WorldWideScience

Sample records for premammillary nucleus pmd

  1. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  2. In vivo histamine voltammetry in the mouse premammillary nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Srimal; Abdalla, Aya; Robke, Rhiannon; Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2015-06-07

    Histamine plays a major role in the mediation of allergic reactions such as peripheral inflammation. This classical monoamine is also a neurotransmitter involved in the central nervous system but its role in this context is poorly understood. Studying histamine neurotransmission is important due to its implications in many neurological disorders. The sensitivity, selectivity and high temporal resolution of fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) offer many advantages for studying electroactive neurotransmitters. Histamine has previously been studied with FSCV; however, the lack of a robust Faradaic electrochemical signal makes it difficult to selectively identify histamine in complex media, as found in vivo. In this work, we optimize an electrochemical waveform that provides a stimulation-locked and unique electrochemical signal towards histamine. We describe in vitro waveform optimization and a novel in vivo physiological model for stimulating histamine release in the mouse premammillary nucleus via stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. We demonstrate that a robust signal can be used to effectively identify histamine and characterize its in vivo kinetics.

  3. Acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning using β-adrenoceptor activation of the dorsal premammillary nucleus as an unconditioned stimulus to mimic live predator-threat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Canteras, Newton S; Carobrez, Antônio P

    2011-04-01

    In the present work, we sought to mimic the internal state changes in response to a predator threat by pharmacologically stimulating the brain circuit involved in mediating predator fear responses, and explored whether this stimulation would be a valuable unconditioned stimulus (US) in an olfactory fear conditioning paradigm (OFC). The dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) is a key brain structure in the neural processing of anti-predatory defensive behavior and has also been shown to mediate the acquisition and expression of anti-predatory contextual conditioning fear responses. Rats were conditioned by pairing the US, which was an intra-PMd microinjection of isoproterenol (ISO; β-adrenoceptor agonist), with amyl acetate odor-the conditioned stimulus (CS). ISO (10 and 40 nmol) induced the acquisition of the OFC and the second-order association by activation of β-1 receptors in the PMd. Furthermore, similar to what had been found for contextual conditioning to a predator threat, atenolol (β-1 receptor antagonist) in the PMd also impaired the acquisition and expression of OFC promoted by ISO. Considering the strong glutamatergic projections from the PMd to the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), we tested how the glutamatergic blockade of the dPAG would interfere with the OFC induced by ISO. Accordingly, microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 6 nmol) into the dPAG were able to block both the acquisition, and partially, the expression of the OFC. In conclusion, we have found that PMd β-1 adrenergic stimulation is a good model to mimic predatory threat-induced internal state changes, and works as a US able to mobilize the same systems involved in the acquisition and expression of predator-related contextual conditioning.

  4. Photoreceptive oscillators within neurons of the premammillary nucleus (PMM) and seasonal reproduction in temperate zone birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; Mauro, Laura J; Chaiworakul, Voravasa; Chaiseha, Yupaporn; El Halawani, Mohamed E

    2013-09-01

    The pathway for light transmission regulating the reproductive neuroendocrine system in temperate zone birds remains elusive. Based on the evidence provided from our studies with female turkeys, it is suggested that the circadian clock regulating reproductive seasonality is located in putatively photosensitive dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurons residing in the premammillary nucleus (PMM) of the caudal hypothalamus. Melanopsin is expressed by these neurons; a known photopigment which mediates light information pertaining to the entrainment of the clock. Exposure to a gonad stimulatory photoperiod enhances the activity of the DAergic system within DA-MEL neurons. DAergic activity encoding the light information is transmitted to the pars tuberalis, where thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta (TSHβ) cells reside, and induces the release of TSH. TSH stimulates tanycytes lining the base of the third ventricle and activates type 2 deiodinase in the ependymal which enhances triiodothyronine (T3) synthesis. T3 facilitates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I which stimulates luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone release and gonad recrudescence. These data taken together with the findings that clock genes are rhythmically expressed in the PMM where DA-MEL neurons are localized imply that endogenous oscillators containing photoreceptors within DA-MEL neurons are important in regulating the DA and MEL rhythms that drive the circadian cycle controlling seasonal reproduction.

  5. Melanopsin expression in dopamine-melatonin neurons of the premammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus and seasonal reproduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S W; Leclerc, B; Kosonsiriluk, S; Mauro, L J; Iwasawa, A; El Halawani, M E

    2010-09-29

    Melanopsin (OPN4) is a photoreceptive molecule regulating circadian systems in mammals. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that co-localized dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurons in the hypothalamic premammillary nucleus (PMM) are putatively photosensitive and exhibit circadian rhythms in DAergic and MELergic activities. This study investigates turkey OPN4x (tOPN4x) mRNA distribution in the hypothalamus and brainstem, and characterizes its expression in PMM DA-MEL neurons, using in situ hybridization (ISH), immunocytochemistry (ICC), double-label ISH/ICC, and real time-PCR. The mRNA encoding tOPN4x was found in anatomically discrete areas in or near the hypothalamus and the brainstem, including nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus septalis lateralis (SL), PMM and the pineal gland. Double ICC, using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme in DA synthesis)-and OPN4x antibodies, confirmed the existence of OPN4x protein in DA-MEL neurons. Also, tOPN4x mRNA expression was verified with double ISH/ICC using tOPN4x mRNA and TH immunoreactivity. PMM and pineal gland tOPN4x mRNA expression levels were diurnally high during the night and low during the day. A light pulse provided to short day photosensitive hens during the photosensitive phase at night significantly down-regulated tOPN4x expression. The expression level of tOPN4x mRNA in PMM DA-MEL neurons of photorefractory hens was significantly lower as compared with that of short or long day photosensitive hens. The results implicate tOPN4x in hypothalamic PMM DA-MEL neurons as an important component of the photoreceptive system regulating reproductive activity in temperate zone birds.

  6. Leptin’s effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Cravo, Roberta M.; Frazão, Renata; Gautron, Laurent; Scott, Michael M.; Lachey, Jennifer; Castro, Inar A.; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Lee, Syann; Lee, Charlotte; Richardson, James A.; Friedman, Jeffrey; Chua, Streamson; Coppari, Roberto; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Elias, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter puberty. Leptin administration to leptin-deficient subjects and ob/ob mice induces puberty and restores fertility, but the exact site or sites of leptin action are unclear. Here, we found that genetic deletion of LepR selectively from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons in mice had no effect on puberty or fertility, indicating that direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is not required for these processes. However, bilateral lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of ob/ob mice blunted the ability of exogenous leptin to induce sexual maturation. Moreover, unilateral reexpression of endogenous LepR in PMV neurons was sufficient to induce puberty and improve fertility in female LepR-null mice. This LepR reexpression also normalized the increased hypothalamic GnRH content characteristic of leptin-signaling deficiency. These data suggest that the PMV is a key site for leptin’s permissive action at the onset of puberty and support the hypothesis that the multiple actions of leptin to control metabolism and reproduction are anatomically dissociated. PMID:21183787

  7. PMD Monitoring using Optical Sideband Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal; Sambo, N; Andriolli, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple PMD monitoring technique based on optical sideband filtering, which requires no change to the transmitter. The method is numerically and experimentally verified and tested in a real-time PMD monitoring experiment.......This paper presents a simple PMD monitoring technique based on optical sideband filtering, which requires no change to the transmitter. The method is numerically and experimentally verified and tested in a real-time PMD monitoring experiment....

  8. Compensating large PMD by a fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li(李唐军); Muguang Wang(王目光); Cao Diao(刁操); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) with the amount of 132.994-ps differential group-delay (DGD) and maximum 476.129-ps/nm second-order PMD can be compensated by a two-stages PMD compensator at a 40-Gb/s optical fiber communication system. The first stage has one free degree that is used for first order and high orders PMD compensations by rotating the state of polarization. The second-stage is used for remainder PMD compensations. After compensation, the average DGD and the maximum second-order PMD are reduced to 345.310 fs and 3.102 ps/nm, respectively.

  9. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  10. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  11. Large PMD Compensated by Four Free Degrees in OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rui; LI Tang-jun; WANG Mu-guang; JIAN Shui-sheng; XU Jing-jing

    2004-01-01

    By introducing a two-stage polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator after a optical fiber link with a large PMD,over 270 ps first-order and 2 000 ps2 high-order PMD was compensated. The results show that the two-stage compensator can be used to PMD compensation in the 20 Gb/s optical time division multiplexing system with 60 km high PMD fiber. After compensating,the 270 ps DGD is changed into max. 7 ps. Moreover,the tunable FBG has a function of dispersion compensation.

  12. Reflex control of locomotion as revealed by stimulation of cutaneous afferents in spontaneously walking premammillary cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysens, J

    1977-07-01

    1. Stimulation of different hindlimb nerves in spontaneously walking premammillary cats was used in order to examine the effects of sensory input on the rhythmic motor output. 2. Stimulation of the tibial or sural nerve at low intensities caused the burst of activity in the triceps surae or semimembranosus to be prolonged if stimuli were given during the extension phase. When applied during the flexion phase, the same stimuli shortened the burst of activity in the pretibial flexors and induced an early onset of the extensor activity, except if stimuli were given at the very beginning of the flexion phase, when flexor burst prolongations or rebounds were observed instead. 3. These effects were related to activation of large cutaneous afferents in these nerves since the results could be duplicated by low-intensity stimulation of the tibial nerve at the ankle or by direct stimulation of the pad. 4. In contrast, activation of smaller afferents by high-intensity stimulation resulted prolongations of the flexor burst and/or shortenings of the extensor burst for stimuli applied before or during these bursts, respectively. 5. It was concluded that the large and small cutaneous afferents make, respectively, inhibitory and excitatory connections with the central structure involved in the generation of flexion during walking.

  13. Decrease of the Link PMD by Fiber Exchange and Investigation of the PMD Distribution along Buried Optical Fibers with a POTDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ehrhardt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated PMD along several fibers in an optical network was measured in order to identify those short fiber portions exhibiting high PMD. By replacing high-PMD-portion(s in each fiber, the overall-PMD could be reduced significantly. Additionally the PMDaccumulation of different fibers in the same buried cable was investigated and compared to each other.

  14. Heterogenic feedback between hindlimb extensors in the spontaneously locomoting premammillary cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kyla T; Nichols, T Richard

    2009-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in anesthetized animals have revealed that pathways carrying force information from Golgi tendon organs in antigravity muscles mediate widespread inhibition among other antigravity muscles in the feline hindlimb. More recent evidence in paralyzed or nonparalyzed decerebrate cats has shown that some inhibitory pathways are suppressed and separate excitatory pathways from Golgi tendon organ afferents are opened on the transition from steady force production to locomotor activity. To obtain additional insight into the functions of these pathways during locomotion, we investigated the distribution of force-dependent inhibition and excitation during spontaneous locomotion and during constant force exertion in the premammillary decerebrate cat. We used four servo-controlled stretching devices to apply controlled stretches in various combinations to the gastrocnemius muscles (G), plantaris muscle (PLAN), flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL), and quadriceps muscles (QUADS) during treadmill stepping and the crossed-extension reflex (XER). We recorded the force responses from the same muscles and were therefore able to evaluate autogenic (intramuscular) and heterogenic (intermuscular) reflexes among this set of muscles. In previous studies using the intercollicular decerebrate cat, heterogenic inhibition among QUADS, G, FHL, and PLAN was bidirectional. During treadmill stepping, heterogenic feedback from QUADS onto G and G onto PLAN and FHL remained inhibitory and was force-dependent. However, heterogenic inhibition from PLAN and FHL onto G, and from G onto QUADS, was weaker than during the XER. We propose that pathways mediating heterogenic inhibition may remain inhibitory under some forms of locomotion on a level surface but that the strengths of these pathways change to result in a proximal to distal gradient of inhibition. The potential contributions of heterogenic inhibition to interjoint coordination and limb stability are discussed.

  15. PMD: A Resource for Archiving and Analyzing Protein Microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaowei; Huang, Likun; Zhang, Hainan; Li, Yang; Guo, Shujuan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shi-Hua; Chen, Ziqing; Wang, Jingfang; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2016-01-27

    Protein microarray is a powerful technology for both basic research and clinical study. However, because there is no database specifically tailored for protein microarray, the majority of the valuable original protein microarray data is still not publically accessible. To address this issue, we constructed Protein Microarray Database (PMD), which is specifically designed for archiving and analyzing protein microarray data. In PMD, users can easily browse and search the entire database by experimental name, protein microarray type, and sample information. Additionally, PMD integrates several data analysis tools and provides an automated data analysis pipeline for users. With just one click, users can obtain a comprehensive analysis report for their protein microarray data. The report includes preliminary data analysis, such as data normalization, candidate identification, and an in-depth bioinformatics analysis of the candidates, which include functional annotation, pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction network analysis. PMD is now freely available at www.proteinmicroarray.cn.

  16. Research on the critical parameters initialization of optical PMD compensator in high bit-rate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Haiyi; Ji, Yuefeng; Xu, Daxiong

    2004-05-01

    Based on the proposed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation simulation model and statistical analysis method (Monte-Carlo), the critical parameters initialization of two typical optical domain PMD compensators, which include optical PMD method with fixed compensation differential group delay (DGD) and that with variable compensation DGD, are detailedly investigated by numerical method. In the simulation, the line PMD values are chosen as 3ps, 4ps and 5ps and run samples are set to 1000 in order to achieve statistical evaluation for PMD compensated systems, respectively. The simulation results show that for the PMD value pre-known systems, the value of the fixed DGD compensator should be set to 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD value in order to reach the optimum performance, but for the second kind of PMD compensator, the DGD range of lower limit should be 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD provided that of upper limit is set to 3 times of line PMD, if no effective ways are chosen to resolve the problem of local minimum in optimum process. Another conclusion can be drawn from the simulation is that, although the second PMD compensator holds higher PMD compensation performance, it will spend more feedback loops to look up the optimum DGD value in the real PMD compensation realization, and this will bring more requirements on adjustable DGD device, not only wider adjustable range, but rapid adjusting speed for real time PMD equalization.

  17. Compensating Large PMD by Four Free degrees in an OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tangjun; Wang Muguang; Cui Jie; Luo Ri; Jian Shuisheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a two-stages polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator after a optical fiber link with a large PMD, we compensated over 270ps first-order and 2000ps2 high-order PMD in a optical fiber link with super high PMD. Our experimental results shows that, the compensators based on the two-stages of compensator can be used to PMD compensation in a 20Gb/s OTDM system with 60 km high PMD fiber. Before compensation,270ps DGD is became into max. 7ps after compensation. At simultaneity, the tunable FBG have a function of dispersion compensation.

  18. Compensating Large PMD by Four Free degrees in an OTDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a two-stages polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator after a optical fiber link with a large PMD, we compensated over 270ps first-order and 2000ps2 high-order PMD in a optical fiber link with super high PMD. Our experimental results shows that, the compensators based on the two-stages of compensator can be used to PMD compensation in a 20Gb/s OTDM system with 60 km high PMD fiber. Before compensation, 270ps DGD is became into max. 7ps after compensation. At simultane...

  19. PMD test method in the fiber link with optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tangjun; Wang, Muguang; Gong, Xiangfeng; Diao, Cao; Tong, Zhi; Wei, Hui; Jian, Shuisheng

    2005-02-01

    To learn the surrounding conditions in the fiber link and its effect on PMD, and to provide the first-hand design basis, we have carried out the data observation of PMD in a fiber link for a long time. We have tested the first-order and second-order PMD. The fiber tested is the G652 fiber produced by Corning Co. of USA, and the testing distance is 1000km; n segments of same fibers are linked into one, and n equals to 40, that is to say, the length of every segment is 25km; for the requirement of dispersion compensation in the high-speed and long distance fiber optical communication system, one fiber grating dispersion compensator is added in the place of every 200km, and there are five compensators; one EDFA is added in the place of every 100km, and there are eleven EDFA. The result suggests that, with the increase of length of fiber link, the distribution of PMD intends to be stable, that is, with the number n increasing, the relative error of PMD becomes less. The testing methods are the Jones matrix eigenanalysis technique and interference technique. HP8509B fiber polarization analyzer of Agilent in USA is used for measuring instrument of the Jones matrix eigenanalysis technique; FPMD-5600 Femtosecond PMD Analyzer of EXFO in Canada is used for measuring instrument of interference technique. The difference between these two testing methods is analyzed. With the Jones matrix eigenanalysis technique, fibers of 1000km are inspected through 48 hours, and the result suggests that, at nine o'clock in the morning, PMD reaches the maximum, at nine o'clock in the evening, it reaches the minimum, during other time, its change is very little. So it can be concluded that, PMD in the long distance fiber link is affected by temperature of the lab. Stress testing is carried in the ultra-short fiber (less than one meter). PMD has no obvious change in the range of stress which can be endured by the fiber.

  20. On the Mitigation of Polarization Dependency of Distributed Raman Amplifier Gain by Transmission Fiber PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiyuki; TOKURA; Takashi; MIZUOCHI

    2003-01-01

    We show theoretically and experimentally that Raman PDG can be formulated as a function of the pump light DOP and the transmission fiber PMD. Raman PDG is sufficiently reduced thanks to the inevitable fiber PMD.

  1. PMD and CD Characterization of Chirped FBG Using Microwave Photonic Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present and demonstrate experimentally a new method for measuring the polarization-mode-dispersion(PMD) of a Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating. The technique has also been applied to accurate chromatic dispersion evaluation by removing the influence of PMD.

  2. Temperature Dependence of PMD of the Optical Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This report is relevant to the project {sup K}EPCO All-Optical Network Project{sup w}hich is being carried out by Computer and Communication Group in Power System Laboratory. This report is planned to be used as a reference guide for the PMD strategy of the KEPCO optical networks. The PMD of the optical cable installed in the air as OPGW is greatly affected by the environmental temperature change, unlike that of the optical cable installed underground. The variance was turned out to be 70% larger compared with that of underground optical cable and the time scale of the PMD was less than 5 min, in the worst case. Hence, the compensation technology should be chosen taking into account the properties of the aerial optical cables. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Performance comparison between sampling methods using DOP as feedback signal for higher-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yao; Huanyou Wang; Lin Chen

    2007-01-01

    We numerically analyzed the performance of the two polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation methods of the single degree of polarization (DOP) sampling and DOP ellipsoid sampling methods. The numerical results show that the single DOP sampling method can generate the maximum DOP, and may result in a small overall differential group delay (DGD) or the principal state of polarization (PSP)launching. By the PSP launching, just the first-order PMD is compensated while second-order PMD not.When the DOP ellipsoid sampling method is used the performance is evidently better, because the effect of high-order PMD on PMD compensation is reduced.

  4. Accounting for PMD Temporal Correlation During Lightpath Set Up in Transparent Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, Nicola; Secondini, Marco; Andriolli, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    . In this paper we propose a novel lightpath provisioning scheme based on a PMD prediction model which accounts for PMD temporal correlation properties. The proposed PMD-temporal-correlation (PTC) based lightpath provisioning scheme is compared with a scheme based on a classical PMD model. Simulation results show...... stochastic characteristics. Moreover, PMD depends on time-variant factors, such as the temperature and the fiber stress. When implementing a dynamic GMPLS-controlled transparent optical network, the GMPLS protocol suite must take into account physical impairment information in order to establish lightpaths...... that the instantaneous DGD is not detrimental. Additionally, given PMD temporal correlation properties, once that the instantaneous DGD is not detrimental, it continues to be not detrimental within considerable time ranges. Therefore, more accurate models can be implemented in the GMPLS control plane to account for PMD...

  5. Dynamic PMD compensator for 40 Gb/s PM-DQPSK system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gai; ZHANG Yang-an; ZHANG Ming-lun; ZHOU Li-ming; ZHANG Jin-nan; YUAN Xue-guang; ZHANG Xiao-guang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The adaptive polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in high-speed transmission system has become more and more necessary for the link PMD causing strong signal distortions.A dynamic adaptive PMD compensator in 40 Gb/s polar-multiplex differential quadrature phase shift keying (PM-DQPSK) system is reported.Experimental results show that the PMD compensator can track the average polarization state variation at 65 rad/s without any lost of the optimum tracking.The 1st-order PMD compensation is demonstrated experimentally, and the compensator can increase the maximal tolerable PMD value by 26 ps from 17 ps to 43 ps in an optical transmission system.

  6. Effect of PMD-induced Pulse Broadening on Sensitivity and Frequency Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The PMD-induced pulse broadening may cause the degradation of receiver sensitivity and has negative effects on the power spectrum of received signals. The expressions of PMD-induced pulse broadening effects on receiver sensitivity are derived based on the concept of mean square pulse width. The effects of PMD on the spectrum of received power are analyzed in detail. Finally, the scheme is discussed with which the power of a certain frequency component is extracted as a feedback control signal in a PMD compensation system.

  7. Effects of Signal Spectrum Bandwidth on Different PMD Compensation Feedback Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Young Kim; Duckey Lee; Sangin Kim; Namkyoo Park

    2003-01-01

    We compared efficiencies of different PMD compensation feedback methods against transmission signal bandwidth,including NRZ, RZ, CRZ format under various duty cycles. We found that the critical factor determining the efficiency of PMD compensation is not the modulation format, but the spectral bandwidth of the transmission signal.

  8. Effects of Signal Spectrum Bandwidth on Different PMD Compensation Feedback Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; Young; Kim; Duckey; Lee; Sangin; Kim; Namkyoo; Park

    2003-01-01

    We compared efficiencies of different PMD compensation feedback methods against transmission signal bandwidth, including NRZ, RZ, CRZ format under various duty cycles. We found that the critical factor determining the efficiency of PMD compensation is not the modulation format, but the spectral bandwidth of the transmission signal.

  9. Novel Tunable PMD Compensation Technology Using Linear Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-min; YU Zhong-yuan; YANG Hong-bo; ZHANG Xiao-guang; YANG Bo-jun

    2004-01-01

    Based on uniform fiber Bragg grating bonded with a magnetostrictive rod in the non-uniform magnetic field, a novel PMD compensation technique is proposed. This all- fiber PMD compensation technology is cost-effective and flexible in designing the differential group delay profile.

  10. Adaptive PMD Compensation in 10 Gbit/s RZ Optical Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Li; Zhang; Xiaoguang; Zhou; Guangtao; Shen; Yu; Zheng; Yuan; Li; Chaoyang; Liu; Yumin; Chen; Lin; Yang; Bojun

    2003-01-01

    We report an experiment of adaptive compensation for polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in 10Gbit/s return zero (RZ) optical communication system. The quasi-real-time PMD compensation is realized. The algorithm so-called particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to control feedback compensation system.

  11. PMD mitigation using 3R regeneration based on EAM with wavelength conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huo; Shilong Pan; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou; Yizhi Gao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) mitigation is performed using an optical 3R (re-amplification, re-shaping, re-timing) regenerator based on electro-absorption modulator (EAM) with wavelength conversion.System performance without and with 3R regeneration was separately studied by eye analysis and bit-error rate (BER) measurements. The signal quality was significantly improved by 3R regeneration under serious first order PMD (up to 40% of the bit interval) combined with second order PMD (up to about 520 ps2).The PMD mitigation margin of the proposed method is also investigated by measuring the sensitivity at BER 10-10. Further studies indicate that 3R regenerators have the potential to combat with the effects of PMD combined with polarization dependent loss (PDL) and polarization hole-burning (PHB).

  12. The effects of PMD and PDL on the performance of OOK and DPSK systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using multiple importance sampling (MIS) technique, the optical communication system performance affected by polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) is simulated numerically. The power penalties and system outage probabilities are obtained for optical communication systems with on-off keying (OOK) or differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation. The simulation results show that DPSK always performs better than OOK. When the system has moderate PDL (about 1.5 dB), it is necessary to compensate effectively the fiber PMD in order to enhance the system tolerance to the PMD and PDL. However, the efficiency of PMD compensation will degrade rapidly when the PMD of the whole optical link drops into the low value.

  13. DSP Based PMD Emulators for Built-in Testing of Coherent Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmutoglu, A Gokcen; Demir, Alper

    2012-01-01

    We propose discrete-time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) models that are compatible with the emerging coherent receiver techniques, and statistical sampling schemes for the model parameters. These models use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) finite impulse response (FIR) filters that are lossless and therefore lend themselves as perfect candidates for emulation of fiber channels suffering from PMD without polarization dependent loss (PDL). The concatenated composition of these filters resembles the continuous time lumped model of PMD channels and offers a flexible emulator and compensator structure in terms of computational complexity which constitutes the main bottleneck for real-time DSP applications.

  14. Personality traits in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and psychogenic movement disorder (PMD): Neuroticism and perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Vindhya; Kranick, Sarah; LaFaver, Kathrin; Naz, Arshi; Frank Webb, Anne; LaFrance, W Curt; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2017-06-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are two subtypes of conversion disorder (CD). In this case-control study, we asked whether these subtypes varied as a function of personality and history of childhood abuse. Fifty-nine patients with PMD from the Human Motor Control Section Clinic at the National Institutes of Health, 43 patients with PNES from the Rhode Island Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology Division, and 26 healthy volunteers (HC) received a battery of neurological, psychiatric and psychological assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). One-way ANOVA between the three groups indicated significant differences in overall domains of Neuroticism (p=0.001) and Conscientiousness (p=0.009): Patients with PNES reported significantly greater levels of Neuroticism (p=0.002) and lower levels of Conscientiousness (p=0.023) than patients with PMD. Levels of Neuroticism remained significantly higher in both PMD and PNES than HC following correction for multiple comparisons. Patients with PNES reported greater levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, overall psychopathology, greater history of sexual abuse, greater levels of alexithymia, higher levels of dissociative symptoms, and an earlier age at which they experienced their most distressing traumatic event than patients with PMD. These findings suggest that personality traits, type of abuse and age of onset of trauma varies as a function of CD subtype. Patients with PNES rated greater Neuroticism and lower Conscientiousness than patients with PMD. These differing psychological profiles may inform differing treatment approaches such as psychological therapies for PNES and physiotherapy (with/without psychotherapy) for PMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in the 5-HT2A receptor system in the pre-mammillary hypothalamus of the ewe are related to regulation of LH pulsatile secretion by an endogenous circannual rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsch Fred J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to determine if changes in the expression of serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2A receptor gene in the premammillary hypothalamus are associated with changes in reproductive neuroendocrine status. Thus, we compared 2 groups of ovariectomized-estradiol-treated ewes that expressed high vs low LH pulsatility in two different paradigms (2 groups per paradigm: (a refractoriness (low LH secretion or not (high LH secretion to short days in pineal-intact Ile-de-France ewes (RSD and (b endogenous circannual rhythm (ECR in free-running pinealectomized Suffolk ewes in the active or inactive stage of their reproductive rhythm. Results In RSD ewes, density of 5HT2A receptor mRNA (by in situ hybridization was significantly higher in the high LH group (25.3 ± 1.4 vs 21.4 ± 1.5 grains/neuron, P 3H-Ketanserin binding (a specific radioligand of the median part of the premammillary hypothalamus tended to be higher in the high group (29.1 ± 4.0 vs 24.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mg tissu-equivalent; P A receptor mRNA and 3H-Ketanserin binding were both significantly higher in the high LH group (20.8 ± 1.6 vs 17.0 ± 1.5 grains/neuron, P Conclusions We conclude that these higher 5HT2A receptor gene expression and binding activity of 5HT2A receptor in the premammillary hypothalamus are associated with stimulation of LH pulsatility expressed before the development of refractoriness to short days and prior to the decline of reproductive neuroendocrine activity during expression of the endogenous circannual rhythm.

