocaeli.

  13. Prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits in premarital screening in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, E-N H; Yaqoob, M; Abdur-Rahim, K; Gustavson, K-H

    2008-01-01

    To study the prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. The Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia launched a countrywide programme in February 2004 to allow all Saudis planning marriage to screen their carrier status for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits. This population survey of mandatory premarital screening for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell heterozygotes provided an opportunity to estimate the prevalence of these traits in the Al-Qassim region. From February 2004 to October 2006 all individuals attending for premarital screening in that region were screened. For each subject, venous blood was taken to determine complete blood count, red cell indices and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassaemia trait if mean corpuscular volume was 3.5%; and sickle cell trait if sickle cell haemoglobin amounted to 35 to 45% and sickling test was positive. Totally 38,153 individuals were screened during the study period. The prevalence rates of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits were 0.165% (63/38,153) and 0.252% (96/38,153) respectively. Compared with results of previous studies carried out in this region on the same issue, the prevalence of sickle cell heterozygotes seems to be the same but the frequency of beta-thalassaemia carriers is substantially higher. Screening for carriers both of beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell traits is important to prevent at risk marriages through genetic counseling.

  14. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kocaeli, Turkey: a crowded industrial center on the north coast of Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Sarper

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening is one of the important procedures of hemoglobinopathy control programs. This is the first report about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Kocaeli. Materials and Methods: The study covered screening from July 2005 to the end of December 2008. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and regional health authorities, blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the marriage office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and high pressure liquid chromatography technique. Genetic counseling was given to carriers of thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins. Results: A total of 88,888 people were screened. The frequencies of β-thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait were 0.89% and 0.05%, respectively. The frequency of couples with high-risk of having a sibling with homozygous hemoglobinopathy was 0.01%. Conclusion: The prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and sickle cell anemia trait was quite low and reflects the frequency in eastern and northern Anatolia and migration to Kocaeli from these geographic regions. Although frequency is low, the chronic transfusion requirement, high cost of chelating, organ damage, painful crisis and other crisis, and availability of stem cell transplantation only for a limited number of patients with compatible sibling donors justify premarital screening studies even in regions with lower prevalence such as Kocaeli.

  15. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh smoking prevalence among applicants to Abu Dhabi′s pre-marital screening program, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Aden

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  16. Six-year outcome of the national premarital screening and genetic counseling program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Saeedi, Mohammad Y

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia but the outcomes were not quantified. We used six years of premarital screening data to estimate the burden of sickle disease and β-thalassemia over the program period and to assess the frequency of at-risk marriage detection and prevention. Retrospective review, premarital couples attending premarital and genetic counseling clinics with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009. Blood samples obtained from all couples with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009 were tested for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. Test results were shared with all examinees and genetic counseling was offered for all at-risk couples. Marriage certificates were issued irrespective of the results and compliance with medical advice was voluntary. Out of all men and women examined, 70,962 (4.5%) and 29,006 (1.8%) were carriers or cases of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, respectively. While the prevalence of sickle cell disease was constant between 2004 and 2009 (average 45.1 per 1000 examined persons, P=.803), the prevalence of β-thalassemia steadily decreased from 32.9 to 9.0 per 1000 examined persons (Ppremarital screening in Saudi Arabia markedly reduced the number of at-risk marriages, which may considerably reduce the genetic disease burden in Saudi Arabia in the next decades.

  17. Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p sexual activity was higher among males than females (44.7% and 19.2%, respectively). Predictors of premarital sex for males were age, sexual attitudes, perceived parental expectations regarding sex, dating and peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.

  18. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  19. Factors shaping initial decision-making to self-test amongst cohabiting couples in urban Blantyre, Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumwenda, M.; Munthali, A; Phiri, M.; Mwale, D; Gutteberg, T; MacPherson, E.; Theobald, S; Corbett, L; Desmond, N.

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most new HIV infections occur in stable relationships, making couples testing an important intervention for HIV prevention. We explored factors shaping the decision-making of cohabiting couples who opted to self-test in Blantyre, Malawi. Thirty-four self-tested participants (17 couples) were interviewed. Motivators for HIV self-testing (HIVST) emerged at three main levels. Individual motivations included perceived benefits of access to treatment, and self-checking of se...

  20. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  1. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment.

  2. A Systematic Approach towards Optimizing a Cohabitation Challenge Model for Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Santi, Nina; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    A cohabitation challenge model was developed for use in evaluating the efficacy of vaccines developed against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) using a stepwise approach. The study involved identifying a set of input variables that were optimized before inclusion in the model. Input variables identified included the highly virulent Norwegian Sp strain NVI015-TA encoding the T217A221 motif having the ability to cause >90% mortality and a hazard risk ratio of 490.18 (p75% in the unvaccinated fish in order to attain a high discriminatory capacity (DC) between the vaccinated and control fish as a measure of vaccine efficacy. The model shows the importance of using highly susceptible fish to IPNV in the optimization of challenge models by showing that highly susceptible fish had a better DC of differentiating vaccine protected fish from the unvaccinated control fish than the less susceptible fish. Once all input variables were optimized, the model was tested for its reproducibility by generating similar results from three independent cohabitation challenge trials using the same input variables. Overall, data presented here show that the cohabitation challenge model developed in this study is reproducible and that it can reliably be used to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines developed against IPNV in Atlantic salmon. We envision that the approach used here will open new avenues for developing optimal challenge models for use in evaluating the efficacy of different vaccines used in aquaculture.

  3. Barcoded pyrosequencing-based metagenomic analysis of the faecal microbiome of three purebred pig lines after cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Chae, Jong Pyo; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, In Ho; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in the pig gut perform a variety of beneficial functions. Along with host genetics and diet, farm management practices are an important aspect of agricultural animal production that could influence gut microbial diversity. In this study, we used barcoded pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to characterise the faecal microbiome of three common commercial purebred pig lines (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) before and after cohabitation. The diversity of faecal microbiota was characterised by employing phylogenetic, distance-based and multivariate-clustering approaches. Bacterial diversity tended to become more uniform after mixing of the litters. Age-related shifts were also observed at various taxonomic levels, with an increase in the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes over time, regardless of the purebred group. Cohabitation had a detectable effect on the microbial shift among purebred pigs. We identified the bacterial genus Parasutterella as having utility in discriminating pigs according to time. Similarly, Dialister and Bacteroides can be used to differentiate the purebred lines used. The microbial communities of the three purebred pigs became more similar after cohabitation, but retained a certain degree of breed specificity, with the microbiota of Landrace and Yorkshire remaining distinct from that of their distant relative, Duroc.

  4. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  5. The gut eukaryotic microbiota influences the growth performance among cohabitating shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenfang; Yu, Weina; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhu, Jinyong; Tao, Zhen; Xiong, Jinbo

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed a close interplay between the gut bacterial communities and host growth performance. However, until recently, studies generally ignored the contribution of eukaryotes, endobiotic organisms. To fill this gap, we used Illumina sequencing technology on eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene to compare the structures of gut eukaryotic communities among cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimp obtained from identically managed ponds. Results showed that a significant difference between gut eukaryotic communities differed significantly between water and intestine and among three shrimp categories. Structural equation modeling revealed that changes in the gut eukaryotic community were positively related to digestive enzyme activities, which in turn influenced shrimp growth performance (λ = 0.97, P shrimp exhibited a more complex and cooperative gut eukaryotic interspecies interaction than retarded and normal shrimp, which may facilitate their nutrient acquisition efficiency. Notably, the distribution of dominant eukaryotic genera and shifts in keystone species were closely concordant with shrimp growth performance. In summary, this study provides an integrated overview on direct roles of gut eukaryotic communities in shrimp growth performance instead of well-studied bacterial assembly.

  6. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  7. Premarital screening test results for β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ekrem; Garipardic, Mesut; Dalkiran, Tahir; Davutoglu, Mehmet

    2010-11-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are common diseases in Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this study, the results of a 3-year premarital screening program are reported in Kahramanmaras province, which is located in East Mediterranean region. A total of 48,126 persons were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and of sickle cell anemia trait, which were 2.1% and 0.5% in Turkey, were found to be 2.8% and 0.4%, respectively, in our study. Of the carriers of the β-thalassemia trait, 82% had high hemoglobin A₂, 34% had high hemoglobin F, and 18% had both high hemoglobin F and hemoglobin A₂. β-Thalassemia trait in Kahramanmaras is slightly higher than the average rate in Turkey. However, sickle cell anemia trait is similar to Turkey's averages.

  8. Cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cagemate induces immune but not behavioral changes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Thalita R M; Alves, Glaucie J; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Palermo-Neto, João

    2017-02-01

    Cohabitation with Ehrlich ascitic tumor-injected conspecifics induces behavioral, neurochemical, endocrine and immune changes indicative of stress and immune impairment in female mice. The present work analyzed the effects of similar cohabitation in Swiss and Balb/C male mice. At least 12 pairs of male mice were divided into a control group and an experimental group. On experimental day 1 (ED1), one animal within each experimental pair was inoculated with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally (i.p.); the other animal was kept undisturbed and was referred to as the CSP (companion of a sick partner). One male mouse of each control pair was treated i.p. with 0.9% NaCl (1mL/kg); the other animal (the CHP, companion of a healthy partner) was kept undisturbed. Cohabitation with a sick partner for 11days did not induce any behavioral, hypothalamic noradrenergic, corticosterone or adrenal weight changes in the Swiss CSP male mice compared to those of the Swiss CHP group. However, impairments in neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst as well as increased levels of catecholamines were observed in Swiss and Balb/C CSP mice relative to CHP male animals of the same strains on ED11 and ED14, respectively. Moreover, after a challenge with 5×10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells on ED11 of cohabitation, the number and concentration of tumor cells found in the ascitic fluid were higher in the Swiss CSP male mice than in the CHP mice. These data suggest that the immune changes observed in Swiss and Balb/C male CSP mice after cohabitation with a sick cagemate might, ultimately, depend on the changes induced by catecholamines, as previously reported for CSP female mice. However, contrary to that reported in Swiss CSP female mice, changes in behavioral and hypothalamic noradrenaline activity were not found in the Swiss CSP male mice analyzed in this work. This fact suggests that male and female CSP mice might use similar immune but different CNS strategies against the threats posed

  9. A comparative study of marine salmonid alphavirus subtypes 1-6 using an experimental cohabitation challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D A; Frost, P; McLaughlin, K; Rowley, H M; Gabestad, I; Gordon, A; McLoughlin, M F

    2011-04-01

    A comparative challenge study of six marine isolates representing subtypes 1-6 of salmonid alphavirus (salmon pancreas disease virus, Genus Alphavirus, Family Togaviridae) was conducted in Atlantic salmon in a fresh water cohabitation trial. Histopathological lesions typical of pancreas disease were observed with all subtypes, and virus was re-isolated from serum of cohabitant fish in each case. Using a virus neutralization (VN) test neutralizing salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 1 strain F93-125, VN antibodies were detected in all challenge groups, consistent with serological cross-reactivity between these subtypes. Using real-time RT-PCR, SAV RNA was detected in heart tissue from 2 to 3 weeks post-challenge (wpc) in all cohabitant groups excluding controls. The results obtained suggested differences in the dynamics of infection between strains of SAV and potentially between subtypes. Results for SAV subtypes 1 and 3 suggested essentially synchronous infection of cohabitant fish. These two study groups also had the highest virus load in heart tissue as measured by quantitative RT-PCR and also had the most extensive histopathological changes. In contrast, results for SAV subtypes 2 and 6 strains were consistent with asynchronous infection in the cohabitant fish and were characterized by slow spread, low virus loads and mild histopathological changes. The SAV subtype 4 and 5 strains occupied an intermediate position in this regard. Despite the use of concentration procedures, it was not possible to detect SAV RNA in water samples from selected study tanks. However, testing of faeces from the SAV subtypes 1, 3 and 6 challenge groups found positive signals in each beginning at 1-3 wpc and remaining detectable for a further 2-3 weeks. Parallel testing of mucus samples found these became positive at 2-3 wpc and remained positive for a further 1-3 weeks. These results demonstrate for the first time that shedding and transmission of virus may occur by both these routes

  10. Recent fertility patterns of Finnish women by union status: A descriptive account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Remarkably little is known about the significance of consensual unions for fertility. This is true everywhere, but the lacuna is more important in the Nordic countries where there is so much childbearing outside of marriage, mostly in consensual unions. The purpose of this paper is to help fill this hole in our knowledge for Finland. OBJECTIVE Unusually good register data enable us to study recent fertility trends by union status (married, cohabiting, neither using records for some 112,000 Finnish women, or 11Š of all women at fertile ages. METHODS Our description of fertility is based on group-specific duration-based TFRs, which is the number of children borne by a woman who remains in the group throughout her reproductive life, as computed from the fertility rates for a synthetic cohort. This is an intuitively appealing metric that has been taken into systematic use only recently. RESULTS We find substantial fertility differences between women who cohabit, women who marry directly (i.e., without pre-marital cohabitation, and women who marry their cohabitational partner. As one would also expect in Finland, cohabiting women have much lower fertility than married women. The marital TFR is highest among the directly-married and declines monotonically as the length of pre-marital cohabitation increases, even when premarital childbearing is included in the count. As far as we know the latter relationship has not been shown before, because extensive data for complete cohabitational unions have not been available for other populations. CONCLUSIONS The Finnish data are unique, even among the Nordic countries, in that they contain individual-level life histories of family dynamics that cover consensual unions from their very start. Fertility analysis would benefit if data similar to the Finnish were to become available, because analyses that rely on civil status as an indicator of union status barely add anything to what we already know

