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Sample records for premalignant skin lesions

  1. Association of AS3MT polymorphisms and the risk of premalignant arsenic skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Drobna, Zuzana; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Sanchez-Pena, Luz C.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Styblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic (iAs), primarily from contaminated drinking water, is considered one of the top environmental health threats worldwide. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the biotransformation pathway of iAs. AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to trivalent arsenicals, resulting in the production of methylated (MAs) and dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). MAs is a susceptibility factor for iAs-induced toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the association of the polymorphism in AS3MT gene with iAs metabolism and with the presence of arsenic (As) premalignant skin lesions. This is a case-control study of 71 cases with skin lesions and 51 controls without skin lesions recruited from a iAs endemic area in Mexico. We measured urinary As metabolites, differentiating the trivalent and pentavalent arsenical species, using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, the study subjects were genotyped to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), A-477G, T14458C (nonsynonymus SNP; Met287Thr), and T35587C, in the AS3MT gene. We compared the frequencies of the AS3MT alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in individuals with and without skin lesions. Marginal differences in the frequencies of the Met287Thr genotype were identified between individuals with and without premalignant skin lesions (p = 0.055): individuals carrying the C (TC+CC) allele (Thr) were at risk [odds ratio = 4.28; 95% confidence interval (1.0-18.5)]. Also, individuals with C allele of Met287Thr displayed greater percentage of MAs in urine and decrease in the percentage of DMAs. These findings indicate that Met287Thr influences the susceptibility to premalignant As skin lesions and might be at increased risk for other adverse health effects of iAs exposure.

  2. Predicting risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and premalignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Helen R; Jones, Peter W; Harden, Paul N; Ramsay, Helen M; Hawley, Carmel M; Nicol, David L; Fryer, Anthony A

    2009-06-15

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and associated premalignant lesions represent a major complication after transplantation, particularly in areas with high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. The American Society of Transplantation has proposed annual NMSC screening for all renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive index (PI) that could be used in targeted screening. Data on patient demographics, UVR exposure, and other clinical parameters were collected on 398 adult recipients recruited from the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane. Structured interview, skin examination, biopsy of lesions, and review of medical/pathologic records were performed. Time to presentation with the first NMSC was assessed using Cox's regression models and Kaplan-Meier estimates used to assess detection of NMSC during screening. Stepwise selection identified age, outdoor UVR exposure, living in a hot climate, pretransplant NMSC, childhood sunburning, and skin type as predictors. The PI generated was used to allocate patients into three screening groups (6 months, 2 years, and 5 years). The survival curves of these groups were significantly different (PPI to enable development of targeted NMSC surveillance strategies.

  3. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  4. Topical treatment of malignant and premalignant skin lesions by very low concentrations of a standard mixture (BEC) of solasodine glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, B E; Daunter, B; Evans, R A

    1991-09-01

    A cream formulation containing high concentrations (10%) of a standard mixture of solasodine glycosides (BEC) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of malignant and benign human skin tumours. We now report that a preparation (Curaderm) which contains very low concentrations of BEC (0.005%) is effective in the treatment of keratoses, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin of humans. In an open study, clinical and histological observations indicated that all lesions (56 keratoses, 39 BCCs and 29 SCCs) treated with Curaderm had regressed. A placebo formulation had no effect on a smaller number of treated lesions. Curaderm had no adverse effect on the liver, kidneys or haematopoietic system.

  5. Acitretin treatment in (pre)malignant skin disorders of renal transplant recipients: Histologic and immunohistochemical effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.V.; Sevaux, R.G.L. de; Blokx, W.A.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoitsma, A.J.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of (pre)malignant skin lesions after renal transplantation is high. Acitretin treatment appears to decrease the number of new squamous cell carcinomas and ameliorates the aspect and reduces the number of actinic keratoses. However, no histologic and immunohistochemical

  6. Is endoscopic nodular gastritis associated with premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L

    2015-06-01

    Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.

  7. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  8. Immune Profiling of Premalignant Lesions in Patients With Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyle; Taggart, Melissa W; Reyes-Uribe, Laura; Borras, Ester; Riquelme, Erick; Barnett, Reagan M; Leoni, Guido; San Lucas, F Anthony; Catanese, Maria T; Mori, Federica; Diodoro, Maria G; You, Y Nancy; Hawk, Ernest T; Roszik, Jason; Scheet, Paul; Kopetz, Scott; Nicosia, Alfredo; Scarselli, Elisa; Lynch, Patrick M; McAllister, Florencia; Vilar, Eduardo

    2018-04-16

    Colorectal carcinomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) arise in a background of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, display a unique immune profile with upregulation of immune checkpoints, and response to immunotherapy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the pathogenesis of MMR-deficient colorectal premalignant lesions, which is essential for the development of novel preventive strategies for LS. To characterize the immune profile of premalignant lesions from a cohort of patients with LS. Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis using next-generation sequencing was performed in colorectal polyps and carcinomas of patients with LS. As comparator and model of MMR-proficient colorectal carcinogenesis, we used samples from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In addition, a total of 47 colorectal carcinomas (6 hypermutants and 41 nonhypermutants) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for comparisons. Samples were obtained from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. All diagnoses were confirmed by genetic testing. Polyps were collected at the time of endoscopic surveillance and tumors were collected at the time of surgical resection. The data were analyzed from October 2016 to November 2017. Assessment of the immune profile, mutational signature, mutational and neoantigen rate, and pathway enrichment analysis of neoantigens in LS premalignant lesions and their comparison with FAP premalignant lesions, LS carcinoma, and sporadic colorectal cancers from TCGA. The analysis was performed in a total of 28 polyps (26 tubular adenomas and 2 hyperplastic polyps) and 3 early-stage LS colorectal tumors from 24 patients (15 [62%] female; mean [SD] age, 48.12 [15.38] years) diagnosed with FAP (n = 10) and LS (n = 14). Overall, LS polyps presented with low mutational and neoantigen rates but displayed a striking immune activation profile characterized by CD4 T cells

  9. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  10. Indomethacin Treatment of Mice with Premalignant Oral Lesions Sustains Cytokine Production and Slows Progression to Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara D; Young, M Rita I

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment options for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are often ineffective due to tumor-localized and systemic immunosuppression. Using the 4-NQO mouse model of oral carcinogenesis, this study showed that premalignant oral lesion cells produce higher levels of the immune modulator, PGE 2 , compared to HNSCC cells. Inhibiting prostaglandin production of premalignant lesion cells with the pan-cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin stimulated their induction of spleen cell cytokine production. In contrast, inhibiting HNSCC prostaglandin production did not stimulate their induction of spleen cell cytokine production. Treatment of mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with indomethacin slowed progression of premalignant oral lesions to HNSCC. Flow cytometric analysis of T cells in the regional lymph nodes of lesion-bearing mice receiving indomethacin treatment showed an increase in lymph node cellularity and in the absolute number of CD8 + T cells expressing IFN-γ compared to levels in lesion-bearing mice receiving diluent control treatment. The cytokine-stimulatory effect of indomethacin treatment was not localized to regional lymph nodes but was also seen in the spleen of mice with premalignant oral lesions. Together, these data suggest that inhibiting prostaglandin production at the premalignant lesion stage boosts immune capability and improves clinical outcomes.