  16. Dynamic PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li; Cao Diao; Xiangfeng Gong; Yongjun Fu; Zhongwei Tan; Yan Liu; Muguang Wang; Shuisheng Jian; Caiyun Lou; Li Huo; Hejun Yao; Tigang Ning; Jie Cui; Fangcheng Yang

    2005-01-01

    A 40-Gb/s optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) return-to-zero (RZ) transmission experiments in cluding a dynamic polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation was reported. The dynamic PMD compensator is made up of two-stage four degrees of freedom (DOF). The first stage adopts polarization controller and fixed time-delayed line. The second stage is variable differential group delay (DGD) element. The PMD monitoring technique is based on degree of polarization (DOP) as error signal. A novel practical adaptive optimization algorithm was introduced in dynamic adaptive PMD compensation. The experimental results show that the performance of the PMD compensator is excellent for 40-Gb/s RZ transmission systems with the large DGD. With this compensator, a significant improvement of system performance can be achieved in the eye pattern of a received signal. The first-order compensating ability of the compensator is greater than 30 ps. The second-order compensating ability is greater than 200 ps2.The first-order optimum compensating time is within 10 ms. The second-order optimum compensating time is within 24 ms.

  17. Mitigation of signal quality degradation induced by PMD using synchronous modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huo(霍力); Yanfu Yang(杨彦甫); Caiyun Lou(娄采云); Hejun Yao(姚和军); Xiaomin Song(宋晓旻); Yizhi Gao(高以智)

    2004-01-01

    In-line synchronous modulation as a way of mitigating the signal quality degradation induced by polar ization mode dispersion(PMD)was experimentally studied using 10-Gb/s return to zero signal.Bit error rate of the degraded signal and the synchronously modulated signal under the differential group delay(DGD)values of 10,20,34,and 70 ps was measured and compared.The experimental results showed that in-line synchronous modulation is useful to mitigate the signal quality degeneration induced by PMD.1-dB power penalty reduction was obtained even when the PMD was as high as 70% of the bit interval.The limitation of method is also discussed.

  18. System Design Based on PMD-1208 LS Data Acquisition Card%PMD-1208 LS数据采集卡系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方霞; 张燕; 赵娟娟

    2013-01-01

    Introduce a set of PC data acquisition system based on PMD-1208LS data acquisition card and LabVIEW,the system adopts the PMD-1208LS data acquisition card,through the USB interface PC machine is linked together,using LabVIEW software platform to establish the temperature data acquisition system and data transmission,so as to realize the signal from acquisition to display ( waveform display and data list display) ,storage and playback. The data acquisition system uses the MCC producting data acquisition card PMD-1208LS to realize high speed data real-time transmission and processing. In the PC using virtual instrument can share hardware and soft-ware resources,fast and convenient to set up all kinds of digital signal processing system,and by means of the function of the computer to finish data processing,storage and graphical display,etc. After the test,reached the data acquisition,processing,storage and playback basi-cally,and easy to use and intuitive.%介绍了一套基于PMD-1208LS数据采集卡和基于LabVIEW的PC数据采集系统,系统采用PMD-1208LS数据采集卡,通过USB接口与PC机相连,利用软件平台LabVIEW建立温度数据采集系统并进行数据传输,以实现信号从采集到显示(波形显示和数据列表显示)、存储和回放。该数据采集系统采用美国MCC公司生产的数据采集卡PMD-1208LS实现数据的高速实时传输与处理。在PC机上运用虚拟仪器能共享硬件和软件资源,快速、方便地组建各种数字信号处理系统,并可借助计算机的功能,进行数据处理、存储以及图形化显示等。经过实验检测,基本达到了数据采集、处理、存储和回放的目的,并且使用方便、直观。

  19. 3D vision based on PMD-technology for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Hubert J.; Schwarte, Rudolf; Ruangpayoongsak, Niramon; Kuhle, Joerg; Albrecht, Martin; Grothof, Markus; Hess, Holger

    2003-09-01

    A series of micro-robots (MERLIN: Mobile Experimental Robots for Locomotion and Intelligent Navigation) has been designed and implemented for a broad spectrum of indoor and outdoor tasks on basis of standardized functional modules like sensors, actuators, communication by radio link. The sensors onboard on the MERLIN robot can be divided into two categories: internal sensors for low-level control and for measuring the state of the robot and external sensors for obstacle detection, modeling of the environment and position estimation and navigation of the robot in a global co-ordinate system. The special emphasis of this paper is to describe the capabilities of MERLIN for obstacle detection, targets detection and for distance measurement. Besides ultrasonic sensors a new camera based on PMD-technology is used. This Photonic Mixer Device (PMD) represents a new electro-optic device that provides a smart interface between the world of incoherent optical signals and the world of their electronic signal processing. This PMD-technology directly enables 3D-imaging by means of the time-of-flight (TOF) principle. It offers an extremely high potential for new solutions in the robotics application field. The PMD-Technology opens up amazing new perspectives for obstacle detection systems, target acquisition as well as mapping of unknown environments.

  20. Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhuge, Qunbi; Plant, David V

    2011-04-11

    This paper presents a new channel estimation/equalization algorithm for coherent OFDM (CO-OFDM) digital receivers, which enables the elimination of the cyclic prefix (CP) for OFDM transmission. We term this new system as the zero-guard-interval (ZGI)-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM employs an overlapped frequency-domain equalizer (OFDE) to compensate both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) before the OFDM demodulation. Despite the zero CP overhead, ZGI-CO-OFDM demonstrates a superior PMD tolerance than the previous reduced-GI (RGI)-CO-OFDM, which is verified under several different PMD conditions. Additionally, ZGI-CO-OFDM can improve the channel estimation accuracy under high PMD conditions by using a larger intra-symbol frequency-averaging (ISFA) length as compared to RGI-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM also enables the use of ever smaller fast Fourier transform (FFT) sizes (i.e. OFDM. We show that ZGI-CO-OFDM requires reasonably small additional computation effort (~13.6%) compared to RGI-CO-OFDM for 112-Gb/s transmission over a 1600-km dispersion-uncompensated optical link.

  1. On the Pulsewidth Analysis in the Presence of PMD and PDL in Optical Fibers Using Neural Network Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sivasubramanian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In long haul networks, the random birefringence induced in the optical fiber leads to a considerable Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD. Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL mainly occurs in optical components and depends on the state of polarization of optical signals. The presence of PMD and PDL causes pulsewidth narrowing and the pulsewidth reduction depends on states of polarization at which the input light launched and also the input pulsewidth. A system comprising of a PDL element sandwiched between two PMD elements was considered. This system was characterized using neural network approach. Back propagation algorithm was applied to train the network with four input vectors namely PMD, PDL, input pulsewidth and the angle describing the input states of polarization and one output vector indicating effective squared pulsewidth difference. On analysis, it was found that the pulsewidth reduction was higher for a PMD of 30ps, a PDL of 3.5 and input pulsewidth of 100ps at various (Linear and Circular input states of polarization with the angle describing the input state of polarization to be |π/4|. Similarly, for a given value of PMD, PDL, input pulsewidth and a specific pulsewidth reduction, the input state of polarization at which the light was to be launched can also be determined using neural network approach.

  2. Analysis of pulse broadening induced by the second-order PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Song-Nian; Wu Chong-Qing; Shum Ping

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new conception of depolarization vector to describe the effect of depolarization induced by the second-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD). Deriving the formula of pulse broadening induced by the secondorder PMD, we find that the polarization-dependent chromatic dispersion (PCD) always enhances the pulse broadening.However the depolarization vector decreases the pulse broadening. The pulse broadening is correlated with the bit-rate of a transmission system. By adjusting the directions of the Stokes vector of initial state of polarization, initial firstorder polarization dispersion vector and depolarization vector to be parallel to each other, one can obtain an optimum dispersion compensation.But when the PCD is not equal to zero, the optimum dispersion cannot achieve a complete compensation, and the minimum pulse broadening is equal to σ = ( 2/4) (DCF/T0).

  3. Investigation of PMD in direct-detection optical OFDM with zero padding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Alphones, Arokiaswami; Zhong, Wen-De; Yu, Changyuan

    2013-09-09

    We investigate the polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) effect of zero padding OFDM (ZP-OFDM) in direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) systems. We first study the conventional equalization method for ZP-OFDM. Then an equalization method based on sorted QR decomposition is proposed to further improve the performance. It is found that the performance improvement of ZP-OFDM is due to the frequency domain oversampling (FDO) induced inter-carrier interference (ICI). Numerical simulation results show that compared with cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM), ZP-OFDM has a significantly higher tolerance to PMD in DDO-OFDM systems when the channel spectral nulls occur at certain differential group delay (DGD) values.

  4. Real processing (RP) I: The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics and the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) of hydrodynamics, their dependence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    1996-02-01

    The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics is generalized to determine process parameters in process engineering with well-known mathematical methods. This useful instrument applied to industrial processes is called real processing (RP). A special form of the PME is the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) which allows for applications in hydrodynamics (HD). A second and independent derivation of the PMD takes a similar way as the derivation of the statement of Helmholtz and Rayleigh (SHR). The generalization of SHR then leads to the PMD derived within HD. Next in a similar way. starting directly from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) can lead in a third way to the PMD. Several applications of the PMD are given: An analytical and numerical application of PMD is given for the entrance flow of tubes. Physical and analytical applications are the Crocco-Vazsonyi-type equations opening new possibilities of analytical treatment of process engineering problems. Process engineering models may be replaced by applications of PMD. In particular, turbulence may be treated as the answer of nature on PMD. A basic mathematical treatment of these subjects is possible by the gradient field theory (GFT), a particular method of vector analysis stemming from the Clebsch Ansatz for vector fields, which can be ordered from the author together with an advanced detailed mathematical treatment of these subjects.

  5. 640 Gbaud (1.28 Tbit/s/ch) optical Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km with substantial PMD tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2013-09-01

    We report a substantial increase in PMD tolerance in a single-channel ultrahigh-speed transmission using optical Nyquist pulses. We demonstrate both analytically and experimentally a large reduction in depolarization-induced crosstalk with optical Nyquist pulses, which is one of the major obstacles facing polarization-multiplexed ultrashort pulse transmission. By taking advantage of the high PMD tolerance, a low-penalty 1.28 Tbit/s/ch optical Nyquist TDM transmission at 640 Gbaud was achieved over 525 km.

  6. Evaluation and study on PMD performance of OPGW optical cables in wind induced vibration and galloping test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Ziyuan

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the concepts of wind induced vibration and galloping of power transmission lines, indicates the necessity of evaluation in wind induced vibration and galloping test environment, proposes the evaluation method of wind induced vibration and galloping, summarizes and analyzes the measured PMD performance data of OPGW optical fiber obtained from wind induced vibration and galloping tests on OPGW, and reaches a conclusion that the PMD performance parameters of OPGW cable stocks meet the industry standard in wind induced vibration and galloping environment, and will play an important role in project construction guidance and operation maintenance.

  7. NASA Flexible Screen Propellant Management Device (PMD) Demonstration With Cryogenic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark; Bakke, Victor; Baker, James

    2012-01-01

    While evaluating various options for liquid methane and liquid oxygen propellant management for lunar missions, Innovative Engineering Solutions (IES) conceived the flexible screen device as a potential simple alternative to conventional propellant management devices (PMD). An apparatus was designed and fabricated to test flexible screen devices in liquid nitrogen. After resolution of a number of issues (discussed in detail in the paper), a fine mesh screen (325 by 2300 wires per inch) spring return assembly was successfully tested. No significant degradation in the screen bubble point was observed either due to the screen stretching process or due to cyclic fatigue during testing. An estimated 30 to 50 deflection cycles, and approximately 3 to 5 thermal cycles, were performed on the final screen specimen, prior to and between formally recorded testing. These cycles included some "abusive" pressure cycling, where gas or liquid was driven through the screen at rates that produced differential pressures across the screen of several times the bubble point pressure. No obvious performance degradation or other changes were observed over the duration of testing. In summary, it is felt by the author that these simple tests validated the feasibility of the flexible screen PMD concept for use with cryogenic propellants.

  8. BFKL Pomeron calculus: Nucleus-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.contreras@usm.cl [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Levin, Eugene, E-mail: leving@post.tau.ac.il [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Miller, Jeremy S., E-mail: jeremy.miller@ist.utl.pt [Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    In this paper the action of the BFKL Pomeron calculus is rewritten in momentum representation, and the equations of motion for nucleus-nucleus collisions are derived, in this representation. We found the semiclassical solutions to these equations, outside of the saturation domain. Inside this domain these equations reduce to the set of delay differential equations, and their asymptotic solutions are derived.

  9. EFECTOS DE LA DISPERSIÓN POR MODO DE POLARIZACIÓN (PMD EN LA PROPAGACIÓN DE PULSOS A TRAVÉS DE FIBRAS ÓPTICAS EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION (PMD ON PROPAGATION OF OPTICAL PULSES IN OPTICAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Leiva L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan los conceptos fundamentales de la dispersión por modo de polarización (PMD: Polarization Mode Dispersion que ocurre en fibras ópticas. PMD produce ensanchamientos aleatorios de los pulsos ópticos transmitidos a través de una fibra óptica y su efecto es considerable para velocidades de transmisión digital iguales o superiores a 10 Gbps. Se revisa la teoría de PMD y se plantea la relevancia de caracterizar el fenómeno en transmisión por fibra óptica, concluyéndose con un método de simulación de la propagación de pulsos afectados por PMD. Este trabajo constituye un punto de partida para posteriores análisis de los efectos de PMD en sistemas de transmisión, para su compensación y mediciónThis work reviews the fundamental concepts of polarization mode dispersion (PMD occurring in optical fibers. PMD broadens optical pulses transmitted through an optical fiber at random and its effect is significant for bit rates equal or exceeding 10 Gbps. The theory of PMD and relevance of characterizing this phenomenon in optical fiber transmission is presented, concluding with a simulation model of the optical pulse propagation, subject to PMD. This provides a starting point for further analysis of the effects of PMD in transmission systems and how to measure and compensate these

  10. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well......The first, second and third sacral segments of 59 human spinal cords were examined in order to localize and describe Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus was found to be situated in the ventral horn of the segments S2 and S3; only in very few spinal cords did it extend into S1. A significant variation...... as between cell bodies and large dendrites were observed. Characteristic findings in the neuropil surrounding the nucleus were the sparsity of myelinated fibers and the presence of dendritic bundles. The present observations are compared to the descriptions of a morphologically similar nucleus...

  11. Analysis of PMD and PDL effect on Chirped Gaussian and SuperGaussain pulse shapes by controlling SOP in SMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINAYAGAPRIYA.S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical analysis of impairments due to PMD and PDL on system performance is investigated in High Speed Optical Communication System. Optical Polarization has pronounced effect on signal quality. Thus there is a need to control the State of Polarization (SOP. Pulse Broadening can be controlled by launching the light signal in particular State of Polarization such as Linear and Circular. Two types of Pulses such as Chirped Gaussian and Supergaussian pulses are launched at different SOP into the optical fiber and it is found that maximum pulse width reduction is achieved when the pulse is at Circular SOP than that of Linear SOP. Also results clearly show that with PMD and PDL, pulse width ratio of Chirped Gaussian pulse is much reduced than that of Chirped Supergaussian Pulse.

  12. An improved method for the characterization of supersaturation and precipitation of poorly soluble drugs using pulsatile microdialysis (PMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha B; Patel, Piyush G; Khairuzzaman, Akm; Bellantone, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    In current pharmaceutical drug discovery, most candidates are poorly soluble in water, which can result in poor bioavailability. To overcome this problem, formulations that create supersaturation of the drug are a well-studied alternative. Characterizing the dissolution from these systems is challenging because conventional methods, such as sampling with a syringe then filtering with a 0.2-0.45 μm filter before an HPLC assay, can overestimate the concentration of dissolved drug by allowing nuclei or small precipitated particles to pass, which then dissolve in the HPLC mobile phase. Nuclei and small particles can also cause overestimation of the dissolved concentration when using optical methods. Such overestimations can lead to failure of in vivo prediction of drug bioavailability from supersaturated systems. This paper reports a novel method to determine the free dissolved drug concentration in a dissolution medium using pulsatile microdialysis (PMD). Ibuprofen was used as a model drug for determining precipitation and supersaturation. Supersaturation was induced chemically by changing pH, and also by dissolution/release from an in-house formulation. The adaptation of a previously developed PMD model is summarized, and experimental results comparing dissolved concentrations determined using PMD and direct sampling by syringe and filtering are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  14. Impact of the distribution pattern of fast polarization scrambler on the performance of PMD mitigation with FEC for DQPSK optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahai Han; Lixia Xi; Minliang Li; Haoran Chen; Feifei Liu

    2011-01-01

    The combination of fast polarization scrambler(FPS) and forward error correction(FEC) is one of the methods to mitigate the polarization mode dispersion(PMD) in high-speed optical fiber communication systems.The effect of the different distribution patterns of FPS on PMD mitigation with FEC is investigated.A comparison of the bit error rates(BERs) between two cases where the distributed FPS is absent and present along the fiber is carried out by simulation.A novel representation called the"ring chart" to assess the performance of different distribution patterns intuitively is proposed.The results show that the distribution pattern is an impact factor for this PMD mitigation scheme.

  15. PMD and chromatic dispersion compensation in a 1.76-terabit/s (44 x 43 Gbit/s) optical transmission experiment over 600-km SMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2004-10-01

    A simple, adaptive PMD compensator is demonstrated in a 1.76Terabit/s (44 x 43 Gbit/s) transmission experi- ment over 600km SMF with a mean PMD of 8 ps. The PMDC is composed of a LiNbO3 polarization-controller followed by a component with an adjustable differential group delay (DGD) in the range of 0-20 ps. Feedback control is provided by means of continuously monitoring and maximizing the degree of polarization (DOP). This PMDC is shown to automatically compensate well for 1st-order (0-28 ps) and one part - the depolarization - of 2nd-order (0-130 ps2) PMD. Polarization dependent chromatic dispersion (PCD), being the other part of 2nd-order PMD, is negligible as long transmission systems without a PMDC are considered. But in fact PCD plays a role when an optical PMDC is introduced. Because of the anyway tight tolerance of 40 Gbit/s optical signals to chromatic dispersion, the variable dispersion compensator VIPA (virtually imaged phased array) with a tuning range of +/-800 ps/nm is introduced besides the PMDC. Therefore, with VIPA not only residual chro- matic dispersion put also PCD is e«ectively compensated for. Using adaptive optical technologies compensating for PMD and chromatic dispersion, error-free transmission (BER< 10í15 with FEC, Q-margin=3 dB) of 44 x 43 Gbit/s (1.76 Tbit/s) over 600km of high PMD (8 ps) SMF is demonstrated.

  16. An in situ method to quantitatively determine dissolved free drug concentrations in vitro in the presence of polymer excipients using pulsatile microdialysis (PMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejani, Charchil; Bellantone, Robert A

    2015-12-30

    In drug formulations containing polymer excipients, the effects of the polymer on the dissolved free drug concentration and resulting dissolution or release can be important, especially for poorly soluble drugs. In this study, an in vitro method based on pulsatile microdialysis (PMD) was developed to quantitatively determine dissolved free concentrations of drugs in the presence of polymers in aqueous media in situ (e.g., in place within the system being characterized). Formulations were made by dissolving various ratios of the drug griseofulvin and polymer PVP K30 in water and allowing the mix to equilibrate. A PMD probe was immersed in each mixture and the dissolved free drug concentrations were determined in the PMD samples. The experimental procedure and the equations used for data analysis are presented. To assess the consistency of data, a binding model was fit to the data obtained using PMD by calculating the dissolved free drug fraction fD for each drug-polymer ratio in solution, and obtaining the product of the binding stoichiometry and binding constant (νK per mole of polymer) from the slope of a plot of (1-fD)/fD vs. the molar polymer concentration. For comparison, equilibrium binding experiments were also performed at 23C, and the determined value of νK was similar to the value found using PMD. Experiments were performed at three temperatures, and a plot of ln (νK) vs. 1/T was linear and a binding enthalpy of -110.9±4.4J/mol of monomer was calculated from its slope. It was concluded that PMD can be used to determine the dissolved free drug concentrations in situ, which allows characterization of the drug-polymer interaction, even for low drug concentrations. This information may be important in modeling the dissolution or release of drugs from formulations containing polymers.

  17. Influence of polarization state, baud rate and PMD on non-linear impairments in WDM systems with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz; Forzati, Marco; Mårtensson, Jonas; Rafique, Danish

    2012-03-26

    In this paper we numerically investigate nonlinear impairments in a WDM system with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels. First we analyze the dependence of XPM and XPolM on SOP and baud rate in absence of PMD. In this case we find that the nonlinear impairments are highly dependent on relative SOP between the PM (D)QPSK and neighbouring OOK channels. The dependence on relative SOP is more pronounced in differential detection than in coherent detection. However, with increasing values of PMD this dependence decreases, and non-linear tolerance improves.

  18. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide)/PMD (para-menthane-3,8-diol) repellent-treated mesh increases Culicoides catches in light traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, A K; Clawson, S; Rea, I; Forsythe, I W N; Gordon, A W; Jess, S

    2016-09-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. Treatment of mesh barriers is a common method for preventing insect-vectored diseases and has been proposed as a means of limiting Culicoides ingression into buildings or livestock transporters. Assessments using animals are costly, logistically difficult and subject to ethical approval. Therefore, initial screening of test repellents/insecticides was made by applying treatments to mesh (2 mm) cages surrounding Onderstepoort light traps. Five commercial treatments were applied to cages as per manufacturers' application rates: control (water), bendiocarb, DEET/p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) repellent, Flygo (a terpenoid based repellent) and lambda-cyhalothrin. The experimental design was a 5 × 5 Latin square, replicated in time and repeated twice. Incongruously, the traps surrounded by DEET/PMD repellent-treated mesh caught three to four times more Obsoletus group Culicoides (the commonest midge group) than the other treatments. A proposed hypothesis is that Obsoletus group Culicoides are showing a dose response to DEET/PMD, being attracted at low concentrations and repelled at higher concentrations but that the strong light attraction from the Onderstepoort trap was sufficient to overcome close-range repellence. This study does not imply that DEET/PMD is an ineffective repellent for Culicoides midges in the presence of an animal but rather that caution should be applied to the interpretation of light trap bioassays.

  19. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  20. Neutrino nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our calculation which has been performed to study the nuclear effects in the quasielastic, inelastic and deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets. These calculations are done in the local density approximation. We take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, Coulomb effect, renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium in the case of the quasielastic reaction. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a $\\Delta $- dominance model taking into account the renormalization of $\\Delta$ properties in the nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of the outgoing pions with the residual nucleus. We discuss the nuclear effects in the $F_{3}^{A}(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino(antineutrino) reaction using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral function in the nucleus.

  1. Heavy flavor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus: quenching, flow and correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, M; De Pace, A; Monteno, M; Prino, F

    2015-01-01

    We present recent results for heavy-flavor observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies, obtained with the POWLANG transport setup. The initial creation of c-cbar and b-bbar pairs is simulated with a perturbative QCD approach (POWHEG+PYTHIA); their propagation in the medium (created in the nucleus-nucleus or in proton-nucleus collision) is studied with the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final D mesons both in nucleus-nucleus and in (for the first time, in the POWLANG setup) proton-nucleus collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  2. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  3. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  4. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  5. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Source size determination in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, J.L.; Kumar, B.S.; Bennett, M.J.; Diebold, G.E.; Pope, J.K. (Yale University, A. W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)); Sorge, H.; Sullivan, J.P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-08-29

    We describe a technique whereby the freeze-out interaction volumes of nucleus-nucleus collisions are extracted from a cascade (plus coalescence) model, after comparison to measured abundances of light nuclei. We conclude that the interaction volume undergoes significant expansion before light nuclei are produced.

  7. The Galactic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio

    Exciting new broadband observations of the galactic nucleus have placed the heart of the Milky Way under intense scrutiny in recent years. This has been due in part to the growing interest from theorists motivated to study the physics of black hole accretion, magnetized gas dynamics, and unusual star formation. The center of our Galaxy is now known to harbor the most compelling supermassive black hole candidate, weighing in at 3-4 million solar masses. Its nearby environment is comprised of a molecular dusty ring, clusters of evolved and young stars, diffuse hot gas, ionized gas streamers, and several supernova remnants. This chapter will focus on the physical makeup of this dynamic region and the feasibility of actually imaging the black hole's shadow in the coming decade with mm interferometry.

  8. Mechanics of the Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus is the distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Until recently, it was often considered simply as a unique compartment containing the genetic information of the cell and associated machinery, without much attention to its structure and mechanical properties. This article provides compelling examples that illustrate how specific nuclear structures are associated with important cellular functions, and how defects in nuclear mechanics can cause a multitude of human diseases. During differentiation, embryonic stem cells modify their nuclear envelope composition and chromatin structure, resulting in stiffer nuclei that reflect decreased transcriptional plasticity. In contrast, neutrophils have evolved characteristic lobulated nuclei that increase their physical plasticity, enabling passage through narrow tissue spaces in their response to inflammation. Research on diverse cell types further demonstrates how induced nuclear deformations during cellular compression or stretch can modulate cellular function. Pathological examples of disturbed nuclear mechanics include the many diseases caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and associated proteins, as well as cancer cells that are often characterized by abnormal nuclear morphology. In this article, we will focus on determining the functional relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular (dys-)function, describing the molecular changes associated with physiological and pathological examples, the resulting defects in nuclear mechanics, and the effects on cellular function. New insights into the close relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular organization and function will yield a better understanding of normal biology and will offer new clues into therapeutic approaches to the various diseases associated with defective nuclear mechanics. PMID:23737203

  9. Neurons of human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanović Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. Methods. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I - fusiform neurons; type II - fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III - pyramidal-like neuron; type IV - multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV - multipolar neurons. Results. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV - multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Conclusion. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.

  10. Realization of PMD compensation logic control module of the hybrid structure%混合结构PMD补偿逻辑控制模块的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟斌; 白成林; 许恒迎

    2012-01-01

    order to improve the response speed of adaptive PMD compensation control module, we design a PMD compensation logic control module based on the hybrid structure of digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA).And the realization method of each unit within the module is also shown. The performance analysis of PMD compensation logic control module shows that the module has good compensation effect,and one compensation time unit of this module consumes 61 祒s and the total hardware working time within it is 110.7祍, which are only about 1/3 and 1/8 of the module using DSP, respectively.%为提高自适应PMD补偿控制模块的响应速度,设计了一种基于数字信号处理器(DSP)+现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)混合结构的PMD补偿逻辑控制模块,给出了模块内各单元的实现方法.对PMD补偿逻辑控制模块的性能分析表明:本模块补偿效果良好,一个补偿时间单元的总耗时为611μs,在此期间内硬件工作总时间为110.7μs,分别仅为DSP方式的1/3和1/8.

  11. PMD2HD--a web tool aligning a PubMed search results page with the local German Cancer Research Centre library collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Lang, Elke; Taube, Anke

    2005-06-27

    Web-based searching is the accepted contemporary mode of retrieving relevant literature, and retrieving as many full text articles as possible is a typical prerequisite for research success. In most cases only a proportion of references will be directly accessible as digital reprints through displayed links. A large number of references, however, have to be verified in library catalogues and, depending on their availability, are accessible as print holdings or by interlibrary loan request. The problem of verifying local print holdings from an initial retrieval set of citations can be solved using Z39.50, an ANSI protocol for interactively querying library information systems. Numerous systems include Z39.50 interfaces and therefore can process Z39.50 interactive requests. However, the programmed query interaction command structure is non-intuitive and inaccessible to the average biomedical researcher. For the typical user, it is necessary to implement the protocol within a tool that hides and handles Z39.50 syntax, presenting a comfortable user interface. PMD2HD is a web tool implementing Z39.50 to provide an appropriately functional and usable interface to integrate into the typical workflow that follows an initial PubMed literature search, providing users with an immediate asset to assist in the most tedious step in literature retrieval, checking for subscription holdings against a local online catalogue. PMD2HD can facilitate literature access considerably with respect to the time and cost of manual comparisons of search results with local catalogue holdings. The example presented in this article is related to the library system and collections of the German Cancer Research Centre. However, the PMD2HD software architecture and use of common Z39.50 protocol commands allow for transfer to a broad range of scientific libraries using Z39.50-compatible library information systems.

  12. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA and proton-nucleus (pA collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  13. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Marzia

    2016-11-01

    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA) and proton-nucleus (pA) collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  14. A scaling relation between proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Basar, Gokce; Teaney, Derek

    2014-01-01

    It is recently discovered that at high multiplicy, the proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus ($AA$) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in $pA$. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in $pA$ emerges as a collective res...