  11. 我国婚前保健服务筹资机制研究%Empirical research on the financing mechanism of premarital healthcare services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪; 王芳; 宋莉; 刘颖; 陈永超; 杨婷; 衡驰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper , we discussed the financing mechanisms of premarital healthcare services from their properties combined with the status quo financing in our country .We then provided the scientific basis and decision-making reference for improving financing mechanism to improve the premarital healthcare system .A literature or doc-umentary and field researches have combed the present situation of the premarital healthcare services financing mech -anisms at home and abroad .Related data were collected in eight research areas , namely Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Beijing and Tianjin and the related personnel from health administrative department , civil affairs departments , maternal and child healthcare institutions were interviewed in terms of Field Research .From the main content at present , premarital healthcare services belong to the category of quasi-public goods .We dis-cussed the financing mechanisms from the financing levels , sources of funds , fund allocation , payment and financial regulatory and other aspects .Finally, some policy recommendations were put forward including making clear the na-ture of premarital healthcare service property , establishment of a special financial investment mechanism , unify the basic financing service standard after scientific feasibility studies , timely and fully allocate special premarital health-care service funds to strengthen the fund supervision policy recommendations .%本文从婚前保健服务的属性入手,探讨其筹资机制,为完善我国婚检制度提供科学依据。采用文献调研和现场调研相结合的方法,梳理国内外婚检筹资现状,收集福建、广西、江苏等8个调研地区婚检筹资相关数据,并对政府有关部门、婚检机构相关人员进行访谈。婚前保健服务属于准公共产品的范畴,本文从筹资水平、资金渠道、资金分配、资金支付和资金监管等方面对其筹资机制进行探讨,提

  12. Impact of 226C>T MSH2 gene mutation on cancer phenotypes in two HNPCC-associated highly-consanguineous families from Kuwait: emphasis on premarital genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafie, Makia J; Al-Awadi, Sadiqa; Al-Mosawi, Fatemah; Elshafey, Alaa; Al-Ali, Waleed; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2009-01-01

    Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of the commonest cancer susceptibility syndromes. It is characterized by early onset colon cancer and a variety of extracolonic tumours. Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, and PMS2) are responsible for this disorder. Identifying an affected individual depends on the tumour histopathology, family history that fulfils the Amsterdam and/or Bethesda criteria, tumour immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and finally molecular analysis of an affected member. It is a laborious, time consuming and expensive procedure, which needs the effort of a multi-disciplinary team. However, once the diagnosis is established and germline defect is identified, other high risk pre-symptomatic carriers could be offered intensive surveillance and management as a preventive measure against cancer development. Here, we present two large highly consanguineous HNPCC-families from Kuwait in whom a founder MSH2 mutation was identified. The relationship between this mutation and cancer expressivity in two large consanguineous families harbouring other genetic defects is discussed. Moreover, we shed light on the challenges pertaining to diagnosis, screening, premarital counselling of couples and prenatal diagnosis of offspring with biallelic MSH2 gene mutation.

  13. A novel cohabitation between two diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the oligotrophic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Lily M; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Carvalho, Gustavo; Lee, Patrick; Webb, Eric A

    2015-04-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium is biogeochemically significant because of its dual role in nitrogen and carbon fixation in the oligotrophic ocean. Trichodesmium species form colonies that can be easily enriched from the water column and used for shipboard rate measurements to estimate their contribution to oceanic carbon and nitrogen budgets. During a July 2010 cruise near the Hawaiian Islands in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, a specific morphology of Trichodesmium puff-form colonies were examined under epifluorescent microscopy and found to harbor a colonial endobiont, morphologically identified as the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Calothrix. Using unialgal enrichments obtained from this cruise, we show that these Calothrix-like heterocystous cyanobionts (hetDA for 'Trichodesmium-associated heterocystous diazotroph') fix nitrogen on a diurnal cycle (maximally in the middle of the light cycle with a detectable minimum in the dark). Gene sequencing of nifH from the enrichments revealed that this genus was likely not quantified using currently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers. Guided by the sequence from the isolate, new hetDA-specific primers were designed and subsequent qPCR of environmental samples detected this diazotroph from surface water to a depth of 150 m, reaching densities up to ∼ 9 × 10(3) l(-1). Based on phylogenetic relatedness of nifH and 16S rRNA gene sequences, it is predicted that the distribution of this cyanobiont is not limited to subtropical North Pacific but likely reaches to the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Therefore, this previously unrecognized cohabitation, if it reaches beyond the oligotrophic North Pacific, could potentially influence Trichodesmium-derived nitrogen fixation budgets in the world ocean.

  14. Smells Like Home: Chemically Mediated Co-Habitation of Two Termite Species in a Single Nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirošová, Anna; Sillam-Dussès, David; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Kalinová, Blanka; Dolejšová, Klára; Jančařík, Andrej; Majer, Pavel; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Hanus, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Termite nests often are referred to as the most elaborate constructions of animals. However, some termite species do not build a nest at all and instead found colonies inside the nests of other termites. Since these so-called inquilines do not need to be in direct contact with the host population, the two colonies usually live in separate parts of the nest. Adaptations of both the inquiline and its host are likely to occur to maintain the spatial exclusion and reduce the costs of potential conflicts. Among them, mutual avoidance, based on chemical cues, is expected. We investigated chemical aspects of cohabitation between Constrictotermes cavifrons (Nasutitermitinae) and its obligatory inquiline Inquilinitermes inquilinus (Termitinae). Inquiline soldiers produce in their frontal glands a blend of wax esters, consisting of the C12 alcohols (3Z)-dodec enol, (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienol, and dodecanol, esterified with different fatty acids. The C12 alcohols appear to be cleaved gradually from the wax esters, and they occur in the frontal gland, in soldier headspace, and in the walls of the inquiline part of the nest. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that (3Z)-dodecenol and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienol are perceived by workers of both species. Bioassays indicated that inquiline soldier heads, as well as the two synthetic compounds, are attractive to conspecific workers and elicit an arresting behavior, while host soldiers and workers avoid these chemicals at biologically relevant amounts. These observations support the hypothesis that chemically mediated spatial separation of the host and the inquiline is an element of a conflict-avoidance strategy in these species.

  15. Neuroimmune interactions and psychologycal stress induced by cohabitation with a sick partner: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo-Neto, Joao; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the neuroimmunological consequences elicited in mice from long-term cohabitation with tumor-bearing conspecifics. Two types of experiments were performed; one used Swiss female mice and Ehrlich tumor cells, and the other used C57Bl/6 female mice and B16F10 melanoma cells. The female Swiss mice and the C57Bl/6 mice were divided into two groups, i.e., control and experimental. One mouse in each control pair was treated with control solutions (1.0 mL/kg); the other was kept undisturbed and called the 'companion of health partner' (CHP). One mouse in each experimental pair was inoculated with 5 x 10(6) Ehrlich tumor cells or with 10(6) murine B16-F10 melanoma cells; the other mouse, which was the subject of the performed studies, was left undisturbed and called the 'companion of sick partner' (CSP). Although we used two different strains of mice and two different tumor types, the CSP mice presented, in relation to the CHP mice, an increased locomotion in the open field and plus maze apparatuses and no changes in the corticosterone serum levels before and after the immobilization-stress challenge. The Swiss CSP mice showed a reduced level and an increased turnover rate of hypothalamic noradrenaline (NE), as well as increased plasmatic levels of adrenaline and NE. Changes in the immune cell phenotype and activity were also observed in the Swiss and C57Bl/6 CSP mice. The study found that odor cues left by the Ehrlich tumor-injected Swiss mice are aversive and may therefore be responsible for the neuroimmune changes reported in the CSP mice. It is proposed that the final neural link between the neuroimmunological changes observed in the CSP mice involves psychogenic stress imposed by the housing condition and the activation of the brain catecholaminergic pathways and the sympathetic nervous systems.

  16. 'Just Living Together': Implications of cohabitation for fathers' participation in child care in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article tests the assumption that cohabitation makes a difference in the allocation of child care responsibilities within couples. It has often been presumed that cohabiting individuals are less likely to adhere to traditional gender ideology than married persons, because they tend to have a lower tolerance for poorly functioning relationships, assign more value to individual freedom and base their relationship on egalitarian individualism rather than on the joint utility maximization of married couples. So far, however, most studies have focused on the determinants and consequences of being in cohabitation and have overlooked its gender implications. Here we explore whether fathers in consensual unions are more prone than fathers in marital unions to share childcare responsibilities with their female partners. We use multilevel regression models for panel data to analyse ECHP in the period between 1996 and 2001. Our sample included around 13,000 couples living in heterosexual partnerships with small children (at least one child below age 13, and yielded around 45,000 observations over this period of time in ten Western European nations. We found weak evidence of the influence of cohabitation on gender equality as compared to married couples, while discovering that the diffusion of cohabitation at the societal level is associated with more equal allotment of child care among partners.

  17. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  18. Common phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns found in a case study of multiresistant E. coli from cohabitant pets, humans, and household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliana Raquel Leite; Pina, Susana Maria Rocha; Simões, Romeo Luís Rocha; de Matos, Augusto José Ferreira; Rodrigues, Pedro; da Costa, Paulo Martins Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles among E. coli strains isolated from cohabitant pets and humans, evaluating the concurrent colonization of pets, owners, and home surfaces by bacteria carrying the same antimicrobial-resistant genes. The authors also intended to assess whether household surfaces and objects could contribute to the within-household antimicrobial-resistant gene diffusion between human and animal cohabitants. A total of 124 E. coli strains were isolated displaying 24 different phenotypic patterns with a remarkable percentage of multiresistant ones. The same resistance patterns were isolated from the dog's urine, mouth, the laundry floor, the refrigerator door, and the dog's food bowl. Some other multiresistant phenotypes, as long as resistant genes, were found repeatedly in different inhabitants and surfaces of the house. Direct, close contact between all the cohabitants and the touch of contaminated household surfaces and objects could be an explanation for these observations.

  19. 'Disrespectful men, disrespectable women': men's perceptions on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex in a Sri Lankan Free Trade Zone - a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Öhman, Ann; Essén, Birgitta; Olsson, Pia

    2015-02-07

    Gender norms have been challenged by unmarried rural women's migration for employment to urban Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones (FTZ). Men are described as looking for sexual experiences among the women workers, who are then accused of engaging in premarital sex, something seen as taboo in this context. Increased sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) risks for women workers are reported. To improve SRHR it is important to understand the existing gender ideals that shape these behaviours. This qualitative study explores men's perspectives on gender relations in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ, with a focus on heterosexual relationships and premarital sex. Further, possible implications for SRHR of women workers in FTZs are discussed. Eighteen qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with men living or working in an urban Sri Lankan FTZ and were analysed using thematic analysis. Two conflicting constructions of masculinity; the 'disrespectful womaniser' and the 'respectful partner', were discerned. The 'disrespectful womaniser' was perceived to be predominant and was considered immoral while the 'respectful partner' was considered to be less prevalent, but was seen as morally upright. The migrant women workers' moral values upon arrival to the FTZ were perceived to deteriorate with time spent in the FTZ. Heterosexual relationships and premarital sex were seen as common, however, ideals of female respectability and secrecy around premarital sex were perceived to jeopardize contraceptive use and thus counteract SRHR. The 'disrespectful' masculinity revealed in the FTZ is reflective of the patriarchal Sri Lankan society that enables men's entitlement and sexual domination over women. Deterioration of men's economic power and increase of women's economic and social independence may also be important aspects contributing to men's antagonistic attitudes towards women. The promotion of negative attitudes towards women is normalized through masculine peer pressure

  20. Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling program: knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction of attendees of governmental outpatient clinics in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Bashawri, Jamel; Al Bar, Hussein; Al Ahmadi, Jawaher; Al Bar, Adnan; Qadi, Mahdi; Milaat, Waleed; Feda, Hashim

    2013-02-01

    Premarital care (PMC) is a worldwide activity that aims to diagnose and treat unrecognized disorders and reduce the transmission of diseases to couples and children. To assess the knowledge and attitude of individuals attending governmental outpatient clinics regarding the Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling (PMSGC) programs, to identify predictors of high knowledge scores and to determine the satisfaction and recommendations of clients of the program. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009. Individuals who attended three governmental hospital outpatient clinics on the day of the interview and agreed to participate in the study were recruited. The three hospitals were the two hospitals in Jeddah that offer the PMSGC programs and the King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Ethical considerations were followed and data were collected through an interview questionnaire that had been constructed for the study. The questionnaire asked for personal and socio-demographic data and for responses, on a 5-point Likert scale, to 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements. Individuals who participated in the PMSGC program were asked questions regarding the services and activities of the program to ascertain their satisfaction with the program and their recommendations for program improvement. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The sample included 655 participants, of whom 38.8% completed the PMSGC program. The participants' knowledge about the program was generally low. Education was the first predictor of a high knowledge score; individuals having ≥ university degree obtained a higher score (aOR=2.73; 95% CI: 1.77-4.20). The second predictor was the nationality of the participants, with Saudis gaining a higher score (aOR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.002-4.16). The third predictor was monthly income. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of participants (96.0%) strongly agreed on the importance of the

  1. Effects of relationship duration, cohabitation, and marriage on the frequency of intercourse in couples: Findings from German panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jette; Schmiedeberg, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Research into the changes in the frequency of sexual intercourse is (with few exceptions) limited to cross-sectional analyses of marital duration. We investigate the frequency of intercourse while taking into account relationship duration as well as the duration of cohabitation and marriage, effects of parenthood, and relationship quality. For the analysis we apply fixed effects regression models using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), a nationwide randomly sampled German panel survey. Our findings imply that the drop in sex frequency occurs early in the relationship, whereas neither cohabitation nor marriage affects the frequency of intercourse to a significant extent. Sex frequency is reduced during pregnancy and as long as the couple has small children, but becomes revived later on. Relationship quality is found to play a role as well. These results are contrary to the honeymoon effect found in earlier research, but indicate that in times of postponed marriage an analogous effect may be at work in the initial period of the relationship.