  11. Acitretin treatment of premalignant and malignant skin disorders in renal transplant recipients: clinical effects of a randomized trial comparing two doses of acitretin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevaux, R.G.L. de; Smit, J.V.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After renal transplantation, the incidence of premalignant and malignant skin lesions is high. Treatment with acitretin improves the number and aspect of actinic keratoses and appears to reduce the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas, but treatment is hampered by frequent side

  12. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can promote a chronic inflammatory state and is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Since adipocytes can produce mediators that can regulate conventional immune cells, this study sought to determine if the presence of premalignant oral lesions would skew how immune cells respond to adipocyte-derived mediators to create an environment that may be more favorable for their progression toward cancer. While media conditioned by adipocytes stimulated normal spleen cell production of the T helper (Th) type-1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM CSF), media from premalignant lesion cells either blocked or had no added affect on the adipocyte-stimulated Th1 cytokine production. In contrast, media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells exacerbated adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-13, although it did not further enhance the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of IL-4 and TGF-β. The premalignant lesion environment also heightened the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the inflammatory mediators IL 1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-9, although it did not further increase the adipocyte-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). IL 17 production was unaffected by the adipocyte-derived mediators, but was synergistically triggered by adding media from premalignant lesion cells. These stimulatory effects on spleen cell production of Th2 and inflammatory mediators were not induced in the absence of media conditioned by adipocytes. In contrast, media conditioned by adipocytes did not stimulate production of predominantly monocyte-derived chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)9, chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)3 or CCL4, although it stimulated production of CCL2 and the predominantly T cell-derived chemokine CCL5, which was the only chemokine whose production was further increased by media from premalignant lesions

  13. Insight into the number of pre-malignancies and malignancies of the skin in a hospital population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsingen, M.C.J. van; Seubring, I.; Maessen-Visch, B.; Lavrijsen, S.; Bergen, B. van; Groenewoud, J.; Gerritsen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence is rising, placing a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. This problem may even be more extensive than expected, since registration of (pre)malignancies of the skin is poor. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the numbers of (pre)malignancies in patients with

  14. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin cancer and (pre)malignancies of the female genital tract in renal transplant recipients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwis, K.A.P.; Rossum, M.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hoitsma, A.J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hullu, J.A. de

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) is associated with an increased risk for the development of (pre)malignancies involving the skin and the female lower genital tract. We assessed whether yearly cervical screening was performed and evaluated the development of

  16. [Recommendations for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of pre-malignant lesions and pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Richard, Marta; Ginès, Angels; Ayuso, Juan Ramón; Sabater, Luis; Fabregat, Joan; Mendez, Ramiro; Fernández-Esparrach, Glòria; Molero, Xavier; Vaquero, Eva C; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Ferrández, Antonio; Maurel, Joan

    2016-11-18

    Clinical management of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is complex, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. The same applies for the premalignant lesions that are increasingly being diagnosed. The current document is an update on the diagnosis and management of premalignant lesions and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A conference to establish the basis of the literature review and manuscript redaction was organized by the Grupo Español Multidisciplinar en Cáncer Digestivo. Experts in the field from different specialties (Gastroenterology, Surgery, Radiology, Pathology, Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology) met to prepare the present document. The current literature was reviewed and discussed, with subsequent deliberation on the evidence. Final recommendations were established in view of all the above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrav Abreve, Mona

    2008-03-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo microscopic analysis during ongoing endoscopy, using systemically or topically administered fluorescent agents. It allows targeted biopsies to be taken, potentially improving the diagnostic rate in certain gastrointestinal diseases. Worldwide experience with CLE for upper gastrointestinal malignant and premalignant lesions is still reduced. Potential clinical applications are presented, including diagnosis of NERD, Barrett's esophagus, atrophic gatritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, gastric adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps, gastric cancer.

  18. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  19. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan.

  20. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cytomorphology of fibrocystic change, high-risk proliferative breast disease, and premalignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Shahla

    2005-12-01

    In a prospective study using mammographically guided fine needle aspirates in 100 nonpalpable breast lesions, the author's group assessed the reliability of a cytological grading system to define the cytological features of proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease and to differentiate between benign, premalignant and malignant breast lesions. We developed a cytological grading system evaluating the aspirates for the cellular arrangement, the degrees of cellular pleomorphism and anisonucleosis, presence of myoepithelial cells and nucleoli and the status of the chromatin pattern. This grading system, now recognized as the Masood Cytology Index, is commonly used as a surrogate end point biomarker in chemoprevention trials.

  2. Significance of β-tubulin Expression in Breast Premalignant Lesions and Carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxia Gao; Yun Niu; Xiumin Ding; Yong Yu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the expression of β-tubulin in premalignant lesions and carcinomas of the breast, and to observe the relationship of its expression with breast cancer pathological features.METHODS The expression of β-tubulin was detected immunohistochemically in 50 specimens of premalignant lesions of the breast (ADH and Peri-PM with ADH), 50 specimens of breast in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS), and 50 specimens of invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). Thirty specimens of normal breast tissues served as a control group.RESULTS Immunohistochemical analysis showed that: the differences among the 4 groups (normal breast tissues, breast premalignant lesions, DCIS and IDC, P < 0.05) were significant,and there were also statistically significant differences between any 2 groups (P < 0.05) except for the β-tubulin positive expression comparing DCIS versus IDC (P > 0.05). In addition, β-tubulin was expressed at a higher level in Peri-PM with ADH compared to ADH (P < 0.05). Following the degree of breast epithelial hyperplasia involved, and its development into carcinoma, the β-tubulin positive expression displayed an elevating tendency.We also found a significant positive relationship of β-tubulin expression with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but no significant correlation with histological grading and nuclear grade.CONCLUSION Centrosome defects may be an early event in the development of breast cancer and they can also promote tumor progression. Studies of aberrations of centrosomal proteins provide a new way to explore the mechanism of breast tumorigenesis.

  3. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  5. BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma: investigation of incidence, clinicopathological features, prognosis and paired premalignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; Dahl, Christina; Dahmcke, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    with atypia. BRAF mutations were identified in 39 of 111 (35%) cases. The rate ratio of BRAF-mutated versus BRAF-wild-type melanoma did not change over time. BRAF mutations were associated with T1 stage (p = 0.007), young age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.02), sun-exposed location (p = 0.01), mixed....../non-pigmented tumour colour (p = 0.02) and nevus origin (p = 0.005), but did not associate with prognosis. BRAF status in conjunctival melanoma and paired premalignant lesions corresponded in 19 of 20 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected BRAF V600E mutations with a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 1...

  6. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  7. Insight into the number of pre-malignancies and malignancies of the skin in a hospital population in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsingen, Margit; Seubring, Inge; Maessen-Visch, Birgitte; Lavrijsen, Sjan; van Bergen, Bert; Groenewoud, Johannes; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence is rising, placing a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. This problem may even be more extensive than expected, since registration of (pre)malignancies of the skin is poor. To provide insight into the numbers of (pre)malignancies in patients with actinic keratosis (AK) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in 2 university and 2 general hospitals. The types and numbers of previous tumours and of tumours during a two-year follow-up were collected from 574 patients. Mean time between the first diagnosed (pre)malignancy and time of inclusion was 6.6 years. Overall, 60% had multiple types of (pre)malignancies. In BCC patients, 61% had multiple BCCs, in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 40% had multiple SCCs. The combination 'BCC and SCC' occurred in 10%, 'BCC and AK' in 47%, 'SCC and AK' in 14%. High numbers of patients with multiple (pre)malignancies were found in this patient population in university and general hospitals, which may well reflect the Dutch hospital population. We conclude that skin cancer patients are more extensively affected than was expected up till now. Consequently, the management of skin cancer may be in need of adaptation in near future and the question arises whether dermatologists have the capacity for providing care for all these patients.