  15. Charged pion anisotropy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, J.; L' Hote, D.; Cavata, C.; Babinet, R.; Demoulins, M.; Fanet, H.; Gosset, J.; Lemaire, M.C.; Le Merdy, A.; Lucas, B.; Terrien, Y.; Valette, O. (CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Marroncle, J.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Rahmani, A. (LPC Clermont-Ferrand, 63 - Aubiere (France)); Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C. (CRN, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-01-27

    The momentum distributions with respect to the reaction plane for charged pions emitted in Ne-nucleus and Ar-nucleus collisions have been measured with the 4{pi} detector Diogene at the Saturne synchrotron. The reaction plane is estimated from the baryon momenta, using a standard technique for flow analysis. The pions exhibit a non-zero flow. For asymmetric systems, there is a preferential emission in the direction of the lighter (projectile) nucleus. Such a behaviour contradicts the predictions of INC calculations and is underestimated by QMD calculations which include mean field effects. It can be interpreted with a simple geometrical model in terms of absorption by the spectator nuclear matter. (orig.).

  16. Quasielastic K-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A D; Oset, E

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic K^+ - nucleus scattering data at q=290, 390 and 480 MeV/c are analyzed in a finite nucleus continuum random phase approximation framework, using a density-dependent particle-hole interaction. The reaction mechanism is consistently treated according to Glauber theory, keeping up to two-step inelastic processes. A good description of the data is achieved, also providing a useful constraint on the strength of the effective particle-hole interaction in the scalar-isoscalar channel at intermediate momentum transfers. We find no evidence for the increase in the effective number of nucleons participating in the reaction which has been reported in the literature.

  17. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  18. 06 Mtumane 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2010-07-29

    Jul 29, 2010 ... aspects of Mpumlo's personality, as depicted through dialogue, that feature .... the choices they make about career, family lives, romances, and social ... points to his caring about other characters, especially Sosiba, his friend.

  19. Page 53 - 59.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Background: Increasing resistance to first line antimalarial drugs led to a change in the antimalarial policy of Uganda in. 2005. ... change in antimalarial treatment policy from chloroquine plus ..... health Organization Bulletin 2001; 4. 5.

  20. Pages 474 - 480.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were analyzed in water sampled. Results of the tests were ... including diarrhoea and nausea, and even lead to death6. ..... intervention to mitigate the potential health impact of water-borne diseases ...

  1. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    type and the emphasis on training for various job categories (e.g. line worker, ... of employees served by HRD function and (b) the approximate HRD annual budget. ... questionnaires were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social.

  2. 05 Viljoen 02.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    23 Jun 2009 ... gake, Ruth First, Jean Middleton, Emma Mashinini, Caesarina Kona Makhoere en. Breyten Breytenbach. ... Die ongedanste dans in 2005 by Human en Rousseau. Hierdie ...... Derrida, Jacques. 1978 [1967]. Writing and ...

  3. 01 Sawadogo 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-02-06

    Feb 6, 2007 ... He first notes the importance of Moose history, and especially the history ..... noteworthy that from the point of view of temporality, the present of ... helps to note, first, that the poet is in a spatial and cognitive disjunction with the.

  4. 4. Omeje.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... 89–114. © Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2008 .... ating the breakdown of structures of Mbembe's perceived 'conviviality' between ..... ern tourists in Egypt before and after 9/11, and the kidnapping of 32 .... The Liberian government has already offered to host AFRICOM.

  5. Pages 526 - 534.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    endothelial cells and it inhibits activated NOS within endothelial cells. Methods: We used confocal fluorescence microscopy to colocalize the inhibitors caveolin-1 and ... colocalized with serine116 phosphorylated NOS in the cytosol and in vesicular structures seen in the endoplasmic reticulum ..... in available human cells.

  6. 3. Banjo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... En utilisant une méthode basée sur l'analyse du contenu, en plus des ..... breach of Article 3(2)(d)(iii) and article 4(g) of the Treaty of the Eco- ..... Community Court of Justice is a welcome idea, it is important to recognise.

  7. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    prices and the undermining of the purchasing power of unprotected farmers, most .... commodities and increase export capacity in several commodities if full ... producers and low-income consumers against severe production and price shocks.

  8. 2. Neocosmos.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    liberate humanity and that only the state could drive the economy to progress. .... slogans of social democracy, to bring back (perhaps a slightly modified ver- .... consciousness' in Durkheim's sense, which would set the commonly agreed.

  9. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    presenting transport oriented guiding principles for urban tourism, and 3) .... era saw the rise of elegant hotels, packaged tours, and train travel to cities for ... in the global tourism market place, a wide range of quality transport options are. 4 Trade .... and Light, Florida Alliance for Clean Technologies, Clean Cities, the Florida.

  10. 2- Oculi.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-20

    Aug 20, 2011 ... economic and political management, legislation and electoral politics. ... translated into the kind of struggle for independence that the American colonies ... and communications services, and handled the retail trade in ...

  11. UJAS 10.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The results of the AMOVA analysis revealed the allelic variation (92.5%) ... strategies to control and manage the disease so as to ..... Branch length is proportional to the genetic distance which is indicated by ... shall be useful in the design and.

  12. 4. Blessing.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... antees a full range of civil, cultural, social, political and economic rights, .... devote considerable time to lobbying for their pet projects at the appropriate ... vember 2000 local elections retained almost wholesale the innovations intro- .... The Umoza NGO network was therefore formed to provide NGOs in the.

  13. 2. Wilems.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... public sphere in media studies and political science could inform a .... of this entanglement in relations of power, it cannot be assumed that a ..... Appadurai, A. and C. A. Breckenridge, 1995, 'Public Modernity in India', in A.

  14. 10. Mehanna.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... and using the security of being anonymous, if one desired, provided by this ... Network (EUN) and The Cabinet's Information and Decision Support Centre ..... them from expressing their opinions or who for other reasons are prevented .... Egyptian who had been living and working in Medina city for 44 years.

  15. 1. Mtika.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-14

    Oct 14, 2013 ... A main reason for this is that free market capitalism operates ... community entrepreneurship to propose a model of this approach to wealth ..... two-sided goal of community entrepreneurship demands designing, planning, ..... competition revealed the need for horizontal integration as a marketing strategy.

  16. 1. Muiu.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2008 .... The present crisis facing the African state, which manifests itself through ..... should include taking care of the homeless people who populate African.

  17. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This idea could be used to teach people how to make sense of the awful events that ..... Hoeksema and Larson(1998) call “sense making” and “benefit-finding”. .... Taylor, S.E (1983) Adjustment to Threatening Events: A Theory of Cognitive ...

  18. Pages 464 - 473.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    interviews on HIV/AIDS stigma and violence in three local languages. Results: Between ... to enrol 1,270 participants on to the PMTCT program. Successes included: .... involved pre-study formal didactic sessions, followed by hands-on ...

  19. 8. reviews.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... direction of overcoming marginality unless Africa repositions itself by .... Whilst I commend Kebede's appreciation of nonviolent resistance, what ..... separate study on ECOWAS and non-constitutional regime changes in West.

  20. UJAS 21.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    They pose a serious health hazard to humans and animals that consume ... aflatoxin accumulation in its initiative to improve maize grain quality in Uganda. ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) ..... bNarrow sense coefficient of genetic determination calculated as [δ2.

  1. 07 Dangor 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Arabic-Afrikaans, Afrikaans Literature, Cape-Dutch, Cape Muslim history. ... Cape mainly from the East Indies and the coastal regions of India which were under ..... Hollandsche Uitgewers & Royal Netherlands Academy for Sciences (Litera-.

  2. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The Mau Mau War probably induced US President Dwight D. Eisenhower, worried ... The agreement at Westphalia created a kind of The Peace for. Europeans to exploit .... advise on who it should trade with or award contracts, and even dared to lead a ... Other countries seemingly doing the same include India, Malaysia,.

  3. Pages 140 -147.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    hypertension (70.6%), those with positive family history of hypertension (59.5%), and diabetes mellitus (46.4%). .... renal disease, female students who were menstruating and within one ... was defined as blood pressure greater than or equal.

  4. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    fatal threat to the environment and the people. ... 1 Gilpin Alan Environmental Economics: A Critical Overview (John Wiley &Sons Ltd, 2000) p113 .... I think the economic logic behind dumping a load of toxic waste in ... 13 Porter Gareth, Brown, J.W. & Chasek P.S. Global Environmental Politics 3rd Ed. (Westview Press; ...

  5. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Security – law and order, national defence and freedom from abuse by .... the written cultures of China, India, Japan and the Middle East protected their ..... that writing turns speech and language into objects of reflexion and analysis (Olson.

  6. Pages 320 - 328.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally ... guardian tobacco use (OR=2.83, p=0.001) and suicide ideation (OR=2.05, p=0.02). ... years old or younger, 3=8 or 9 years old, up to 6=14.

  7. UJAS 5.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    be concluded that the participatory variety selection acts as an entry point into the farming communities ..... 5. -. -. Total. 54. 30. 14. 8. Table 3. Frequency (%) of selection criteria used in the selection process by gender .... The fact that the on-.

  8. 12 Duncan 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie01

    2006-06-12

    Jun 12, 2006 ... authority, one must ask, does this imagined restoration of presence possess? ... reclamation in fact rob these shadowy figures of their own ek-staticposition of .... To me your sympathies flow; your heart beats with mine (103).

  9. 11- Shoko.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... Their special powers are shown to be bestowed upon them by a mudzimu (spirit of a .... persistence of the illness or may lead to mental problems. .... regional comparisons and then provides a context/background with material.

  10. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    students who attend classes by lecturers who tend to be monochronic time users, suffer penalties .... Many prefer handouts and lecture notes by their instructors. ... Teachers should encourage learners to empathize and respect each other's.

  11. UJAS 107.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2012, 13 (2): 107-116. ISSN 1026-0919 ... and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were computed to establish significant relationships (P<0.05) .... within-class covariance matrices were equal. .... cattle varies with AEZ and management system. .... risk factors in cattle in urban and peri-.

  12. 10. Amougou.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    31 oct. 2012 ... ... à promouvoir sur le plan économique, politique, financier et monétaire, que des comportements .... Extérieur : relations paternalistes avec les anciennes ...... de droit des textes internationaux régissant l'échange international (Taxil ... effectivement et à qui elles ont affaire, « le modèle déterministe du tout.

  13. 4- Nelem.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    19 oct. 2011 ... et de la relation au corps ont favorisé la « mise en scène de la vie quotidienne » .... vivants dans leur environnement, au même titre que l'économie est, d'abord, ... de l'esclave ou du barbare, n'ont pas droit au domaine public. .... restreint de discussion rationnelle des affaires publiques, un lieu « de libre.

  14. 8- Hadjidj.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    19 oct. 2011 ... relations, d'une autre structure familiale, ainsi qu'un nouveau mode de vie, de ... cité en occupant pour ce faire le terrain social et économique. ... Nous avons affaire à des jeunes dépossédés du droit de vivre pleinement.

  15. 12 Sanou 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-06-02

    Jun 2, 2007 ... to define the institution and to show how, as an autonomous field, the literary field produces values that ..... to speak in public, to be independent in terms of acquiring materials, etc.). ... involves learning the language of masks.

  16. 12. Muyomi.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... to take care of HIV/AIDS orphans because of high treatment and nutrition costs. As some ..... relationship that will provide this feeling of belonging and acceptance (Muyomi ... Cultural demands of making this commitment are.

  17. WAJM 28 (5).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    intensive care unit; SPSSS, Statistical package social science studies; UTI, Urinary tract infection. Nosocomial ... Sahara, although the types of community acquired infections are known ... Published data on HAI from Sub-Saharan Africa are.

  18. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    The learning of Foreign Languages in Kenyan Universities: ... definitions will obviously attract debate among linguists since they do not seem to take into ... for example argue that English is a foreign language in Kenya because “it is from .... fact, most fans of such programmes have difficulty pronouncing the titles of their.

  19. 14 Udumukwu 02.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... but their works reflect that they are also products of indigenous .... Nsukka takes them away from their natural attitude and exposes them ... water either by leaving the toilet unflushed (121) or by rising early to fetch water from.

  20. 2. Olawale.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... tive peace, the regional organisation is still as under funded as the former ... These concepts include conflict prevention, preventive diplomacy, conflict ... social structure, conflict is expansive and difficult to resolve for several rea- ...... its initial phase, the hybrid operation will draw its forces from the existing.

  1. pages 408 - 411.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Effect of hyoscine butylbromide first stage of labour in multiparus ... Objective: To determine whether or not hyoscine butylbromide shortens the stages of labor, without an increase in ... of oxytocin and prostaglandins has been established.

  2. 11 Alou 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-07-11

    Jul 11, 2007 ... pose modes of coming to consciousness and of co-naissance, ... Return to My Native Land): Qui et quels nous sommes?, “Who and what are we?” ..... soul. He and Mycéa are united as a couple; the country and the world are ...

  3. 8. Keita.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    scientific and metaphysical – it does not apply to traditional African religious expression. ... On the other hand the goal of traditional African religion like that of many other .... Before an actual evaluation of Horton's theories, I want to establish the ... ern Science' was to radically revise the then dominant Western paradigm.

  4. UJAS 13.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    virulence in Makerere University during 2012 B. The F1, F2 and backcrosses were evaluated under controlled conditions and disease reaction indicated that resistance is partially dominant and additive .... F2 progenies indicated close relationship, ... On the other hand F. 2 ... were additive and non additive, which was.

  5. 4- Norris.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-20

    Aug 20, 2011 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2011. (ISSN 0850-3907) ... settlement. The establishment of an innovation platform with .... context of the challenge, defining what changes these stakeholders.

  6. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    vision and mission outcomes among the university students. It also aims at ... majors. The student's attitude towards General Education courses could be a hindrance in .... Other sources of data were personal observations during class sessions and during faculty ... Some students do not attend orientation programs. They do.

  7. 12 Ratele 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-07-09

    Jul 9, 2007 ... with its embedded cultural contexts as well as a new translation to trace some of the different stages and places where ... The name of the woman, who testifies, is Notrose Nobomvu Konile. But even in her ..... (Francis Reid's Long Night's Journey into ..... Oral Literature & Performance in Southern Africa.

  8. Page 28 - 33.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    severity of renal function impairment and CD4 cell count in HIV infected patients. Method: HIV ... CD4 cell count was found to be 309.75 ± 268.71/ul, 188.45 ± 173.12/ul, and 141.10±126.01/ul among subjects with mild, moderate ..... Atlas of the.

  9. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    Towards A Multilingual Learner for African languages. Frederick K. ... learning and teaching, persons with voice impairment, just to mention a few (Ngugi. 2004). ... thus promoting peace-building and appreciating Kenya's cultural and linguistic.

  10. 2. Melvine.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... Previous unsolicited sexual experiences and the media were influential in facilitating dating .... dimensional in orientation and practice (Petronio & Durham 2008). To ..... have psychological consequences for the adolescents.

  11. 09 Andersson 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie01

    2006-06-15

    Jun 15, 2006 ... play the game as well. .... revival of the Olympic Games. ..... the Police, even if the latter have to be helped in solving their crimes – it is a world free .... the 1980s when Precious Ramotswe would have been a teenager, the age ...

  12. UJAS 71.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    , termites. Introduction .... rangelands in order to collect samples of ..... and widespread problem in the district .... information from a wide range of ethnic .... reference to Africa and Indo-Malaysia: a ... make IPM work for resource-poor farmers.

  13. 4. Zubeiru.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    ist project and practice of control, domination and exercise of power. As. Crush points out ..... The excessive attention which was given to the presupposed transition from one extremity ..... ready bad situation (Sutcliffe 1995). The focus therefore ...

  14. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    What gives force and validity to this representational tool is our shared symbolic ... The son is young, inexperienced, and, “under the intoxication of his body's ... Wharton's text provides us with a vista through which we can analyze two important ... What aspirations are responsible for our resistance .... Christian influence.

  15. Okia nutritional.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    L.) est une culture de base negligee qui croît dans les milieux à sécheresse ..... volume, osmotic equilibrium and acid-base balance. Its deficiency during hot weather is attributed to .... development agencies and the general public in. Uganda ...

  16. UJAS 53.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2012 National Agricultural Research Organisation. The changing ... Key words: Banana Xanthomonas wilt, control, incidence, prevalence, stakeholder mobilisation. Introduction ..... This was attributed to effectiveness of the recommended ...

  17. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    In Kenya, the newspaper is viewed by many as a credible source of information .... democratic space and therefore it was perceived as anti-government. .... On corruption, the EAS14 describes Kibaki as having a light moment with the President.

  18. 2. Onwuzuruigbo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-14

    Oct 14, 2013 ... The failure of Nigeria to conduct credible. 2. Onwuzuruigbo. ... of godfatherism on elections, political corruption and conflicts in Nigeria – ... perceived to live a life of total submission, subservience and protection of the oracular.

  19. UJAS 85.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    stocking density from the current average (340 coffee trees acre-1) to the recommended stocking density of 450 coffee trees ... million people through coffee production related activities ... number use a combination of family and hired labour.

  20. 5. Wanyama.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... Using a study of community-based organisations (CBOs) ..... but occasionally as a result of the demonstration effect from outside the membership or ..... tics, Kenyatta introduced the notion of 'constituency service' for members,.

  1. UJAS 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    finite and heterogeneous, making pricing competitive ... significance as a key productive asset and source of livelihood in .... theoretical model of land rents to guide the selection of proxy .... urbanised because of the capital city Kampala.

  2. UJAS 39.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Host plant resistance is the most convenient and effective intervention to ... to overcome these production problems. However, host plant resistance to pests, ..... Changes of electric potential in pistils of Petunia hybrida Hort. and Brassica napus ...

  3. UJAS 8.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2Future Agricultures Consortium, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton,. BN1 9RE UK ... Key words: Banana, commercialization, financing, traders. Introduction ..... systems and lessons for the future. Working Paper ...

  4. 06 Keraan 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    the shaykh's demise, must have received the necessary permission to copy and record the text as it was dictated to him by his teacher / shaykh (see Pedersen 1984: 20–36). ..... The shade of His likeness is like the picture of the object.

  5. UJAS 25.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    cattle offered Pennisetum purpureum basal diet on feed intake and ... the effect of legume supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered P. purpureum basal diet on feed intake ..... Evaluation of. Clitoria ... Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 57:.

  6. 5. Brenya.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... prohibit the production, manufacture, and consumption of tobacco products in the African ... These economic, cultural and religious beliefs have caused the culti- vation, sales ..... at a cost to the countries and the risk factors are high. .... ments Meeting (CHOGM) held in Coolum, Australia on March 2002 be-.

  7. 5. Kapunda.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-06-18

    Jun 18, 2008 ... export oriented strategy which requires production of quality goods for ex- port at low .... ered a panacea for Botswana's unemployment problem. In fact it is the ... beer, cigarettes, soft drinks, bottled water, tyres and textiles.

  8. UJAS 45.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Progression of Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) in infected cassava ... experiment was conducted at Namulonge (central Uganda), where the CBSD pressure and whitefly population is ... suitability for human consumption. Thus, the.

  9. NUMBER 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daddy

    Syndrome de Marfan: A Study of a Family nigérian et de l'examen de la gestion actuelle de cardiologie ... It causes a myriad of distinct clinical problems, of which the musculoskeletal, cardiac, and .... The blood pressure was 80/50mmHg with.

  10. UJAS 6.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected ... Key words: Algae, cagefish, invertebrates, water quality ..... changes in natural biological productivity ... DC, American Public Health ... Southern Regional Aquaculture Center.

  11. Pages 193 - 197.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) remains a common and one of the major causes of ... visual disability in black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) from Kinshasa, Congo. .... knowledge, these data represent the first assessment.

  12. 5. Ndjio.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... form, expression, mode of functioning and representation. But whatever ..... or fossilized their thought, and an opposition to a form of governance ...... systematize a coherent discourse that emphasized the need to preserve.

  13. Pages 631 - 639.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Conclusion: HIV risk behaviour was found to be a significant risk factor for HIV infection in the study .... Theories of behaviour change ..... Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding attitudes and ... behavior in the context of the theory of planned.

  14. 4. Omeje.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... in the emergency of failed and turbulent states, have conspired to erode .... the Cold War could lead to a 'peace dividend' in the international sys- ... through 'new instruments of global stewardship' or 'some forms of in-.

  15. Pages 320 - 328.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Results: Overall 15.5% had experienced smoking initiation before age 14, with the percentages 20.1% among boys and ... in adulthood as are those adolescents who begin to ..... with the relative economic development of the .... neurotoxicity of adolescent cognitive ... tobacco in media among middle and high school.

  16. Adejobi latest.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... A.O. ADEJOBI and R. KASSALI. Department of ... statistics and the logistic model. ... and other rural services such as extension, and rural credit; as well as ... hybrids for specific agro-ecological zones, and .... paper was to analyse the effect of market access .... majority of the farmers practiced mixed cropping.

  17. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    2005-10-17

    Oct 17, 2005 ... Though there could be other psychological causes of poor learning, vicarious trauma seemed useful given ... The Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM IV) describes people with Post Traumatic ... underlining) events that threatened their lives or integrity, as well as the death or ... fear, helplessness, or horror”.

  18. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    2005-10-17

    Oct 17, 2005 ... development He further states that language enables people to express ideas, feelings and thoughts. ..... New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Iraki, Fredrick (2005) ... and print media elicit similar responses? Figley (2005) ...

  19. UJAS 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information from 60 pastoralists indicated that reduced efficacy of the drugs could be due to prolonged and frequent use .... was administered via the subcutaneous injection route with calibrated syringes and needles. A pre-treatment fasting of ...

  20. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    for different age groups), as well as problems still existing in the field (one of the ... gives, would only be interesting to the other children if it is fresh, African and local. .... The interviews quoted here were conducted by Ms. Heer Raja, a graduate ...

  1. UJAS 35.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    A study was carried out to evaluate growth performance of Zebu cattle and their crosses with. Sahiwal and Boran ... Genetic group of the calf (Zebu, Boran or Sahiwal crosses) was a significant ... beef and milk production but also for draft power ...

  2. 3. Sall.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    14 oct. 2013 ... une place spécifique dans le système productif, avec une position ... La compétitivité d'une entreprise exprime ses performances à long terme, ... capitaux propres et la croissance de son chiffre d'affaires dépassent celles .... compétitivité financière, il est nécessaire de construire des indicateurs fondés.

  3. 7. Maphosa.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... change in the culture of migration if, over time, the benefits of education outweigh those of .... among some Mexican communities which have high rates of migration to the USA ... processes of acquiring knowledge and skills.

  4. 5. Ndjio.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... tive memory, and the reactivation of ethnic, regional, religious and paro- chial solidarities .... publicized through popular songs or music, paintings, graffiti on the walls, ..... affect the legal or judicial structure of the former authoritarian system,21 nor did it have a positive impact on the political public sphere.

  5. UJAS 15.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062. Kampala, Uganda ... based on its basic density, Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rapture. Specimens ... the water displacement method. The mean ...

  6. Aprl - june 09.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    required data were available for the .... domestic money market that ... The real GDP .... Is sustainable foreign exchange reserve a possibility? ... Performance changes and shareholder wealth creation associated with mergers of publicly traded ...

  7. 5. Faye.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    5 sept. 2007 ... truire sans cesse, utilise le genre comme outil d'analyse. Rappelons ...... Tous les être humains, dès la naissance, sont soumis à l'apprentissage d'une infinité de .... Une idée majeure préside à la naissance du problème économique : celle de ..... Le genre dans les stratégies d'auto-insertion des femmes.

  8. 5- Nkealah.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... engaging in criminal activities such as house-breaking and drug-trafficking. ... Nkealah: Commodifying the Female Body – Xenophobic Violence in ..... Amongst many other media, the internet has been misused and abused.

  9. 3. Mustapha.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-12

    Mar 12, 2012 ... Century Europe that the concepts of public sphere and public ..... effects of racial inequality and new technologies on the democratisation ... nationality, 'class, ethnic, gender, generational, religious, neighbourhood and.

  10. UJAS 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2013, 14 (2): 13 - 25 ... known resistant banana to this disease among the cultivated varieties but here we confirm that ... Efforts are already under way to ... overcome the pre-existing barriers and ..... Change in wilt incidence over time in EAHB cv “Nakinyika” and M. balbisiana.

  11. UJAS 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Preferences of Ugandan consumers for rice varieties and brands on the local ... usually base their choice of rice brands for consumption ..... bran layer, which is rich in minerals and vitamins. Although ... extent protein content. Dry and firm rice.

  12. 6. Yau.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is becoming pervasive and ... Is a gendered reading of the virtual space possible? It would seem ... new ones, leading to capabilities that were hitherto impossible.

  13. 7- Suriano.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... ferred to as the 'music of the new generation' (muziki wa kikazi kipya). ..... recording technologies, is contributing in my view to the establishment of a ..... trying to take part in the re-configuration of public space in Tanzania.

  14. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    1 Introducción .... Sin embargo, no sería justo negar el impacto de dichos años en la historia de España. El influjo árabe se dejó plasmado entre otros en la arquitectura, las costumbres, el arte, la música, la literatura, y sobre todo en la lengua.

  15. 6- Jourdan.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... Congo during the last decade. In Congolese Kiswahili .... Liberation was created in Brazzaville by many nationalist leaders and Gbenye ..... I joined the APC because I wanted to eat without working; I wanted to go around in a ...

  16. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    We point out how surrealistic features are utilized to enhance ... expressed by modernist writers would have divorced art from human consciousness. Amidst the ... Whereas modernism refers to the aesthetic movement of the twentieth century ...

  17. 09 Minicka 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mention the acquisition of manuscripts more often than any other display of wealth. (Singleton ..... market was presided over by an elderly woman of considerable ferocity. ..... Sometimes flexible covers of skin, paper or cloth were used […] ...

  18. 03 Bissirri 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-02-06

    Feb 6, 2007 ... the French government has finally decided to increase their pension benefits. ..... concern, he allows Zida to underscore the didactic function of his ... Accounting for the function of tales in francophone drama, Guingané ...

  19. 8. Mbata.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... world, especially to Asia and Europe which he visited briefly before the. 2008 election ... companies while increasing the number of its victims among the underdeveloped .... was in the US strategic interest to act multilaterally rather than unilaterally, especially when .... third-rate international civil servants.

  20. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    Language learning eventually entails acquisition of cultural and social ... documents, particularly those originally presented in the English language, with ... It is also important to note that the learners' motivation for sitting in a foreign language.

  1. 7. Ndinga.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    5 sept. 2007 ... de mondialisation caractérisé par le développement des TICs et de ..... valorisation d'une entreprise de téléphone mobile est obtenue au niveau de l'actif et .... l'image de la domination des hommes sur le marché des pagnes.

  2. UJAS 5.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Under greenhouse conditions, Ca-bentonite significantly (P<0.05) increased soil moisture retention, pH, N, P, Ca ... management, soil moisture conservation ... improves the productivity of degraded, ... Mg, K and total N using standard methods.

  3. 5. Murray.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-09

    Aug 9, 2011 ... Fraser looks at the idea of hegemonic dominance and exclusion and argues that there ..... which Hands Off Prestwich Street Group became vocal about the 'bones' .... prying eyes of academics but also away from the public.

  4. 03 Gohar 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    of blacks in Africa, the West Indies, and Latin America. The historical process in ... stripped the black people of their cultural heritage and African traditions. Dur- ing the slave era, the ...... and singing in a sad wedding and a trance of sin.

  5. 5. Awasom.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... 69 – 84. © Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 ... This paper sets out to examine the emergence and functioning of palm ..... responsibility of retailing the alcohol in their respective joints.

  6. WAJM 28 (5).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    information on the molecular epidemiology, laboratory detection and clinical aspects of .... of bacteriophage typing, protein antigen ... MRSA reporting in Nigeria and other parts of ... antimicrobial therapy and significant hospital .... in the study.

  7. 8. Lado.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    9 nov. 2012 ... Chez Agip et Shell, le choix a été fait de négocier seulement avec les villages abritant ...... prostitution de la part d'adolescentes, dans les zones d'activité pétrolière, phénomène qui ... ans ont connu des grossesses précoces.