  2. Hereditary position of relatives in direct ascending and collateral line, spouses and cohabitation partner: Comparative legal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses hereditary position of ascendants and collateral relatives on one hand and a surviving spouse and cohabitation partner on the other hand, as intestate successors in the modern laws of Europe, particularly those belonging to the European civil law system, which also includes the Serbian legal system. The subject of the research is observed through the prism of comparative method which is necessary in order to obtain a comprehensive insight into the scope of application and the manner of usage of kinship in direct ascending and collateral line and marriage, that is, cohabitation, as material facts in formulating the rules of inheritance. This method further allows to recognize certain differences and, more importantly, similarities and common solutions and general legal principles that these laws are governed by in their legislative and theoretical approach regarding this issue. In this way we aim to answer the question to what extent the relationship between the kinship in the direct ascending and collateral line and marriage, in Serbian law, is synchronized with legal standards adopted in legal systems of the most other European countries; and whether there is a need in the local law, in particular in terms of adoption of the Civil Code of Serbia, for certain inheritance law reforms relating to regulation of this issue.

  3. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  4. Qualitative inquiry into premarital sexual behaviours and contraceptive use among multiethnic young women: implications for education and future research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. METHODS: A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%, Chinese (34%, and Indian (31% young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. RESULTS: The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs.

  5. Prevalence of beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait in premarital screening in Konya urban area, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ekrem; Caliskan, Umran; UcarAlbayrak, Canan; Karacan, Mehmet

    2007-11-01

    Thalassemias and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are common disease in Turkey. To determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia and SCA traits in Konya urban area of Turkey, all couples applied for marriage procedures were screened. Screening tests included complete blood count and quantitation of hemoglobin for both partners. The subjects were considered to have the beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume of less than 80 fL and/or a mean corpuscular hemoglobin level of less than 27 pg and a hemoglobin A2 level of more than 3.2% or a hemoglobin F level of more than 2%. Subjects were considered to have an SCA trait if they were positive for sickle hemoglobin. During the study, premarital screening of hemoglobinopathies was evaluated retrospectively in 72,918 subjects; the thalassemia trait was detected in 1465 subjects (2%), and the SCA trait was detected in 37 subjects (0.05%). Of the carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait, 820 (56%) people had high hemoglobin A2, 513 (35%) people had high hemoglobin F, and 132 (9%) people had both high hemoglobin F and hemoglobin A2. Our results are very similar to Turkey's beta-thalassemia and SCA trait averages.

  6. Postmarital follow-up survey on high risk patients subjected to premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Saeedi, Mohammad; Al Suliman, Ahmed; Owaidah, Tarek

    2010-05-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are the most inherited disorders worldwide including Saudi Arabia which can be preventable with application of screening programmers. Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia had initiated premarital screening program (PMS) in all country regions. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the PMS program and genetic counseling on couples at risk for thalassaemia and sickle cell anima in an area of the country with high hemoglobinopathy prevalence. A total of 129 candidates identified by PMS to be at risk were included. Out of this cohort, 98% proceeded with marriage. Culture pressure was the main reason in more than 48%. Over a period of 4 years, these marriages resulted in 15 diseased children. Although most of the candidates did not receive genetic counseling yet, the concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of them. This study showed some early benefits of the PMS in prevention of the targeted diseases and the program helped in early detection of the disease in their offspring.

  7. Next-generation sequencing improves thalassemia carrier screening among premarital adults in a high prevalence population: the Dai nationality, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Song, Wenhui; Yang, Jinlong; Lu, Sen; Yuan, Yuan; Guo, Junfu; Zhang, Jie; Ye, Kai; Yang, Fan; Long, Fangfang; Peng, Zhiyu; Yu, Haijing; Cheng, Le; Zhu, Baosheng

    2017-09-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases in southwestern China, especially among the Dai ethnic group. Here, we explore the feasibility of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) screening method specifically for the Dai people. Blood samples were obtained from Dai people for premarital screening. Double-blind, parallel hemoglobinopathy screening was conducted using both traditional hematological methods (red cell indexes and hemoglobin electrophoresis, then DNA sequencing) and an NGS approach. Among 951 tested individuals, we found a thalassemia carrier rate of 49.5% (471/951) using the NGS screen, in contrast to 22.0% (209/951) found using traditional methods. Almost 74.8% (217/290) of α-thalassemia carriers and 30.5% (25/82) of composite α- and β-thalassemia carriers were missed by traditional screens. The proportion of such α- and β-thalassemia carriers among the Dai people is 8.6% (82/951). For β-thalassemia carriers, the high ratio (66/99) of CD26 mutations may suggest a correlation between CD26 and the environmental adaption of the Dai people. Methodological comparisons demonstrate the superiority of NGS for both sensitivity and specificity, provide a comprehensive assessment of thalassemia screening strategies, and indicate that NGS is a competitive screening method, especially among populations with a high prevalence of disease.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017.

  8. "Living in sin" and marriage : A matching model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, PR; Gu, XH

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a two sided matching model of premarital cohabitation and marriage in which premarital cohabitation serves as a period of learning. We solve for the optimal policy to be followed by individuals by treating the model as a three stage dynamic programming problem. We find that coupl

  9. "Living in sin" and marriage : a matching model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao Sahib, P. Padma; Gu, X. Xinhua

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a two sided matching model of premarital cohabitation and marriage in which premarital cohabitation serves as a period of learning. We solve for the optimal policy to be followed by individuals by treating the model as a three stage dynamic programming problem. We find that coupl

  10. "Living in sin" and marriage : A matching model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahib, PR; Gu, XH

    This paper develops a two sided matching model of premarital cohabitation and marriage in which premarital cohabitation serves as a period of learning. We solve for the optimal policy to be followed by individuals by treating the model as a three stage dynamic programming problem. We find that

  11. "Living in sin" and marriage : a matching model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao Sahib, P. Padma; Gu, X. Xinhua

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a two sided matching model of premarital cohabitation and marriage in which premarital cohabitation serves as a period of learning. We solve for the optimal policy to be followed by individuals by treating the model as a three stage dynamic programming problem. We find that

  12. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  13. Vibriosis induced by experimental cohabitation in Crassostrea gigas: evidence of early infection and down-expression of immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Sophie; Saulnier, Denis

    2011-02-01

    The understanding of reciprocal interactions between Crassostrea gigas and Vibrio sp., whether these be virulent or avirulent, is vital for the development of methods to improve the health status of cultured oysters. We describe an original non-invasive experimental infection technique using cohabitation, designed to explore these interactions. Using real-time PCR techniques we examined the dynamics of virulent and avirulent Vibrio sp. in oyster hemolymph and tank seawater, and made a parallel study of the expression of four genes involved in oyster immune defense: Cg-BPI, Cg-EcSOD, Cg-IκB, Cg-TIMP. No mortality occurred in control animals, but oysters put in cohabitation for 2-48 h with animals previously infected by two Vibrio pathogens suffered mortalities from 2 to 16 days post-cohabitation. Our results show that virulent Vibrio infect healthy individuals after only 2 h of cohabitation, with values ranging from 4.5 x 10² to 2 x 10⁴ cells ml⁻¹ hemolymph. Simultaneously, an approximate ten-fold increase of the total Vibrio population was observed in control animals, with a 6.6-78.5-fold up-expression of targeted genes. In contrast, oysters exposed to harmful bacteria had mean expression levels strongly down-regulated by a factor of 9.2-29 (depending on the gene) compared with control animals. Although oysters were still found to be infected by virulent Vibrio after 6-48 h of cohabitation, no significant differences were noted when comparing levels of each transcript in control and infected oysters at the same sampling times during this period: the important differences were noted before 6 h cohabitation. Taken together, our data support (1) the hypothesis that virulent Vibrio disturbs the immune response of this invertebrate host both rapidly and significantly, although this occurs specifically during an early and transient period during the first 6 h of cohabitation challenge, and that (2) expression of targeted genes is not correlated with vibriosis

  14. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  15. Secularization, Union Formation Practices, and Marital Stability: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impicciatore, Roberto; Billari, Francesco C

    2012-05-01

    Descriptive statistics indicate that civil marriages and marriages preceded by premarital cohabitation are more unstable, i.e., more frequently followed by divorce. However, the literature has shown that selectivity plays an important role in the relationship between premarital cohabitation and union dissolution. We do not have evidence to date regarding the selectivity in the effect of civil marriage. The Italian case appears particularly interesting given the recent diffusion of premarital cohabitation and civil marriage. Using micro-level data from a national-level representative survey conducted in 2003, we develop a multiprocess model that allows unobserved heterogeneity to be correlated across the three decisions (premarital cohabitation, civil marriage, and divorce). Our results show that selectivity is the main factor that explains the higher divorce rates among those who experience premarital cohabitation and a civil marriage. Net of selectivity, the causal effect on union dissolution disappears.

  16. Efficiency of premarital screening of beta-thalassemia trait using MCH rather than MCV in the population of Fars Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M; Rasekhi, A R

    2002-01-01

    Iran is a country with high prevalence of about 5-10% of beta-thalassemia trait. The prevalence of Cooly's anemia has declined from 11.6 in 10000 population to 7.2 in 10000 in a five-year period due to screening program of beta-thalassemia trait before marriage. This study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) screening test in first step of screening of beta-thalassemia trait. From 2449 couples (4898 cases) participating in the premarital screening to our clinic, 902 cases with either MCH screening test for detecting beta-thalassemia minor before marriage.

  17. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik;

    2014-01-01

    that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune...... post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased m......RNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head...

  18. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, A; Uysal, A; Uludağ, A; Ertekin, Y H; Tekin, M; Kütük, B; Silan, F; Özdemir, Ö

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) carriers in Turkey varies according to region but in general it is 2.0%. Çanakkale is a city in the Aegean region of Turkey but no study about β-thal frequency in Çanakkale has been published to date. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of β-thal mutations in this province. A total of 4452 couples (8904 individuals) applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of 125 β-thal carriers seen at the Medical Genetics Clinic, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, for genetic counseling, 46 participated in the study. The remaining 79 patients could not be reached. The prevalence for β-thal carriers in Çanakkale was identified as 1.4% (125/8904). One couple were both β-thal carriers. β-Globin gene analysis of 46 carriers found the total frequency of the three most common mutations was 45.6%. These mutations were found to be HBB: c.93-21G>A [IVS-I-110 (G>A)], 26.08% (12/46); HBB: c.17_ 18delCT [codon 5 (‒CT)], 10.85% (5/46); HBB: c.20delA [codon 6 (‒A)] 8.69% (4/46). This is the first report on the frequency and mutation profiles of β-thal for Çanakkale. The incidence of β-thal carriers in Çanakkale is below the average for Turkey. The most frequently observed mutation profile and rate of β-thal in our region is different from the other regions of Turkey.

  19. Prevalence and mutations of β-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in premarital screening in Çanakkale province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uludağ A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of β-thalassemia (β-thal carriers in Turkey varies according to region but in general it is 2.0%. Çanakkale is a city in the Aegean region of Turkey but no study about β-thal frequency in Çanakkale has been published to date. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of β-thal mutations in this province. A total of 4452 couples (8904 individuals applied for premarital thalassemia scans at the Çanakkale State Health Directorate Laboratory between January 2008 and June 2012 and scanning was done with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Of 125 β-thal carriers seen at the Medical Genetics Clinic, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, for genetic counseling, 46 participated in the study. The remaining 79 patients could not be reached. The prevalence for β-thal carriers in Çanakkale was identified as 1.4% (125/8904. One couple were both β-thal carriers. β-Globin gene analysis of 46 carriers found the total frequency of the three most common mutations was 45.6%. These mutations were found to be HBB: c.93-21G>A [IVS-I-110 (G>A], 26.08% (12/46; HBB: c.17_ 18delCT [codon 5 (‒CT], 10.85% (5/46; HBB: c.20delA [codon 6 (‒A] 8.69% (4/46. This is the first report on the frequency and mutation profiles of β-thal for Çanakkale. The incidence of β-thal carriers in Çanakkale is below the average for Turkey. The most frequently observed mutation profile and rate of β-thal in our region is different from the other regions of Turkey.