  8. Tumor-associated macrophages in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1 in a Th1-dominated microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazumasa; Haraguchi, Shigeki; Hiori, Miki; Shimada, Jun; Ohmori, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are implicated in the growth, invasion and metastasis of various solid tumors. However, the phenotype of TAMs in premalignant lesions of solid tumors has not been clarified. In the present study, we identify the phenotype of TAMs in leukoplakia, an oral premalignant lesion, by immunohistochemical analysis and investigate the involvement of infiltrated T cells that participate in the polarization of TAMs. The subjects included 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 10 individuals with normal mucosa. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were examined for the histological grades, and immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using antibodies against CD68 (pan-MΦ), CD80 (M1 MΦ), CD163 (M2 MΦ), CD4 (helper T cells: Th), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells), CXCR3, CCR5 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1), phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and chemokine CXCL9. The differences in the numbers of positively stained cells among the different histological grades were tested for statistical significance using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Correlations between different types of immune cells were determined using Spearman’s rank analysis. An increase in the rate of CD163 + TAM infiltration was observed in mild and moderate epithelial dysplasia, which positively correlated with the rate of intraepithelial CD4 + Th cell infiltration. Although CCR4 + cells rarely infiltrated, CXCR3 + and CCR5 + cells were observed in these lesions. Cells positive for STAT1 and chemokine CXCL9, interferon- (IFN)-induced gene products, and pSTAT1 were also observed in the same lesions. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the cells that were positive for CD163 were also positive for STAT1. CD163 + TAMs in oral premalignant lesions coexpress CD163 and STAT1, suggesting that the TAMs in oral premalignant lesions possess an M1 phenotype in a Th1-dominated micromilieu

  9. Treatment to sustain a Th17-type phenotype to prevent skewing toward Treg and to limit premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M Rita I; Levingston, Corinne A; Johnson, Sara D

    2016-05-15

    While immune suppression is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC), the immunological impact of premalignant oral lesions, which often precedes development of HNSCC, is unknown. The present study assessed the changes in splenic and draining lymph node CD4(+) cell populations and their production of select cytokines that occur in mice with carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesions and the changes that occur as lesions progress to oral cancer. These studies found skewing toward Th1 and Th17-type phenotypes in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice with premalignant oral lesions and a shift to Treg as lesions progress to cancer. Since the role of Th17 cells in the progression from premalignant lesions to cancer is not clear, studies determined the immunological and clinical effect of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor plus IL-23 as an approach to sustain the Th17 phenotype. These studies showed that the treatment approach not only sustained the Th17 phenotype, but also increased distal spleen cell and regional lymph node cell production of other stimulatory/inflammatory mediators and slowed premalignant lesion progression to cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence studies of premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, Claes; Wang, Ingrid; Lindquist, Charlotta; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Svanberg, Katarina

    1997-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was studied in vivo from premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract, in particular the cervix. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibilities to differentiate cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal tissue by means of two different fluorescence modalities. Most of the patients were given a low dose (5 mg/kg bw) of (delta) -amino levulinic acid (ALA). The ALA was orally administered 2 - 4 hours prior to the investigation. During this time, the ALA is transformed to the strongly fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the haem cycle. Excitation light with a wavelength of 405 nm was used to excite the PpIX fluorescence. Excess amounts of PpIX were accumulated preferentially in diseased tissue. However, the variability in the PpIX accumulation from patient to patient was large. By using excitation light at 337 nm, the endogenous fluorophores are more efficiently excited. Therefore, this excitation modality was exploited for studying spectral characteristics of the autofluorescence in different tissue types. The spectra obtained were evaluated by forming fluorescence intensity ratios. The tissue types were grouped according to the histopathological examination. A correlation with the fluorescence ratios was performed. Some problems with the classification remain, mostly due to the difficulties in obtaining histopathologic evaluation of the biopsies at the exact location of the LIF measurements.

  11. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin ("old drugs") to their recently recognized CSC targets ("new uses") within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the "old drugs-new uses" repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  13. Epigenetic reprogramming of pericentromeric satellite DNA in premalignant and malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückmann, Nadine Heidi; Pedersen, Christina Bøg; Ditzel, Henrik Jørn

    2018-01-01

    on pericentromeric satellites in primary melanocytes. This suggests that polycomb bodies form in cancer cells with global DNA demethylation to control the stability of pericentromeric satellite DNA. These results reveal a novel epigenetic perturbation specific to premalignant and malignant cells thatmaybe used...... as an early diagnostic marker for detection of precancerous changes and a new therapeutic entry point. Implications: Pericentromeric satellite DNA is epigenetically reprogrammed into polycomb bodies as a premalignant event with implications for transcriptional activity and genomic stability. Mol Cancer Res...

  14. Optimized endoscopic autofluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of premalignant lesions in Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Jasmin A; Boerwinkel, David F; Meijer, Sybren L; Visser, Mike; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G; Bergman, Jacques J G H M

    2013-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect early cellular changes in Barrett's oesophagus before these become visible. As the technique is based on varying concentrations of intrinsic fluorophores, each with its own optimal excitation wavelength, it is important to assess the optimal excitation wavelength(s) for identification of premalignant lesions in patients with Barrett's oesophagus. The endoscopic spectroscopy system used contained five (ultra)violet light sources (λexc=369-416 nm) to generate autofluorescence during routine endoscopic surveillance. Autofluorescence spectroscopy was followed by a biopsy for histological assessment and spectra correlation. Three intensity ratios (r1, r2, r3) were calculated by dividing the area, A, under the spectral curve of selected emission wavelength ranges for each spectrum generated by each excitation wavelength λexc as follows (Equation is included in full-text article.). Double intensity ratios were calculated using two excitation wavelengths. Fifty-eight tissue areas from 22 patients were used for autofluorescence spectra analysis. Excitation with 395, 405 or 410 nm showed a significant (P≤0.0006) differentiation between intestinal metaplasia and grouped high-grade dysplasia/early carcinoma for intensity ratios r2 and r3. A sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 89.5% with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 was achieved using 395 nm excitation and intensity ratio r3. Double excitation showed no additional value over single excitation. The combination of 395 nm excitation and intensity ratio r3 showed optimal conditions to discriminate nondysplastic from early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus.

  15. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  16. Expression of podoplanin in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and its potential as a biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Logeswari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The podoplanin may be considered as a predictor marker in assessing malignant transformation of premalignancies and prognosis of oral malignancy. Indeed it is believed that podoplanin might play a role in tumor progression though exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. Further research is required to understand its exact pathophysiology.

  17. Meta-analyses: does long-term PPI use increase the risk of gastric premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Layli; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2013-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective agents available for reducing acid secretion. They are used for medical treatment of various acid-related disorders. PPIs are used extensively and for extended periods of time in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A troublesome issue regarding maintenance therapy has been the propensity of PPI-treated patients to develop chronic atrophic gastritis while on therapy that could theoretically lead to an increased incidence of gastric cancer. In addition, animal studies have raised concern for development of enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and carcinoid tumors in the stomachs of mice receiving high dose PPIs. Current literature does not provide a clear-cut conclusion on the subject and the reports are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of the available literature to address the safety of long-term PPI use and its relation to the development of malignant/premalignant gastric lesions. A literature search of biomedical databases was performed. The reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed to further identify relevant trials. We hand-searched the abstracts of the American Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW) from 1995 to 2013. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used PPIs as the primary treatment for at least six month versus no treatment, placebo, antacid or anti-reflux surgery (ARS) were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Discrepancies in the interpretation were resolved by consensus. All analyses of outcomes were based on the intention-to-treat principle. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager software. The effect measure of choice was relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data. Six RCTs with a total of 785 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two multicenter RCTs compared Esomeprazole with placebo. One RCT compared omeprazole with ARS. Two RCTs compared omeprazole with

  18. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sornam; Subbiah, Vasantha N; Michael, Jothi Clara J

    2015-01-01

    To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Among 250 women, about six (2.4%) of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS) - five (2%) and mild dysplasia one (0.4%). Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2%) women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same.