  8. 12 Sanou 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2007-06-02

    Jun 2, 2007 ... The way literature functions as an institution is known and has been ... Among the Bobo people of Burkina Faso, it is a socializing structure par ... which I assert the existence of a mask institution, like the literary institution. .... humanize the mask, human being linked him to Do, a spiritual power based in the.

  9. IRAKI NEW.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (2006) came as no surprise since the intention of the government at the time of ..... while legitimate in some cases, may lack substance in reality. This is because .... For ease of implementation and avoidance of ambiguity, the model has been.

  10. 10- Aseh.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-20

    Aug 20, 2011 ... supportive of reality, which at the same time sought to destroy the ...... around agriculture as a way of 'teaching' Africans to willingly take up 'jobs' ...... physical boundaries, established 'virtual' publics, placed the mental life of.

  11. 10 Stewart 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2010-07-29

    Jul 29, 2010 ... history, which had begun to produce abundant reference material ... source experiments, many of which have now completely vanished, .... Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge) which presents a taxonomy of animals which.

  12. INAUGURAL ISSUE.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    Lack of telephone line in most parts of African countries, again mostly in the rural .... services in Kiswahili language and more so helping in bridging the digital divide. ... Internet coaching library/digital divide (accessed October 2006). Katembo ...

  13. 8. Tshweneagae.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... children. Co-parenting has an added benefit of modelling dyadic skills that ... 115 – 126. © Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012 ..... wanted fathers for identity and extension of their lineage.

  14. UJAS 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Financial constraints usually limit fertiliser use by smallholder farmers and it is important that they maximise net ..... consider factors that might affect response ... Operational flow model of the fertiliser optimisation tool developed for Uganda.

  15. 2.Ocholla ....pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    LGBT studies in Kenya are unpopular since they are considered. 'uncomfortable territory' ... female husband who replaced a male kinsman as jural 'father'. The wife may bear ... have clearly separated analysis regarding biological sex, gender/gender roles ... People who identify as homosexual or same-sex loving have over.

  16. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L

    1999-12-27

    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 < M{sub {mu}}{sub {mu}} < 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2} in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A{center_dot}B and centrality is observed.

  17. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: amitabha-62@rediffmail.com; Sarkar, S. [University of North Bengal, Department of Physics (India); Singh, G. [SUNY at Fredonia, Department of Computer and Information Science (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  18. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-11-15

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Atom as a "Dressed" Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kalitvianski, V

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that electrostatic potential of atomic nucleus seen by a fast charged projectile at short distances is quite smeared due to nucleus motion around the atomic center of inertia. For example, the size of positive charge cloud in the Hydrogen ground state is much larger than the proper proton size. It is even bigger for the target atom in an excited state. Therefore the elastic scattering at large angles is generally weaker than the Rutherford one. In other words, the resulting elastic interaction with an atom at short distances is softer than the Colombian one due to a natural cutoff. In addition, the large angle scattering leads to the target atom excitations due to hitting the nucleus (inelastic processes). It is also shown that the Rutherford cross section is in fact the inclusive rather than the elastic one. These results are analogous to the QED ones. The difference and the value of the presented below non relativistic atomic calculations is in non perturbatively (exact) dressing that immediatel...

  20. Classifiers for centrality determination in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Altsybeev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Centrality, as a geometrical property of the collision, is crucial for the physical interpretation of nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus experimental data. However, it cannot be directly accessed in event-by-event data analysis. Common methods for centrality estimation in A-A and p-A collisions usually rely on a single detector (either on the signal in zero-degree calorimeters or on the multiplicity in some semi-central rapidity range). In the present work, we made an attempt to develop an approach for centrality determination that is based on machine-learning techniques and utilizes information from several detector subsystems simultaneously. Different event classifiers are suggested and evaluated for their selectivity power in terms of the number of nucleons-participants and the impact parameter of the collision. Finer centrality resolution may allow to reduce impact from so-called volume fluctuations on physical observables being studied in heavy-ion experiments like ALICE at the LHC and fixed target exper...

  1. Pion production and absorption in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, P. [GSI Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In a relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision the projectile kinetic energy is not only converted into thermal and compressional energy of the nucleonic system, but also into internal excitation energy of the nucleons. At bombarding energies around 1 GeV/nucleon a substantial amount of baryonic resonances is produced which decay predominantly into pions. Thus the pion multiplicity, momentum and angular distributions provide information on the space time dynamics of the nuclear reaction system. In this paper the authors report on experiments which try to measure the `primordial` delta or pion abundancy. The idea is to compare the pion yields measured in a heavy and a light system: in the first case pion final-state interactions should happen much more frequently than in the second case. Both inclusive pion cross sections and pion multiplicities per participant nucleon are measured. In addition the authors study the pion emission pattern with respect to the reaction plane to sort out pions which are less affected by absorption and rescattering even in a heavy collision system.

  2. Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    A steep maximum occurs in the Wroblewski ratio between strange and non-strange quarks created in central nucleus-nucleus collisions, of about A=200, at the lower SPS energy square root s approximately= 7 GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the grand canonical statistical hadronization model this maximum is shown to occur at a baryochemical potential of about 450 MeV. In comparison, recent QCD lattice calculations at finite baryochemical potential suggest a steep maximum of the light quark susceptibility, to occur at similar mu /sub B/, indicative of "critical fluctuation" expected to occur at or near the QCD critical endpoint. This endpoint had not been firmly pinned down but should occur in the 300 MeV < mu /sub B//sup c/ < 700 MeV interval. It is argued that central collisions within the low SPS energy range should exhibit a turning point between compression /heating, and expansion/cooling at energy density, temperature and mu /sub B/ close to the suspected critical point. Whereas from to...

  3. Resonances in -light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Khemchandani; N G Kelkar; M Nowakowski; B K Jain

    2006-04-01

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic scattering, at about 0.5 MeV above threshold with a width of ∼ 2 MeV. The calculations also hint at the presence of sub-threshold states in both the cases.

  4. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  5. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  6. Projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The mouse precuneiform nucleus has been proposed as the midbrain locomotion center, a function ascribed to its caudal neighbor, cuneiform nucleus, in the rat, cat and other species. The present study investigated the projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus in the mouse using retrograde tracer injections (fluoro-gold) into the precuneiform nucleus and anterograde tracer injections (biotinylated dextran amine) into the central amygdaloid nucleus. The entire central amygdaloid nucleus except the rostral pole had retrogradely labeled neurons, especially in the middle portion where labeled neurons were densely packed. Anterogradely labeled amygdaloid fibers approached the precuneiform nucleus from the area ventrolateral to it and terminated in the entire precuneiform nucleus. Labeled fibers were also found in laminae 5 and 6 in the upper cervical cord on the ipsilateral side. The present study is the first demonstration of projections from the central amygdaloid nucleus to the precuneiform nucleus. This projection may underpin the role of the precuneiform nucleus in the modulation of the cardiovascular activity.

  7. Influenza sentinel surveillance network: a public health-primary care collaborative action to assess influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case.   A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians' Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research.

  8. Crossing axons in the third nerve nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienfang, D C

    1975-12-01

    The research presented in this paper studied the pathway taken by the crossed fibers of the third nerve nucleus in an animal whose nucleus has been well mapped and found to correlate well with higher mammals and man. Autoradiography using tritiated amino acid labeled the cell bodies an axons of the left side of the oculomotor nucleus of the cat. Axons so labeled could be seen emerging from the ventral portion of the left nucleus through the median longitudinal fasciculus (mlf) to join the left oculomotor nerve. Labeled axons were also seen to emerge from the medial border of the caudal left nucleus, cross the midline, and pass through the right nucleus and the right mlf to join the right oculomotor nerve. These latter axons must be the crossed axons of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae subnuclei. Since the path of these crossed axons is through the caudal portion of the nucleus of the opposite side, the destruction of one lateral half of the oculomotor nucleus would result in a bilateral palsy of the crossed subnuclei. Bilateral palsy of the superior rectus and bilateral assymetrical palsy of the levator palpebrae muscles would result.

  9. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  10. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Selyuzhenkov, I; Klochkov, V; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Mills, G B; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Sgalaberna, D; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Szuba, M K; Mathes, H; Herve, A E; Roehrich, D; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Gazdzicki, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Kobayashi, T; Blondel, A P P; Damyanova, A; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Di luise, S; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Ereditato, A; Paolone, V; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Matulewicz, T N; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B; Kucewicz, W; Dorosz, P A

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  11. Thermal, pressure and light induced spin transition in the two-dimensional coordination polymer [Fe(pmd)2[Cu(CN)2]2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Gloria; Thompson, Amber L; Gaspar, Ana B; Muñoz, M Carmen; Goeta, Andrés E; Rodríguez-Velamazán, José Alberto; Castro, Miguel; Burriel, Ramón; Real, José Antonio

    2008-02-07

    A complete structural, calorimetric, and magnetic characterisation of the 2D coordination spin crossover polymer [Fe(pmd)(2)[Cu(CN)(2)](2)] is reported. The crystal structure has been investigated below room temperature at 180 K and 90 K, and at 30 K after irradiating the sample at low temperature with green light (lambda = 532 nm). The volume cell contraction through the thermal spin transition is only 18 A(3) which is lower than the usually observed value of around 25-30 A(3) while the average Fe-N bond distances decrease by the typical value of about 0.19 A. The structural data of the irradiated state indicate that the high spin state is well induced since the cell parameters are consistent with the data at 180 K. Calorimetric and photo-calorimetric experiments have also been performed. The entropy content for the thermal spin transition, DeltaS = 35-37 J mol(-1) K(-1) lies in the lowest range of the typical values and correlates with the low volume cell contraction. The combination of the crystallographic and calorimetric data predicts, in accordance with a mean-field approach, a linear pressure dependence of the critical temperature with a slope of 302 K GPa(-1). Magnetic measurements under pressure reveal an anomalous behaviour since the critical temperature and hysteresis do not change up to 0.22 GPa but an apparent linear dependence is obtained for higher pressures (up to 0.8 GPa) with a slope two times higher than the mean-field estimation.

  12. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    We report here the occurrence of, to date, the largest (21 x 10 x 8 mm) phillipsite crystal forming the nucleus of a diagenetically formed ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Assuming an average rate of ferromanganese...

  13. Medium effect in high density region probed by nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furumoto, T; Yamamoto, Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the medium effect in the high density region on the nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering in the framework of the double-folding (DF) model with the complex $G$-matrix interaction. First, the evaluating position of the local density, which is an ambiguity of the DF model, is investigated. However, the effect has a minor role to the nucleus-nucleus system. Next, the medium effect including three-body-force (TBF) effect is investigated with two methods. In the both methods, the medium effect is clearly seen on the potential and the elastic cross section, but not on the total reaction cross section. Finally, we make clear the crucial role of the TBF effect up to $k_F =$ 1.6 fm$^{-1}$ in the nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering.

  14. Transport calculations of antiproton-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A B; Pshenichnov, I A; Satarov, L M; Greiner, W

    2010-01-01

    The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model is extended and applied to the antiproton-nucleus interactions in a wide beam momentum range. The model calculations are compared with the experimental data on $\\bar p$-absorption cross sections on nuclei with an emphasis on extraction of the real part of an antiproton optical potential. The possibility of the cold compression of a nucleus by an antiproton in-flight is also considered.

  15. Commissural axons of the mouse cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Christian; Drottar, Marie; Benson, Thane E; Darrow, Keith

    2013-05-01

    The axons of commissural neurons that project from one cochlear nucleus to the other were studied after labeling with anterograde tracer. Injections were made into the dorsal subdivision of the cochlear nucleus in order to restrict labeling only to the group of commissural neurons that gave off collaterals to, or were located in, this subdivision. The number of labeled commissural axons in each injection was correlated with the number of labeled radiate multipolar neurons, suggesting radiate neurons as the predominant origin of the axons. The radiate commissural axons are thick and myelinated, and they exit the dorsal acoustic stria of the injected cochlear nucleus to cross the brainstem in the dorsal half, near the crossing position of the olivocochlear bundle. They enter the opposite cochlear nucleus via the dorsal and ventral acoustic stria and at its medial border. Reconstructions of single axons demonstrate that terminations are mostly in the core and typically within a single subdivision of the cochlear nucleus. Extents of termination range from narrow to broad along both the dorsoventral (i.e., tonotopic) and the rostrocaudal dimensions. In the electron microscope, labeled swellings form synapses that are symmetric (in that there is little postsynaptic density), a characteristic of inhibitory synapses. Our labeled axons do not appear to include excitatory commissural axons that end in edge regions of the nucleus. Radiate commissural axons could mediate the broadband inhibition observed in responses to contralateral sound, and they may balance input from the two ears with a quick time course.

  16. BFKL Pomeron calculus: solution to equations for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the saturation domain

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Carlos; Meneses, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we solve the equation for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the BFKL Pomeron calculus, suggested by Braun. We find these solutions analytically at high energies as well as numerically in the entire region of energies inside the saturation region. The semi-classical approximation is used to select out the infinite set of the parasite solutions. The nucleus-nucleus cross sections at high energy are estimated and compared with the Glauber-Gribov approach. It turns out that the exact formula gives the estimates that are very close to the ones based on Glauber-Gribov formula which is important for the practical applications

  17. Onset of Deconfinement in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions - Past, Present and Future -

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek

    2007-01-01

    In 2007 Mark I. Gorenstein celebrated his 60th birthday. This report is dedicated to Mark and it sketches the results obtained during the past ten years of our collaboration and friendship. They concern search for and study of the onset of deconfinement in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  18. High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Miller, Jeremy S.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus-nucleus scattering, in high density QCD, in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron Calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity Ω(Y,b)=1 were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely ( 1-Ω→exp(-Const √{Y} )) than the opacity that stems from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which is ( 1-Ω→exp(-Const Y)). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach.

  19. Control of nucleus positioning in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Maria; Terret, Marie-Emilie; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2017-08-12

    The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development. This is surprising since oocytes further undergo two extremely asymmetric divisions in terms of the size of the daughter cells (enabling polar body extrusion), requiring an off-centering of their chromosomes. In this review we address not only the bio-physical mechanism controlling nucleus positioning via an actin-mediated pressure gradient, but we also speculate on potential biological relevance of nuclear positioning in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Organisation of the human dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Juergen K; Ashwell, Ken W; Paxinos, George

    2004-01-19

    This study used acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry to reveal the organization of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DM) in the human. Topographically, the human DM is similar to DM in the monkey and rat. It is wedged between the paraventricular nucleus, dorsally, and the ventromedial nucleus, ventrally. Laterally, DM borders the lateral hypothalamic area while medially it approaches the 3rd ventricle. The AChE staining distinguished two subcompartments of the human DM: the larger diffuse and the smaller compact DM. The subcompartmental organization of the human DM appears homologous to that found in the monkey and less complex than that reported in rats. Understanding of the organization of DM creates meaningful anatomical reference for physiological and pharmacological studies in the human hypothalamus.

  1. The nucleus: a black box being opened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, R; Humbel, B; de Jong, L

    1991-12-01

    Until recently our knowledge about the structural and functional organization of the cell nucleus was very limited. Recent technical developments in the field of ultrastructural analysis, combined with ongoing research on the properties of the nuclear matrix, give new insight into how the nucleus is structured. Two types of observations shape our ideas about nuclear organization. First, most nuclear functions (replication, transcription, RNA processing, and RNA transport) are highly localized within the nucleus, rather than diffusely distributed. Moreover, they are associated with the nuclear matrix. Second, chromatin is organized in discrete loops, bordered by nuclear matrix attachment sequences (MARs). Each loop may contain one or several genes. The arrangement of chromatin in loops has profound consequences for the regulation of gene expression.

  2. Dirac Phenomenology and Hyperon-Nucleus Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    J., MARES; B. K., JENNINGS; E. D., COOPER; Triumf, 4004 Wesbrook Mall; Department of Physics, University College of the Fraser Valley

    1995-01-01

    We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of Λ, Σ and Ξ hypernuclei, as well as multi-strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f_. Second, optical potentials for Λ and Σ scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleus Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupli...

  3. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  4. Nucleus-Nucleus Potential at Near-Barrier Energies from Self Consistent Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Skalski, J

    2003-01-01

    We determine the static nucleus-nucleus potential from Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with the Skyrme interaction. To this aim, HF equations are solved on a spatial mesh, with the initial configuration consisting of target and projectile positioned at various relative distances. For a number of reaction partners, the calculated barrier heights reasonably well compare with those extracted from the measured fusion and capture cross sections. At smaller target-projectile distances, our results show the intrinsic barriers to heavy compound nucleus formation. We speculate on their possible connection with the fusion hindrance observed for large Z sub T Z sub P.

  5. Inner Structure of Boiling Nucleus and Interfacial Energy Between Nucleus and Bulk Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dong; TIAN Yong; PENG Xiao-Feng; WANG Bu-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent on the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provide solid theoretical evidence to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand the nucleation phenomenon with insight into the physical nature.

  6. Nucleus-associated actin in Amoeba proteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdieva, Mariia; Bogolyubov, Dmitry; Podlipaeva, Yuliya; Goodkov, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The presence, spatial distribution and forms of intranuclear and nucleus-associated cytoplasmic actin were studied in Amoeba proteus with immunocytochemical approaches. Labeling with different anti-actin antibodies and staining with TRITC-phalloidin and fluorescent deoxyribonuclease I were used. We showed that actin is abundant within the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of A. proteus cells. According to DNase I experiments, the predominant form of intranuclear actin is G-actin which is associated with chromatin strands. Besides, unpolymerized actin was shown to participate in organization of a prominent actin layer adjacent to the outer surface of nuclear envelope. No significant amount of F-actin was found in the nucleus. At the same time, the amoeba nucleus is enclosed in a basket-like structure formed by circumnuclear actin filaments and bundles connected with global cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton. A supposed architectural function of actin filaments was studied by treatment with actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin A. It disassembled the circumnuclear actin system, but did not affect the intranuclear chromatin structure. The results obtained for amoeba cells support the modern concept that actin is involved in fundamental nuclear processes that have evolved in the cells of multicellular organisms.

  7. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  8. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  9. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anchishkin, D; Cleymans, J; 10.5488/CMP.16.13201

    2013-01-01

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  10. 8Wambi heritability.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    3National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute, P. O. Box Private Bag Soroti, Uganda. 4New Mexico State University - Agricultural Science Center at Clovis, 2346 SR 288, Clovis,. New Mexico .... Mexico State University, USA; and Rosette.

  11. 6- Ogoh Alubo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-20

    Aug 20, 2011 ... spaces, such as the internet and cyber space in general and the attendant ... used to refer to physical places such as parks, gardens and shopping malls which are ..... Ethnicity is prominent among the factors driving identity politics and the politics .... security forces rapidly brought the situation under control.

  12. 10 Cloete WEB 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    proceeds by way of a linguistic turn, in which Kaaps (the language of .... possibility of dialogue as the normative framework for the pursuit of justice. He .... The political philosophy of apartheid as an expression of European cultural superiority .... to be an Afrikaner who shared a common cultural heritage of humanism with all.

  13. 18 Mwepu Engels 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... would have wished to have and to whom she has not given birth” (Lopes 1976: 14).9 ... to the influence of the moon. Just like the sea. Consequently, it is useless to try to explain anything to them during such phases.

  14. Chap 4 Dahou.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    during the war; the published works and political career of Ken Saro-Wiwa, founder of the ... frustrations therefore shifted away from the regions to the centre, away from a specific ... were prior to the war – their sense of group consciousness and the nature of ... changed the demographics of the town. .... This was to change,.

  15. 7- Naffet Keita.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    20 août 2011 ... interfaith relations, but also relations between religions and the state. The state is faced ... des antagonismes sociologiques et économiques. Les velléités de .... du droit coutumier islamique et/ou animiste. Cependant ... chose qu'une action retardatrice (CAOM, Affaires Politiques 2256:d.4.). Cet islam des ...

  16. 10- Yenshu Vubo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    19 oct. 2011 ... ethniciste, les relations entre ethnie, ethnicité et l'État moderne et puis, ... champs sociaux, économique, culturel (ou scolaire), politiques, etc., qui va ... des faits un principe de droit universel, que nous appelons, par exemple, la ... travers le temps, organisé un domaine des affaires collectives par opposition.

  17. 1-Otye Elom.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    20 août 2011 ... particulièrement les villes de Douala, capitale économique, et de Yaoundé, ... ont fait une mauvaise affaire que quand le légitime propriétaire qu'est l'Etat .... revient de droit, et préfèrent marcher sur la route où doivent normalement .... Même s'ils ont en ville d'autres types de relations avec les ressortissants.

  18. 24 Resensie artikels 04.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    2 Jun 2007 ... Within Loving Memory of the Century: An Autobiography. .... effect, his art is one strand of the process by which he 'becomes', .... Mphahlele (Africa, My Music, 1984) have written with such delicacy on the ravages of exile on.

  19. 6. Obiora-new.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    real exchange rate depreciation, a rise in net exports, an avoidance of the “Dutch ... needed to break the vicious circle of poverty has remained an illusion. In the ... associated with full or high employment and zero or low inflation, while external ...

  20. WAJM 28(6).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    intestinal mesenchymal tumour (GMT) with majority arising from the stomach and small ..... Cancer? Positive. Positive. 4. 30 F. Colon. Colonic Tumour Leiomyoma. Positive Negative Positive ... This study was made possible through the UICC ...

  1. 1-Tidjani Alou.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2010-04-14

    Apr 14, 2010 ... external forces of local endogenous authorities, cultures and ideolo- gies. Incorrectly, however, these effects and mutations are typically ... analysis of the paradoxal 'Baudot' praise song by Maazou Inoussa ... lic, domination/resistance, centrality/liminality power/powerlessness and low ...... The able body is.

  2. Ringo 155-164.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    TOLERANCE TO ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN TANZANIAN SORGHUM ... Key Words: Genetic diversity, root length, Sorghum bicolor ... Acid soils cover more than 15% of the agricultural land in. Tanzania (MARI, 2006), and over 7.5% in Kenya.

  3. Ecuru 133-139.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Biotechnology is an important tool whose application Ugandan scientists are ... as: a national science funding facility for research and technology development; institutional governance systems ... innovation and commercialization fund; and eliminating administrative ..... Research Organization, the Uganda Industrial.

  4. Yayis Rezene Genetic.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    GENETIC VARIATION FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE IN SMALL RED SEEDED ... local and foreign origin. ... and development of resistance common beans ... following the drought phenotypic protocol ..... and crop Evolution 52:539-549.

  5. 3. Germain Gros.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... Chinese Economic Success and Policy. Lessons for .... Revolution – rather than the creation of new institutions. ..... Chinese economic policy is largely ... as Malaysia and Singapore, states 'intervene actively in the economy in.

  6. 6-Ostergaard & Meyrowitsch.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2007), and while there are many other diseases that take a high toll on family well-being there ..... bikes, cars, land-line telephones and mobile telephones. .... Another area where the data indicate strong disadvantages for OVCs is disease ...

  7. WAJM 29(3).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    *Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos; †Department of Medicine, General .... usually preserved in alcohol and sold in bottles) ... Medication adherence was however self ... Student's t test was used to ... of post secondary school education. .... effects of this herb.22–23 The efficacy of.

  8. WAJM 29(5).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: One in ten patients on anticancer medication ... METHODS: Records of 20 cancer patients with febrile neutro- penia (FN) ... duration of fever and overall treatment outcome were also assessed. RESULTS: .... 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. 0. Breast. Naspharyngeal Cancer. Anus. Tongue. Mandible. Endometrium ...

  9. 5- Sinha-Kerkhoff.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... 100-116. Austin, Joe, 2005, 'Youth, Neoliberalism, Ethics: Some Questions', Rhizomes.10, ... Postmodern: Neoliberalism and the War on the Young, New York: Rowman ... Kelly, Peter, 2003, 'Growing Up as Risky Business?

  10. Chap 8 soumahoro.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    strategies to be applied which will be articulated around an accommodation of the ... plus en plus utilisé aussi bien par les acteurs locaux du développement, par .... des structures traditionnelles villageoises comme condition indispensable au ..... d'apprentissage simple et de vulgarisation accessible à la grande majorité de.

  11. WAJM 29(3).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    of sleep-wake disorders in the blind and their relation to the degree and cause of ... of biological processes that serves as an internal clock. ... of pinhead-sized brain structure located ... to several brain regions including the pineal gland which ... In this study, an individual with a ..... mental factors prevailing in this country.

  12. 9. El Gack.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... at grassroots level but in several countries have created new professional .... and citizens, theoretically this means that people have the full right to. 9. ... projects place the formation of new organisations, through democratic ... their members would be empowered through training and interaction with.

  13. WAJM 29(3).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    OBJECTIVE:To audit the quality of histopathology reports of mastectomy specimens received in the pathology laboratory of a Teaching Hospital. .... quality of life for the patient.” 4. However, in .... cancer for 93% of women, 70% had, in addition ...

  14. WAJM 29(3).pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the life span of people living with .... relevant papers were also searched. ... phages, increased genital tract HIV .... negative women in a recent study.22 ..... contraceptive information, counseling.

  15. KOUADIO YAO P..pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    L'étude sur la lutte biologique contre les adventices des bananiers s'est déroulée dans la zone de Dabou, au sud de la Côte d'Ivoire. ... Résidus (LMR) de pesticides et de préservation .... Ceux de la parcelle A-12 ont levé spontanément et n'ont ..... No d'ordre. Espèces adventices. Indices d'abondance-dominance moyens.

  16. Adane 207-213.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    viruses will inevitably increase in the process of variety ... plants using antibodies for six viruses or strains known to infect the crop in ... monoclonal antibodies specific to east African. (Kenyan) and West ..... Characterization of viruses of pepper ...

  17. 12. Benga New.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    10 août 2011 ... mondiaux s'intéressaient tous aux arts africains et négro-africains, dans les ... et social, risquait de faire passer au second plan les problèmes de ..... daté du 12 septembre 2007 portant publication de la liste des sites et.

  18. Chap 3 Meagher.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    sive social and economic consequences for Nigeria as a whole. Operating below ... particular focus on Igbo informal manufacturing, long-distance trading networks .... us that 'any generalized depiction of the gulf between groups fails to take.

  19. Study of -nucleus interaction through the formation of -nucleus bound state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Jha; B J Roy; A Chatterjee; H Machner

    2006-05-01

    The question of possible existence of -mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using the GeV proton beam, currently being performed at COSY.

  20. Centrality Dependence of Flow in High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳; 周代翠; 杨纯斌; 蔡勖

    2002-01-01

    Directed flow and elliptic flow of final state particles in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions in the EMU01 experiment have been studied. The dependences of directed flow and elliptic flow on incident energy and impact centrality of outgoing particles are presented. The results exhibit strong dependence of flow on centrality and energy. We also suggest a more reliable way to determine the event plane resolution here.

  1. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the

  2. Transverse momentum spectra in high-energy nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (AA),proton-nucleus (pA),and proton-proton (pp) collisions at high energies are investigated using a multisource ideal gas model.Our calculated results show that the contribution of hard emission can be neglected in the study of transverse momentum spectra of charged pions and kaons produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV.And if we consider the contribution of hard emission,the transverse momentum spectra of p and (P) produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV,KsO produced in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV,J/ψ particles produced in p-Pb collisions at 400 GeV and π+,K+,p produced in proton-proton collisions at (√S)=200 GeV,can be described by the model,especially in the tail part of spectra.

  3. Rutherford, Radioactivity, and the Atomic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Modern atomic and nuclear physics took its start in the early part of the twentieth century, to a large extent based upon experimental investigations of radioactive phenomena. Foremost among the pioneers of the new kind of physics was Ernest Rutherford, who made fundamental contributions to the structure of matter for more than three decades and, in addition, founded important research schools in Manchester and Cambridge. This paper reviews the most important aspects of Rutherford's scientific work in the period from about 1900 to 1920, and it also refers to some of his last experiments of the 1930s. The emphasis is on his theory of radioactive disintegration (1902), the discovery of the atomic nucleus (1911), and the first artificially produced element transformation (1919). Following the transmutation experiments, Rutherford developed elaborate models of the atomic nucleus, but these turned out to be unsuccessful. Other subjects could be included, but the three mentioned are undoubtedly those of the greates...