  20. Factors influencing voluntary premarital medical examination in Zhejiang province, China: a culturally-tailored health behavioral model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. Methods A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. Results 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This study has provided new insights for establishing a theoretical model to understand health behaviors in China. PMID:24972866

  1. Attitudes Toward and Experience of Singles with Premarital Sex: A Population-Based Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Salehi, Forough; Barfi, Rahele; Asadi, Zahra; Honarvar, Hossein; Odoomi, Neda; Arefi, Nafiseh; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2016-02-01

    The population of Iran is young and millions of youths are at risk for unprotected sexual relationships and their consequences. This questionnaire-based study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran. Singles were asked about premarital sex (PMS) and sexual health issues. A total of 1076 participants (634 males, 58.9%) with a mean age of 24 ± 5.8 years participated in this study. One out of 2 singles reported PMS and 1 out of 2 singles with PMS reported multiple partners. Median age at first sexual contact was 18 years. Of all singles, 452 (41.9%) were heterosexual, 61 (5.6%) were bisexual, 366 (33.9%) were alcohol users, 252 (23.3%) were smokers, 57 (5.2%) were opium users, and 392 (36.3%) did not know about preventive methods for HIV. Of 528 singles who had PMS, 126 (23.8%) never used a condom, 223 (42.2%) used it inconsistently, and 59 (11.1%) used it mainly against sexually transmitted diseases. In the regression analysis, alcohol use was the strongest associated factor of PMS in singles (OR 4.9, 95% CI 3.3-7.4), followed by lack of religious beliefs (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8). As a result, the PMS situation in our setting is cause for alarm and to protect singles against the risks associated with PMS, a multidisciplinary intervention including improving access to sexual behavioral counseling centers, education about sexual health and especially condom use, abstinence from alcohol use, and commitment to religious values is urgently needed to be established by health policymakers.

  2. Secularization, Union Formation Practices, and Marital Stability: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Impicciatore, R.; Billari, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive statistics indicate that civil marriages and marriages preceded by premarital cohabitation are more unstable, i.e., more frequently followed by divorce. However, the literature has shown that selectivity plays an important role in the relationship between premarital cohabitation and union dissolution. We do not have evidence to date regarding the selectivity in the effect of civil marriage. The Italian case appears particularly interesting given the recent diffusion of premarital ...

  3. Premarital screening of 466 Mediterranean women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aysun; Güler, Ömer Tolga; Karahan, Hatice Tuba; Özkan, Sevgi; Koyuncu, Hasan; Demirciler, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Iron, folate, and vitamin B12 serum levels are closely related with dietary habits and have an essential role in the healthy development of a fetus. We aimed to investigate hemoglobin, ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in preconceptional women in an area where a plant-based diet referred to as Mediterranean cuisine is commonly used. The study population included 466 women between the ages of 18 and 45 years admitted for thalassemia screening. Sociodemographic variables and history of menometrorrhagia, pica, and dietary habits were collected. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin levels were measured. Ferritin of <12µg/L, vitamin B12 of <200 pg/mL, and folate of <4 ng/mL were accepted as deficiencies. Hemoglobin level of <12 g/dL was classified as anemia. Polymenorrhea was present in 11.7% and hypermenorrhea in 24.8% of women. Anemia was detected in 24.9% and thalassemia trait in 3.0% of women. Low ferritin levels were observed in 46.1%, vitamin B12 in 21.6%, and folate in 3.4% of women. In the group with low vitamin B12, decreased meat consumption was more prevalent (27.5% vs. 16.9%; P = 0.019). Vitamin B12 and iron are the main micronutrients depleted in our community. This necessitates implementing a public health program for women consuming a Mediterranean diet.

  4. Investigation of RBC Indices and HbA2 Levels in Parents of Beta-Thalassemia Patients: Impacts on Premarital Genetic Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Izadyar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate RBC indices and HbA2 levels in parents of major beta-thalassemia patients to detect possible silent beta- thalassemia carriers and examine its potential impact on the premarital genetic counseling.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed at Children Medical Center from 2004 to 2006. After genetic counseling and getting informed consent, peripheral blood sampling was carried out on 185 carrier parents of regularly blood transfused thalassemia children. Then RBC indices and HbA2 concentration were measured. Samples with MCV and MCH higher than and/or HbA2 lower than cut off values were rechecked. Results: In one case, MCV and MCH indices were within the limits defined for non beta- thalassemia carriers. Furthermore, four other cases were found to have decreased values of MCV and MCH but normal HbA2 levels.Conclusion: About 3% of beta-thalassemia carriers in our country may potentially be missed using current screening methods. Further studies are required to assess the need for presenting a new threshold for thalassemia carrier screening. Defining the causative mutations using molecular methods would pave the way for establishing a protocol for a premarital screening program in conditions when one of couples is a confirmed carrier.

  5. 高校女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘缨; 张建芳; 张媛媛; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students, so as to provide evidence for their reproductive health interventions. Methods An anonymous survey was conducted with self-designed questionnaires among 838 female college students aged 18-24 from 5 randomly selected universities in Xi' an. Altogether 786 effective questionnaires were collected. Results Among the students surveyed, 5. 3% students had unplanned pregnancy, 17. 1% students had sexual behavior but were not pregnant, and 77. 6% students had no sexual behavior. The correct rate of sexual knowledge of sexual behavior group ( not pregnant ) was remarkably higher than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2=9. 317-17. 126,P =0. 000-0. 003 ), and the sexual tolerance of former group ( not pregnant ) was also remarkably higher than that of latter group( χ2 =22.497, P = 0. 000 ). In sexual attitude towards the influence of premarital sex on body and mind and future family, the cognition of sexual behavior group was remarkably lower than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2 =7. 162-16. 876,P = 0. 000-0. 022 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that grade, knowledge of contraception,side effect of premarital sex on future family and sexual tolerance were influencing factors of premarital sex. Conclusion Sexual attitude is an important influencing factor of premarital sex of female college students.%目的 探讨影响高校女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为大学女性生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法 采用自编问卷调查法,随即抽取西安5所高校的838名18~24岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果 收回786份有效问卷进行分析,结果为①5.3%的女大学生承认有计划外妊娠行为,17.1%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,77.6%无性经历;②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未妊娠)高于无性经历组(χ2=9.317~17.126,P=0.000~0.003);③在对婚前性行为的容许度方面,

  6. 某区2009~2012年婚前医学检查结果的分析%AnalysisonPremaritalMedicalExaminationinA DistrictBetween2009and2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁爱华

    2013-01-01

      目的了解广州市黄埔区婚前医学检查状况,为有效促进婚检提供科学依据。方法对2009~2012年广州市黄埔区婚前医学检查资料进行分析。结果2009~2012年应检人数19350例,实检人数9119例,婚前医学检查率为47.13%,疾病检出率为12.23%。各类疾病中生殖系统疾病所占比例最高(72.07%),指定性传染病占17.49%,严重遗传性疾病占6.65%。在检出异常情况中,以HBsAg阳性乙肝病毒携带者最为常见,检出率8.89%。结论加强宣传,提高婚检率,是提高出生人口素质,降低出生缺陷的重要举措。%Objective In order to provide scientific evidence fo reffectively promoting the premarital medical examinations, the situation of premarital medical examination in Huangpu District of Guangzhou was analyzed. Methods The premarital medical examination reports in Huangpu District from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed statistically. Results The number of pre-marital medical check is 19350 persons. In fact,the total of premarital medical examinations were 9119 persons. The rate of Premarital medical examination was 47.13%during 2009-2012. The average rate of disease detection was 12.23%during this period. The first three kinds of disease were reproductive system disease (72.07%), designated infectious disease (17.49%) and serious hereditary diseases (6.65%). The most common disease was HBsAg positive hepatitis B virus carriers in the abnormal situation , the detection rate of 8.89%. Conclusion Premarital medical examination could facilitate the reduction of birth defect and improve the qualityof the population.

  7. A study on“one-stop”premarital healthcare services based on SWOT analysis%基于 SWOT 分析的“一站式”婚检服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓曦; 吕剑楠; 王芳; 丁雪; 杨婷; 宋秋霞; 宋莉; 刘颖

    2016-01-01

    本研究根据现场调研和文献调研获取婚检相关资料,运用SWOT方法,系统分析了“一站式”婚检服务的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,提出了加强国家有关部委间的沟通合作、建立政府主导的多部门合作机制、加大资源投入、推动婚检与孕前优生健康检查服务整合、加强宣传动员等策略建议,为推进我国婚检工作提供决策依据。%Based on SWOT analysis and relevant information about the premarital healthcare services through on-site survey and literature research , this paper systematically analyzed the Strengths , Weaknesses , Opportunities and Threats of “one-stop” premarital healthcare services .It also puts forward some strategic suggestions on premarital healthcare services in China including enhancing communication and cooperation between the related national minis -tries and commissions , building a government-led multi-sectoral coordination mechanism , increasing the resource in-vestment , promoting the premarital health care service and pre-pregnancy physical examination integration , and strengthening publicity and mobilization of “one stop” service for premarital healthcare service policy recommenda-tions to provide a basis for decision-making in the promotion of the policy-related works .

  8. 大学生婚前性行为Warner模型下分层三阶段抽样调查分析%The stratified three-stage sample survey of undergraduates' premarital sex under the Warner model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The premarital sex of senior students in some universities of Anhui province is investigated. To protect the privacy of respondents, applying randomized response technique and stratified three-stage method, the proportion of senior students premari-tal sex is studied using attribute characteristic Warner model. According to total probability formulas and variance's basic properties in Probability and Mathematical Statistics and the classical sampling theory of Cochran, the proportion and variance of senior college students premarital sex are deduced at all levels and stages. The survey reveals that the proportion of senior students premarital sex is high. Therefore, we should actively instruct the undergraduates to treat the issues of premarital sex properly and rationally.%对安徽省某高校大四学生婚前性行为进行抽样调查,为保护被调查对象的隐私,采用随机应答技术( Random-ized Response Technique,简写为RRT)结合分层三阶段抽样调查方法,利用属性特征敏感问题Warner模型分析该校大四学生发生婚前性行为的比例。运用全概率公式及方差的基本性质等概率论与数理统计知识,结合Cochran W. G的经典抽样理论,推导出各层各阶段大四学生发生婚前性行为的比例及其方差。调查结果显示大四学生婚前性行为发生比例高。为此,应该积极引导大学生理性正确的对待婚前性行为。

  9. Factors associated with HIV infection in married or cohabitating couples in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kaiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral indicators and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in 15,853 consenting adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed interview and blood testing data at the sexual partnership level from married or cohabitating couples. Multivariable regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with HIV discordant and concordant status. RESULTS: Of 3256 couples identified in the survey, 2748 (84.4% had interview and blood testing data. Overall, 3.8% of couples were concordantly infected with HIV, and in 5.8% one partner was infected, translating to 338,000 discordant couples in Kenya. In 83.6% of HIV-infected Kenyans living in married or cohabitating couples neither partner knew their HIV status. Factors independently associated with HIV-discordance included young age in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8; p<0.0001, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners in women (AOR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.8; p<0.0001, HSV-2 infection in either or both partners (AOR 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3-7.2; p<0.0001, and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5; p = 0.032. Independent factors for HIV-concordance included HSV-2 infection in both partners (AOR 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.7; p = 0.001 and lack of male circumcision (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3; p = 0.043. CONCLUSIONS: Couple prevention interventions should begin early in relationships and include mutual knowledge of HIV status, reduction of outside sexual partners, and promotion of male circumcision among HIV-uninfected men. Mechanisms for effective prevention or suppression of HSV-2 infection are also needed.

  10. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  11. Violence between Non- marital Cohabitation and Domestic Violence%非婚同居者问暴力与家庭暴力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑净方

    2011-01-01

    随着社会经济的不断发展,婚姻多元化趋势不断加强,非传统家庭类型,如非婚同居、同性婚姻等不断出现。我国现行法律没有关于非婚同居的界定,只是散见于或隐蔽于相关的一些法律或司法解释。在我国现行法律制度体系下研究非婚同居者间的暴力问题存在一定的困境。因此,我们应当寻找拓展新的思路。%With the continuous social and economic development, the trend of marriage diversification is growing strong, nontraditional family types, such as non - marital cohabitation, same - sex marriage continue to emerge. Non - marital cohabitation is not defined in China's current laws, but is scattered or hidden in the relevant laws or judicial interpretation. There are certain difficulties to study the problem of violence among non - marital cohabitants in China's current legal system. Therefore, we should be exploring new ideas.