  19. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sornam; Subbiah, Vasantha N.; Michael, Jothi Clara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 250 women, about six (2.4%) of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS) — five (2%) and mild dysplasia one (0.4%). Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2%) women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. Conclusion: The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same. PMID:27981091

  20. Associated factors with cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women community at Sadras, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornam Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the associated factors of cervical pre-malignant lesions among the married fisher women residing in the coastal areas of Sadras, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted in five fishermen communities under Sadras, a coastal area in Tamil Nadu, India. Two hundred and fifty married fisher women residing in the area. Quantitative descriptive approach with a cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule for identifying the associated factors and Pap smear test was performed for identifying the pre-malignant cervical lesions among the married fisher women. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among 250 women, about six (2.4% of them presented with pre-cancerous lesions such as atypical squamous cell of undifferentiated significance (ASCUS - five (2% and mild dysplasia one (0.4%. Majority of the women, about 178 (71.2% women, had abnormal cervical findings. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of risk factors such as advanced age, lack of education, low socioeconomic status, using tobacco, multiparity, premarital sex, extramarital relationship, using cloth as sanitary napkin, etc. Conclusion: The study findings clearly show the increased vulnerable state of the fisher women for acquiring cervical cancer as they had many risk factors contributing to the same.

  1. Number of Langerhans cells is decreased in premalignant keratosis and skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Z; Filip, A; Shevchuk, V; Kashuba, E

    2014-03-01

    It was shown earlier that a number of CD207 positive Langerhans cells was lower in basal cell carcinomas than in the normal epidermis. Moreover, benign skin lesions presented a higher number of Langerhans cells when they were compared to malignant tumors. To count Langerhans cells, assessing expression levels of CD1A and CD207 markers in actinic keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, compared with the normal skin. Comparison of Langerhans cells might give a valuable prognostic marker for skin cancer. Immunohistochemistry and methods of statistics were used. Expression of CD1A and CD207 markers was assessed in tumor samples of actinic keratosis, cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas, in comparison with the normal skin. In each cohort there were 40 patients (and 11 healthy individuals). We have shown that the number of Langerhans cells is considerably lower in cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas, compared with their number in the normal skin (p keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinoma. This may suggest an alteration of Langerhans cells phenotype in skin neoplastic diseases, making the number of Langerhans cells a valuable prognostic factor for skin tumors.

  2. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therape...

  3. Exploring type II microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast lesions by shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijia; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Haipeng; Xu, Shuping; Zhang, Zhe; Hu, Chengxu; Bi, Lirong; Fan, Zhimin; Han, Bing; Xu, Weiqing

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of type II microcalcifications in fibroadenoma (FB), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast tissues has been analyzed by the fingerprint features of Raman spectroscopy. Fresh breast tissues were first handled to frozen sections and then they were measured by normal Raman spectroscopy. Due to inherently low sensitivity of Raman scattering, Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique was utilized. A total number of 71 Raman spectra and 70 SHINERS spectra were obtained from the microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish the type II microcalcifications between these tissues. This is the first time to detect type II microcalcifications in premalignant (ADH and DCIS) breast tissue frozen sections, and also the first time SHINERS has been utilized for breast cancer detection. Conclusions demonstrated in this paper confirm that SHINERS has great potentials to be applied to the identification of breast lesions as an auxiliary method to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  5. Effectiveness of systematic chromoendoscopy for diagnosis of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. Results of two consecutive screening campaigns in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emura, Fabian; Mejia, Juan; Mejia, Marcela; Osorio, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common malignancy in South America and East Asia. In addition to the high mortality, in Colombia a great disvantage is the lack of data regarding premalignant lesions and early cancer. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy in the prevalence of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. A total of 950 were invited to participate, 800 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and finally 650 were analyzed. Results: None of participants had normal gastric mucosa. Mild antrum gastritis was found in 21.8% (142/650), meanwhile moderate or severe antrum gastritis in 77.4% (508/650). Atrophy and metaplasia was found in 14.5% (94/650) and 15.5% (101/650) respectively. H Pilory infection was found in 7.3%, 79.3% 75.5% 57.4% y 0% of subjects with mild, moderate and severe, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia respectively. Gastric premalignant lesion was found in 30% (195/650). Two subjects were diagnosed as early gastric cancer and treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with curability as final result. Conclusions: By systematic chromoendoscopy this series has demonstrated that 1/325 healthy volunteers had early gastric cancer and that 1/33 had a premalignant lesion explaining in part the high prevalence of gastric cancer in the region. Bases on this series, gastric cancer is diagnosable and curable among healthy volunteers in Colombia.

  6. Promoter polymorphisms of ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1 genes and associations with risk of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Juarez, Maria de Los Angeles; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Mendieta-Carmona, Victoriano; Hernandez-Pacheco, Raquel Esneidy; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Rodea-Avila, Carlos; Apresa-Garcia, Teresa; Garay-Villar, Onix; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Diaz-Orea, Maria Alicia; Milflores-Flores, Lorena; Reyes-Salinas, Juan Salvador; Ceja-Utrera, Francisco Javier; Vazquez-Zamora, Victor Javier; Vargas-Maldonado, Tomas; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Sialyltransferase gene expression is altered in several cancers, including examples in the cervix. Transcriptional regulation of the responsible genes depends on different promoters. We aimed to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the B3 promoter of the ST3GAL4 gene and the P1 promoter of the ST6GAL1 gene with cervical premalignant lesions or cervical cancer. A blood sample and/or cervical scrapes were obtained from 104 women with normal cytology, 154 with premalignant lesions and 100 with cervical cancer. We also included 119 blood samples of random donors. The polymorphisms were identified by sequencing from PCR products. For the B3 promoter, a fragment of 506 bp (from nucleotide -408 to +98) was analyzed, and for the P1 promoter a 490 bp (-326 to +164) fragment. The polymorphism analysis showed that at SNP rs10893506, genotypes CC and CT of the ST3GAL4 B3 promoter were associated with the presence of premalignant lesions (OR=2.89; 95%CI 1.72-4.85) and cervical cancer (OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.91). We detected only one allele of each polymorphism in the ST6GAL1 P1 promoter. We did not detect any genetic variability in the P1 promoter region in our study population. Our results suggest that the rs10893506 polymorphism -22C/T may increase susceptibility to premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

  7. Presence of histopathological premalignant lesions and infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in patients with suspicious cytological and colposcopy results: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Mileta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In patients with premalignant cervical lesions, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, at any moment, may be spontaneously eliminated, or may persist or transform cervical epithelium from a lower to a higher degree. Due to that, it is necessary to wisely select the patients who are at high risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to establish the interdependence between a suspicious Papanicolaou (Pap test and colposcopy with the infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the presence of premalignant cervical lesions. Methods. This prospective study used cytological, colposcopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and histopathological analysis of cervical biopsy specimen. Out of 2,578 female patients sent to cytological analyses in Clinical Center of Montenegro, during 2012, 2013 and 2014, the study included 80 women who had to submit their biopsy specimens due to a suspicious Pap test and atypical colposcopy results. Results. In the group of 80 (3.1%; n = 80/2,578 of the selected female patients with suspicious Pap test and colposcopy, 2/3 or 56 (70% of them had cervicitis, and 1/3 or 24 (30% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The most common type in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was HPV16 in 8 female patients, ie 61.53% out of the number of infected, or 33.33% out of the total number of premalignant lesions. Conclusion. Patients with suspicious Papanicolaou test, colposcopy results and infection which is caused by high-risk HPV infection (HPV 16 in particular often have premalignant cervical lesions. In these cases, histopathological confirmation of lesions is mandatory, since it serves as a definitive diagnostic procedure.