  4. Correlations in neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van Cuyck, Tom; Jachowicz, Natalie; González-Jiménez, Raul; Martini, Marco; Ryckebusch, Jan; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and of the influence of correlations on one- and two-nucleon knockout processes. The quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections, including the influence of long-range correlations, are evaluated within a continuum random phase approximation approach. The short-range correlation formalism is implemented in the impulse approximation by shifting the complexity induced by the correlations from the wave functions to the operators. The model is validated by confronting $(e,e^\\prime)$ cross-section predictions with electron scattering data in the kinematic region where the quasielastic channel is expected to dominate. Further, the $^{12}$C$(\

  5. Single pion production in neutrino nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We study one pion production in both charged and neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering for neutrino energies below 2 GeV. We use a theoretical model for one pion production at the nucleon level that we correct for medium effects. The results are incorporated into a cascade program that apart from production also includes the pion final state interaction inside the nucleus. Besides, in some specific channels coherent pion production is also possible and we evaluate its contribution as well. Our results for total and differential cross sections are compared with recent data from the MiniBooNE Collaboration. The model provides an overall acceptable description of data, better for NC than for CC channels, although theory is systematically below data. Differential cross sections, folded with the full neutrino flux, show that most of the missing pions lie on the forward direction and at high energies.

  6. Coherency in Neutrino-Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kerman, S; Deniz, M; Wong, H T; Chen, J -W; Li, H B; Lin, S T; Liu, C -P; Yue, Q

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering provides a unique laboratory to study the quantum mechanical coherency effects in electroweak interactions, towards which several experimental programs are being actively pursued. We report results of our quantitative studies on the transitions towards decoherency. A parameter ($\\alpha$) is identified to describe the degree of coherency, and its variations with incoming neutrino energy, detector threshold and target nucleus are studied. The ranges of $\\alpha$ which can be probed with realistic neutrino experiments are derived, indicating complementarity between projects with different sources and targets. Uncertainties in nuclear physics and in $\\alpha$ would constrain sensitivities in probing physics beyond the standard model. The maximum neutrino energies corresponding to $\\alpha$>0.95 are derived.

  7. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  8. Neutrino-nucleus reactions in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, Alan A.; Vdovin, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    We study thermal effects on neutrino-nucleus reactions occurring under supernova conditions. The approach we use is based on the QRPA extended to finite temperature by the thermofield dynamics formalism. For the relevant supernova conditions we calculate inelastic neutrino scattering and neutrino absorption cross sections for two sample nuclei, 56Fe and 82Ge. In addition, we apply the approach to examine the rate of neutrino-antineutrino pair emission by hot nuclei.

  9. Neutrino-nucleus reactions in supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhioev Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study thermal effects on neutrino-nucleus reactions occurring under supernova conditions. The approach we use is based on the QRPA extended to finite temperature by the thermofield dynamics formalism. For the relevant supernova conditions we calculate inelastic neutrino scattering and neutrino absorption cross sections for two sample nuclei, 56Fe and 82Ge. In addition, we apply the approach to examine the rate of neutrino-antineutrino pair emission by hot nuclei.

  10. Theoretical highlights of neutrino-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The recent theoretical developments in the field of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few-GeV region are reviewed based on the presentations made at the NuInt09 Workshop. The topics of electron scattering and its connections with neutrino interactions, neutrino induced quasielastic scattering and pion production (coherent and incoherent) are covered, with special emphasis on the challenges that arise in the comparison with new experimental data.

  11. Neutrino-nucleus CCQE-like scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Simo, I Ruiz; Sanchez, F; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2014-01-01

    RPA correlations, spectral function and 2p2h (multi-nucleon) effects on charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions without emitted pions are discussed. We pay attention to the influence of RPA and multi-nucleon mechanisms on the MiniBooNE and MINERvA flux folded differential cross sections, the MiniBooNE flux unfolded total cross section and the neutrino energy reconstruction.

  12. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  13. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  14. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  15. Oscillations of moments in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳; 周代翠; 钱琬燕; 王晓荣

    2001-01-01

    The definitions of density function and moment of multiplicity distribution are introduced,and the method of moment analysis in e+ e- and proton-proton (pp) interactions is extended into nu-cleus-nucleus (AA) interactions. We analyze the data for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and cal-culate the values of Hq for charged particle multiplicity distributions, by which we study systematically the dependences of Hq on incident energy, mass of colliding system, pseudorapidity interval, centrality and truncation of multiplicity. We compare the oscillation structures induced by e + e-, pp and AA inter-actions, and the comparison and analysis are carried out between experimental data and QCD predic-tion. The latest results are given in this paper.

  16. Transverse energy distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglin, C.; Baldisseri, A.; Bussiere, A.; Guillaud, J.P.; Kossakowski, R.; Liaud, P.; Staley, F. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules); Baldit, A.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Felgeyrolles, X.; Force, P.; Fredj, L.; Landaud, G.; Vazeille, F. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Sonderegger, P. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Abreu, M.C.; Bordalo, P.; Ferreira, R.; Gago, J.M.; Lourenco, C.; Peralta, L.; Pimenta, M.; Ramos, S.; Silva, S.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Gerschel, C.; Jouan, D.; Papillon, S.; Tarrago, X. (Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)); Bus; NA38 Collaboration

    1990-11-22

    The transverse energy E{sub T} distributions of nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework of a simple geometrical model. The distributions for inclusive production of J/{psi} and muon pairs in the mass continuum are analyzed. The shape of the E{sub T} distribution of the continuum agrees with the model. The previously observed decrease of the ratio (J/{psi})/continuum with increasing E{sub T} is due to the behavior of the J/{psi}. (orig.).

  17. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.

    2001-10-21

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  18. Jet tomography of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitev, Ivan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Ben - Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly-interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}). Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  19. Azimuthal correlations of hadrons and fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Two-particle (two-fragment) azimuthal correlation functions are studied by using a simple formula which describes uniformly azimuthal distributions of final-state charged particles and nuclear fragments.This formula is obtained in the framework of a multi-source thermal model (or multi-source ideal gas model).The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of charged hadrons and nuclear fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate and high energies.

  20. The effect of the relative nuclear size on the nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, I. N.; Murzin, V. S.; Sivoklokov, S. Y.; Smirnova, L. N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the interactions of light nuclei (d, He(4), C(12)) at the momentum 4.2 GeV/cA with the carbon nuclei were taken in the 2-m propane bubble chamber. The distributions in the number of interacting nucleons, the spectra of protons, the mean energies of secondary pions and protons, the mean fractions of energy transferred to the pion and nucleon components are presented. The results of the investigation of the mechanism of nucleus-nucleus interactions can be used to calculate the nuclear cascades in the atmosphere.

  1. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  2. Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Melkumov, G L; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lvai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland5, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Seyboth, P; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek11, A; Yoo, I K; Zimnyi, J; Wetzler, A

    2007-01-01

    The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable a...

  3. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  4. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction.

  5. Ventromedial arcuate nucleus communicates peripheral metabolic information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, C.-X.; Vliet, J. van der; Dai, J.; Yin, G.; Ru, L.; Buijs, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) is crucial for the maintenance of energy homeostasis as an integrator of long- and short-term hunger and satiety signals. The expression of receptors for metabolic hormones, such as insulin, leptin, and ghrelin, allows ARC to sense information from the periphery and signal

  6. Experimental study of collective flow phenomena in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chkhaidze, L V; Kharkhelauri, L L

    2002-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of collective flow phenomena, such as the sideward and elliptic flow of nuclear matter, discovered during the last 10-15 years in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are presented in this review. Sideward (often termed directed) and elliptic flows have been observed for protons, antiprotons, light nuclei, pions, kaons, and lambdas emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 0.1-1.8 GeV/nucleon of LBL Bevalac and GSI/SIS by Plastic-Ball, Streamer Chamber, EOS-NPC, FOPI, LAND, TAPS, and KAOS collaborations; at 2-4 GeV/nucleon of Dubna JINR by SKM-200-GIBS, Propane Buble Chamber, and Emulsion Chamber collaborations; at 2-14 GeV/nucleon of BNL AGS, by the E877, E895, and E917 collaborations; and at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon of CERN SPS, by the WA98 and NA49 collaborations and more recently by the STAR at RHIC BNL. In the review, the results of the SKM-200-GIBS collaboration of JINR are presented and compared with the results of different experiments by Bevalac, GSI/SIS, BNL, and...

  7. 5-hydroxytryptamine-mediated apnea caused by the habenular nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Weihong Lin; Jinghua Wang; Min Huang; Chunyong Wang; Mingxian Li; Shao Wang

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine contributes to the control of activities of the dilator muscle in the upper respiratory tract, and is derived from the raphe nuclei, in which the habenular nucleus exerts a sustained inhibitory effect. In the present study, respiratory motion curve of the genioglossus muscle and peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine changes were observed following L-glutamate stimulation of the habenular nucleus of adult Wistar rats. Results showed that the rats had apnea and decreased plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine content after the neurons in habenular nucleus were excited. Genioglossus muscle electromyogram amplitude and integral were significantly reduced. The genioglossus myoelectric activity and respiratory motion curve were similar to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, thus confirming that the habenular nucleus is the key nucleus involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and is the primary regulated center in the raphe nuclei. Stimulation of the habenular nucleus may suppress 5-hydroxytryptamine release and result in apnea, which is similar to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

  8. Caudal topographic nucleus isthmi and the rostral nontopographic nucleus isthmi in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M I; Ulinski, P S

    1987-07-15

    Isthmotectal projections in turtles were examined by making serial section reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arborizations that were anterogradely or retrogradely filled with HRP. Two prominent tectal-recipient isthmic nuclei--the caudal magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imc) and the rostral magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imr)--exhibited strikingly different patterns of organization. Imc cells have flattened, bipolar dendritic fields that cover a few percent of the area of the cell plate constituting the nucleus and they project topographically to the ipsilateral tectum without local axon branches. The topography was examined explicitly at the single-cell level by using cases with two injections at widely separated tectal loci. Each Imc axon terminates as a compact swarm of several thousand boutons placed mainly in the upper central gray and superficial gray layers. One Imc terminal spans less that 1% of the tectal surface. Imr cells, by contrast, have large, sparsely branched dendritic fields overlapped by local axon collaterals while distally, their axons nontopographically innervate not only the deeper layers of the ipsilateral tectum but also ipsilateral Imc. Imr receives a nontopographic tectal input that contrasts with the topographic tectal input to Imc. Previous work on nucleus isthmi emphasized the role of the contralateral isthmotectal projection (which originates from a third isthmic nucleus in turtles) in mediating binocular interactions in the tectum. The present results on the two different but overlapping ipsilateral tecto-isthmo-tectal circuits set up by Imc and Imr are discussed in the light of physiological evidence for selective attention effects and local-global interactions in the tectum.

  9. Nucleus properties of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Dicksion, Matthew W.; Li, Heide R.

    1993-01-01

    Time series photometric measurements are presented of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 at a heliocentric distance of 5.886 AU when the comet possessed an extensive coma. The light curve shows a modulation caused by the rotation of the nucleus. The rotation period is considerably shorter than the 5 day period found by Whipple (1980), and we find substantial evidence that the nucleus may be in a complex spin state characterized by two periods 14.0 and 32.3 hr. Models of the rate at which the rotational light curve range decreases as a function of the amount of coma in the aperture have determined that the projected maximum to minimum axis ratio of the comet is 2.6 and that the product of the albedo times the rotationally averaged nucleus radius size is 9.54 +/- 0.3 sq km. Assuming a minimum geometric albedo of pR = 0.04, the maximum projected average nucleus radius is 15.44 +/-0.2 km, which is only 44 percent of the size estimated by Roemer (1966). However, using the albedo determined by Cruikshank & Brown (1983) of p = 0.13, the nucleus radius is only RN = 8.6 +/-0.l km. Because of the unknown nucleus orientation, these will be upper limits to the nucleus size. It appears that the nucleus of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is not the large nucleus that it has been believed to be for nearly 40 yr.

  10. Data stream range query authentication scheme based on PMD in outsourced database%基于PMD的外包数据流范围查询验证方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晴晴; 王良民

    2015-01-01

    数据流外包服务验证问题受到广泛的关注。目前主流的外包数据查询验证技术是基于Merkle哈希树(Merkle Hash tree,MHT)的,但是其具有验证对象较大,验证过程存在冗余,安全性低,无法快速实现篡改定位的不足。针对这些不足,提出了一种基于偏序实体化摘取(partially materialized digest,PMD)策略的外包数据流范围查询验证新方案。该方案将PMD嵌入到传统MHT中,来选择MHT的部分中间节点以及根节点进行签名,那么在数据验证阶段重构MHT时无需计算大量冗余哈希值,即可验证查询结果的真实性和完整性。最后将所提方案具体应用到数据流单次和滑动窗口范围查询中,使得客户端能够高效率地验证由第三方所提供的结果是真实和完整的。%Data stream range query authentication problem has been receiving widespread attention. The main query authentication method is based on Merkle Hash tree (MHT), which has disadvantages such as large verification object (VO), redundant verification procedures, low security and disability to locate tampering quickly. To over-come the above disadvantages, this paper proposes a new data stream range query authentication method based on partially materialized digest (PMD) scheme, where the PMD scheme is embedded in the traditional MHT, and some internal nodes and the root node in MHT are signed, instead of only the root node. Thus in the process of query results authentication, there is no need to compute much redundant hash value when reconstructing the MHT and verifying the authenticity and completeness of the query answers. Finally, the proposed scheme is applied into one-shot and sliding window range queries over data stream, where the authenticity and completeness of the query answers can be proved efficiently.

  11. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  12. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1997-12-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  13. Jet energy loss and bulk parton collectivity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits paxtonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The dense QCD medium responds to energy loss of high momentum patrons in a pattern consistent with that expected from a hydrodynamic fluid. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity with effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescence or recombinations.

  14. Study of Strange and Multistrange Particles in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Vande vyvre, P; Feofilov, G; Snoeys, W; Hetland, K F; Campbell, M; Klempt, W

    2002-01-01

    % NA57\\\\ \\\\ The goal of the experiment is to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This study was initiated at the OMEGA spectrometer, where three ion experiments have been performed: WA85 (S-W and p-W collisions at 200 A GeV/c), WA94 (S-S and p-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c) and WA97 (Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-Be collisions at 160 A GeV/c).\\\\ \\\\ The experiment aims at extending the scope of WA97 by:\\\\ \\\\ - investigating the beam energy dependence of the enhancements of multi-strange particle production reported by the previous experiments, and by\\\\ \\\\\\\\ \\\\- measuring the yields of strange and multi-strange particles over an extended centrality range compared with the previous experiments.\\\\ \\\\ The apparatus consists mainly of silicon pixel detector planes.

  15. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA collisions — addressing within a comprehensive framework the initial QQ¯$Q\\overline Q $ production, the propagation in the hot medium until decoupling and the final hadronization and decays — is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation and the corresponding numerical results are compared to experimental data from RHIC and the LHC. In particular, outcomes for the nuclear modification factor RAA and for the elliptic flow υ2 of D/B mesons, heavy-flavor electrons and non-prompt J/ψ’s are displayed.

  16. CASTOR: Centauro and strange object research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, A.L.S.; Bartke, J.; Bogolyubsky, M.Yu.; Gadysz-Dziadus, E.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Kurepin, A.B.; Maevskaya, A.I.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Sadovsky, S.A.; Stefanski, P.; Wodarczyk, Z

    2001-04-01

    We present a phenomenological model which describes the formation of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC, and its decay to non-strange baryons and Strangelets. Strangelets are assimilated to the 'strongly penetrating component' frequently observed accompanying hadron-rich cosmic ray events. We describe the CASTOR subdetector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. CASTOR will probe, in an event-by-event mode, the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6 {<=} {eta} {<=} 7.2 in 5.5 x A TeV central Pb + Pb collisions. It will look for events with pronounced imbalance between hadronic and photonic content and for deeply penetrating objects. We present results of simulations for the response of the CASTOR calorimeter to the passage of Strangelets.

  17. CASTOR Centauro and Strange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Chileev, K; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Golubeva, M B; Guber, F F; Karavitcheva, T L; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Tiflov, V V; Wlodarczyk, Z

    2002-01-01

    We describe the CASTOR detector designed to probe the very forward, baryon-rich rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. We present a phenomenological model describing the formation of a QGP fireball in a high baryochemical potential environment, and its subsequent decay into baryons and strangelets. The model explains Centauros and the long-penetrating component and makes predictions for the LHC. Simulations of Centauro-type events were done. To study the response of the apparatus to new effects different exotic species (DCC, Centauros, strangelets etc.) were passed through the deep calorimeter. The energy deposition pattern in the calorimeter appears to be a new clear signature of the QGP.

  18. CASTOR Centauro And STrange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wiodarczyk, Z

    2001-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which describes the formation of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC, and its decay to non-strange baryons and Strangelets. Strangelets are assimilated to the "strongly penetrating component" frequently observed accompanying hadron-rich cosmic ray events. We describe the CASTOR subdetector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. CASTOR will probe, in an event-by-event mode, the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6< eta <7.2 in 5.5*A TeV central Pb+Pb collisions. It will look for events with pronounced imbalance between hadronic and photonic content and for deeply penetrating objects. We present results of simulations for the response of the CASTOR calorimeter to the passage of Strangelets. (15 refs).

  19. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  20. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  1. A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUShao-xian; WANGShun-qin; MAFei-fei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined. The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  2. The subthalamic nucleus : Part I: Development, cytology, topography and connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology concerns the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types p

  3. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  4. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  5. Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, J R; Ross, A T; Gillespie, M B; Ryugo, D K

    1999-06-14

    Certain distinct populations of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are inhibited by a neural source that is responsive to a wide range of acoustic frequencies. In this study, we examined the glycine immunoreactivity of two types of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons (planar and radiate) in the rat which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and thus, might be responsible for this inhibition. Previously, we proposed that planar neurons provided a tonotopic and narrowly tuned input to the DCN, whereas radiate neurons provided a broadly tuned input and thus, were strong candidates as the source of broadband inhibition (Doucet and Ryugo [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 385:245-264). We tested this idea by combining retrograde labeling and glycine immunohistochemical protocols. Planar and radiate neurons were first retrogradely labeled by injecting biotinylated dextran amine into a restricted region of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The labeled cells were visualized using streptavidin conjugated to indocarbocyanine (Cy3), a fluorescent marker. Sections that contained planar or radiate neurons were then processed for glycine immunocytochemistry using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. Immunostaining of planar neurons was light, comparable to that of excitatory neurons (pyramidal neurons in the DCN), whereas immunostaining of radiate neurons was dark, comparable to that of glycinergic neurons (cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and principal cells in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radiate neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus subserve the wideband inhibition observed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

  6. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St John, Peter C; Wang, Thomas J; Bales, Benjamin B; Doyle, Francis J; Herzog, Erik D; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-04-19

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  7. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nucleus $^{286}$Fl

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, Dorin N

    2016-01-01

    The decimal logarithm of spontaneous fission half-life of the superheavy nucleus $^{286}$Fl experimentally determined is $\\log_{10} T_f^{exp} (s) = -0.632$. We present a method to calculate the half-life based on the cranking inertia and the deformation energy, functions of two independent surface coordinates, using the best asymmetric two center shell model. In the first stage we study the statics. At a given mass asymmetry up to about $\\eta=0.5$ the potential barrier has a two hump shape, but for larger $\\eta$ it has only one hump. The touching point deformation energy versus mass asymmetry shows the three minima, produced by shell effects, corresponding to three decay modes: spontaneous fission, cluster decay and $\\alpha$~decay. The least action trajectory is determined in the plane $(R,\\eta)$ where $R$ is the separation distance of the fission fragments and $\\eta$ is the mass asymmetry. We may find a sequence of several trajectories one of which gives the least action. The parametrization with two deforma...

  8. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function.

  9. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10(9) recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  10. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-04-04

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  11. Development of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve plays an integral part in the control of visceral function. The aim of the present study was to correlate structural and chemical changes in the developing nucleus with available data concerning functional maturation of human viscera and reflexes. The fetal development (ages 9 to 26 weeks) of the human dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve has been examined with the aid of Nissl staining and immunocytochemistry for calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase. By 13 weeks, the dorsal vagal nucleus emerges as a distinct structure with at least two subnuclei visible in Nissl stained preparations. By 15 weeks, three subnuclei (dorsal intermediate, centrointermediate and ventrointermediate) were clearly discernible at the open medulla level with caudal and caudointermediate subnuclei visible at the level of the area postrema. All subnuclei known to exist in the adult were visible by 21 weeks and cytoarchitectonic differentiation of the nucleus was largely completed by 25 weeks. The adult distribution pattern of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons was also largely completed by 21 weeks, although morphological differentiation of labeled neurons continued until the last age examined (26 weeks). The structural development of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve appears to occur in parallel with functional maturation of the cardiovascular and gastric movements, which the nucleus controls.

  12. Nonthermal Fluctuations and Mechanics of the Active Cell Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K; Byrd, H; MacKintosh, F C; Kilfoil, M L

    2013-01-01

    We present direct measurements of fluctuations in the nucleus of yeast cells. While prior work has shown these fluctuations to be active and non-thermal in character, their origin and time dependence are not understood. We show that nuclear fluctuations can be quantitatively understood by uncorrelated, active force fluctuations driving a nuclear medium that is dominated by an uncondensed DNA solution, for which we perform rheological measurements on an in vitro model system under similar conditions to what is expected in the nucleus. We conclude that the eukaryotic nucleus of living cells is a nonequilibrium soft material whose fluctuations are actively driven, and are far from thermal in their time dependence.

  13. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  14. Nucleas (hadron) nucleus elastic scattering and geometrical picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleem F.; Ali, S.; Saleem, M. [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive explanation of nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus elastic scattering is elusive ever since the measurements of these reactions were made. By proposing energy dependent hadronic form factors for deuteron and alpha, in analogy to that of the proton as suggested by Chou and Yang recently, the authors have fitted all the available data for alpha-alpha and deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering. In order to further verify the validity of the proposed form factor, they have also fitted the data for proton-alpha and proton-deuteron elastic scattering. It is concluded that the hadronic matter is expanding with an increase in energy. 30 refs., 11 figs.

  15. The Acasta Gneiss - a Hadean cratonic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, P.; Scherer, E. E.; Maltese, A.; Bast, R.; Bleeker, W.; Mezger, K.

    2016-12-01

    The known terrestrial rock record lacks undisputed, chemically intact Hadean crust. Direct evidence from this eon has been restricted to zircon grains within younger rocks [1]. The Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; NT, CA) has yielded zircon with Hadean domains [e.g., 2,3], but the time at which AGC rocks became closed chemical systems is unclear [4,5]. Determining this `time of last disturbance' (tld) would provide a minimum protolith age, and is crucial for using radiogenic isotope compositions of bulk rocks to trace crust-mantle evolution. Recent studies mostly focused on the `low-strain' eastern AGC [e.g., 6, 7], which records an evolving, early-mid Archean cratonic nucleus [7]. We also studied the `high-strain' banded gneiss in the western AGC, which hosts >4 Ga zircon domains [2,3], too. Our focusing lay on adjoining, lithologically distinct bands [8] of two distinct chemical groups: A) Mafic, chondrite-normalized LaN/YbN ≦20, slightly HFSE- depleted, and B) TTG-like, LaN/YbN up to 145, markedly HFSE-depleted. Six adjacent bands yield a well-defined 4 Ga Sm-Nd isochron with a ɛNd4Ga of +2 and ɛHf4Ga values from +1 to +6. Within-band Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systematics imply younger mineral re-equilibration [9]. We interpret the 4 Ga Sm-Nd isochron to date the physical juxtaposition of bands in the gneiss unit and to define tld among bands for elements less mobile and diffusive than Sm and Nd. Contrasting Sm-Nd results from the same unit [10] likely are due to sampling at too fine a scale. Digestion of metamict pre-tld zircon likely caused the scatter in Lu-Hf. Both decay systems hint at the existence of a possibly local, strongly depleted Hadean mantle domain. The TTG-like bands are 0.4 Gyr older than similar rocks in the `low-strain' eastern AGC [7]. The AGC was thus an evolved cratonic nucleus already at 4 Ga, possibly with a depleted lithospheric keel. [1] Cavosie et al. (2004) Prec. Res. 135, 251-279 [2] Bowring & Williams (1999) CMP 134, 3-16 [3] Iizuka et al

  16. Structural Description of Polyaromatic Nucleus in Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huicheng; Yan Yongjie; Sun Wanfu; Wang Jifeng

    2007-01-01

    The proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-NMR),the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry(SFS)and the rutheniam ions catalyzed oxidation(RICO)method wen used to determine the chemical structure of polyaromatic nucleus in Oman residue fractions.The results of1H-NMR analyses showed that the average numbers of aromatic rings in the aromatics,resins and asphaltenes units were 3.2,5.6 and 8.2.respectively.SFS was used to investigate the distribution of aromatic tings in residue fractions,the main distribution range of aromatic rings in aromatics,resins and asphaltenes were 3-4 rings,3-5 rings and more than 5 tings,respectively.The aromatic network in residue fractions was oxidized to produce numerous carboxylic acids.The types and content of benzenepolycarboxylic acids,such as phthalic acid,benzenetricarboxylic acids,benzenetetracarbOxylic acids,benzenepentacarboxylic acid and benzenehexacarboxylic acid disclosed the condensed types of aromatic nuclei in the core.The biphenyl fraction(BIPH),the cata-condensed fraction(CATA),the peri-condensed fraction(PERI)and the condensed index(BCI)were calculated based on the benzenepolycarboxylic acids formed.The results implied that there was less biphenyl type structures in all residue fractions.The aromatics fraction was almost composed of the cata-condensed type system,and the asphaltenes fraction was wholly composed of the peri-condensed type system,while in the resins fraction co-existed the two types,herein the peri-condensed type Was predominant over the cata-condensed type.Based on the analytical results obtained in the study,the components-aromatics,resins and asphaltenes-were given the likely structural models.

  17. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-01-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density- and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C scattering at the refractive energies, wher...

  18. Statistical Model of the Early Stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions with exact strangeness conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I

    2015-01-01

    The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...

  19. Heavy-flavor dynamics in nucleus-nucleus collisions: from RHIC to LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Monteno, M; Beraudo, A; De Pace, A; Molinari, A; Nardi, M; Prino, F

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of c and b quarks in the fireball created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC is studied employing a relativistic Langevin equation, based on a picture of multiple uncorrelated random collisions with the medium. Heavy-quark transport coefficients are evaluated within a pQCD approach, with a proper HTL resummation of medium effects for soft scatterings. The Langevin equation is embedded in a multi-step setup developed to study heavy-flavor observables in pp and AA collisions, starting from a NLO pQCD calculation of initial heavy-quark yields, complemented in the nuclear case by shadowing corrections, k_T-broadening and nuclear geometry effects. Then, only for AA collisions, the Langevin equation is solved numerically in a background medium described by relativistic hydrodynamics. Finally, the propagated heavy quarks are made hadronize and decay into electrons. Results for the nuclear modification factor R_AA of heavy-flavor hadrons and electrons from their semi-leptonic decays...

  20. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.

    1986-12-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure (..delta..p/p approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Charm quarks as a probe of matter produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of hadrons containing charm quark carries important information about the initial stage of the nucleus-nucleus collision at relativistic energies. The study of open charm in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies will be a powerful tool to investigate the production of heavy flavours and their interaction with the medium produced in such collisions. A feasibility study was initiated for the measurement of the D0 mesons (open charm by its two-body decay into pion and kaon in central Pb-Pb collision at SPS energies in NA61/SHINE experiment. To generate the physical input we used AMPT (A Multi Phase Transport Model event generator and employed GEANT4 application to describe particle transport through the NA61/SHINE experimental setup supplemented by a future vertex detector (VD that will allow for precise vertex reconstruction close to the primary interaction point. The results of the simulation shows that this measurement is feasible with a dedicated VD which allows the precise tracking close to the target.