  12. Same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole induces a conditioned socio-sexual partner preference in males, but not in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Montero-Domínguez, Felix; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Garcia, Luis I; Manzo, Jorge; Hernandez, María Elena; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) were examined on the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference induced by cohabitation in rats. In Experiment 1, males received either saline or QNP (1.25mg/kg) and cohabited during three trials with almond-scented stimulus males that were sexually naïve. In Experiment 2, males received six trials, and in Experiment 3 received three trials with sexually expert stimulus males. During a final drug-free preference test, males chose between the familiar or a novel male partner. In Experiments 1, 2 and 3 only QNP-treated males displayed a social preference for the familiar male, observed with more time spent together. In Experiment 3 males also displayed a sexual preference observed with more non-contact erections when were exposed to their male partner. In Experiment 4 we tested the effects on OVX, E+P primed females that received 1 systemic injection of either saline or QNP during three conditioning trials. In Experiment 5, females received 2 injections 12-h apart during each trial. Results indicated that both saline and QNP-treated females failed to develop partner preference. These data demonstrate that enhanced D2-type receptor activity during cohabitation facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males, but not in female rats. We discuss the implications for same-sex partner preferences.

  13. The association between sexting and premarital sex among adolescents%青少年性短信和性行为之间的关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉启国; 车焱; 朱雯静; 张焕玲; 潘瑶; 闵敏; 沈洁; 陆梅; 陆珍; 曾燕

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To explore the prevalence of sexting and the association between sexting and pre-marital sex among adolescents.Methods:382 freshmen from 3 colleges in Shanghai were recruited with stratified -cluster sampling method to complete the questionnaire anonymously.Results:The proportion of adolescents who ev-er sent naked pictures of yourself to another through text or email was 3.49%,and the proportion of female was higher than that of male (P =0.01 2);the proportion of adolescents who ever asked someone to send naked pictures of themselves to him was 5.43%,and the proportion of female was lower than that of male (P =0.007);the pro-portion of adolescents who ever been asked to send naked pictures of themselves through text or email was 8.7%, and there was no significant difference between different genders.All three models of sexting were associated with premarital sex among adolescents.Conclusion:Sexting could be considered as one indicator of premarital sex a-mong adolescents.%目的:了解青少年性短信的收发情况及对其性行为的影响,为创建健康校园提供政策依据。方法:采取分层整群抽样的方法,在上海市3所大专院校的382名一年级学生中开展调查。结果:受试者中3.49%曾经给他人发过自己的私密照,男性低于女性(P =0.012);5.43%曾经要求过他人将其私密照发给自己,男性高于女性(P =0.007);8.7%曾经被要求给他人发自己的私密照。三种模式的性短信均与婚前性行为存在关联。结论:性短信可视作青少年婚前性行为的一个指示变量。

  14. Predicting married and cohabiting couples' futures from their descriptions of stepfamily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Maddy E; Bruce, Vanessa; Halford, W Kim; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-08-01

    Stepfamily couples experience specific challenges early in their relationships, (e.g., reaching agreement on the role of the stepparent in parenting). The Oral History Interview for Stepfamilies (OHI-S) was developed to assess spouses' cognitive representations of their adaptation to these challenges. It was hypothesized that their responses would predict future relationship satisfaction and stability. One-hundred and 22 stepfamily couples completed the OHI-S and were assessed on relationship satisfaction and stability at Time 1 and 2.5 years later (Time 2). Time 2 relationship satisfaction and stability were both predicted by the OHI-S at Time 1. Couples' perceptions of the stepfamily and couple relationship predict separation, and suggest there is an opportunity for early intervention to enhance stepfamily couple relationships.

  15. Aggression by a female rat cohabitating with a sterile male: termination of pseudopregnancy does not abolish aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Watson, N V; Moe, I V; Walsh, M L

    1991-09-01

    At the end of that time, each female was assessed for aggressiveness toward an unfamiliar female intruder once each week for 3 weeks. Those females displaying a high level of aggression had their male cagemate changed. For half of the females, the new male cagemate was a castrated male with a testosterone implant. For the other half, the new cagemate was a castrated male without a testosterone implant. Replacement males had been subjected to surgery 9 weeks previously. There were no differences in the aggressiveness of females of the two groups on any of 3 subsequent weekly tests of aggression. In a 3-h evaluation of male sexual behavior, none of the 9 castrated males without testosterone replacement displayed sexual activity with an estrogen/progesterone primed ovariectomized female, but 6 of 9 males with testosterone replacement did. Reanalysis of the aggression data comparing the females whose males had no testosterone replacement and females housed with the 6 males that were sexually active also revealed no differences in aggression over the 21-day test period. Since pseudopregnancy is known to last 13 days, these results indicate that the continuous presence of pseudopregnancy is not required for maintenance of aggression by a female cohabiting with a sterile male.

  16. Cohabitation with a sterile male facilitates the development of retrieval behavior in nulliparous female rats exposed to pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Tanco, S A; Walsh, M L

    1992-10-01

    Female rats were housed with a sterile male or another female. After 3 weeks, half of the females that had been housed with a female were rehoused with an intact male. At the end of 6 weeks female or sterile male cagemates were removed. Intact male cagemates and pups were removed 3 to 12 h following parturition. All females were tested for retrieval of three unfamiliar pups placed in their cage on the day following removal of their cagemate. Three unfamiliar pups were placed with each female and the female's behavior observed for 10 min. Observations were made in this way for 13 days or until the female retrieved all three pups within the 10-min interval. Pups were left with the female on days they were not retrieved. Females housed with a sterile male reached criterion for pup retrieval in 2.9 days, significantly fewer days than were required for females housed with another female (6.6 days) but significantly more than were required for a postpartum female (0.8 days). By demonstrating that cohabitation with a male fosters the development of retrieval, these results support evidence from the study of aggressive behavior that pseudopregnancy facilitates the development of behaviors associated with pregnancy and lactation.

  17. Unusual cohabitation and competition between Planktothrix rubescens and Microcystis sp. (cyanobacteria) in a subtropical reservoir (Hammam Debagh) located in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellati, Fatma Zohra; Touati, Hassen; Tambosco, Kevin; Quiblier, Catherine; Humbert, Jean-François; Bensouilah, Mourad

    2017-01-01

    Succession in bloom-forming cyanobacteria belonging to distant functional groups in freshwater ecosystems is currently an undescribed phenomenon. However in the Hammam Debagh reservoir (Algeria), P. rubescens and Microcystis sp. co-occur and sometimes proliferate. With the aim of identifying the main factors and processes involved in this unusual cohabitation, water samples were collected monthly from February 2013 to June 2015 at the subsurface at four sampling stations and along the entire water column at one sampling station. In addition, the composition of the cyanobacterial communities was estimated by Illumina sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene fragment from samples collected over one year (October 2013-November 2014). This molecular approach showed that the Hammam Debagh reservoir displays high species richness (89 species) but very low diversity due to the high dominance of Microcystis in this community. Furthermore, it appears that Planktothrix rubescens and Microcystis sp. coexisted (from September to January) but proliferated alternately (Spring 2015 for P. rubescens and Spring 2014 and Autumn 2014/2015 for Microcystis). The main factors and processes explaining these changes in bloom-forming species seem to be related to the variation in the depth of the lake during the mixing period and to the water temperatures during the winter prior to the bloom season in spring.

  18. Discovery of a Partner Affair and Major Depressive Episode in a Probability Sample of Married or Cohabiting Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has found that humiliating marital events are associated with depression. Building on this research, the current study investigated the association between one specific humiliating marital event-discovering that one's partner had an affair-and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) in a probability sample of married or cohabiting men and women who were at high risk for depression based on the criterion that they scored below the midpoint on a measure of marital satisfaction (N = 227). Results indicate that (i) women were more likely than men to report discovering their partner had an affair in the prior 12 months; (ii) discovering a partner affair was associated with a higher prevalence of past-year MDE and a lower level of marital adjustment; and (iii) the association between discovering a partner affair and MDE remained statistically significant when holding constant demographic variables and marital adjustment. These results support continued investigation into the impact that finding out about an affair has on the mental health of the person discovering a partner affair. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  19. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  20. Investigation and analysis of newly married wife premarital examination and cervical cancer prevention KAP condition%新婚妻婚检与宫颈癌防治KAP情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雁凌; 陈渊青; 罗红; 叶宜根

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析新婚婚检率和宫颈癌筛查及相关知、信、行情况,以便为提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治策略提供参考。方法:2013年6月-2014年3月选取新婚妻326例,作为调查对象,采用自行改编的《新婚女性宫颈癌防治相关KAP调查问卷》进行调查。结果:总计发放调查问卷326份,回收314份,有效问卷306份,回收率96.31%,有效率93.87%。经过统计学分析,认为新婚妻婚检率的高低和文化程度、经济收入、职业等方面差异存在统计学意义(P<0.01);婚检组妇女对宫颈癌防治相关知信行率上要明显优于未婚检组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:本次调查的婚检率相近于政府公布的婚检率,婚检率的高低和宫颈癌防治相关知、信、行与文化程度、经济收入、职业等方面有关,因此认为要提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治知识水平必须加强婚前、婚育健康宣教工作,提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治相关知信行率对女性健康极为重要。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the newly married,cervical cancer screening and related knowledge,attitude and practice condition,in order to provide reference for improving the premarital examination rate and cervical cancer prevention strategies.Methods:326 cases of newly married wives were selected from June 2013 to March 2014 as the investigation objects. Using self adaptation of"newly married women cervical cancer prevention related KAP questionnaire"had investigation.Results:A total of 326 copies of questionnaire were given out,314 copies were recycled,306 copies were valid questionnaires,the recovery rate was 96.31%,the effective rate was 93.87%.Through statistical analysis, there were significant differences between the high and low degree of newly married wife premarital examination rate and educational level,economic income and occupation and so on(P<0.01).The cervical cancer prevention related

  1. Convict bastards, common-law unions, and shotgun weddings: premarital conceptions and ex-nuptial births in nineteenth-century Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Gunn, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    This article uses reconstituted family data from birth, death, and marriage registers to measure ex-nuptial fertility and premarital pregnancies in nineteenth-century Tasmania. It also examines the extent to which convict origins of European society on the island caused a departure from English norms of family formation behavior, during a period when men greatly outnumbered women. Illegitimacy was high during the convict period. From the mid-1850s, after the convict system collapsed, levels of ex-nupital births were relatively constant until the end of the century, as indicated both by the illegitimacy rate and by the proportion of marriages associated with prenuptial births. By the end of the nineteenth-century, rates of illegitimacy and prenuptial conceptions in Tasmania were well within the range of those of contemporary English-speaking populations.

  2. 婚检发现HIV感染5例分析%Analysis of Five Cases of HIV Infection Among Premarital Medical Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚晓炜; 朱静霞; 毕丹红

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析总结无锡市惠山区婚检发现HIV感染者的流行病学调查特点.方法 SPSS回顾性分析惠山区2008-2010年的婚检资料.结果 共检测出5例血液筛查和确证均为HIV-1抗体阳性的病例.其中4例是性传播、1例是血制品传播所致的无症状HIV感染者.性传播的4例中3例是男男性行为者(MSM),1例为异性性传播.结论 建议在婚检中引入HIV抗体筛查,有助于掌握疫情的流行趋势,从而采取相应有效的干预措施,控制HIV的传播.%Objective To analyze and summarize the epidemiological characteristic of five HIV-infected patients among premarital medical examination in HuiShan district of Wuxi. Methods The Date of premarital medical examination was analyzed by SPSS from 2008 to 2010. Results We found 5 cases suspicious to Anti-HIV by blood screening and diagnosed as positive for the HIV-1 antibody eventually. Epidemiological analysis showed one was transmitted by blood, four were transmitted through sex intercouse, three of four are men who had sex with men(MSM), the other was through heterosexual. Conclusion It should be carried out within marriage crowd of HIV antibody exmination which will be contributed to grasp the epidemiological trends of infection and take effective intervention measures for HIV.

  3. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  4. Microbial co-habitation and lateral gene transfer: what transposases can tell us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Sean D.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-03-01

    Determining the habitat range for various microbes is not a simple, straightforward matter, as habitats interlace, microbes move between habitats, and microbial communities change over time. In this study, we explore an approach using the history of lateral gene transfer recorded in microbial genomes to begin to answer two key questions: where have you been and who have you been with? All currently sequenced microbial genomes were surveyed to identify pairs of taxa that share a transposase that is likely to have been acquired through lateral gene transfer. A microbial interaction network including almost 800 organisms was then derived from these connections. Although the majority of the connections are between closely related organisms with the same or overlapping habitat assignments, numerous examples were found of cross-habitat and cross-phylum connections. We present a large-scale study of the distributions of transposases across phylogeny and habitat, and find a significant correlation between habitat and transposase connections. We observed cases where phylogenetic boundaries are traversed, especially when organisms share habitats; this suggests that the potential exists for genetic material to move laterally between diverse groups via bridging connections. The results presented here also suggest that the complex dynamics of microbial ecology may be traceable in the microbial genomes.