  8. Microscopic analysis of the chromium content in the chromium-induced malignant and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Kondo, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Sumiyo; Uchihara, Hiroshi; Fujino, Haruhiko; Sawada, Naruhiko; Miyoshi, Takanori; Sakiyama, Shoji; Izumi, Keisuke; Monden, Yasumasa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies demonstrated that the frequency of gene instability in lung cancer of chromate workers was very high, but the frequencies of the p53 and ras gene mutations were low. To clarify the carcinogenesis of chromate in the lung, we established a chromate-induced cancer model in the rat proximal airway and examined the relationship between chromium accumulations and the chromium-induced cancer and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat. Methods: Fifteen male, bred, 12-week-old Jcl-Wister rats were used. A pellet of strontium chromate were inserted into the bronchus of the rats. The rats were sacrificed 9 months after the pellet was inserted. We pathologically examined the region of the bronchi to which the pellet was attached. We quantified the amount of chromium accumulation in the bronchial lesions using a microscopic X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results: Of the 15 rats, 1 rat had a lesion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 7 rats had carcinoma in situ (CIS) or dysplasia, 8 rats had squamous metaplasia, and 5 rats had goblet cell hyperplasia. The amounts of chromium accumulation in normal epithelium (n=24), goblet cell hyperplasia (n=14), squamous metaplasia (n=8), and dysplasia plus CIS plus SCC (n=9) were 500±1354, 713±1062, 941±1328, and 3511±4473 (mean±SD) counts/s/mA, respectively. The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium (Spearman's correlation coefficient by ranks, rs=0.454, P<0.01). Conclusions: The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium. Examining the genetic alterations of histologic changes in this model was helpful in elucidating the process of carcinogenesis of chromium in the lung

  9. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  10. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ya; Li, Yue-xiu; Yang, Xi; Jiang, Long; Zhou, Zuo-jun; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  11. p53 and bcl2 expression in malignant and premalignant lesions of uterine cervix and their correlation with human papilloma virus 16 and 18

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja Shukla; Jasmita Dass; Mukta Pujani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Persistent high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is probably the best predictor of increased risk of cervical cancer, but expression of certain markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis have been studied. The present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of p53 and bcl2 in premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix and its correlation with HPV type 16 and 18. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 35 cases (including 24 prospective cases...

  12. Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Edlinger, Michael; Sölder, Elisabeth; Widschwendter, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral carcinogenesis is an important topic of research in maxillofacial oncology. Nevertheless, the association between such infections in the oral cavity and the development of oral precancerous lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oral HPV infections and oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia. The case control study included 118 patients with manifest oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia, who underwent surgical biopsy, including a histopathologic grading of the lesion, and 100 control patients without any oral lesions. HPV detection was achieved with a noninvasive brush smear method (Digene Cervical Sampler, Hybrid Capture II-Test). Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations. A significant association was found between high-risk oral HPV infection and the presence of oral premalignant lesions (P = .001). Among all other evaluated parameters, only smoking showed a significant association with the presence of oral lesions. Oral HPV infections may play a role in the pathogenesis of premalignant oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  14. Prospects in the Application of Photodynamic Therapy in Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajan; Lee, Nathan V.; Liu, Kelly Y. P.; Poh, Catherine F.

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global health burden with significantly poor survival, especially when the diagnosis is at its late stage. Despite advances in current treatment modalities, there has been minimal improvement in survival rates over the last five decades. The development of local recurrence, regional failure, and the formation of second primary tumors accounts for this poor outcome. For survivors, cosmetic and functional compromises resulting from treatment are often devastating. These statistics underscore the need for novel approaches in the management of this deadly disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that involves administration of a light-sensitive drug, known as a photosensitizer, followed by light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength that corresponds to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of tissue oxygen, cytotoxic free radicals that are produced cause direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of inflammatory reactions at the target sites. PDT offers a prospective new approach in controlling this disease at its various stages either as a stand-alone therapy for early lesions or as an adjuvant therapy for advanced cases. In this review, we aim to explore the applications of PDT in oral cancer therapy and to present an overview of the recent advances in PDT that can potentially reposition its utility for oral cancer treatment. PMID:27598202

  15. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  16. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez; Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha; Zapata, Aura Judith Perez; Cherit, Judith DomInguez; Gallegos, Eva Ramon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer

  17. Implementation and analysis of relief patterns of the surface of benign and malignant lesions of the skin by microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Pacheco, Maria del Carmen Lopez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Martins-Costa, Manuel Filipe Pereira da Cunha [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad do Minho, Escola de Ciencias Campus de Gualtar-PT-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zapata, Aura Judith Perez [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico); Cherit, Judith DomInguez [Departamento de DermatologIa, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Calzada de Tlalpan No 4800, 14000 (Mexico); Gallegos, Eva Ramon [Laboratorio de CitopatologIa Ambiental, Departamento de MorfologIa, ENCB-IPN, UP Lazaro Cardenas, Casco de Santo Tomas, 11340 (Mexico)

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this study was to be able to distinguish between healthy skin tissue and malignant ones, furthermore determining a unique pattern of roughness for each skin lesion by microtopographic analysis of the skin surface of Mexican patients during the period from April to October 2002. The standard technique used in this study for the diagnosis of skin cancer and the comparison of the results was the haematoxylin-eosin histopathological technique. Latex impressions were taken from skin lesions as well as from the healthy skin of each patient to serve as control samples. These impressions were analysed by the MICROTOP.03.MFC microtopographic system inspection. It was observed that when the tumour becomes rougher, more malign will be the lesion. On average, the melanoma present an increase of roughness of 67% compared to healthy skin, obtaining a roughness relation of 1:2.54. The percentage decreases to 49% (49%, 1:60) in the case of basal cell carcinoma and to 40% in pre-malignant lesions such as melanocytic nevus (40%, 1:150). In benign lesions such as the seborrhoea keratosis only a small increase in roughness was noted (4%, 1:0.72). Microtopographic inspection of the skin surface can be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique for skin cancer.

  18. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAPULOSQUAMOUS SKIN LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdari Balaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Papulosquamous lesions form the largest group of skin diseases. Since, they are all characterized by scaling papules or plaques, clinical confusion may result in their diagnosis, hence definitive histopathological analysis is important for their differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes skin biopsies from 108 clinically diagnosed /suspected non-infectious, erythematous, papulosquamous skin diseases which were received in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam for a period of two years from January 2016 to December 2017. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and was subjected to routine processing and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The lesions were classified as Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, along with rare conditions like Pityriasis Rosea, Parapsoriasis, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris, Prurigo Nodularis and Lichen Simplex chronicus and clinicopathological correlation was done. RESULTS A total of 108 cases were studied. Lichen planus (51 cases- 47.22% was the most common lesions followed by Psoriasis (34 cases - 31.48% and with majority of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (25 cases– 23.15%. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio of 0.89:1. Out of 108 cases, clinicopathological correlation was seen in 68 cases (62.96%. CONCLUSION The importance of specific histopathological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions into different entities as the treatment and prognosis varies widely and is disease-specific.

  19. Recurring DNA copy number gain at chromosome 9p13 plays a role in the activation of multiple candidate oncogenes in progressing oral premalignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towle, Rebecca; Tsui, Ivy F L; Zhu, Yuqi; MacLellan, Sara; Poh, Catherine F; Garnis, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic alteration at chromosome 9p has been previously reported as a frequent and critical event in oral premalignancy. While this alteration is typically reported as a loss driven by selection for CDKN2A deactivation (at 9p21.3), we detect a recurrent DNA copy number gain of ∼2.49 Mbp at chromosome 9p13 in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) that later progressed to invasive lesions. This recurrent alteration event has been validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization in an independent set of OPLs. Analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets aided in identifying three oncogene candidates that may have driven selection for DNA copy number increases in this region (VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2). We performed in vitro silencing and activation experiments for each of these genes in oral cancer cell lines and found that each gene is independently capable of upregulating proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next analyzed the activity of each of these genes in biopsies of varying histological grades that were obtained from a diseased oral tissue field in a single patient, finding further molecular evidence of parallel activation of VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2 during progression from normal healthy tissue to invasive oral carcinoma. Our results support the conclusion that DNA gain at 9p13 is important to the earliest stages of oral tumorigenesis and that this alteration event likely contributes to the activation of multiple oncogene candidates capable of governing oral cancer phenotypes

  20. Reproductive Tract infections and Premalignant Lesions of Cervix: Evidence from Women Presenting at the Cancer Detection Centre of the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Pahwa, Parika; Mishra, Arti; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-10-01

    Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi. Data were accessed from MS access database and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS 16.0. Multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). This study used data from 11,427 women over a period of 2000-2012. Women with RTIs had Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or coccoid infections with all having similar prevalence (~4-5 %). 9.4 % of women had premalignant lesions of cervix; ASCUS was most common (7.9 %) followed by LSIL (1.3 %). TV was significantly associated with ASCUS, LSIL and all premalignant lesions of cervix (P Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs.