  2. Formation and identification of Centauro and Strangelets in nucleus- nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z

    1999-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the $9 possibility of strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the "strongly penetrating component" observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the $9 Centauro and strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at $9 the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6

  3. Formation and identification of Centauro and strangelets in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, A.L.S.; Bartke, J.; Bogolyubsky, M.Yu.; Filippov, S.N.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Kurepin, A.B.; Maevskaya, A.I.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Sadovsky, S.A.; Stefanski, P.; Wlodarczyk, Z

    1999-03-01

    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the possibility of Strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the 'strongly penetrating component' observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the Centauro and Strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb + Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6 {<=} {eta} {<=} 7.2, characterized by very high baryon density. CASTOR is optimised to search for Centauro signatures and long penetrating objects. Simulations show that CASTOR is well able to distinguish events with abnormal values of E{sub em}/E{sub had} or N{sub {gamma}}/N{sub ch}. In addition simulations of the transition curves of Strangelets traversing the CASTOR calorimeter show long penetration and many-maxima structure such as observed in cosmic ray events.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyüz-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions 16 O + 70 Ge and 28 Si + 100 Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data.

  5. Constraining in-medium nucleon-nucleon interactions via nucleus-nucleus reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarruca, Francesca; White, Larz

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear equation of state is a broadly useful tool. Besides being the main input of stellar structure calculations, it allows a direct connection to the physics of nuclei. For instance, an energy functional (such as a mass formula), together with the energy/particle in nuclear matter, can be used to predict nuclear energies and radii [1]. The single-particle properties are also a key point to link infinite nuclear matter and actual nuclei. The parameters of the single-particle potential, in particular the effective mass, enter the calculations of, for instance, in-medium effective cross sections. From the well-known Glauber reaction theory, the total nucleus-nucleus reaction cross section is expressed in terms of the nuclear transparency, which, in turn, depends on the overlap of the nuclear density distributions and the elementary nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections. We explore the sensitivity of the reaction calculation to medium modifications of the NN cross sections to estimate the likelihood of constraining the latter through nuclear reactions. Ultimately, we wish to incorporate isospin asymmetry in the reaction model, having in mind connections with rare isotopes. [1] F. Sammarruca, arXiv:1002.00146 [nucl-th]; International Journal of Modern Physics, in press.

  6. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively removing SCN-arcuate nucleus (ARC) interconnectivity in Wistar rats result in a loss of rhythmicity in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels, and body temperature in constant dark (DD) conditions. Elimination of these reciprocal connections did not affect SCN clock gene rhythmicity but did cause the ARC to desynchronize. Moreover, unilateral SCN lesions with contralateral retrochiasmatic microcuts resulted in identical arrhythmicity, proving that for the expression of physiological rhythms this reciprocal SCN-ARC interaction is essential. The unaltered SCN c-Fos expression following glucose administration in disconnected animals as compared to a significant decrease in controls demonstrates the importance of the ARC as metabolic modulator of SCN neuronal activity. Together, these results indicate that the SCN is more than an autonomous clock, and forms an essential component of a larger network controlling homeostasis. The present novel findings illustrate how an imbalance between SCN and ARC communication through circadian disruption could be involved in the etiology of metabolic disorders. PMID:28374011

  7. Isotope Dependence of Superheavy Nucleus Formation Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAG Jing-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical process in the superheavy nucleus synthesis is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional Smolu-chowski equation. Special attention is paid to the isotope dependence of the cross section for the superheavy nucleus formation by means of making a comparison among the reaction systems of 54Fe + 204Pb, 56Fe + 206Pb, and 58Fe + 208Pb. It is found by this comparison that the formation cross section is very sensitive to the conditional saddle-point height and the neutron separation energy of the compound nucleus. Reaction systems with lower height of conditional saddle-point and smaller neutron separation energy are more favourable for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus.

  8. Cytotoxicity of nucleus-targeting fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Mingxi; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential examinations were performed on different cell lines exposed to the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs. We found that the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs caused cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs was proposed as follows: the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs induce the production of ROS, resulting in the oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components, in turn leading to apoptosis via a mitochondrial damage pathway. This work facilitates a better understanding of the toxicity of AuNCs, especially nucleus-targeting AuNCs.Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell

  9. Nucleus management in manual small incision cataract surgery by phacosection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleus management is critical in manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, as the integrity of the tunnel, endothelium and posterior capsule needs to be respected. Several techniques of nucleus management are in vogue, depending upon the specific technique of MSICS. Nucleus can be removed in toto or bisected or trisected into smaller segments. The pressure in the eye can be maintained at the desired level with the use of an anterior chamber maintainer or kept at atmospheric levels. In MSICS, unlike phacoemulsification, there is no need to limit the size of the tunnel or restrain the size of capsulorrhexis. Large well-structured tunnels and larger capsulorrhexis provide better control on the surgical maneuvers. Safety and simplicity of MSICS has made it extremely popular. The purpose of this article is to describe nucleus management by phacosection in MSICS.

  10. Low-energy antinucleon-nucleus interaction revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    2015-08-01

    Annihilation cross sections of antiprotons and antineutrons on the proton between 50 and 400 MeV/c show Coulomb focusing below 200 MeV/c and almost no charge-dependence above 200 MeV/c. Similar comparisons for heavier targets are not possible for lack of overlap between nuclear targets studied with and beams. Interpolating between -nucleus annihilation cross sections with the help of an optical potential to compare with -nucleus annihilation cross sections reveal unexpected features of Coulomb interactions in the latter. Direct comparisons between -nucleus and -nucleus annihilations at very low energies could be possible if cross sections are measured on the same targets and at the same energies as the available cross sections for . Such measurements may be feasible in the foreseeable future.

  11. The integrative role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian; Welter, Marie-Laure; Belaid, Hayat; Fernandez Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Grabli, David; Karachi, Carine

    2015-05-01

    The brainstem pedunculopontine nucleus has a likely, although unclear, role in gait control, and is a potential deep brain stimulation target for treating resistant gait disorders. These disorders are a major therapeutic challenge for the ageing population, especially in Parkinson's disease where gait and balance disorders can become resistant to both dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Here, we present electrophysiological evidence that the pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei are involved in distinct aspects of gait using a locomotor imagery task in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing surgery for the implantation of pedunculopontine or subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation electrodes. We performed electrophysiological recordings in two phases, once during surgery, and again several days after surgery in a subset of patients. The majority of pedunculopontine nucleus neurons (57%) recorded intrasurgically exhibited changes in activity related to different task components, with 29% modulated during visual stimulation, 41% modulated during voluntary hand movement, and 49% modulated during imaginary gait. Pedunculopontine nucleus local field potentials recorded post-surgically were modulated in the beta and gamma bands during visual and motor events, and we observed alpha and beta band synchronization that was sustained for the duration of imaginary gait and spatially localized within the pedunculopontine nucleus. In contrast, significantly fewer subthalamic nucleus neurons (27%) recorded intrasurgically were modulated during the locomotor imagery, with most increasing or decreasing activity phasically during the hand movement that initiated or terminated imaginary gait. Our data support the hypothesis that the pedunculopontine nucleus influences gait control in manners extending beyond simply driving pattern generation. In contrast, the subthalamic nucleus seems to control movement execution that is not likely to be gait

  12. Shell Correction at the Saddle Point for Superheavy Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 张时声; 张双全; 孟杰

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy surface for superheavy nucleus has been studied within the framework of the constrained relativistic mean field theory, and the shell correction energy as a function of deformation has been extracted by the Strutinsky shell correction procedure. Contrary to the usual expectation, the shell correction energy at the saddle point is too important to be neglected, and it has essential contribution to the fission barrier in superheavy nucleus.

  13. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  14. Truncal ataxia from infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Ryoo, Sookyung; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sand Won; Na, Duk L

    2012-08-01

    Truncal ataxia in medullary infarction may be caused by involvement of the lateral part of the medulla; however, truncal ataxia in infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has received comparatively little attention. We report a patient with truncal ataxia due to medial medullary infarction located in the ION. A lesion in the ION could produce a contralateral truncal ataxia due to increased inhibitory input to the contralesional vestibular nucleus from the contralesional flocculus.

  15. A FIBER APPARATUS IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE YEAST CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinow, C. F.; Marak, J.

    1966-01-01

    The structure and mode of division of the nucleus of budding yeast cells have been studied by phase-contrast microscopy during life and by ordinary microscopy after Helly fixation. The components of the nucleus were differentially stained by the Feulgen procedure, with Giemsa solution after hydrolysis, and with iron alum haematoxylin. New information was obtained in cells fixed in Helly's by directly staining them with 0.005% acid fuchsin in 1% acetic acid in water. Electron micrographs have been made of sections of cells that were first fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde, then divested of their walls with snail juice, and postfixed with osmium tetroxide. Light and electron microscopy have given concordant information about the organization of the yeast nucleus. A peripheral segment of the nucleus is occupied by relatively dense matter (the "peripheral cluster" of Mundkur) which is Feulgen negative. The greater part of the nucleus is filled with fine-grained Feulgen-positive matter of low density in which chromosomes could not be identified. Chromosomes become visible in this region under the light microscope at meiosis. In the chromatin lies a short fiber with strong affinity for acid fuchsin. The nucleus divides by elongation and constriction, and during this process the fiber becomes long and thin. Electron microscopy has resolved it into a bundle of dark-edged 150 to 180 A filaments which extends between "centriolar plaques" that are attached to the nuclear envelope. PMID:5331666

  16. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  17. Coherent production of the long-lived pionium nP states in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gevokyan, S

    2015-01-01

    The coherent production of the $nP$ states of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms ($A_{2\\pi}$) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered as a possible source of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ beam for the pionium Lamb-shift measurement. A general expression for estimation of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ yields is derived in the framework of the equivalent photon approximation.

  18. The interfascicular trigeminal nucleus: a precerebellar nucleus in the mouse defined by retrograde neuronal tracing and genetic fate mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuhong; Tvrdik, Petr; Makki, Nadja; Machold, Robert; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2013-02-15

    We have found a previously unreported precerebellar nucleus located among the emerging fibers of the motor root of the trigeminal nerve in the mouse, which we have called the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus (IF5). This nucleus had previously been named the tensor tympani part of the motor trigeminal nucleus (5TT) in rodent brain atlases, because it was thought to be a subset of small motor neurons of the motor trigeminal nucleus innervating the tensor tympani muscle. However, following injection of retrograde tracer in the cerebellum, the labeled neurons in IF5 were found to be choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) negative, indicating that they are not motor neurons. The cells of IF5 are strongly labeled in mice from Wnt1Cre and Atoh1 CreER lineage fate mapping, in common with the major precerebellar nuclei that arise from the rhombic lip and that issue mossy fibers. Analysis of sections from mouse Hoxa3, Hoxb1, and Egr2 Cre labeled lineages shows that the neurons of IF5 arise from rhombomeres caudal to rhombomere 4, most likely from rhombomeres 6-8. We conclude that IF5 is a significant precerebellar nucleus in the mouse that shares developmental gene expression characteristics with mossy fiber precerebellar nuclei that arise from the caudal rhombic lip.

  19. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  20. Questions and prospects in quarkonium polarization measurements from proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Faccioli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Polarization measurements are the best instrument to understand how quark and antiquark combine into the different quarkonium states, but no model has so far succeeded in explaining the measured J/psi and Upsilon polarizations. On the other hand, the experimental data in proton-antiproton and proton-nucleus collisions are inconsistent, incomplete and ambiguous. New analyses will have to properly address often underestimated issues: the existence of azimuthal anisotropies, the dependence on the reference frame, the influence of the experimental acceptance on the comparison with other measurements and with theory. Additionally, a recently developed frame-invariant formalism will provide an alternative and often more immediate physical viewpoint and, at the same time, will help probing systematic effects due to experimental biases. The role of feed-down decays from heavier states, a crucial missing piece in the current experimental knowledge, will have to be investigated. Ultimately, quarkonium polarization meas...

  1. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  2. Morphology of Human Nucleus Accumbens Neurons Based on the Immunohistochemical Expression of Gad67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanovic Maja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum along with the caudate nucleus and putamen. The role of the human nucleus accumbens in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders is of great importance. The aim of this study was to characterize medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens according to the immunohistochemical expression of GAD67.

  3. The red nucleus and the rubrospinal projection in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huazheng; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-04-01

    We studied the organization and spinal projection of the mouse red nucleus with a range of techniques (Nissl stain, immunofluorescence, retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord, anterograde tracer injections into the red nucleus, and in situ hybridization) and counted the number of neurons in the red nucleus (3,200.9 ± 230.8). We found that the rubrospinal neurons were mainly located in the parvicellular region of the red nucleus, more lateral in the rostral part and more medial in the caudal part. Labeled neurons were least common in the rostral and caudal most parts of the red nucleus. Neurons projecting to the cervical cord were predominantly dorsomedially placed and neurons projecting to the lumbar cord were predominantly ventrolaterally placed. Immunofluorescence staining with SMI-32 antibody showed that ~60% of SMI-32-positive neurons were cervical cord-projecting neurons and 24% were lumbar cord-projecting neurons. SMI-32-positive neurons were mainly located in the caudomedial part of the red nucleus. A study of vGluT2 expression showed that the number and location of glutamatergic neurons matched with those of the rubrospinal neurons. In the anterograde tracing experiments, rubrospinal fibers travelled in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus, between the lateral spinal nucleus and the calretinin-positive fibers of the lateral funiculus. Rubrospinal fibers terminated in contralateral laminae 5, 6, and the dorsal part of lamina 7 at all spinal cord levels. A few fibers could be seen next to the neurons in the dorsolateral part of lamina 9 at levels of C8-T1 (hand motor neurons) and L5-L6 (foot motor neurons), which is consistent with a view that rubrospinal fibers may play a role in distal limb movement in rodents.

  4. Nucleus Pearl Coating Process of Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana (Unionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASMEN MANALU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor which is a weakness of sea water pearl production are high costs, the risk of major business failures and a long coating time. From the issue of freshwater pearls appear to have prospects of alternative substitution for sea water pearl. This present study aimed to evaluate effect of loads (the number and diameter nucleus on freshwater pearl coating process and the number and size of the appropriate nucleus diameter, to produce the optimum coating thickness of half-round pearls. The research consists of experimental implantation of 2, 4, and 6 nucleus number per individual mussel was maintained by the method stocked in hapa in bottom waters. Observation method and factorial randomized block design used in the study of the influence of the load to the successfulness of pearl coating and the pearl layer thickness. The results showed that A. woodiana can be utilized as a producer of freshwater pearls. In addition, the number of optimum nucleus that can be attached to the mussel A. woodiana was 2 grains/individuals with a diameter of 10 mm. Shells implanted with the optimum nucleus diameter and number of pearls produced the highest layer thickness of 17 m after 9 months cultivation. This result was good enough compared with the layer thickness of sea water pearl production after the same cultivation time.

  5. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  6. The stellar population of the decoupled nucleus in M 31

    CERN Document Server

    Silchenko, O K; Vlasyuk, V V

    1998-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic and photometric investigation of the central region of M 31 are presented. An analysis of absorption-index radial profiles involving magnesium, calcium, and iron lines has shown that the unresolved nucleus of M 31 is distinct by its increased metallicity; unexpectedly, among two nuclei of M 31, it is the faintest one located exactly in the dynamical center of the galaxy (and dynamically decoupled) which is chemically distinct. The Balmer absorption line H-beta has been included into the analysis to disentangle metallicity and age effects; an age difference by a factor 3 is detected between stellar populations of the nucleus and of the bulge, the nucleus being younger. The morphological analysis of CCD images has revealed the presence of a nuclear stellar-gaseous disk with a radius of some 100 pc, the gas component of which looks non-stationary, well inside the bulge of M 31.

  7. Low energy neutron inelastic scattering on /sup 152/Sm nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, D.J.R.; Cabezas, S.R.; Lopez, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of inelastic neutron scattering by the nucleus /sup 152/Sm at incident energies of 2.47 and 2.75 MeV using the coupled-channel method has been made. Consideration is made of the 2/sup +//0.122 MeV/, 4/sup +//0.366 MeV/ and 2/sup +//1.086 MeV/excited states. It is shown that in this energy range the process may be described satisfactorily considering /sup 152/Sm as a deformed nucleus with non-axial symmetry, given the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations. The scattering process through the compound nucleus is calculated according to the Hauser-Feshbach formula with width fluctuation correction. It is shown that the presence of direct excitation process is partly due to the non-axiality of /sup 152/Sm.

  8. Separable Representation of Multichannel Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, Linda

    2016-01-01

    One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Including excitations of the nucleus in the calculation requires a multichannel optical potential. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent multichannel representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that contain excitations of the nucleus and that fulfill r...

  9. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  10. Microinjection of limonene into caudate nucleus inhibits IMC of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Guo; Xin Yi Zhu; Yi Quan Wei; De Zhi Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM We have discovered that Limonene modulates interdigestive myoelectrical complexes (IMCs) ofgastrointestinal tract in rats. In this research we will elucidate weather limonene affects acetylcholine M-receptor in caudate nucleus.METHODS Changes of IMCs were studied after limonene and/or atropine were microinjected into caudatenucleus. IMCs were recorded by a RM-6200 four-channel recorder and then delivered to Maclab and PowerMacintosh.RESULTS The active phases of IMCs occupied about 40% of total cycle in average. After microinjection oflimonene into caudate nucleus, the active phases were significantly shortened, while the cycle time of IMCswere not changed significantly. The inhibitory effects of limonene were abolished by pretreatment withatropine, whilst the atropine has no effect on IMCs.CONCLUSION It is suggested that limonene inhabits the gastrointestinal IMCs by affecting M-receptor incaudate nucleus.

  11. Extreme alpha-clustering in the 18O nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, E D; Goldberg, V Z; Brown, S; Robson, D; Crisp, A M; Cottle, P D; Fu, C; Giles, J; Green, B W; Kemper, K W; Lee, K; Roeder, B T; Tribble, R E

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the 18O nucleus at excitation energies above the alpha decay threshold was studied using 14C+alpha resonance elastic scattering. A number of states with large alpha reduced widths have been observed, indicating that the alpha-cluster degree of freedom plays an important role in this N not equal Z nucleus. However, the alpha-cluster structure of this nucleus is very different from the relatively simple pattern of strong alpha-cluster quasi-rotational bands in the neighboring 16O and 20Ne nuclei. A 0+ state with an alpha reduced width exceeding the single particle limit was identified at an excitation energy of 9.9+/-0.3 MeV. We discuss evidence that states of this kind are common in light nuclei and give possible explanations of this feature.

  12. New integral formula and its applications to light nucleus reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    A new integral formula, which has not been compiled in any integral tables or mathematical softwares, is proposed to obtain the analytical energy-angular spectra of the particles that are sequentially emitted from the discrete energy levels of the residual nuclei in the statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN). In the cases of the neutron induced light nucleus reactions, the demonstration of the kinetic energy conservation in the sequential emission processes becomes straightforward thanks to this new integral formula and it is also helpful to largely reduce the volume of file-6 in nuclear reaction databases. Furthermore, taking p+$^9$Be reaction at 18 MeV as an example, this integral formula is extended to calculate the energy-angular spectra of the sequentially emitted neutrons for proton induced light nucleus reactions in the frame of STLN.

  13. Comparison of neuronal activities of external cuneate nucleus, spinocerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus during passive movements of the rat's forelimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, A; Valle, M S; Bosco, G; Perciavalle, V

    2008-11-11

    In this paper we examined the neuronal activities of external cuneate nucleus, spinocerebellar Purkinje cells and interpositus nucleus during passive forelimb movements in anesthetized rats with the aim of identifying common or different patterns of activation across structures. By means of principal components analysis, we identified two main patterns of discharge which explained most of the dataset variance. One component characterized the movement-related activity of external cuneate and spinocerebellar cortical neurons, while the other reflected neuronal activity of the interpositus nucleus. We also found that both principal components were related to global forelimb kinematics but, while most of the variance of the activity of external cuneate cells and spinocerebellar Purkinje cells was explained by the limb axis orientation and orientation velocity, interpositus neurons' firing was best related to length and length velocity. This difference in the forelimb kinematics representation observed in external cuneate nucleus and spinocerebellar cortex compared with the interpositus nucleus is discussed with respect to the specific role that these structures may play also during active control of limb movements.

  14. Immobility, inheritance and plasticity of shape of the yeast nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrulis Erik D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since S. cerevisiae undergoes closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope of the daughter nucleus is continuous with that of the maternal nucleus at anaphase. Nevertheless, several constitutents of the maternal nucleus are not present in the daughter nucleus. The present study aims to identify proteins which impact the shape of the yeast nucleus and to learn whether modifications of shape are passed on to the next mitotic generation. The Esc1p protein of S. cerevisiae localizes to the periphery of the nucleoplasm, can anchor chromatin, and has been implicated in targeted silencing both at telomeres and at HMR. Results Upon increased Esc1p expression, cell division continues and dramatic elaborations of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm. These "escapades" include nuclear pores and associate with the nucleolus, but exclude chromatin. Escapades are not inherited by daughter nuclei. This exclusion reflects their relative immobility, which we document in studies of prezygotes. Moreover, excess Esc1p affects the levels of multiple transcripts, not all of which originate at telomere-proximal loci. Unlike Esc1p and the colocalizing protein, Mlp1p, overexpression of selected proteins of the inner nuclear membrane is toxic. Conclusion Esc1p is the first non-membrane protein of the nuclear periphery which – like proteins of the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes – can modify the shape of the yeast nucleus. The elaborations of the nuclear envelope ("escapades" which appear upon induction of excess Esc1p are not inherited during mitotic growth. The lack of inheritance of such components could help sustain cell growth when parental nuclei have acquired potentially deleterious characteristics.

  15. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus.

  16. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  17. Slow flow of passive neutrophils and sequestered nucleus into micropipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleridis, V; Athanassiou, G; Deligianni, D; Missirlis, Y

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the role of the nucleus and its contribution to the deformability of the passive neutrophils was investigated. To determine the rheological properties of the nucleus and of the neutrophil itself, deformation tests on single neutrophil and sequestered nucleus have been performed by micropipette under low aspiration pressure (80 Pa = 2-3 Pcr). The stiffness of the nucleus was found to be larger than that of the neutrophil, and its viscosity was found almost ten-fold higher. A subpopulation of neutrophils (Sub-A) showed two phases of deformation, a first rapid phase and a second phase with a constant deformation rate up to their full entrance, with an apparent viscosity mu app-second-Phase(N Sub-A) = 286 +/- 123 Pa x s, calculated by the liquid drop model. Another subpopulation (Sub-B) of the tested neutrophils displayed three deformation phases: a first one reflecting the rapid entry of cell into the micropipette, a second with constant deformation rate, and a third phase, with a slower, also constant, deformation rate were recorded. The corresponding apparent viscosities were found as mu app-second-Phase(N Sub-B) = 341 +/- 94 Pa x s and mu app-third-Phase(N Sub-B) = 1651 +/- 734 Pa x s. The apparent viscosity values of the neutrophilic nucleus, mu app (N nucl) = 2468 +/- 1345 Pa x s and of the whole neutrophil calculated in the third phase of deformation, mu app-third-Phase(N Sub-B) = 1651 +/- 734 Pa.s were comparable. These results support our hypothesis that the nucleus plays a significant role in the mechanical and rheological behavior of the neutrophil, especially when it has to pass through openings much smaller than its size.

  18. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour.

  19. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Morfín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  20. Spectra Statistics for the Odd-Odd Nucleus 86Nb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ren-Rong; ZHU Shun-Quan; CHENG Nan-Pu

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 86 Nb at low spins are calculated by using quasi-particles plus a rotor model. The distribution of the nearest-neighbour spacing and the spectral rigidity are studied. We find that the chaotic degree of the energy spectra increases with the increasing spin and reaches a maximum at I = 10; then it decreases gradually for spins above I = 10. The recoil term in the model Haniltonian makes the energy spectra slightly regular. The Coriolis force, however, makes the spectra chaotic and plays a major role in the spectral statistics of the odd-odd nucleus 86Nb.

  1. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  2. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.V.; Dalmolin, F.T.; Dutra, M.; Santos, T.J., E-mail: brett@ita.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos SP (Brazil); Souza, S.R. [Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Donangelo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de la Republica de Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence. (author)

  3. Separable Representation of Proton-Nucleus Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, L; Elster, Ch; Nunes, F M; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a new approach for solving the three-body problem for (d,p) reactions in the Coulomb-distorted basis in momentum space was proposed. Important input quantities for such calculations are the scattering matrix elements for proton- and neutron-nucleus scattering. We present a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler scheme in which a momentum space separable representation of proton-nucleus scattering matrix elements can be calculated in the Coulomb basis. The viability of this method is demonstrated by comparing S-matrix elements obtained for p$+^{48}$Ca and p$+^{208}$Pb for a phenomenological optical potential with corresponding coordinate space calculations.

  4. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  5. Neurophysiological evaluation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profice, P; Mazzone, P; Pilato, F; Dileone, M; Insola, A; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2011-10-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg) is constituted by a heterogeneous cluster of neurons located in caudal mesencephalic tegmentum which projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms and the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion. It has been investigated as potential deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms. Neurophysiological studies conducted in humans using DBS electrodes for exploring functional properties of PPTg in vivo, reviewed in this paper, demonstrated that the functional connections between PPTg and cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem network involved in sleep/wake control, and spinal cord can be explored in vivo and provided useful insights about the physiology of this nucleus and pathophysiology of PD.

  6. Odd-Even Nucleus Calculation Using exp(S) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Heisenberg, Jochen

    1997-04-01

    We apply the equation of motion technique to calculate the ground state and excited states of the nucleus ^15N. First, we define a complete basis for ^15N relative to the reference ^16O ground state, | A >. Then, the eigenstate | (A-1)j > with energy Ej are given as a linear superposition of these basis configurations. Assuming that this state is an eigenstate of the many-body Hamiltonian, we solve an eigenvalue problem for the energies and wave functions describing the excited states of the ^15N nucleus.

  7. CASTOR The ALICE forward detector for identification of Centauros and Strangelets in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z; Kharlov, Yu. V.

    1999-01-01

    The physics motivation for a very forward detector for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at the CERN LHC is discussed. A phenomenological model describing the formation and decay of a Centauro fireball in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The CASTOR detector which is aimed to measure the hadronic and photonic content of an interaction and to identify deeply penetrating objects in the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6 < eta < 7.2 in an event-by-event mode is described. Results of simulations of the expected response of the calorimeter, and in particular to the passage of strangelets, are presented.

  8. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2017-05-24

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis

    High-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-$x$ partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes. Jet production is investigated in $d$+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Hea...

  10. RELATIVISTIC CALCULATIONS OF THE SUPERHEAVY NUCLEUS 114-298

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, HF

    1993-01-01

    We investigate ground-state properties of the superheavy nucleus with N = 184 and Z = 114, (298)114, using conventional relativistic mean-field theory and density-dependent mean-field theory, which reproduces Dirac-Brueckner calculations in nuclear matter. Our calculations provide support for N = 18

  11. Empirical Example of Nucleus with Transitional Dynamical Symmetry X(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大立; 赵惠英

    2002-01-01

    By analysing the energy spectrum, E2 transition rates and branching ratios, it is shown explicitly that the nucleus 150Nd provides an empirical example with X(5) symmetry at the critical point of the transition from U(5) to SU(3) symmetry.

  12. Rapid feedback processing in human nucleus accumbens and motor thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, T.; Gründler, T.O.J.; Jocham, G.; Klein, T.A.; Timmermann, L.; Visser-Vandewalle, V.E.R.M.; Kuhn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and thalamus are integral parts in models of feedback processing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully employed to alleviate symptoms of psychiatric conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Common target structu

  13. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Turn Up the Volume: Uncovering Nucleus Size Control Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Matthew C

    2015-06-08

    Reporting in Developmental Cell, Hara and Merten (2015) apply the use of microfabrication and in vitro analysis in cell-free extracts to the old problem of nuclear size control. The authors make insights into the regulation of nuclear growth that potentially explain the widely reported correlation between nucleus size and cell size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Saturating Cronin effect in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Fái, G; Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Fai, George

    2000-01-01

    Pion and photon production cross sections are analyzed in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at energies 20 GeV < s^1/2 < 60 GeV. We separate the proton-proton and nuclear contributions to transverse-momentum broadening and suggest a new mechanism for the nuclear enhancement in the high transverse-momentum region.