  5. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  6. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  7. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  8. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  9. Decomposition of BOLD Activity into Tuned and Untuned Components Reveals Cohabitation of Stimulus and Choice Information in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Whan Choe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on V1 report top-down modulation of input-driven responses of sensory neurons, implying that exogenous sensory drives and endogenous top-down drives jointly determine V1 responses. By measuring fMRI responses in conjunction with a classification task on ambiguous ring stimuli, we sought to understand how V1 carries out its encoding operation on afferent currents while being adaptively modulated by top-down currents associated with perceptual tasks. Population activity of V1, as in its raw eccentricity profiles, failed to resolve the threshold differences between the ring stimuli due to large moment-to-moment fluctuations. The analysis of variance indicated that stimulus-evoked responses explain only one-fifth of the total variance and fMRI responses were highly correlated among eccentricity-bins, implying that a substantial fraction of V1 responses fluctuate as a whole. This led us to decompose the raw fMRI responses into untuned and tuned components: average response across eccentricity-bins and residual responses from the average, respectively, the former varying only in time and the latter varying in both space and time. The tuned responses revealed the veridical encoding operation of V1 by readily distinguishing between the ring stimuli, which was impossible with the raw fMRI responses. In contrast, the untuned were correlated with two major aspects of choice behavior—inter-trial variability in response time and inter-subject variability in response bias. We propose that this cohabitation of stimulus and choice information in V1 indicates the presence of top-down exertion of gain modulation on the early processing stage by the high-tier stage that accumulates evidence for perceptual choices.

  10. Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Niklasson

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol.

  11. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  12. Prevalence and social drivers of HIV among married and cohabitating heterosexual adults in south-eastern Tanzania: analysis of adult health community cohort data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M. Mtenga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HIV among married and cohabiting couples is substantial. Information about the underlying social drivers of HIV transmission in couples is critical for the development of structural approaches to HIV prevention, but not readily available. We explored the association between social drivers, practices, and HIV status among stable couples in Ifakara, Tanzania. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed data from a sample of 3,988 married or cohabiting individuals, aged 15 years and older from the MZIMA adult health community cohort study of 2013. Sociodemographic factors (sex, income, age, and education, gender norms (perceived acceptability for a wife to ask her partner to use a condom when she knows he is HIV positive, marriage characteristics (being in a monogamous or a polygamous marriage, being remarried, sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners and concurrent sexual partners, health system factors (ever used voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and lifestyle patterns (alcohol use were used to explore the odds of being HIV positive, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of HIV/AIDS was 6.7% (5.9% males and 7.1% females. Gender norms, that is, perception that a woman is not justified to ask her husband to use a condom even when she knows he has a disease (adjusted odds ratio AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.06–2.17, marital characteristics, that is, being remarried (AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.04, and sexual behavior characteristics, that is, lifetime number of sexual partners (2–4: AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02–2.11; 5+: AOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47 were the main independent predictors of HIV prevalence. Conclusions: Among married or cohabiting individuals, the key social drivers/practices that appeared to make people more vulnerable for HIV are gender norms, marriage characteristics (being remarried, and sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners

  13. 女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Research on influencing factors to premarital sexual behavior of female students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婉秋; 张河川

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the influencing factors to premarital sex of female students and to provide evidence for their sex education and reproductive health. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 840 female students who collected at random form 6 universities in Yunnan. Results: ①Among the students surveyed, 5. 1% students had unwanted pregrant, 16. 2% students had sex behavior but hadn't pregrant and 78. 7% students hadn't sex behavior. ②The correct rate of sexual knowledge, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ~ 0. 002); In sexual tolerance, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ); In sexual attitude about effect of premarital sex to health and future family, the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 028/P = 0. 000 ); About of the standpoint of reproductive health that female is emphasis and male is participation activity'. the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000) . ③Logistic showed that grade, knowledge of contraception, effect of premarital sex to future family and sexual tolerance were risk factors to premarital sex Conclusion: Sex attitude is important factor of premarital sex of female students. Traditional virginity value still play an impact role in the sex behavior. The education of sex moral would play an important role in our intervention of sex health and reproductive health.%目的:探讨影响女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为女大学生性健康/生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法:采用自编问卷调查法,整群随机抽取云南省6所高校的840名18~25岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果:①5.1%的女大学生承认有非意愿妊娠行为,16.2%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,78.7%报告无性经历.②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未

  14. Life-history traits of temperate and thermophilic barracudas (Teleostei: Sphyraenidae) in the context of sea warming in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Hernández, H; Muñoz, M; Lloret, J

    2014-06-01

    This study indicated that the life-history traits of European barracuda Sphyraena sphyraena are apparently better suited to their environmental conditions compared to the more physically restricted life-history traits of the yellow-mouth barracuda Sphyraena viridensis, which co-habit the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The latter thermophilic species has a considerably higher reproductive potential as it invests its energy reserves in larger numbers of hydrated eggs per spawning batch. This would favour its population growth rates within the study area, especially if sea warming continues, in which case it is likely that the spawning phenology of this species would give it an advantage.

  15. An Exploration of New Models for the Improvement of the Pre-marital Medical Examination%创新婚前医学检查模式提高婚前医学检查率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祖玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how to establish the long-term mechanism and operation pattern for pre-marital medical examination since implementation of “The Marriage Register Regulation” Methods: We established the “one stop” service pattern, which ranged from premarital health education to marriage certification (including family planning consultation, birth-defect intervention and premarital medical examination) and was operated by co-work of civil administration department, health department and family planning commission and invested by the government. Results: We have successfully brought “one stop” service pattern into effect with co-work of the departments. Thus the rate of free premarital medical examination has continuously increased from 60.81% in 2008 to 90.09% in 2014. Conclusion: It is effective and feasible to implement the free pre-marital medical examination through interaction and co-work of civil administration department, health department and family planning commission.%目的:探索《婚姻登记条例》实施以来,如何建立免费自愿婚前医学检查的长效机制和运行模式。方法建立由政府投入,实现民政、卫生、计生联合办公,实行从婚前健康教育-婚前咨询-计划生育咨询-出生缺陷干预咨询-婚前体检到婚姻登记领取结婚证的“零距离,一站式”服务模式。结果部门联合办公,实现婚检“一站式”服务,使免费婚检率不断上升,由2008年的60.81%上升到2014年的90.09%;已查出的异常人群得到及时治疗和干预。结论政府重视,部门联动,卫生、民政、计生一体化办公,推进免费自愿婚检的实施是有效和可行的。

  16. 流动家庭婚姻圈扩展、性别强势与未婚先孕%Enlargement of the Marital Circle, Gender and Premarital Pregnancy in Migrants Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐嘉楠; 杨华

    2015-01-01

    本文利用2013年全国流动人口动态监测调查数据,对当前我国流动人口未婚先孕情况进行研究,试图分析婚姻圈的扩展以及性别的强势会如何影响未婚先孕的结果。本文有以下一些发现:流动人口核心家庭未婚先孕的比例较高;婚姻圈的扩展增加了未婚先孕的几率;流动人口的性别在年龄、教育和户籍方面的强势并未显著影响未婚先孕的发生;各省间未婚先孕的水平存在着较大差异。本文通过采用多水平分析方法,定量描述了当前的未婚先孕水平存在省际差异,为实现流动人口公共服务的均等化,提出了相应的政策建议。%Based on the data of the national migrants survey in 2013 , this paper demonstrates how the enlargement of marital circle and gender affect the premarital pregnancy among the floating population. The findings are: the floating core families boast of a higher proportion of the premarital pregnancy , the enlargement of the marital circle increase of the risk of premarital pregnancy. The gender effects in age,education and hukou have no significance to the occurrence of premarital pregnancy. the inter-provincial difference of the premarital pregnancy is analyzed by using multi-level model to provide a policy reference for the equalized public services for the migrants.

  17. A Screening for Thalassemia among People Participating in Premarital Examination in Yizhou City,Guangxi%广西宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦孟兰; 韦雪玲; 韦景勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血(地贫)的发生情况。方法采用血细胞分析和血红蛋白电泳对宜州市2011~2012年20830例婚检人员进行地贫筛查。结果20830例婚检者中,血细胞分析检出地贫3310例(15.89%)。血红蛋白电泳检出疑α-地贫1153例(5.54%),其中疑轻型α-地贫1008例、中间型α-地贫57例、疑β复合α地贫88例;疑β-地贫1170例(5.62%);异常Hb 34例(0.16%)。结论宜州市婚检人群地中海贫血检出率较高,婚前筛查是预防地贫的主要手段。%Objective To learn the occurrence of thalassemia among people participating in premarital examination in Yizhou City.Methods The blood and hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis was applied to a screening for thalassemia in 20 830 cases participating from 2011 to 2012 in premarital examination in Yizhou City .Results Among 20 830 cases participating in premarital examination, there were 3 310 cases ( 15.89%) of thalassemia detected by blood analysis.The hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis suggested that there were 1 153(5.54%) suspected α-thalassemia cases,including 1 008 suspected mildα-thalassemia cases,57α-thalassemia intermedia cases and 88 suspected cases of co-inheritance of α-thalassemia andβ-thalassemia,1 170(5.62%) suspected β-thalassemia cases,and 34(0.16%) abnormal Hb cases.Conclusion The prevalence of thalassemia is higher among people participating in premarital examination in Yizhou City .The premarital screening is a primary means for the prevention of thalassemia .

  18. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia.

  19. At what point does what’s mine become yours? A critical analysis of the current law on common intention constructive trusts and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fullbrook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of the law in relation to the use of common intention constructive trusts to determine disputes arising from the breakdown of relationships between cohabiting, non-married couples. It is clear that there is a need to protect vulnerable parties to a relationship and to maintain certainty with regard to property ownership, but this is a difficult balance to strike.  This examination has been conducted by analysing the key cases that have been heard in the senior courts in relation to this matter since the landmark ruling of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden almost ten years ago.  This has identified three key issues with the current state of the law: (1 judicial confusion over whether the existence of beneficial shares in property should be imputed or implied by the courts; (2 the creation of unrealistic expectations as to the reliance that the court will place on non-financial contributions to a relationship; and (3 practical and evidential difficulties caused by its implementation.  Further analysis of the Cohabitation Rights Bill suggests that it is unlikely to overcome any of these issues because it seeks to increase, rather than reduce the role of the courts.  This article concludes that the law should be simplified such that couples are allocated the same portion of the beneficial interest in the property as their legal interest unless they expressly declare otherwise.

  20. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  1. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  2. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  3. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  4. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  5. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  6. Bulletproof History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  7. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  8. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  9. Assessing the impact of adolescent pregnancy and the premarital conception stress complex on birth weight among young mothers in Gibraltar's civilian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, L A; Burke, S D; Benady, S

    1997-10-01

    The impact of young maternal age and the timing of conception relative to marriage on birth weight was assessed in a sample of 295 primiparous married women from Gibraltar, who gave birth before 25 years of age. Mean birth weight was 3344.15 g. After controlling for sex, gestational age, and socioeconomic status, the infants of mothers 20 years of age and over who conceived after marriage weighed 57.78 g above the referent group mean. Older mothers who conceived a child before marriage delivered infants weighing 75.67 g below the group mean. Mothers under 20 years of age who conceived within marriage had infants who weighed 37.32 g less than the mean, while those delivered by young mothers who conceived before marriage had infants weighing 133.66 g less than the overall mean birth weight. The only significant group difference by conception timing was between young mothers who conceived before marriage and older mothers who conceived after marriage. This finding suggests that conception prior to marriage in traditional small-scale communities such as Gibraltar can be a behavioral risk factor, termed the premarital conception stress complex, that contributes to reduced birth weight. During the interval between conception and marital resolution, the effects of increased stress, heightened anxiety, and reduced nutritional intake are hypothesized to coalesce and adversely affect maternal health and fetal development in the crucial first trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  11. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  12. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    favourite ways for com- mon people to spend their holidays, and with the introduction of holiday pay in the 1930s almost everybody could take a couple of weeks off work in the sum- mer. With the introduction of charter tourism many people went off to Southern Europe to spend their holidays on the same...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  13. HIV prevalence and risk factors among premarital couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, 2010%云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的HIV感染率及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚渝蓉; 杨育燕; 袁成; 寸东霞; 杨菊春; 段松; 何纳; 杨玲; 高洁; 项丽芬; 叶润华; 杨跃诚; 白雪; 许娟; 蒋成芹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the HIV prevalence and risk factors among people receiving premarital medical examinations in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods Data were collected for HIV infection test, and questionnaire survey was conducted among premarital couples. Results In 2010, among 23,223 participants in the premarital examinations, 0. 78%(180) were tested as HIV positive . Among them, 70. 0% were sero-disaccord couples. 83. 3%(150) of HIV positive couples were infected with heterosexual transmission. The premarital sexual behavior was common with 56. L%(13,025) among all participants and 11. 9%(l,340) of the female participants were pregnant. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV prevalence was higher in drug users than in non drug users, and that among those aged > 25 years was higher than-among those aged <25 years, The HIV prevalence was also higher among the unemployed and among Burmese than among farmers and among local residents. Conclusion The HIV prevalence among premarital couples in 2010 was still at a high level. As one of the key way to detect HIV infections, premarital HIV testing should be promoted in HIV highly epidemic areas to prevent HIV transmission through sex and mother to child transmission.%目的 了解云南省德宏州2010年婚检人群的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染状况及其影响因素.方法 利用德宏州2010年参加婚前体检人群的婚检资料,对该人群HIV感染率及相关因素进行分析.结果 23 223名婚前体检者HIV感染率为0.78%(180人),其中HIV单阳性比例为70.0%;83.3%(150/180)是通过异性性行为感染.婚检人群中有56.1%(13 025人)有婚前性行为,11.9%(1 340人)的女性婚检者已怀孕.Logistic多因素回归分析显示:HIV感染率为有吸毒行为者高于无吸毒行为者,25岁以上者高于25岁以下者,无业者高于农民,缅甸籍高于国内者.结论 2010年德宏州婚检人群的HIV感染率仍较高,吸毒、高年龄、无业与缅甸籍

  14. Family intentions and personal considerations on postponing childbearing in childless cohabiting and single women aged 35-43 seeking fertility assessment and counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, K; Hvidman, H W; Sylvest, R

    2015-01-01

    -educated and in employment. Their mean age was 37.4 years. Nonetheless, the main reasons for attending were to obtain knowledge regarding the possibility of postponing pregnancy (63%) and a concern about their fecundity (52%). The majority in both groups (60%) wished for two or more children. The women listed their ideal...... age at birth of first child and last child as 33 (±4.7) years and 39 (±3.5) years, respectively. Of the single women, 70% would accept use of sperm donation compared with 25% of the cohabiting women (P social reasons, yet only 15% were...... reproductive capacity and underestimate the risk of future childlessness with the continuous postponement of pregnancies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The FAC Clinic is a part of the ReproSund and ReproHigh collaboration that is 50% co-financed by EU-regional funding. This study also received funding...