  1. Treatment modalities for hyperpigmented skin lesions: A brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Teng Khoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation involves a broad range of skin conditions, including epidermal pigmented lesions, dermal pigmented lesions, and mixed pigmented lesions. Treatment includes various modalities such as brightening cream, chemical peeling, and laser therapy. Responses to various treatment modalities can be quite varied depending on the type of treatment and the degree of pigmentation. Sometimes a lesion can lighten or even partially disappear, while other lesions may recur. This paper provides a brief overview of treatment modalities available for hyperpigmented skin lesions including the importance of photoprotection, various types of brightening creams, suitable types of chemical peels, specific laser therapies targeted for skin hyperpigmentation, and surgery.

  2. Clinical significance of gelsolin-like actin-capping protein expression in oral carcinogenesis: an immunohistochemical study of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Hitomi; Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Ishigami, Takashi; Kouzu, Yukinao; Koike, Hirofumi; Ogawara, Katsunori; Siiba, Masashi; Bukawa, Hiroki; Yokoe, Hidetaka

    2008-01-01

    Gelsolin-like actin-capping protein (CapG) is a ubiquitous gelsolin-family actin-modulating protein involved in cell signalling, receptor-mediated membrane ruffling, phagocytosis, and motility. CapG has generated great interest due to its oncogenic function in the control of cell migration or invasion in a variety of cancer cells. We previously applied proteomic methods to characterize differentially expressed proteins in oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and detected significantly high expression levels of CapG in OSCC-derived cell lines compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. In the current study, to further determine the potential involvement of CapG in OSCC, we evaluated the status of CapG protein and mRNA expression in human oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and primary OSCCs and correlated the results with clinicopathologic variables. Matched normal and tumour tissue sections of 79 human primary OSCCs and 28 OPLs were analyzed for CapG expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Correlations between CapG-immunohistochemical staining scores of OSCCs and clinicopathologic features were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to estimate CapG expression at the mRNA level. In IHC, substantial up-regulation of CapG protein was observed in primary OSCCs (52%) and OPLs (64%), whereas corresponding normal tissues showed consistently weak or absent immunoreactivity of CapG. qRT-PCR data were consistent with the protein expression status. Moreover, CapG expression was correlated with the TNM stage grading of OSCCs. Our finding of frequent dysregulated expression of CapG in premalignant and malignant lesions together with an association with an advanced clinical disease stage suggests that CapG could contribute to cancer development and progression and that CapG may have potential as a biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCC

  3. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphade Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the correct diagnosis. Colposcopy is valuable in the detection of early cancerous lesions. However the final diagnosis must rely on a meticulous histopathological examination by an expert pathologist.

  4. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  5. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  6. La ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2 y el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EFG en lesiones epiteliales orales premalignas Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF in oral premalignant epithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz Prado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones premalignas orales incluyen eritroplasias (manchas rojas y leucoplasias (manchas blancas, las cuales se desarrollan a lo largo de superficies epiteliales. Estas lesiones son considerados marcadores en la "carcinogénesis de campo" ya que pacientes con lesiones premalignas orales pueden desarrollar carcinoma de células escamosas (CCS en el sitio de las lesiones, así como en otros lugares de tracto aerodigestivo superior. Se está haciendo un gran esfuerzo para identificar nuevos biomarcadores SEBs (surrogate endpoint biomarkers para el carcinoma de células escamosas de cabeza y cuello. Los SEBs candidatos para el carcinoma de células escamosas invasivo en el trato aerodigestivo superior deben ser detectables con los cambios moleculares celulares y tisulares que tienen lugar durante la formación del tumor. Entre los diferentes marcadores que se han propuesto hasta la actualidad, la ciclooxigenasa- 2 (COX-2 y el receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGFR parecen ser los más prometedores. COX-2 se sobre expresa durante el proceso tumoral, desde hiperplasia temprana a enfermedad metastásica. EGFR también está anormalmente activado en tumores epiteliales, pues las células de casi todas estas neoplasias expresan altos niveles de este receptor, una característica asociada con un peor pronóstico clínico. En este sentido el tracto aerodigestivo superior proporciona un sistema o modelo único para el estudio de CCS y para la investigación de nuevos candidatos SEBs.Oral premalignant lesions include leukoplakia (white patch and erythroplakia (red patch, which develop on epithelial surfaces. These lesions are markers for field cancerization because patients with oral premalignancy can develop squamous cell carcinoma at the site of the lesion(s and at other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract. An effort is being made to identify surrogate endpoint biomarkers (SEBs for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC

  7. mHealth App for Risk Assessment of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Skin Lesions-A Study on Sensitivity and Specificity in Detecting Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, Monique; Udrea, Andreea; Hacking, Michelle; von Braunmuehl, Tanja; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    With the advent of smartphone devices, an increasing number of mHealth applications that target melanoma identification have been developed, but none addresses the general context of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer identification. In this study a smartphone application using fractal and classical image analysis for the risk assessment of skin lesions is systematically evaluated to determine its sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer along with actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. In the Department of Dermatology, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 341 melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions were imaged using SkinVision app; 239 underwent histopathological examination, while the rest of 102 lesions were clinically diagnosed as clearly benign and not removed. The algorithm has been calibrated using the images of the first 233 lesions. The calibrated version of the algorithm was used in a subset of 108 lesions, and the obtained results were compared with the medical findings. On the 108 cases used for evaluation the algorithm scored 80% sensitivity and 78% specificity in detecting (pre)malignant conditions. Although less accurate than the dermatologist's clinical eye, the app may offer support to other professionals who are less familiar with differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. An mHealth application for the risk assessment of skin lesions was evaluated. It adds value to diagnosis tools of its type by taking into consideration pigmented and nonpigmented lesions all together and detecting signs of malignancy with high sensitivity.

  8. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarana, M; Nucci, M

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English-language articles found via PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (a) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (b) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (c) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (d) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidaemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (e) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukaemia, and the most frequent Candida species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases, C. krusei in five and C. ciferrii in one. The death rate was 45.4%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39% to 44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear TK1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for survival in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; He, Cheng; Li, Ling; Lin, An; Zheng, Xiongwei; He, Ellen; Skog, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a proliferation biomarker that has been found useful for prognostication in cancer patients. Here we investigate for the first time the use of TK1 expression as a prognostic factor for patients with premalignant and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix. TK1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), n = 216; invasive cervical carcinoma, n = 84). TK1 and Ki-67 expressions and pathological/FIGO stages and age were correlated with 5-year survival by Kaplan-Meier, log rank and COX hazard uni- and multivariate analyses. TK1 labeling index (LI) was significantly correlated with CIN grades and invasive cervical carcinoma stages, while TK1 labeling intensity was only correlated to CIN grades. TK1 LI was significantly higher compared with Ki-67 LI. TK1 LI correlated significantly to 5-year survival in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, particularly nuclear TK1 LI. In a multivariate analysis, nuclear TK1 expression was independent prognostic factor in patients with in situ/invasive cervical carcinoma or in invasive cervical carcinoma alone. Interestingly, in invasive cervical carcinoma patients with advanced tumors, nuclear TK1 expression could identify patients with significantly better survival rates (80%), while Ki-67 could not. Nuclear TK1 expression in early grade CIN predicts risk for progression to malignancy. Nuclear TK1 expression is also a prognostic factor for treatment outcome, particularly in patients with advanced cervical carcinomas. Nuclear TK1 expression is more useful than Ki-67 and pathological/FIGO stages

  10. Measurement of some biophysical parameters in skin lesions of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Gupta

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Transepidermal water loss (TEWL, high frequency electrical conductance (HFC and the hydration state index (HSI were measured in sldn lesions of 30 paucibacillary leprosy patients and compared with the contralateral uninvolved skin. While the TEWL, HFC and HSI all showed lower values in the lesion site, as compared to the contralateral skin sites, the differences between the two sets of values significant in HFC and. HSI only at 2% and 1% level respectively. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.69 was found to eidst between these two parameters. The parameters correlate well with the known reduced sweating in skin lesions of TT and BT leprosy and may therefore be considered as good objective parameters to confirm hypohydrosis in suspected skin lesions ofleprosy.