  16. Nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors in the consolidation of spatial memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, A.; Avena, M.; Roullet, P.; Leonibus, E. de; Mandillo, S.; Sargolini, F.; Coccurello, R.; Oliverio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play an important role in motor activity and in behaviours governed by drugs and natural reinforcers, as well as in non-associative forms of learning. At the same time, activation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors has been suggested to promote intracellular event

  17. The nucleus of Darkschwitsch in Pantodactylus schreiberii Wiegmann (Lacertilia, Reptilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, J C

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear mass considered the representative of the nucleus of Darkschwitsch in reptiles in studied. It is composed of small, stellate, pyriform or rounded cells, with two or three dendritic trunks resolved in a plexus near the cellular body. Its axons take an ascending direction to the posterior commissure, and not to be medial longitudinal fasciculus as has been conventionally described.

  18. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  19. Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Marco; Alice Team; Stern, Alan; CONSTERT Team; Kofman, Wlodek; COSIMA Team; Hilchenbach, Martin; GIADA Team; Rotundi, Alessandra; MIDAS Team; Bentley, Mark; MIRO Team; Hofstadter, Mark; OSIRIS Team; Sierks, Holger; ROSINA Team; Altwegg, Kathrin; RPC Team; Nilsson, Hans; Burch, James; Eriksson, Anders; Heinz-Glassmeier, Karl; Henri, Pierre; Carr, Christopher; RSI Team; Paetzold, Martin; , VIRTIS Team; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Lander Team; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; IDS Team; Gruen, Eberhard; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Weissman, Paul; Project Scientist Team; Taylor, Matt; Buratti, Bonnie; Altobelli, Nicolas; Choukroun, Mathieu; Ground-Based Observations Team; Snodgrass, Colin

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission has been taking measurements of its target comet Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since early 2014 and will complete operations at the end of September 2016. The mission Science Management Plan, in 1994, laid out the the prime goals and themes of the mission. These five themes were: 1) To study the global characterisation of the Nuclues, the determination of the dynamics properties , surface morpholy and composition of the comet. 2) Examination of the Chemical, Mineralogical and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus.3) Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus4) Study the development of cometary activity and the process in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma5) The origins of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the solar system,To cover all aspects of the Rosetta mission in this special Show case session, this abstracts is one of 5, with this particular presentation focusing on theme 3, in particular on a) The dust-to-gas ratio; b) distributed sources of volatiles; c) seasonal evolution of the dust size distribution.a) The dust-to-gas ratio has been provided by coma observations measuring the gas and dust loss rates from the nucleus surface. The ratio of these two loss rates provides a lower limit of the dust-to-gas ratio at the nucleus surface, since it does not take into account the largest chunks unable to leave the nucleus, or falling back due to the dominant gravity. We review the value inferred so far, its time evolution, and new techniques to directly measure it in the nucleus.b) Evidences offered by Rosetta observations of gas sublimating from dust particles are up to now faint. We report the few available observations and an estimate of the probable average water content in dust particles inferred by 3D gas-dynamical codes of 67P coma.c) The dust-size distribution tunes the sizes

  20. Brackett Gamma Imaging of the Nucleus of M83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, L. P.; Turner, J. L.; Beck, S. C.; Meier, D. S.

    2004-12-01

    The gas-rich nucleus of barred spiral galaxy, M83, is a hotbed of star formation, with a total infrared luminosity of 4 X 109 Lo. We have observed the nucleus of M83 with the near infrared spectrometer, NIRSPEC, on Keck 2 to obtain high resolution Brγ recombination line spectra of the nucleus. Simultaneous imaging with the SCAM camera in a broadband K filter shows the position of the slit on the near-infrared galaxy. This allows us to map the nucleus with a continuum reference. The SCAM image shows a bright peak at the nucleus and a complex semi-circular arc of emission to the southwest. We stepped the 0.5'' X 24'' length slit in small declination increments to map a 20'' X 20'' region just west of the nucleus. Individual spectra were used to form a ra-dec-lambda cube and an integrated intensity map of Brγ . A total of 1.1 X 10-16 W m-2 of Brγ emission is detected in the map, in good agreement with previous low resolution observations (Turner, Ho, & Beck 1987, ApJ, 313, 644). This is not corrected for extinction within the molecular clouds in M83 or to the nebulae themselves and is therefore a lower limit to the true Brγ flux. Extinction is estimated to be at least a magnitude in the near-IR as measured in larger (4'') beams (Turner et al.) The bulk of the Brγ emission extends along the northern portion of the near-IR continuum semi-circle. Twenty percent of the total Brγ emission comes from single a 3'' (FWHM) source located 5'' west of the near-IR nucleus. The complementary NIRSPEC Brα data we have obtained will eventually allow us to evaluate the near-IR extinction on subarcsecond sizescales and obtain an extinction-corrected estimate of the Lyman continuum rate and therefore the number of ionizing stars.

  1. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Luc; Polosan, Mircea; Jaafari, Nematollah; Baup, Nicolas; Welter, Marie-Laure; Fontaine, Denys; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Yelnik, Jérôme; Chéreau, Isabelle; Arbus, Christophe; Raoul, Sylvie; Aouizerate, Bruno; Damier, Philippe; Chabardès, Stephan; Czernecki, Virginie; Ardouin, Claire; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Bardinet, Eric; Chaynes, Patrick; Burbaud, Pierre; Cornu, Philippe; Derost, Philippe; Bougerol, Thierry; Bataille, Benoit; Mattei, Vianney; Dormont, Didier; Devaux, Bertrand; Vérin, Marc; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Pollak, Pierre; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Agid, Yves; Krack, Paul; Millet, Bruno; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2008-11-13

    Severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling condition. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure that is already validated for the treatment of movement disorders, has been proposed as a therapeutic option. In this 10-month, crossover, double-blind, multicenter study assessing the efficacy and safety of stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, we randomly assigned eight patients with highly refractory OCD to undergo active stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus followed by sham stimulation and eight to undergo sham stimulation followed by active stimulation. The primary outcome measure was the severity of OCD, as assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), at the end of two 3-month periods. General psychopathologic findings, functioning, and tolerance were assessed with the use of standardized psychiatric scales, the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and neuropsychological tests. After active stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, the Y-BOCS score (on a scale from 0 to 40, with lower scores indicating less severe symptoms) was significantly lower than the score after sham stimulation (mean [+/-SD], 19+/-8 vs. 28+/-7; P=0.01), and the GAF score (on a scale from 1 to 90, with higher scores indicating higher levels of functioning) was significantly higher (56+/-14 vs. 43+/-8, P=0.005). The ratings of neuropsychological measures, depression, and anxiety were not modified by stimulation. There were 15 serious adverse events overall, including 1 intracerebral hemorrhage and 2 infections; there were also 23 nonserious adverse events. These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may reduce the symptoms of severe forms of OCD but is associated with a substantial risk of serious adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00169377.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  2. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald eHancock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete territories for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a crumpled globule with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates. This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter

  3. Neuropathological changes in the nucleus basalis in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M R; Marsh, R; Macdonald, C D; Jain, J; Pearce, R K B; Hirsch, S R; Ansorge, O; Gentleman, S M; Maier, M

    2013-09-01

    The nucleus basalis has not been examined in detail in severe mental illness. Several studies have demonstrated decreases in glia and glial markers in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia, familial bipolar disorder and recurrent depression. Changes in neocortical neuron size and shape have also been reported. The nucleus basalis is a collection of large cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain receiving information from the midbrain and limbic system, projecting to the cortex and involved with attention, learning and memory, and receives regulation from serotonergic inputs. Forty-one cases aged 41-60 years with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder with age-matched controls were collected. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded coronal nucleus basalis sections were histologically stained for oligodendrocyte identification with cresyl-haematoxylin counterstain, for neuroarchitecture with differentiated cresyl violet stain and astrocytes were detected by glial fibrillary acid protein immunohistochemistry. Cell density and neuroarchitecture were measured using Image Pro Plus. There were larger NB oval neuron soma in the combined schizophrenia and major depression disorder groups (p = 0.038), with no significant change between controls and schizophrenia and major depression disorder separately. There is a significant reduction in oligodendrocyte density (p = 0.038) in the nucleus basalis in schizophrenia. The ratio of gemistocytic to fibrillary astrocytes showed a greater proportion of the former in schizophrenia (18.1 %) and major depressive disorder (39.9 %) than in controls (7.9 %). These results suggest glial cell abnormalities in the nucleus basalis in schizophrenia possibly leading to cortical-limbic disturbance and subcortical dysfunction.

  4. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion) forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete "territories" for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a "crumpled globule" with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates). This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter-intuitive consequences.

  5. Influence of ionizing radiation on nucleus 24 cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenzner, T; Knapp, F; Röhner, F; von Wallenberg, E; Mauch, H; Pedersen, P; Aschendorff, A; Laszig, R; Lutterbach, J

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of conventional or hyperfractionated radiotherapy on Nucleus CI24M or CI24R(CS) implant systems. As a consequence of more than 70,000 cochlear implant recipients worldwide, the potential need for radiotherapy is an issue requiring consideration by both implantees and implantation centers. Conditions requiring radiotherapy of the head may include head, neck, or brain tumors. The study examines the effect of ionizing radiation on cochlear implant function. The implanted devices examined were the Nucleus CI24M and Nucleus CI24R(CS). In a modeled study, two implants of each type were treated with fraction schemes most frequently used in clinical routine (e.g., conventional fractionation [total dose, 120 Gy] and hyperfractionation [total dose, 116 Gy]). Parameters quantified were the implant output amplitude changes at high and low current level (current levels 255 and 100, respectively), the charge balance of the biphasic pulse, and the accuracy of the impedance telemetry function. Within the clinically relevant dose range (< 80 Gy), implant function in all four devices was normal. Failure occurred in one Nucleus CI24R(CS) device treated with hyperfractionation. A dramatic drop in the output amplitude at 106 Gy was observed, and the impedance measurement failed at a total dose of 111 Gy. The results suggest that conventional or hyperfractionated radiotherapy can be applied safely at Nucleus CI24M or CI24R(CS) implant systems in a patient-like setting. Therefore, the authors propose that the results of the study can be applicable in clinical practice.

  6. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS AND PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMOUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Our previous studies indicated that the increased arginine vasopressin(AVP) in ischemic brain regions of gerbils could exacerbate the ischemic brain edema. This experiments is further clarify the relation between AVP and cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. Methods. The contents of AVP, AVP mRNA, AVP immunoreactive(ir) neurons in supraoptic nucleus(SON)and paraventricular nucleus(PVN) after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were respectively determined by radioim-munoassay(RIA), immunocytochemistry( Ⅱ C), situ hybridization and computed image pattem analysis. Results. The contents of AVP in SON, PVN were increased, and the AVP ir positive neurons in SON and PVN were also significantly increased as compared with the controls after ischemia and reperfusion. And there were very light staining of AVP ir positive neurons in the other brain areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC) and periven-tricular hypothalamic nucleus (PE), but these have no significant changes as compared with the controls. During dif-ferent periods of cerebral ischemia (30~ 120 min) and reperfusion (30 min), AVP mRNA expression in SON and PVN were more markedly increased than the controls. Condusions. The transcription of AVP gene elevated, then promoting synthesis and release of AVP in SON,PVN. Under the specific condition of cerebral ischemia and repeffusion, the activity and contents of central AVP in-creased abnormally is one of the important factors which causes ischemia brain damage.

  7. The Leadership Formula: P*M*D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    outlooks which are transmitted by these figures. An examination of the biographies of leaders (such as Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi ) clearly...mostly biographies written by historians (e.g., Bullock, 1991) some well known psycho-biographies (e.g., Erikson on Gandhi , 1969), a few historiometric...34personalized leaders," such as Hitler) and positive leaders (termed "socialized,” e.g., Gandhi . See discussion of this in Howell, 1988; Howell & Avolio, 1993

  8. ARD June07 New.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personal

    In developing countries, gynaecological ... ectopic pregnancy, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, ... gynaecological malignancies, coital laceration and sexual assault. ... Gynaecological emergencies, ectopic pregnancy, unsafe abortion, pelvic infection, adnexal mass ..... criteria for methotrexate treatment is shown on Table.

  9. Ngugi phenotypic 165-173.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    the other creals such as maize and wheat, and is well adapted to ..... Genotype x Environmental interaction of the two sites for the 148 sorghum accessions collected from sorghum growing areas .... Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, School of Land, Crop.

  10. WAJM 29(4) corrected.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Energy Malnutrition; SFH, Society for Family Health; WHO, World Health Organisation. RÉSUMÉ. Polythérapies ... Adverse Event Monitoring of Artemesinin Combination Therapy in Nigeria: ... assessing adverse events in children. In general ...

  11. WAJM 29(2) LATEST.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    disorder. Pregnancy is an unusual event in acromegalic females because fertility is often reduced. With the advent of advanced ... Keywords: Recurrent acromegaly, Pituitary macroadenoma, .... environment. The pituitary gland enlarges during.

  12. WAJM 29(2) LATEST.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    *Dermatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, †Neurology Unit, .... Emergency Department of the hospital ... Table 1: Results of Laboratory Tests .... J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 ...

  13. 16 Somé_F 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    le résultat d'une alternance, d'un télescopage entre deux modes de narration, deux ... leur statut narratologique à partir du modèle de G. Genette. ... sur deux types de diégétisation, une diégétisation autonome avec le passé simple et ..... fait appel pour ce genre d'opération; leur vie étant monotone, ils profitaient de ces.

  14. 08 Botha Van Vuuren 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    7 Apr 2007 ... A literary analysis is done of Ingrid Winterbach's novel Niggie [“Cousin”], .... Want as sy moet kies tussen Freud en Jung, kies sy Freud. ..... “'imperialism' means the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating met-.

  15. WAJM 29(4) corrected.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Failure; CKD, Chronic Kidney Disease; e, peak early diastolic filling velocity; eGFR, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; HTN, Hypertension; ... OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors .... Anaemia was defined as per WHO, ie.

  16. 01 Erectile Dysfunction Original 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pierre Marais

    Department of Family Medicine & Primary Care, University of Stellenbosch ... measures: Prevalence of ED and presence of associated health and psychosocial factors. Describe patient demographics, physical attributes, sexual relationships.

  17. 20 Kam_F 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    d'être un travail de pionnier. ..... Autrefois, il y a longtemps de cela, vivait avec ses parents un enfant qu'on appelait .... Proverbes (tirés de Bonnet 1982) : ... en Afrique Noire, (1965); Poésies orales (en collaboration avec Minyono Nkpdo M.

  18. 23 Millogo_F 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    d'évolution, leurs gestes, leurs danses, les dispositions du public …). ... Autant cette pratique peut compter des commodités, autant elle recèle des .... comme pour mieux assurer la lecture et la mémorisation communautaires, d'organiser.

  19. 22 Sanou_F 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hond

    réglementée et liée à des pratiques rituelles bien établies, il y a évidence .... de production de l'œuvre littéraire pour terminer par prendre en compte la lecture ..... Innovation et évolution dans l'iconographie des masques chez les Bobo méri-.

  20. WAJM 29(2) LATEST.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Audit of Diabetic Soft Tissue Infection and Foot Disease in Accra. Vérification .... Diagnosis and Treatment Protocols. Patients .... Table 3: Distribution of Patiets by Lesion, Sex and Type of Diabetes. Type of ... fications help to define and guide.

  1. 7- Assié-Lumumba.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... mation and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and distance learning programmes, and ... edge in the various disciplines, critical thinking and new paradigms, and .... ordinary citizens in urban centres and rural communities precisely related to .... Thus, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, for example,.

  2. 1-Public sphere Ambadiang.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\376\\377\\000s\\000e\\000r\\000i\\000a\\000n\\000e\\000.\\000c\\000a\\000m\\000a\\000r\\000a

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2010. (ISSN 0850-3907) ... framed in linguistic terms. One interesting ... argumentation and may be reached not only on (what may be) matters of common or ...

  3. WAJM 29(2) LATEST.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Prevalence and Pattern of Renal Bone Disease in End Stage Renal Disease ... Abbreviations: CKD, Chronic kidney disease; CRF, Chronic renal failure; ESRD, ... growth or strength and/or (iii) vascular ..... histology with parathyroid hormone,.

  4. Matrix mechanics controls FHL2 movement to the nucleus to activate p21 expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakazawa, Naotaka; Sathe, Aneesh R; Shivashankar, G. V; Sheetz, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    ...) between FAs and the nucleus depends on matrix mechanics. In particular, on soft surfaces or after the loss of force, FHL2 moves from FAs into the nucleus and concentrates at RNA polymerase (Pol...

  5. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were investigated neuropathologically, emphazising the sacral spinal cord which contains Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus innervates the pelvic sphincters. In two cases, small striated pelvic muscles were studied. No changes characteristic of ALS...

  6. Functional identification of central afferent projections conveying information of acute "stress" to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    c-fos, corticotropin-releasing factor, neurosecretory neurons, paraventricular nucleus, transcription factors, neuroendocrinology, cholera toxin subunit B, retrograde tracing......c-fos, corticotropin-releasing factor, neurosecretory neurons, paraventricular nucleus, transcription factors, neuroendocrinology, cholera toxin subunit B, retrograde tracing...

  7. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  8. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  9. Nucleus downscaling in mouse embryos is regulated by cooperative developmental and geometric programs

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Tsichlaki; Greg FitzHarris

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a...

  10. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 No description Neural Nucleus Accumbens http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Unclassified Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX698...29234,SRX029236 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 All antigens Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791...SRX445333,SRX472711,SRX445335,SRX445331,SRX029231 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 All antigens Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791...SRX445335,SRX209198,SRX445331,SRX209194,SRX029235 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Input control Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX20...9803,SRX791596,SRX791600,SRX209801,SRX209802,SRX472711,SRX445333,SRX445335,SRX445331 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Histone Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791594,S...2,SRX029231,SRX029230,SRX029228,SRX209198,SRX209196 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Histone Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791595,S...0,SRX209199,SRX209196,SRX209197,SRX209198,SRX209194 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 All antigens Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX209...SRX472713,SRX445333,SRX472711,SRX445335,SRX445331 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 TFs and others Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX4...72713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Input control Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX20...9801,SRX209802,SRX209803,SRX791600,SRX791596,SRX472711,SRX445333,SRX445335,SRX445331 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 TFs and others Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX4...72713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX2...09217,SRX209216,SRX209215,SRX209214,SRX209213,SRX209218 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Unclassified Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX698...29238,SRX029235 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Unclassified Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX029...98892,SRX029235 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Unclassified Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX698...98892,SRX698891 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX2...09217,SRX209216,SRX209214,SRX209218,SRX209215,SRX209213 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Input control Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX20...9803,SRX209802,SRX791596,SRX791600,SRX209801,SRX445333,SRX472711,SRX445335,SRX445331 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 No description Neural Nucleus Accumbens http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Histone Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791594,S...8,SRX209196,SRX209197,SRX209198,SRX209194,SRX029231 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX2...09217,SRX209216,SRX209218,SRX209215,SRX209213,SRX209214 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 TFs and others Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX4...72713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 All antigens Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX791...SRX209196,SRX472711,SRX445333,SRX445335,SRX445331 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 No description Neural Nucleus Accumbens http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 No description Neural Nucleus Accumbens http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 Histone Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX209200,S...7,SRX209211,SRX029230,SRX029232,SRX029228,SRX029231 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 TFs and others Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX4...72713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nucleus Accumbens SRX2...09217,SRX209216,SRX209213,SRX209214,SRX209218,SRX209215 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283,SRX9...98285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283...,SRX998285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus.bed ...

  5. Experiments on parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Results from experiments that measure parity-violating longitudinal asymmetries in the scattering of epithermal neutrons from compound-nuclear resonances at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos are discussed. Parity non-conserving asymmetries have been observed for many p-wave resonances in a single target. Measurements were performed on several nuclei in the mass region of A-100 and A-230. The statistical model of the compound nucleus provides a theoretical basis for extracting mean-squared matrix elements from the experimental asymmetry data, and for interpreting the mean-squared matrix elements. The constraints on the weak meson-exchange couplings calculated from the compound-nucleus asymmetry data agree qualitatively with the results from few-body and light-nuclei experiments. For all nuclei but {sup 232}Th measured asymmetries have random signs. For {sup 232}Th eight of eight measured asymmetries are positive. This phenomenon is discussed in terms or doorway models.

  6. Determination of the {\\eta}'-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nanova, M; Paryev, E Ya; Bayadilov, D; Bantes, B; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Y A; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K -T; Challand, Th; Crede, V; Dahlke, T; Dietz, F; Drexler, P; Eberhardt, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fornet-Ponse, K; Friedrich, S; Frommberger, F; Funke, Ch; Gottschall, M; Gridnev, A; Grüner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hammann, D; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, P; Honisch, Ch; Jaegle, I; Kaiser, D; Kalinowsky, H; Kammer, S; Keshelashvili, I; Kleber, V; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Lopatin, I V; Maghrbi, Y; Makonyi, K; Müller, J; Odenthal, T; Piontek, D; Schaepe, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schmitz, R; Seifen, T; Thiel, A; Thoma, U; van Pee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Winnebeck, A; Zenke, F

    2013-01-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on $^{12}{}$C in the energy range of 1250-2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of -($37 \\pm 10(stat)\\pm10(syst)$) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus potential of -($10\\pm2.5$) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved $\\eta^\\prime$-bound states appears promising.

  7. Leading Neutrons From Polarized Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, B Z; Schmidt, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Leading neutron production on protons is known to be subject to strong absorptive corrections, which have been under debate for a long time. On nuclear targets these corrections are significantly enhanced and push the partial cross sections of neutron production to the very periphery of the nucleus. As a result, the A-dependences of inclusive and diffractive neutron production turn out to be similar. The mechanism of \\pi-a_1 interference, which successfully explained the observed single-spin asymmetry of neutrons in polarized pp interactions, is extended here to polarized pA collisions. Corrected for nuclear effects it explains well the magnitude and sign of the asymmetry A_N observed in inelastic events, resulting in a violent break up of the nucleus. However the excessive magnitude of A_N observed in the diffractive sample, remains a challenge.

  8. Neutrino-nucleus interactions at the LBNF near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an {sup 40}Ar nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

  9. Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions at the LBNF Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an $^{40}Ar$ nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

  10. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We have extended our model for charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions to neutral current reactions. For the elementary neutrino-nucleon interaction, we take into account quasielastic scattering, Delta excitation and the excitation of the resonances in the second resonance region. Our model for the neutrino-nucleus collisions includes in-medium effects such as Fermi motion, Pauli blocking, nuclear binding, and final-state interactions. They are implemented by means of the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) coupled-channel transport model. This allows us to study exclusive channels, namely pion production and nucleon knockout. We find that final-state interactions modify considerably the distributions through rescattering, charge-exchange and absorption. Side-feeding induced by charge-exchange scattering is important in both cases. In the case of pions, there is a strong absorption associated with the in-medium pionless decay modes of the Delta, while nucleon knockout exhibits a considerable enh...

  11. Exporting RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed

    2007-10-01

    The transport of RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes via mobile export receptors. Small RNAs (such as tRNAs and microRNAs) follow relatively simple export routes by binding directly to export receptors. Large RNAs (such as ribosomal RNAs and mRNAs) assemble into complicated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles and recruit their exporters via class-specific adaptor proteins. Export of mRNAs is unique as it is extensively coupled to transcription (in yeast) and splicing (in metazoa). Understanding the mechanisms that connect RNP formation with export is a major challenge in the field.

  12. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nucleus {sup 139}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Ivascu, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Rusu, C.; Suliman, G. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)

    2006-03-15

    Gamma-ray coincidence techniques are used to determine new level structures in the N=81 nucleus {sup 139}Ce, at low spins and excitation energies with the {sup 139}La(p,n{gamma}) reaction at 5.0 and 6.0 MeV incident energy, and at high spins with the {sup 130}Te({sup 12}C,3n{gamma}) reaction at 50.5 MeV, respectively. Lifetime determinations are also made in the (p,n{gamma}) reaction with the centroid DSA method. The observed level structures are discussed by comparison with existing calculations and with those in the neighbouring nucleus {sup 140}Ce. (orig.)

  13. Shape transitions far from stability: The nucleus {sup 58}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginean, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy) and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: nicolae.marginean@lnl.infn.it; Lenzi, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Padova (Italy); Gadea, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-02-23

    Excited states up to I{sup {pi}}=8{sup +} in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 58}Cr have been identified by using a new experimental setup composed of the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer PRISMA and the highly efficient {gamma}-detector array CLARA. Interestingly, the excitation energy sequence of the ground-state band follows the one expected by the E(5) dynamical symmetry for a nucleus at the critical point of the shape phase transition from a spherical vibrator (U(5)) to a {gamma}-soft rotor (O(6)). For the first time, in the same physical system, large scale shell-model calculations in the full fp shell are compared to the E(5) analytical model results and to the Interacting Boson Model. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the present data.

  14. Efficient And Portable SDR Waveform Development: The Nucleus Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, Venkatesh; Kempf, Torsten; Kammler, David; Ascheid, Gerd; Meyr, Heinrich; Adrat, Marc; Antweiler, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Future wireless communication systems should be flexible to support different waveforms (WFs) and be cognitive to sense the environment and tune themselves. This has lead to tremendous interest in software defined radios (SDRs). Constraints like throughput, latency and low energy demand high implementation efficiency. The tradeoff of going for a highly efficient implementation is the increase of porting effort to a new hardware (HW) platform. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for WF development, the Nucleus concept, that exploits the common structure in various wireless signal processing algorithms and provides a way for efficient and portable implementation. Tool assisted WF mapping and exploration is done efficiently by propagating the implementation and interface properties of Nuclei. The Nucleus concept aims at providing software flexibility with high level programmability, but at the same time limiting HW flexibility to maximize area and energy efficiency.

  15. ηproduction in proton-nucleus collisions near threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG You-Chang; CHEN Hong; JIANG Huan-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The η-meson production in proton-nucleus(pA)collisions near threshold is studied within a relativistic meson-exchange model.The primary production amplitude is presented in the distorted-wave impulse approximation for the nucleus with isospin 0 or [1]by assuming that N*(1535)is excited via a meson exchange and then decays into η and nucleon pair(ηN).Taking 18O and 12C nuclei as examples,we evaluate the production cross sections as a function of the incident proton energy,and analyze the effects of nuclear medium and various meson-exchange contributions.Finally we discuss implications for further experimental studies at the Cooling Storage Ring(CSR)in Lanzhou.

  16. Relativistic Spin-Isospin Dependent Response Function of Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang-Gang; CHEN Wei; AI Bao-Quan; ZHENG Xiao-Ping; Masahiro Nakano

    2000-01-01

    A full relativistic formalism is employed to derive the relativistic particle-hole and delta-hole excitation polariza tion insertion of pion propagator in nuclear matter. The spin-isospin-dependent response function of nucleus at high energy-momentum transfer is calculated with the nuclear matter approximation. The short range correlation effect, two-nucleon absorption and nucleus form factor effects are included in the calculation. The position and width of the resonance peak of the spin-isospin mode are reproduced and found to be coincident with experiment data. The position of the peak and its width is sensitive to Landau-Migdal parameter g' which is about 0.6.

  17. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  18. Proton emission from an oblate nucleus {sup 151}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, M.G., E-mail: mark.procter@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M.; Taylor, M.J.; Alharshan, G.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ferreira, L.S. [Centro de Física das Interacções Fundamentais, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maglione, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Marzolo 8, I-3513, Padova (Italy); Auranen, K.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Pakarinen, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Partanen, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937, Köln (Germany); Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); and others

    2013-08-09

    Excited states in the proton-unbound nucleus {sup 151}Lu have been established using γ-ray coincidence techniques. The lifetime of the first excited state above the proton-emitting ground state has been measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method combined with recoil-decay tagging. The experimental level scheme and extracted lifetime have been compared with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations based upon a non-adiabatic deformed Woods–Saxon potential. This comparison suggests that the proton-emitting ground state in {sup 151}Lu is mildly oblate with a deformation β=−0.11{sub −0.05}{sup +0.02} and represents the best evidence to date for proton emission from an oblate nucleus.