  15. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  16. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...... Andersen fairy tale....

  17. Kinship alters the effects of forced cohabitation on body weight,mate choice and fitness in the rat-like hamster Tscheskia triton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping RAO; JianXu ZHANG; Dingzhen LIU; Lin CONG

    2009-01-01

    It has been documented that social isolation imparts deleterious effects on gregarious rodents species,but caging in group imparts such effects on solitary rodents. This study was attempted at examining how kinship to affect body weight,behavioral interaction,mate choice and fitness when we caged male and female rat-like hamsters Tscheskia triton in pair,a solitary species. We found that females paired with nonsibling males became heavier than the females paired with sibling males,but both agonistic and amicable behavior between paired males and females did not differ between sibling and nonsibling groups. This indicated that kinship might reduce females' obesity in response to forced cohabitation,and dissociation might exist between physiological and behavioral responses. Furthermore,binary choice tests revealed that social familiarity between either siblings or nonsiblings decreased their investigating time spent in opposite sex conspecific of cage mates and/or their scents as compared with those of nonmates,suggesting effects of social association on mate and kin selection of the hamsters. On the other side,both females and males caged in pair with siblings show a preference between unfamiliar siblings or their scents and the counterparts of nonsiblings after two month separation,indicating that the kin recognition of the hamsters might also rely on phenotype matching. In addition,cohabitation (or permanent presence of fathers) elicited a lower survival of pups in nonsibling pairs than sibling pairs,but did not affect litter size,suggesting that kinship affects fitness when housing male and female ratlike hamsters together. Therefore,inbreeding might be adapted for rare and endangered animals.

  18. The impacts of marriage, cohabitation and dating relationships on weekly self-reported physical activity in Germany: a 19-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Ingmar; Schneider, Björn

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of non-marital romantic relationships in developed countries, little is known about their effects on health-related behaviors. This paper examined the impact of relationship status (single, dating, cohabiting or married) on physical activity. Three possible mechanisms underlying this association were discussed: social control and support by the partner, time restrictions and the release from the marriage market. Data were obtained from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), a random sample of individuals living in private households in Germany. Both random-effects and fixed-effects logit models were estimated. The random-effects analyses referred to 30,201 individuals and the fixed-effects analyses referred to 11,568 individuals who were observed for up to 19 years. After adjusting for age, measurement period and the presence of children, fixed-effects estimates showed reduced physical activity for each type of relationship for both men and women. The effects were strongest for married couples and weakest for dating couples, and remained similar after controlling for discretionary time. However, the effects found partly depended on age: for men, the negative impacts of cohabitation and marriage on physical activity became weaker with increasing age and shifted to positive impacts. For women, the negative effect of marriage on physical activity also decreased but stayed negative into old age. The results suggest that the release from the marriage market may cause the negative effects of relationships on physical activity. Social support and social control may play a role in older age, whereas the amount of discretionary time seems to be of minor importance for explaining relationship effects on physical activity. If the results will be validated by other studies there will be valuable implications for health promotion programs.

  19. The issuance of work mode of folic acid in the process of investigation and study of premarital examination%在婚检流程中进行叶酸发放工作模式调查与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 唐栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨在婚检流程中进行增补叶酸发放工作的可行性。方法通过婚检门诊的病史、询问和相关调查问卷,对全市2013年接受婚前医学检查的2249名女性进行调查。结果婚检对象中对于叶酸用于孕前3个月-孕后3个月的服用率,3月内计划妊娠组为70%,已妊娠组为80%,其它组为20%,经χ2检验,P=0.0000,差异有统计学意义。结论在现有“增补叶酸预防神经管缺陷项目”与方案流程中增加婚检环节,叶酸发放工作的模式,是加强出生缺陷干预工作,降低神经管缺陷发生率的重要衔接和途径,是原有流程的补充和完善。%Objective discuss the feasibility in folic acid supplementation grant work. Method conduct a survey about pre-marital check-up among 2249 women who have received pre-marital medical examination in 2013. Result the rates of taking folic acid from first trimester to three months after pregnancy are different among pre-marital medical examination of the object, the rate of group which are planning to get pregnant is 70%, the rate of group which already pregnancy is 80%, the rate of other groups is 20%. Through the test of χ2, P=0.0000, the difference between the data is statistically significant. Conclusion add the premarital check-up link to the solution process and the “supplementary folic acid to Prevent neural tube defects Project”which we have now. the mode of folic acid grant work is the important link and way to strength the intervention work to birth defect and reduce the occurrence rate of neural tube defects, it also supplement and perfect the original flow.

  20. 高中生婚前和安全性行为意向影响因素的通径分析%Path analysis model of factors affecting premarital and safe sex intention among senior high school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡泳; 叶秀霞; 施榕; 徐刚; 黄红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the strength and direction of the effect on behavior intention of premarital sex and security sex act relevant knowledge, cognition, attitude and self value, and to provide evidence for the intervention measurement. Methods By using cluster random sampling, 12 313 senior high school students from 50 schools among three provinces of China were selected and surveyed by HIV/AIDS prevention questionnaire. Path analysis was conducted with software Amos 7.0. Results Sex attitude was open or not dominated the intention of premarital sex which was relatively difficult to change, however, knowledge and cognition played a leading role on safety sex indention which was relatively easy to change. For the final purpose of HIV/AIDS prevention among senior high school students, education on safe sex may be more effective and acceptable than on avoiding premarital sex. Conclusion Path analysis model of factors affecting premarital and safe sex intention among senior high school students has initially been established in the research which will be of great benefit to the intervention study in the future.%目的 探讨高中生婚前性行为和安全性行为的相关知识、认知、态度、自我价值等对行为意向的影响强度和方向,为制定相关干预措施提供依据.方法 采用整群随机抽样方法,对3个省市和自治区50所学校的12 313名高中生进行预防艾滋病量表测定,并利用Amos 7.0软件进行通径分析.结果 支配婚前性行为意向的主要变量是性态度是否开放,相对比较难改变;而对安全性行为意向起到主导作用的是知识和认知,相对比较容易改变.结论 对高中阶段学生艾滋病预防干预,以安全性行为教育为重,可能比以避免婚前性行为教育的成效更明显或者更加容易被学生接受.

  1. Exploring the Effectiveness of Mandatory Premarital Screening and Genetic Counselling Programmes for β-Thalassaemia in the Middle East: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marwa; Howard, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    β-Thalassaemia is a common genetic blood disorder in the Middle Eastern region. Mandatory premarital screening and genetic counselling (PMSGC) programmes are implemented in 8 Middle East countries to reduce at-risk marriages and thus disease prevalence. A scoping review was conducted to explore the effectiveness of these programmes. The 6-stage scoping framework of Arksey and O'Malley [Int J Soc Res Methodol 2005;8:19-32] was used. Reported outcomes were analysed per country, with success defined as achieving a 65% reduction in at-risk marriages and/or thalassaemia-affected births. Emergent enablers and barriers were analysed thematically. Twenty-one sources were included from the 1,348 identified, discussing 7 country programmes, with 95% (20/21) published during 2003-2013. Five publications each were included for Iran and Saudi Arabia, 3 for Turkey, 2 each for Bahrain and Iraq (Kurdistan), and 1 for the United Arab Emirates, plus 2 multi-country evaluations. No programme achieved a 65% at-risk marriage cancellation rate. Though data on thalassaemia-affected birth reductions were minimal, programmes in Iran, Turkey and Iraq reported at least 65% reductions. A thematic analysis found that screening timing, access to prenatal detection and abortion, socio-religious issues, awareness and counselling affected decisions. This review found that PMSGC programmes were unsuccessful in discouraging at-risk marriages but successful in reducing the prevalence of affected births in countries providing prenatal detection and therapeutic abortion. A life cycle approach to prevention, incorporation of school screening, awareness campaigns, reconsideration of therapeutic abortion, and screening and counselling of couples married prior to programme inception are likely to improve the effectiveness of such programmes in the Middle Eastern region. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Selected Attitudes toward Marriage and Family Life among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of college students (N=5,237) about cohabitation, premarital sexual relations, marriage and divorce, child rearing, division of labor, marital and extramarital sexual relations, social needs, communication, parental relationships, and counseling services. Implications for premarital counseling and future research are discussed.…

  3. Analysis on premarital healthcare and artificial abortion%婚前保健与人工流产相关问题浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温巧萍; 刘伟莲; 朱丹玲; 曾颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨婚前保健与人工流产的关系,有效指导未婚女青年的自我保护意识,做好婚前保健工作。方法:从医院2010年未婚人工流产总数中随机抽取200例。从年龄结构、文化程度、人流次数以及并发症发生统计情况进行分析。结果:人工流产最小手术年龄为17岁,最大为31岁,大部分在21~26岁之间。文化程度的差异也有影响,中学文化程度以下人工流产占62.0%,大学文化程度以上人工流产占38.0%,可见文化程度高人工流产率低。人工流产次数,初次人工流产占79.0%,2次手术占18.0%,3次手术以上占3.0%。人工流产近期及远期并发症以生殖器炎症居首位占46.6%,其次为月经失调占26.6%,失血性贫血占24%,继发不孕占2.6%。结论:人流对未婚女青年的影响是明显的,特别是身、心上的创伤。并发症的出现,会给患者带来痛苦,甚至影响婚后性生活,影响夫妻感情,对巩固家庭关系也有影响,给生儿育女带来困难。因此,对未婚女青年增加避孕知识和自我保护意识的宣传教育,使人们意识到婚前人工流产的危害与代价,对提高妇女身体健康素质有重要意义。%Objectives:To explore the relationship between premarital health and artificial abortion,in order to effectively foster the self-protection awareness of the unmarried young women and to carry out effective premarital healthcare.Method:200 cases were randomly selected from unmarried women who conducted artificial abortion in 2010 .The data was analyzed statistically from the age structure,cultural level,number of times of abortion and its complications.Results:The minimum age receiving artificial abortion was 17 years old while the maximum was 31 years old,mostly between 21 to 26.The educational level has a great effect on artificial abortion.62% of them had middle school or lower diploma;38%had university

  4. Chodzenie ze sobą, spanie ze sobą, mieszkanie ze sobą. Młodzieńcze relacje uczuciowe i obyczajowość przedślubna

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona, Przybył

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article concentrates on the presentation of what do young Polish people mean by the term marriage and what is their acceptation for premarital sexual behaviors and premarital cohabitation. The author tries to answer are there typical dating and courtship development patterns and how do changes of the premarital customs, like having sexual relations, affect future relations between wives and husbands. This paper is based on literature and the results of the autho...

  5. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  6. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  7. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  8. The influence of college female students' premarital sexual behavior to reproductive health and the preventive measures%高校女生婚前性行为对生殖健康的影响及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宁

    2015-01-01

    It is an indisputable fact that the incidence of premarital sexual behavior of college female students has risen in recent years, and the premarital sex behaviors can cause the risk of genital tract infection and non intention pregnancy and artificial abortion. The promotion of sexual morality education and contraception in universities can reduce the incidence of genital tract infections and unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion, so as to guarantee the physical and mental health of female college students.%近年来,高校女生婚前性行为发生率的升高已是一个不争的事实,而婚前性行为存在着生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的风险。在高校中开展性道德教育及避孕知识的宣传,能起到降低生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的发生率,从而保证女大学生的身心健康。

  9. 试析女性婚前性行为心理动机的十个误区%Ten errors in psychological motives of premarital sexual behaviour in females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有智

    1997-01-01

    In sexological reseach,human sexual behaviours are classified into three categories according to the criteria of different degrees of libido satisfaction,namely;(1)kernel sexual behaviour,i.e.bisexual intercourse;(2)peripheral sexual behaviour,such as kissing and caressing;and (3) sexual-like behaviour.The premarital sexual behaviour dealt with in this paper falls into the first category,denoting the sexual behaviour occurring in both man and woman who are in love.The premarital sexual behaviour is characterized by voluntariness by both parties without violent coercion,lack of legal protection,absence of duty and responsibility imposed on husband and wife,and liability to disputes and serious consequences.At present,this behaviour shows a develpment tendency to increasing number and decreasing age of persons concerned,not only inflicts burden and harm on the society,but also causes problems to the body and mind of female individuals;therefore,it needs research and strict control.