  11. Open season: select the best 'beast' for each skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Marjorie; Robl, Renata; Carvalho, Vania Oliveira; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Valério, Talita Sana; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Cosechen Rosvailer, Mayara Schulze

    2015-10-01

    Animal bites can cause skin lesions that suggest other conditions, and therefore diagnosis can be a challenge. Four cases of skin injuries caused by arthropods are presented below. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexiang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1, lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2 and lesion classification (task 3. A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  13. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuexiang; Shen, Linlin

    2018-02-11

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved.

  14. Skin Lesion Analysis towards Melanoma Detection Using Deep Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions are a severe disease globally. Early detection of melanoma in dermoscopy images significantly increases the survival rate. However, the accurate recognition of melanoma is extremely challenging due to the following reasons: low contrast between lesions and skin, visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, etc. Hence, reliable automatic detection of skin tumors is very useful to increase the accuracy and efficiency of pathologists. In this paper, we proposed two deep learning methods to address three main tasks emerging in the area of skin lesion image processing, i.e., lesion segmentation (task 1), lesion dermoscopic feature extraction (task 2) and lesion classification (task 3). A deep learning framework consisting of two fully convolutional residual networks (FCRN) is proposed to simultaneously produce the segmentation result and the coarse classification result. A lesion index calculation unit (LICU) is developed to refine the coarse classification results by calculating the distance heat-map. A straight-forward CNN is proposed for the dermoscopic feature extraction task. The proposed deep learning frameworks were evaluated on the ISIC 2017 dataset. Experimental results show the promising accuracies of our frameworks, i.e., 0.753 for task 1, 0.848 for task 2 and 0.912 for task 3 were achieved. PMID:29439500

  15. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  16. Correlación cito-histológica de las lesiones premalignas y malignas de cuello uterino Cyto-histological correlation of the pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rafaela Cirión Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El control de la calidad es obligatorio para cualquier programa. Es importante en el diagnóstico de lesiones de cuello uterino puesto que el cáncer cervical es la segunda causa de mortalidad en la mujer. Objetivos: Determinar la correlación cito-histológica de las lesiones premalignas y malignas de cuello uterino. Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico "Abel Santamaría" en el período 2004-2007 Diseño: Se realizó un estudio de validación externa de la citología orgánica del cuello uterino mediante un diseño observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Sujetos y método. Universo: 7174 mujeres con biopsia del cuello uterino, de las cuales 3240 provenían del Programa de Detección Precoz del Cáncer Cérvico-Uterino (PDPCCU. Se determinó la edad, correspondencia diagnóstica entre citología y biopsia y el rendimiento de la citología orgánica según tipo de lesión. Se usó la estadística descriptiva para resumir las variables categóricas y cuantitativas continuas. Se calculó la sensibilidad y la especificidad de los diagnósticos. Resultados. Se produjo un aumento progresivo de las biopsias de cuello realizadas, con un incremento significativo de los casos del PDPCCU. Predominó el diagnóstico de lesiones premalignas; las más frecuentes fueron las NIC I. La correlación cito-histológica y la sensibilidad aumentaron con la severidad de las lesiones. La especificidad se mantuvo constante para todas las lesiones. Conclusión. Se comprobó que la calidad se mantiene entre los estándares internacionales.Quality control is compulsory for any programs, being of a great importance the diagnosis of the lesions in the cervix, cervical cancer is the second cause of death in women. Objectives: To determine the cyto-histological correlation of the pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. This research paper was carried out at "Abel Santamaria Cuadrado" University Hospital during 2004-2007. Design: An external validation study was conducted

  17. Epidermal hydrogen peroxide is not increased in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that the loss of the epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo is basically due to excessive oxidative stress. Previous research work described abnormal elevation of the absolute concentration of the epidermal hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo. Based on this finding, our primary research objective was to use this feature as a screening marker in individuals at a great risk of developing vitiligo. Ninety-six patients of non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) of varying durations, skin phototypes, and treatment modalities (psoralen UVA-, narrow band UVB-treated) were recruited for this study. Raman spectroscopic measurements, using an external probehead, of the lesional and non-lesional skin were obtained, and the resulting spectra were analyzed using the Opus software package of the MultiRam spectrometer and the intensity of the peak at 875 cm -1 that represents the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 was calculated. Contrary to previous reports, in patients of skin phototype IV, the absolute concentrations of H 2 O 2 in non-lesional and lesional NSV of all groups were non-significantly decreased compared to normal control. In patients of NSV of skin phototype V, the decrease in the absolute concentrations of H 2 O 2 was not significant in the untreated group, and a slight non-significant increase in the NBUVB-treated group was noted. However, in the PUVA-treated group, the non-lesional skin demonstrated significant increase in the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 , whereas the lesional skin showed only a slight non-significant increase compared to normal control. In NSV patients of skin phototype VI who were previously treated with PUVA, the non-lesional skin showed a slight non-significant increase in the absolute concentration of H 2 O 2 ; however, the lesional skin showed a marked significant decrease compared to normal control and the non-lesional skin. Thereof, one can conclude that the epidermal H 2 O 2 is not

  18. Automated segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in multispectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, Mauro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bono, Aldo; Bartoli, Cesare; Moglia, Daniele; Lualdi, Manuela; Colombo, Ambrogio; Santinami, Mario; Marchesini, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of multispectral images of pigmented skin lesions. The study involved 1700 patients with 1856 cutaneous pigmented lesions, which were analysed in vivo by a novel spectrophotometric system, before excision. The system is able to acquire a set of 15 different multispectral images at equally spaced wavelengths between 483 and 951 nm. An original segmentation algorithm was developed and applied to the whole set of lesions and was able to automatically contour them all. The obtained lesion boundaries were shown to two expert clinicians, who, independently, rejected 54 of them. The 97.1% contour accuracy indicates that the developed algorithm could be a helpful and effective instrument for the automatic segmentation of skin pigmented lesions. (note)

  19. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self harm is a great diagnostic and treatment challenge. In addition, psychocutaneous conditions are rare in the pediatric population and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Dermatitis artefacta is a psychocutaneous syndrome, which is a subgroup of the general spectrum of self-inflicted skin...

  20. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM, a national fast-track referral system (FTRS was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1% were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4% of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5% patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions.

  1. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  2. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Khawer; Shaikh, Irfan

    2008-10-01

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. Case series. Three tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, from November 2006 to February 2007. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases.