  19. Pairing reentrance in warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, N Quang; Agrawal, B K; Datar, V M; Mitra, A; Chakrabarty, D R

    2015-01-01

    Pairing reentrance phenomenon in the warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus is studied within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-based approach (the FTBCS1). The theory takes into account the effect of quasiparticle number fluctuations on the pairing field at finite temperature and angular momentum within the pairing model plus noncollective rotation along the symmetry axis. The numerical calculations for the pairing gaps and nuclear level densities (NLD), of which an anomalous enhancement has been experimentally observed at low excitation energy $E^*$ and high angular momentum $J$, show that the pairing reentrance is seen in the behavior of pairing gap obtained within the FTBCS1 at low $E$ and high $J$. This leads to the enhancement of the FTBCS1 level densities, in good agreement with the experimental observation. This agreement indicates that the observed enhancement of the NLD might be the first experimental detection of the pairing reentrance in a finite nucleus.

  20. Charge, neutron, and weak size of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, G; Forssén, C; Jansen, G R; Nazarewicz, W; Papenbrock, T; Wendt, K A; Bacca, S; Barnea, N; Carlsson, B; Drischler, C; Hebeler, K; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Miorelli, M; Orlandini, G; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J

    2015-01-01

    What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. While the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. We present an ab initio calculation of the neutron distribution of the neutron-rich nucleus $^{48}$Ca. We show that the neutron skin (difference between radii of neutron and proton distributions) is significantly smaller than previously thought. We also make predictions for the electric dipole polarizability and the weak form factor; both quantities are currently targeted by precision measurements. Based on ab initio results for $^{48}$Ca, we provide a constraint on the size of a neutron star.

  1. The size-wise nucleus: nuclear volume control in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael D; Gerace, Larry

    2007-11-19

    Eukaryotic cells have an "awareness" of their volume and organellar volumes, and maintain a nuclear size that is proportional to the total cell size. New studies in budding and fission yeast have examined the relationship between cell and nuclear volumes. It was found that the size of the nucleus remains proportional to cell size in a wide range of genetic backgrounds and growth conditions that alter cell volume and DNA content. Moreover, in multinucleated fission yeast cells, Neumann and Nurse (see p. 593 of this issue) found that the sizes of individual nuclei are controlled by the relative amount of cytoplasm surrounding each nucleus. These results highlight a role of the cytoplasm in nuclear size control.

  2. The identification of musical instruments through nucleus cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeder, M L; Lutman, M E

    2006-09-01

    In this study, self-reported ability to recognize musical instruments was investigated by means of a questionnaire, which was sent to a group of adult Nucleus cochlear implant users and a group of normally hearing subjects. In addition, spectrograms and electrodograms were produced and analysed for samples of music played on 10 different musical instruments. Self-reported ability to recognize some instruments was poor in the group of implant users, particularly for the saxophone, tuba and clarinet. Electrodograms showed that these instruments could only be identified using distorted spectral information or reduced temporal information. Other instruments, such as the drum and piano, could be identified using temporal information. Limited spectral resolution makes the recognition of musical instruments difficult for Nucleus implant users.

  3. $K^+$-nucleus potentials from $K^+$-nucleon amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, E

    2016-01-01

    Optical potentials for $K^+$-nucleus interactions are constructed from $K^+$-nucleon amplitudes using recently developed algorithm based on $K^+$-N kinematics in the nuclear medium. With the deep penetration of $K^+$ mesons into the nucleus at momenta below 800~MeV/c it is possible to test this approach with greater sensitivity than hitherto done with $K^-$ and pions. The energy-dependence of experimental reaction and total cross sections on nuclei is better reproduced with this approach compared to fixed-energy amplitudes. The inclusion of Pauli correlations in the medium also improves the agreement between calculation and experiment. The absolute scale of the cross sections is reproduced very well for $^6$Li but for C, Si and Ca calculated cross sections are (23$\\pm4$)\\% smaller than experiment, in agreement with earlier analyses. Two phenomenological models that produce such missing strength suggest that the imaginary part of the potential needs about 40\\% enhancement.

  4. K+-nucleus potentials from K+-nucleon amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    2016-10-01

    Optical potentials for K+-nucleus interactions are constructed from K+-nucleon amplitudes using recently developed algorithm based on K+-N kinematics in the nuclear medium. With the deep penetration of K+ mesons into the nucleus at momenta below 800 MeV / c it is possible to test this approach with greater sensitivity than hitherto done with K- and pions. The energy-dependence of experimental reaction and total cross sections on nuclei is better reproduced with this approach compared to fixed-energy amplitudes. The inclusion of Pauli correlations in the medium also improves the agreement between calculation and experiment. The absolute scale of the cross sections is reproduced very well for 6Li but for C, Si and Ca calculated cross sections are (23 ± 4)% smaller than experiment, in agreement with earlier analyses. Two phenomenological models that produce such missing strength suggest that the imaginary part of the potential needs about 40% enhancement.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  6. NPY and VGF Immunoreactivity Increased in the Arcuate Nucleus, but Decreased in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, of Type-II Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Saderi; Roberto Salgado-Delgado; Rafael Avendaño-Pradel; Maria del Carmen Basualdo; Gian-Luca Ferri; Laura Chávez-Macías; Juan E Olvera Roblera; Carolina Escobar; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2012-01-01

    Ample animal studies demonstrate that neuropeptides NPY and α-MSH expressed in Arcuate Nucleus and Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, modulate glucose homeostasis and food intake. In contrast is the absence of data validating these observations for human disease. Here we compare the post mortem immunoreactivity of the metabolic neuropeptides NPY, αMSH and VGF in the infundibular nucleus, and brainstem of 11 type-2 diabetic and 11 non-diabetic individuals. α-MSH, NPY and tyrosine hydroxylase i...

  7. Isospin effects in elastic proton-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Isovector effects in proton-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies are studied. The accuracy of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler isospin averaging procedure is found to be very good for nuclei larger than 4He. Studies of 40Ca and 208Pb suggest that the surface neutrons may be pulled in somewhat relative to the protons, although uncertainties in the detailed applicability of the present truncation of the multiple scattering treatment render firm conclusions premature.

  8. Isospin effects in elastic proton-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Service de Physique et Techniques Nucleaires, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, B.P. No. 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)); Elster, C. (Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)); Thaler, R.M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Isovector effects in proton-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies are studied. The accuracy of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler isospin averaging procedure is found to be very good for nuclei larger than [sup 4]He. Studies of [sup 40]Ca and [sup 208]Pb suggest that the surface neutrons may be pulled in somewhat relative to the protons, although uncertainties in the detailed applicability of the present truncation of the multiple scattering treatment render firm conclusions premature.

  9. PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF HYPERALGESIA EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Grava, André Luiz; Ferrari,Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol and indomethacin plus atenolol) and analgesic drugs (morphine) on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by the nucleus pulposus (NP) in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats of weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. Hyperalgesia was induced by means of a fragment of NP removed from the sacrococcygeal region that was placed in contact w...

  10. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  11. {alpha}-nucleus potentials and photon-induced nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaviz, D. E-mail: redondo@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de; Babilon, M.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Hillier, R.; Mate, Z.; Mohr, P.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.; Zilges, A.; Zolnai, L

    2003-05-05

    New data for the {sup 112,124}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 112,124}Sn reaction have been measured and are presently analyzed. Results of the {sup 112} Sn x {alpha} potential at the energy E{sub c.m.} {approx} 14 MeV are presented. The determination of this {alpha}-nucleus potential may allow a prediction of the {sup 112}Sn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 116}Te cross section.

  12. Theoretical Aspects of Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gail

    2014-09-01

    We will discuss the physics potential of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. This standard model process has never been directly measured, although there are a number of experiments proposed at stopped pion/muon or reactor sites that could make such a first detection. Such a measurement opens up the possibility for a number of interesting physics probes. We will review these from a theoretical point of view, with a particular focus on the nuclear-neutron form factor.

  13. High-spin states in the {sup 97}Tc nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Ivascu, M.; Marginean, N.; Rusu, C.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C.A. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 76900 (Romania); Gadea, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    High-spin states in the {sup 97}Tc nucleus have been studied by in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy with the reaction {sup 82}Se({sup 19}F,4n{gamma}) at 68 MeV incident energy. Excited states have been observed up to about 8 MeV excitation and spin 43/2{Dirac_h}. The observed level scheme is compared with results of shell model calculations. (orig.)

  14. Decay of the N =126 , 213Fr nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragati, Deo, A. Y.; Podolyák, Zs.; Walker, P. M.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Fraile, L. M.; Al-Dahan, N.; Alkhomashi, N.; Briz, J. A.; Aguado, M. E. Estevez; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Herlert, A.; Köster, U.; Maira, A.

    2016-12-01

    γ rays following the EC/β+ and α decay of the N = 126, 213Fr nucleus have been observed at the CERN isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility with the help of γ -ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy. These γ rays establish several hitherto unknown excited states in 213Rn. Also, five new α -decay branches from the 213Fr ground state have been discovered. Shell model calculations have been performed to understand the newly observed states in 213Rn.

  15. Nucleus-associated intermediate filaments from chicken erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Chicken erythrocyte nuclei prepared by isolation in isotonic KCl and Nonidet P-40 detergent were found to contain numerous attached filaments with a mean diameter of 11.0 nm. In polypeptide content and solubility properties, they resembled the vimentin type of intermediate filament found in cells of mesenchymal origin. Examination of their association with the nucleus suggests that more than a simple membrane attachment is involved.

  16. How did nucleus and sexual reproduction come into being?

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xie

    2016-01-01

    The origin of eukaryote is a fundamental, forbidding evolutionary puzzle, and the popular scenarios of eukaryogenesis are far from being clear. So far, there have been various theories (e.g., syntrophic model, autogenous model, viral eukaryogenesis model, exomembrane hypothesis), but few explain why. I observed that C-value (the amount of DNA contained within a haploid nucleus) increased by 3.5 orders of magnitude from prokaryote to eukaryotes, which is inconceivably close to the packing rati...

  17. Nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptors mediate social reward

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Achterberg, E J Marijke; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J

    2011-01-01

    Positive social interactions are essential for emotional well-being and proper behavioral development of young individuals. Here, we studied the neural underpinnings of social reward, by investigating the involvement of opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in social play behavior, a highly rewarding social interaction in adolescent rats. Intra-NAc infusion of morphine (0.05–0.1 μg) increased pinning and pouncing, characteristic elements of social play behavior in rats, and ...

  18. High-spin states in the {sup 96}Tc nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Ivascu, M.; Marginean, N.; Rusu, C.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C.A. [National Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS/UPJ, Grenoble (France); Nyako, B.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Boston, A.J.; Joss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T. [Oliver Lodge Lab., Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Parry, C.M. [Dept. of Physics, York Univ., Heslington, York (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    High-spin states in the {sup 96}Tc nucleus have been studied with the reactions {sup 82}Se({sup 19}F,5n{gamma}) at 68 MeV and Zn({sup 36}S,{alpha}pxn) at 130 MeV. Two {gamma}-ray cascades (irregular bandlike structures) have been observed up to an excitation energy of about 10 MeV and spin 21-22{Dirac_h}. (orig.)

  19. Altered mechanical properties of the nucleus in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Maria Lucia; Lammerding, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest and most rigid organelle. Therefore, its physical properties contribute critically to the biomechanical behavior of cells, e.g., during amoeboid migration or perfusion through narrow capillaries. Furthermore, it has been speculated that nuclear deformations could directly allow cells to sense mechanical stress, e.g., by modulating the access of specific transcription factors to their binding sites. Defects in nuclear mechanics have also been reported in a variety of muscular dystrophies caused by mutations in nuclear envelope proteins, indicating an important role in the maintenance of cells in mechanically stressed tissue. These findings have prompted the growing field of nuclear mechanics to develop advanced experimental methods to study the physical properties of the nucleus as a function of nuclear structure and organization, and to understand its role in physiology and disease. These experimental techniques include micropipette aspiration, atomic force microscopy of isolated nuclei, cellular strain and compression experiments, and microneedle manipulation of intact cells. These experiments have provided important insights into the mechanical behavior of the nucleus under physiological conditions, the distinct mechanical contributions of the nuclear lamina and interior, and how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins associated with a variety of human diseases can cause distinct alterations in the physical properties of the nucleus and contribute to the disease mechanism. Here, we provide a brief overview of the most common experimental techniques and their application and discuss the implication of their results on our current understanding of nuclear mechanics. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. K--Nucleus Potentials Consistent with Kaonic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieply, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mares, J.

    2004-03-01

    Various models of the K- nucleus potential have been compared and tested in fits to kaonic atom data. The calculations give basically two vastly different predictions for the depth of the K- optical potential at the nuclear density. The study of the (K-stop, π ) reaction could help to distinguish between K- optical potentials as the Λ -hypernuclear formation rates are sensitive to the details of the initial-state K- wave function.

  1. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alikhanov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  2. The medial hypothalamic defensive circuit and 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) induced fear: comparison of electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Jerome H; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2009-08-25

    The neural circuits for unconditioned fear to predator odors (e.g., cat fur odor, trimethylthiazoline, TMT) are not well delineated. A putative neural circuit for predator odor fear, the medial hypothalamic defensive circuit (MHDC), consisting of the anterior hypothalamic (AHN), ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) and dorsal premammillary nuclei (PMd), has been proposed. Electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesions of the PMd have been shown to reduce unconditioned fear in rats presented with either a cat or cat odor. Whether the PMd, AHN and VMH are involved in unconditioned fear to another predator odor derived from fox feces, 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), has not been explored. The present study compared the effects of electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of MHDC nuclei in rats on unconditioned fear to TMT and shock-induced contextually conditioned fear, as measured by freezing. Electrolytic lesions of the PMd did not reduce TMT-induced freezing, but diminished post-shock and shock-induced contextually conditioned freezing, suggesting a role for the PMd in contextually conditioned fear. In contrast, electrolytic lesions of the AHN and VMH reduced freezing to TMT while not affecting conditioned fear. However, neither NMDA lesions of the AHN nor ibotenic acid lesions of the VMH reduced freezing in shock-induced conditioned or TMT-induced unconditioned fear paradigms. The data suggest that fibers passing through the AHN and VMH, and not cells in the MHDC, mediate unconditioned freezing to the predator odor TMT.

  3. Neutrino-Nucleus Cross Sections for Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entered in the precision era. In this context accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction of systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which in the hundreds-MeV to few-GeV energy region are known with a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we overview general aspects of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections, both theoretical and experimental views. Then we focus on these quantities in different reaction channels. We start with the quasielastic and quasielastic-like cross section, putting a special emphasis on multinucleon emission channel which attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for th...

  4. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Bengtsson

    Full Text Available Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  5. Maturation of firing pattern in chick vestibular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M; Hirsch, J C; Peusner, K D

    2006-08-25

    The principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus are vestibular nucleus neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes. In birds and mammals, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing of action potentials is essential for vestibular nucleus neurons to generate mature vestibular reflex activity. The emergence of spike-firing pattern and the underlying ion channels were studied in morphologically-identified principal cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from brain slices of late-term embryos (embryonic day 16) and hatchling chickens (hatching day 1 and hatching day 5). Spontaneous spike activity emerged around the perinatal period, since at embryonic day 16 none of the principal cells generated spontaneous action potentials. However, at hatching day 1, 50% of the cells fired spontaneously (range, 3 to 32 spikes/s), which depended on synaptic transmission in most cells. By hatching day 5, 80% of the principal cells could fire action potentials spontaneously (range, 5 to 80 spikes/s), and this activity was independent of synaptic transmission and showed faster kinetics than at hatching day 1. Repetitive firing in response to depolarizing pulses appeared in the principal cells starting around embryonic day 16, when calcium-dependent potassium current modulated both the spontaneous and evoked spike firing activity. Altogether, these in vitro studies showed that during the perinatal period, the principal cells switched from displaying no spontaneous spike activity at resting membrane potential and generating one spike on depolarization to the tonic firing of spontaneous and evoked action potentials.

  6. Clinical outcomes of sleeveless phacotip assisted levitation of dropped nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amar; Narang, Priya; A Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Ashvin

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a sleeveless phacotip-assisted approach to levitate dropped nucleus. This single-centre, retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series reviewed the medical records of 34 eyes of 34 patients. Corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of the sclerotomy site was analysed. At 18 months follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA and CDVA in Snellen's decimal equivalent was 0.42 ± 0.16 and 0.91 ± 0.2, respectively. There was a significant improvement in the UDVA (p=0.001) and CDVA (p=0.002). Nucleus drop occurred following intraoperative posterior capsular rupture in 25 eyes (73.5%), zonular weakness in 5 eyes (14.8%) and post-trauma in 4 eyes (11.7%). In the early postoperative period, corneal oedema was seen in 2 eyes, pigment dispersion in 3 eyes and vitritis in 2 eyes. There was loss of CDVA in 1 (2.9%) eye due to persistent cystoid macular oedema. UBM did not reveal any vitreous incarceration into the sclerotomy site. Dropped nucleus was successfully levitated into anterior chamber with this technique, resulting in a significant visual outcome with a favourable complication rate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Coexistence of central nucleus, cores, and rods: Diagnostic relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Sathiyabama; Kumar, Rashmi Santhosh; Thakkar, Ravindra; Narayanappa, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital myopathies (CMs) though considered distinct disorders, simultaneous occurrence of central nucleus, nemaline rods, and cores in the same biopsy are scarcely reported. Objective: A retrospective reassessment of cases diagnosed as CMs to look for multiple pathologies missed, if any, during the initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical-stained slides from 125 cases diagnosed as congenital myopathy were reassessed. Results: The study revealed 15 cases (12%) of congenital myopathy with more than one morphological feature. Central nucleus with cores (n = 11), central nucleus, nemaline rods and cores (n = 3), and nemaline rods with cores (n = 1). 4/11 cases were diagnosed as centronuclear myopathy (CNM) in the first instance; in addition, cores were revealed on reassessment. Discussion: The prevalence of CMs of all neuromuscular disorders is approximately 6 in 100,000 live births, with regional variations. Three main defined CMs include centro nuclear myopathy (CNM), nemaline rod myopathy (NRM), and central core disease (CCD). However, they are more diverse with overlapping clinical and histopathological features, thus broadening the spectra within each category of congenital myopathy. Conclusion: Identification of cases with overlap of pathological features has diagnostic relevance. PMID:27293330

  8. An off-centered active galactic nucleus in NGC 3115

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R B; Ricci, T V

    2014-01-01

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an H$\\alpha$ luminosity of $L_{H\\alpha} = (4.2 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Our analysis revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of $\\sim 0.29" \\pm 0.05"$ (corresponding to $\\sim 14.3 \\pm 2.5$ pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the dis...

  9. Nucleus- and cell-specific gene expression in monkey thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karl D; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Jones, Edward G

    2007-02-06

    Nuclei of the mammalian thalamus are aggregations of neurons with unique architectures and input-output connections, yet the molecular determinants of their organizational specificity remain unknown. By comparing expression profiles of thalamus and cerebral cortex in adult rhesus monkeys, we identified transcripts that are unique to dorsal thalamus or to individual nuclei within it. Real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization analyses confirmed the findings. Expression profiling of individual nuclei microdissected from the dorsal thalamus revealed additional subsets of nucleus-specific genes. Functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis revealed overrepresentation of GO categories related to development, morphogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and extracellular matrix within the thalamus- and nucleus-specific genes, many involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. Examples included the transcription factor TCF7L2, localized exclusively to excitatory neurons; a calmodulin-binding protein PCP4; the bone extracellular matrix molecules SPP1 and SPARC; and other genes involved in axon outgrowth and cell matrix interactions. Other nucleus-specific genes such as CBLN1 are involved in synaptogenesis. The genes identified likely underlie nuclear specification, cell phenotype, and connectivity during development and their maintenance in the adult thalamus.

  10. Study of the structure of borromean nucleus 17Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fei; HUA Hui; YE Yan-Lin; LI Zhi-Huan; JIANG Dong-Xing; MA Li-Ying; GE Yu-Cheng; ZHENG Tao; SONG Yu-Shou; LI Xiang-Qing; Qureshi Faisal-Jamil

    2009-01-01

    The 17Ne nucleus is a possible candidate with a two-proton borromean halo structure. Since the theoretical model is difficult to handle the three-body system, it is difficult to determine the two-proton halo structure in 17Ne. In the present research, we try to study the breakup reaction of 17Ne. For the Borromean nuclei, one-proton knockout results in an unstable nucleus which is decaying further by proton emission. This process will result in an angular correlation between the direction of the aligned recoiling unstable nucleus and its decay products. The angular correlations can give us information about the configuration of the valence proton in the 17Ne. Furthermore, theoretical calculations indicate that the momentum distributions of 16F c.m are sensitive to the structure of the halo in 17Ne. Thus the measurement of momentum distributions of 16F c.m may also give us conclusive information on the structure of 17Ne. The present experiment has been done at IMP in Lanzhou using the radioactive beam 17Ne at 30.8 MeV/u on a 43mg/cm2 12C target. The data analysis is under procedure and the primary results are provided.

  11. The size of the nucleus increases as yeast cells grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Paul; Edgington, Nicholas P; Schneider, Brandt L; Rupes, Ivan; Tyers, Mike; Futcher, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    It is not known how the volume of the cell nucleus is set, nor how the ratio of nuclear volume to cell volume (N/C) is determined. Here, we have measured the size of the nucleus in growing cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of mutant yeast strains spanning a range of cell sizes revealed that the ratio of average nuclear volume to average cell volume was quite consistent, with nuclear volume being approximately 7% that of cell volume. At the single cell level, nuclear and cell size were strongly correlated in growing wild-type cells, as determined by three different microscopic approaches. Even in G1-phase, nuclear volume grew, although it did not grow quite as fast as overall cell volume. DNA content did not appear to have any immediate, direct influence on nuclear size, in that nuclear size did not increase sharply during S-phase. The maintenance of nuclear size did not require continuous growth or ribosome biogenesis, as starvation and rapamycin treatment had little immediate impact on nuclear size. Blocking the nuclear export of new ribosomal subunits, among other proteins and RNAs, with leptomycin B also had no obvious effect on nuclear size. Nuclear expansion must now be factored into conceptual and mathematical models of budding yeast growth and division. These results raise questions as to the unknown force(s) that expand the nucleus as yeast cells grow.

  12. The TLC: a novel auditory nucleus of the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora

    2007-11-28

    We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning the midbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter. It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep superior colliculus and the most medial region of the inferior colliculus. The TLC differs from the neighboring nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray by its distinct connections and cytoarchitecture. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings show that TLC neurons respond to auditory stimuli with physiologic properties that differ from those of neurons in the inferior or superior colliculi. We have identified the TLC in rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, nonhuman primates, and humans, which indicates that the nucleus is conserved across mammals. The discovery of the TLC reveals an unexpected level of longitudinal organization in the mammalian tectum and raises questions as to the participation of this mesencephalic region in essential, yet completely unexplored, aspects of multisensory and/or sensorimotor integration.

  13. Ground control to major TOM: mitochondria-nucleus communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Schuldiner, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria have crucial functions in the cell, including ATP generation, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism. All of these functions require tight regulation on mitochondrial activity and homeostasis. As mitochondria biogenesis is controlled by the nucleus and almost all mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, a tight communication network between mitochondria and the nucleus has evolved, which includes signaling cascades, proteins which are dual-localized to the two compartments, and sensing of mitochondrial products by nuclear proteins. All of these enable a crosstalk between mitochondria and the nucleus that allows the 'ground control' to get information on mitochondria's status. Such information facilitates the creation of a cellular balance of mitochondrial status with energetic needs. This communication also allows a transcriptional response in case mitochondrial function is impaired aimed to restore mitochondrial homeostasis. As mitochondrial dysfunction is related to a growing number of genetic diseases as well as neurodegenerative conditions and aging, elucidating the mechanisms governing the mitochondrial/nuclear communication should progress a better understanding of mitochondrial dysfunctions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Coexistence of central nucleus, cores, and rods: Diagnostic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyabama Dhinakaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital myopathies (CMs though considered distinct disorders, simultaneous occurrence of central nucleus, nemaline rods, and cores in the same biopsy are scarcely reported. Objective: A retrospective reassessment of cases diagnosed as CMs to look for multiple pathologies missed, if any, during the initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical-stained slides from 125 cases diagnosed as congenital myopathy were reassessed. Results: The study revealed 15 cases (12% of congenital myopathy with more than one morphological feature. Central nucleus with cores (n = 11, central nucleus, nemaline rods and cores (n = 3, and nemaline rods with cores (n = 1. 4/11 cases were diagnosed as centronuclear myopathy (CNM in the first instance; in addition, cores were revealed on reassessment. Discussion: The prevalence of CMs of all neuromuscular disorders is approximately 6 in 100,000 live births, with regional variations. Three main defined CMs include centro nuclear myopathy (CNM, nemaline rod myopathy (NRM, and central core disease (CCD. However, they are more diverse with overlapping clinical and histopathological features, thus broadening the spectra within each category of congenital myopathy. Conclusion: Identification of cases with overlap of pathological features has diagnostic relevance.

  15. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  16. Pictures of Particle Production in Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Alfred H

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on gluon(jet) production in dilute(proton)-dense(nucleus) collisions. Depending on the frame and gauge, gluon production can be viewed as a freeing of gluons coming from either the proton wave function or from the nucleus wave function. These (apparently) very different pictures must lead to the same result and the purpose of this paper is to see how that happens. The focus is on gluons having $k_\\perp\\sim Q_S$ or gluons in the scaling region $k_\\perp/Q_S\\gg 1$. In the McLerran-Venugopalan(MV) model with $k_\\perp\\sim Q_S$ we are able to derive gluon production in a way that (graphically) manifestly shows $k_\\perp$-factorization in terms of the number density of gluons in the nuclear wave function. We presume that this picture, and $k_\\perp$-factorization, continues to hold in the presence of small-$x$ evolution although we have not been able to explicitly verify this. Our result is in agreement with usual $k_\\perp$-factorization where the gluon number density of the nucleus does not appear i...

  17. Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Adcox, K; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S V; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Yu A; Botelho, S S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N L; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V A; Bunce, G M; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S K; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enyo, H; Esumi, S C; Ewell, L A; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Zeev; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Sen-Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R S; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B A; Khanzadeev, A V; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Bösing, C; Klinksiek, S A; Kochenda, L M; Kochetkov, D; Kochetkov, V; Köhler, D; Kohama, T; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R A; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu Zu Ping; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J R; Makdisi, Y I; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A M; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petridis, A; Pinkenburg, C H; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M E; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R K; Shea, T K; Shein, I V; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiryak, Yu; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sørensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (p_T), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, non-statistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high p_T. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.

  18. A transport set-up for heavy-flavour observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, Marzia; Beraudo, A; De Pace, A; Molinari, A; Monteno, M; Prino, F; Sitta, M

    2014-01-01

    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavour studies in high-energy nucleus–nucleus collisions is presented. The initial hard production of View the MathML sourceQ$\\bar{Q}$ pairs is simulated with the POWHEG pQCD event generator, interfaced with the PYTHIA parton shower. In a nucleus–nucleus collision the propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described through the relativistic Langevin equation. The numerical results are compared to experimental data from the RHIC and the LHC. In particular we show the comparisons of the nuclear modification factor of D-mesons, non-prompt J/ψJ/ψ's and heavy-flavour electrons. Furthermore, first results on azimuthal correlations of heavy quark pair and open charm/beauty meson pairs are presented.

  19. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  20. Formation of Centauro and Strangelets in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC and their Identification by the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC'99We present a phenomenological model which describes the formation of a Centauro fireball in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC, and its decay to non-strange baryons and Strangelets. We describe the CASTOR detector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. CASTOR will probe, in an event-by-event mode, the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6eta7.2 in 5.5xA TeV central Pb+Pb collisions. We present results of simulations for the response of the CASTOR calorimeter and, in particular, to the transversal of Strangelets.