  10. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  11. LA UNION DE HECHO COMO INSTITUCIÓN DEL DERECHO DE FAMILIA Y SU RÉGIMEN DE EFECTOS PERSONALES Co-habitation as a Family Law institution and its non-economic familial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Turner Saelzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La decisión de abordar normativamente las uniones de hecho supone resolver previamente una serie de cuestiones. Entre ellas, la de si el régimen personal -derechos y obligaciones que se refieren o tienen por objeto a las personas mismas que integran la pareja- debe ser regulada por el legislador. En este trabajo, y bajo la premisa que en Chile se optara por conferir a las uniones de hecho heterosexuales un estatuto legal propio, se muestra cómo las escasas leyes que han regulado aspectos específicos de las uniones de hecho han situado correctamente a esta institución en el derecho de familia, a diferencia de la perspectiva utilizada por el régimen jurisprudencial aplicable a los aspectos patrimoniales de las mismas. Se intenta establecer las consecuencias que este cambio puede acarrear y se justifica la tesis de la conveniencia de no fijar legalmente un régimen personal para los convivientes en atención al marco proveído, en general, por los derechos fundamentales reconocidos por la Constitución.Before the decision to regulate cohabitation can be taken, a series of questions must be addressed. Among them, whether non economic familial effects -rights and obligations between partners- should be regulated by law. This paper,assuming that Chile will confer legal status to heterosexual co-habitation unions, will show how the few existing laws regulating specific personal aspects of co-habitation have correctly situated this status within family law, in contrast to the perspective adopted by the judiciary regarding economic aspects of this kind of partnership. This paper aims to outline the consequences this shift would bring and argues against the legal regulation of non-economic familial effects for co-habitants, taking into consideration the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.

  12. De uma morada à outra: processos de re-coabitação entre as gerações From one dwelling to another: intergenerational cohabitation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Ehlers Peixoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desemprego, divórcio, viuvez, filhos que não saem nunca da casa dos pais são as razões que explicam porque, no Brasil, as gerações mais velhas coabitam cada vez mais com as mais jovens. Retornar para a casa familiar, ou ir morar na casa de um(a filho(a introduz uma nova dinâmica na organização doméstica: a reorganização do espaço - abrir, criar lugares para receber o novo(s membro(s; a adaptação das regras, horários e tarefas às necessidades e atividades de cada um, e do grupo em particular. Morar com três ou quatro gerações implica em uma contribuição material e financeira, mas, também, em um suporte moral e afetivo no apoio logístico do cotidiano doméstico. A vida em comum só é possível se existir este circuito de reciprocidades, senão a coabitação pode quebrar a harmonia familiar e tornar-se violenta.Unemployment, divorce, widowhood, children who never leave their parents' house, these are the reasons that explain why the older generations in Brazil cohabit with the younger generations more than before. Returning to one’s parents’ house, or moving to the children's house introduces a new dynamic into the domestic organization: the reorganization of space - the creation of places to receive new family members; the adaptation of rules, schedules and tasks, to the necessities and activities of each member and to the group's in particular. Living with three or four generations implies a material contribution as well as emotional and moral support for the logistics of daily domestic life. Living together is only possible when there is a circuit of reciprocities; otherwise, cohabitation can provoke violent rupture in the family’s harmony.

  13. The Effects of Military Assignments and Duties on the Martial Status of Navy Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    when dependents are 26 Cohabitation , Marriage, Divorce, and Remarr iage in The United States, Vital and...Number 4, July/August 1973, p. 822. 34 Cohabitation , Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in The United Stat es, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23...of academic achievement, depression, and behavioral problems such as drug and alcohol abuse, premarital sexual intercourse and being arrested.40

  14. Living Arrangements and Family Formation Attitudes in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of nonfamily living arrangements and cohabitation on changes in family formation attitudes at the individual level. Results indicate that both the experience and duration of cohabiting arrangements have significant effects on family formation attitudes but fail to show significant consequences of premarital, nonfamily living…

  15. The unusual life history of a southern Iberian Peninsula population of Torleya major (Ephemeroptera:Ephemerellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. J. López-Rodriguez; J. M. Tierno de Figueroa; J. Alba-Tercedor

    2011-01-01

    The nymphal biology of a population of Torleya major (Klapálek) in southern Iberian Peninsula was studied. An atypical life cycle pattern is described, with eggs hatching in August producing a fast-developing cohort with adults emerging in autumn and a second slow-developing cohort with adults emerging in spring of the following year. Nymphal growth occurred primarily in summer-autumn (in the first cohort) and in spring (in the second). The origin of such a life history is discussed. Nymphs were collector-gatherers,consuming mainly detritus. Although ontogenetic shifts on the use of trophic resources were detected, similar food was utilized during the months when both cohorts cohabited,eliminating the possibility that the rapid growth of the first cohort could be related to the utilization of different food resources.

  16. Tuberculosis and TNF-inhibitors: history of exposure should outweigh investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Michaela T; Marshall, Ben G; Cummings, Fraser; Elkington, Paul T

    2014-05-05

    A 39-year-old Indian man was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis on colonic biopsy and started on mesalazine, prednisolone and azathioprine. However, the colitis remained active and required antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment with infliximab. Prior to starting infliximab, his chest X-ray was normal and QuantiFERON interferon γ release assay for tuberculosis (TB) was negative. However, his wife had been treated for pulmonary TB 11 years previously when they were cohabiting. On attending for his third dose of infliximab, he was feverish and tachycardic, and was admitted for investigation. Chest X-ray on admission showed changes consistent with miliary TB, and thoracic CT confirmed extensive miliary nodules with supraclavicular and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Abdominal CT showed multiple mesenteric lymph nodes. Subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage, neck lymph node aspirate and colonic biopsies all cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In retrospect, a clear history of close household TB exposure should have precipitated consideration of TB chemoprophylaxis prior to anti-TNF treatment.

  17. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  18. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Jasmin

    Full Text Available Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07 compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97. UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001. The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  19. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  20. A Causal Approach to Interrelated Family Events: A Cross-National Comparison fo Cohabitation, Non-marital Conception, and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available FrenchOne of the most important advances brought about by life course and eventhistory studies is the use of parallel or independent processes as explaining history factors intransition rate models. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a causal approach to the study ofinterrelated family events. Various types of interdependent processes are described first, followed bytwo event history perspectives: the "system" and "causal" approaches. The authors assert that thecausal approach is more appropriate from an analytical point of view as it provides a straightforwardsolution to simultaneity, cause-effect lags, and temporal shapes of effects. Based on comparativecross-national applications in West and East Germany, Canada, Latvia and the Netherlands, wedemonstrate the usefulness of the causal approach by analyzing two highly interdependent famlyprocesses: entry into marriage (for individuals who are in a consensual union as the dependentprocess and first pregnancy/childbirth as the explaining one. Both statistical and theorteticalexplanations are explored emphasizing the need for conceptual reasoning.FrenchL’utilisation des processus interdépendants ou parallèles en tant que facteursexplicatifs dans des modèles des transitions aux quotients instantanés est une descontributions les plus importantes de l’analyse des biographies. Le but de cetarticle est d’appliquer une approche causale à l’analyse des événements familiauxinterdépendants. L’étude présente une typologie de processus parallèles et deuxperspectives de l’analyse des biographies: les approches ‘systémique’ et‘causale’. Les auteurs soutiennent que l’approche causale est plus appropriée dupoint de vue d’analyse. Elle offre une solution valable aux problèmes desimultanéité, les problèmes de décalage dans les intervalles entre la cause etl’effet, et, enfin, les problèmes des courbes temporelles modelées par les effets.L’utilité de cette

  1. INVESTIGATION ON STATUS OF PRE-MARITAL MEDICAL EXAMINATION IN CHENGDU%成都市婚前医学检查初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓芬; 张雯; 陈世菊; 高博

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解目前成都市婚检基本情况,探讨影响婚检的可能相关因素及市民、婚检医师对婚检实施方式的建议,为相关部门制定婚检政策和措施提供参考.[方法]采用目的抽样的方法抽取成都市社区居民315人进行面对面问卷调查,同时对成都市九区妇幼保健机构的婚检医师进行深入访谈,并对结果进行统计分析.[结果](1)成都市居民婚检情况不容乐观,对婚检认知有限;建议婚检应自愿参加、免费实施等.(2)部分婚检医师尚未取得国家要求的相关资格证,参加学术交流情况较差;部分医师认为应该适当增加婚检项目,实行免费强制性婚检等.[结论]成都市自实施免费婚检以来,婚检率有一定上升;居民对婚检认知、婚检服务质量等可能会对婚检造成影响,因此应坚持实施自愿、免费婚检,不断简化婚检服务并将其流程化,争取实行婚姻登记和婚检服务的“一站式”.%[Objective] To investigate the slatus of pre-marital medical examination (PME) in Chengdu. The factors affected PME and suggestions of implementation methods were discussed, then to provide the rationale reference for the reasonable policy of PME. [Methods] Survey was carried out in residents by self-designed questionnaire land and doctors conducting PME were interviewed, then data were gathered and analyzed. [ Results] (1) The status of PME in Chengdu was not satisfied. The mass had the limited knowledge of PME and they believed that the PME should be voluntary and free. (2) Some doctors conducting PME did not have qualification certificate and they seldom attended seminars; part of them thought that the PME should be compulsory and free. [Conclusion] The effect of free PME in Chengdu is not up to the expectation. The PME may be affected by people's knowledge, the service quality and the propaganda. A free, simple, standard process is a need to practice the PME.

  2. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  3. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  4. What Is Literary "History"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  5. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  6. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  10. The "cholera cloud" in the nineteenth-century "British World": history of an object-without-an-essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2012-01-01

    The "cholera cloud" is one of the most persistent presences in the archives of nineteenth-century cholera in the "British World." Yet it has seldom received anything more than a passing acknowledgment from historians of cholera. Tracing the history of the cholera cloud as an object promises to open up a new dimension of the historically contingent experience of cholera, as well as make a significant contribution to the emergent literature on "thing theory." By conceptualizing the cholera cloud as an object-without-an-essence, this article demonstrates how global cholera pandemics in the nineteenth century produced globalized objects in which a near-universal recognizability and an utterly context-specific set of meanings, visions, and realities could ironically cohabit.

  11. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  12. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  13. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less e

  14. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  15. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  16. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  17. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  18. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  19. History of mathematics and history of science

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  20. Analysis of peer-related factors influencing on premarital sex behaviors among adolescents%同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 高尔生; 楼超华; 林涛; 孙乔

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为的影响。方法采用多阶段分层整群抽样的方法选取上海市辖区内15~24岁未婚青少年进行问卷调查。结果青少年婚前性行为发生率为12.7%,其中男性16.8%,女性8.7%。青少年性行为同伴影响因素 COX 回归模型显示,同伴性信息评分(HR =1.112,P <0.01),“多数同伴是否有婚前性行为(HR =2.583,P <0.01)”,同伴危险行为评分(HR =1.122,P <0.01),“是否需要发生性行为来迎合朋友(HR =1.804,P <0.01)”,危险行为同伴压力评分(HR =1.255,P <0.01)以及“每周与同伴在一起闲逛时间(HR =1.303,P <0.01)”等变量对青少年婚前性行为有影响。结论同伴因素对青少年婚前性行为发生有着很大的影响作用。充分发挥同伴教育在对性行为做出健康决定的影响力,使青少年建立正确的性行为价值取向和行为准则。%Objective To explore effect of Peer-related factors influencing on premarital sex behaviors among ado-lescents.Methods Unmarried adolescents aged 15 to 24 among communities in Shanghai City were selected through multi-staged stratified cluster sampling.Results The prevalence of sex behavior among unmarried adolescent of Shanghai was 12.7%,including 16.8% for male and 8.7% for female.According to the results of COX model analysis,the sex behavior of unmarried adolescent were associated with peer-related factors such as peer sex information (HR =1.112,P <0.01), peer having or not premarital sex behavior (HR =2.583,P <0.01 ),peer dangerous behaviors (HR =1.255,P <0.01),having sex for catering to peer (HR =1.804,P <0.01),pressure of peer dangerous behaviors (HR =1.255,P<0.01)and the time of lounging with friends (HR =1.303,P <0.01).Conclusion Premarital sex behavior of adoles-cents was remarkably influenced by peer-related factors.It is important to use