  3. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Shaikh, I.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  4. Skin lesions in hospitalized cases of dengue fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, K; Shaikh, I [Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2008-10-15

    To determine the frequency and types of skin lesions in cases of dengue fever in patients admitted in three hospitals of Karachi. One hundred patients of dengue fever with positive anti-dengue Immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology were included in the study. The admitted patients in PNS Shifa Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) and Civil Hospital, Karachi were selected for the study. Presenting features were noted. The patients were physically examined for the presence of skin and mucosal lesions and findings were recorded. Total and Differential Leukocyte Count (TLC and DLC), platelet count and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were done in all the patients. All the patients had low leukocyte and low platelet counts. The common presenting symptoms were high-grade fever with or without rigors, headache, body aches, backache, vomiting, sore throat with cough and generalized weakness (seen in 86% patients). The uncommon presenting features were diarrhea, abdominal pain, bleeding from gums and nosebleeds (seen in 14% patients). Sixty-eight (68%) patients had skin lesions. The most common skin presentation was generalized macular blanchable erythema involving trunk and limbs, seen in 44 (65%) cases. Discrete petechial lesions were seen on various body areas in 24 (35%) cases. Palmer erythema was seen in 20 (30%) patients. Generalized itching was seen in 16 (23%) cases. Isolated itching of palms and soles was seen in 20 (30%) cases. Twenty-eight (28%) patients had deranged LFTs. Out of those, 4 patients had raised serum bilirubin level whereas rest of the 24 had raised ALT. Dengue fever commonly presents with specific skin lesions. The skin lesions can be a clue to the diagnosis in difficult cases. (author)

  5. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy

  6. Problems and complications of full-face carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for pathological lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-Fuller, Andrew M; Yates, David M; Vu, David D; Hoopman, John E; Finn, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Facial resurfacing with a CO 2 laser has been used for treatment of pathologic lesions and for cosmetic purposes. Postoperative complications and problems after laser resurfacing include infections, acneiform lesions, and pigment changes. This retrospective study describes the most common problems and complications in 105 patients and assesses postoperative pain in 38 patients. All patients received CO 2 laser resurfacing for treatment of malignant/premalignant lesions and had postoperative follow-up to assess problems and complications. Some had follow-up to assess postoperative pain. All patients had Fitzpatrick I-III skin types and underwent the same perioperative care regimen. There were 11 problems and 2 complications. Problems included infection, acneiform lesion/milia, and uncontrolled postoperative pain. Complications included hyperpigmentation. Among the postoperative pain group, 53% reported no pain and the rest had mild or moderate pain. Complications are rare. Infection and acneiform lesions/milia were the most common problems, as previously reported. Most patients do not experience postoperative pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions

  9. Radiation-induced vascular lesions of the skin: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Requena, L.; Mentzel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced cutaneous vascular neoplasms occur infrequently and comprise benign, so-called atypical vascular lesions (AVL) and angiosarcomas (AS), often being high-grade malignant tumors. Both arise most frequently within previously irradiated skin in breast-conserving-treated mammary cancer

  10. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Luciana Alves; Santos, Maxuel Cruz Dos; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann; Bandeira, Andrea Gonçalves; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Vieira, Letícia Becker

    2018-01-01

    To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  11. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Bandeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. Method: A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola’s Social Network. Results: The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Final considerations: Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Markers of Aberrantly Activated Innate Immunity in Vitiligo Lesional and Non-Lesional Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jie; Gao, Min; Levings, Megan; Wei, Shencai; Zhang, Shengquan; Xu, Aie; Su, Mingwan; Dutz, Jan; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Methods and Materials Paired lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies from twenty-three vitiligo patients and normal skin biopsies from sixteen healthy volunteers were obtained with informed consent. The following aspects were analyzed: (1) transcriptome changes present in vitiligo skin using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR; (2) abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin explant cultures using flow cytometry; and (3) distribution of the abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Compared with normal skin, vitiligo lesional skin contained 17 genes (mostly melanocyte-specific genes) whose expression was decreased or absent. In contrast, the relative expression of 13 genes was up-regulated. The up-regulated genes point to aberrant activity of the innate immune system, especially natural killer cells in vitiligo. Strikingly, the markers of heightened innate immune responses were also found to be up-regulated in the non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Conclusions and Clinical Implications As the first systematic transcriptome characterization of the skin in vitiligo patients, this study revealed previously unknown molecular markers that strongly suggest aberrant innate immune activation in the microenvironment of vitiligo skin. Since these changes involve both lesional and non-lesional skin, our results suggest that therapies targeting

  13. Skin lesions in Lorestan province chemically wounded combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili

    2004-01-01

    Findings: All of the studied cases with mean age of 39.26 years old had skin manifestations among which the most common symptoms were itching , burning ,dry skin , scaling. From view point of lesions, the most common signs were erythema (81% , excoriation (87.9% and pruritic papules (49.5%. Final diagnosis in 78% of the patients was chronic dermatitis and in 7.7% of them was seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 8.8% both chronic and seborrhoeic dermatitis were observed .During exposure to chemical gases only 37.9% of these combatants had used special masks and 40% had properly worn special clothes to protect themselves which covered their body completely , but rest of them had either used protection instruments improperly or had not used them at all. Most of the lesions were in trunk , lower extremities , abdomen , head and neck .78% of the cases had multiple lesions Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study all of the chemical wounded combatants of Lorestan province suffer from different degrees of skin lesions , although more than half of them were not aware of kind and nature of the chemical gases , but it is suggested to do further studies on long-term effects of these chemical gases.

  14. When Are Circular Lesions Square? A National Clinical Education Skin Lesion Audit and Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H Miranda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSkin cancer is the most prevalent cancer by organ type and referral accuracy is vital for diagnosis and management. The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD and literature highlight the importance of accurate skin lesion examination, diagnosis and educationally-relevant studies.MethodsWe undertook a review of the relevant literature, a national audit of skin lesion description standards and a study of speciality training influences on these descriptions. Questionnaires (n=200, with pictures of a circular and an oval lesion, were distributed to UK dermatology/plastic surgery consultants and speciality trainees (ST, general practitioners (GP, and medical students (MS. The following variables were analysed against a pre-defined 95% inclusion accuracy standard: site, shape, size, skin/colour, and presence of associated scars.ResultsThere were 250 lesion descriptions provided by 125 consultants, STs, GPs, and MSs. Inclusion accuracy was greatest for consultants over STs (80% vs. 68%; P<0.001, GPs (57% and MSs (46% (P<0.0001, for STs over GPs (P<0.010 and MSs (P<0.0001 and for GPs over MSs (P<0.010, all falling below audit standard. Size description accuracy sub-analysis according to circular/oval dimensions was as follows: consultants (94%, GPs (80%, STs (73%, MSs (37%, with the most common error implying a quadrilateral shape (66%. Addressing BAD guidelines and published requirements for more empirical performance data to improve teaching methods, we performed a national audit and studied skin lesion descriptions. To improve diagnostic and referral accuracy for patients, healthcare professionals must strive towards accuracy (a circle is not a square.ConclusionsWe provide supportive evidence that increased speciality training improves this process and propose that greater focus is placed on such training early on during medical training, and maintained throughout clinical practice.

  15. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Koçinaj, Allma; Gërçari, Antigona; Ferizi, Mybera; Lashi, Edlira; Gjunkshi, Lorela; Fida, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute), or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-...

  16. The spectrum of non- neoplastic skin lesions in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other common specific skin lesions were lichen planus/lichenoid dermatitis 27(12.9% of 209 cases), verruca vulgaris 25 (12% of 209 cases). Conclusion: The number of histologically diagnosed non-neoplastic skin lesions is relatively small. There is a very wide spectrum of non-neoplastic skin lesions diagnosed within ...

  17. Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Daniel C.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmilla; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the design of a prototype in-vivo Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation, and preliminary results from skin phantom and clinical trials of this device. The probe releases a single millisecond-long pulse from a laser diode with either linear or circular polarization. It then captures the resulting backscattered far-field polarization speckle and calculates the Stokes parameters. This probe was designed with three novel innovations in mind. First, the Stokes vector is captured quickly, using low-cost components without the use of moving parts. Second, a compact collimated laser diode was used as the light source. Third, the device and detector geometry were designed to produce and capture a uniform speckle field. In the first clinical trial of this device, measurements were taken from a variety of skin lesions, both cancerous and benign. The Stokes vector was measured and used to calculate the degree of polarization (DOP), the azimuth angle, and the ellipticity angle of the polarization ellipse for two input light polarizations. Among other findings, the DOP for circular polarized input light was consistently lower than the DOP for linear polarized input light. These findings indicate the potential for a fast and low-cost in-vivo skin cancer screening tool, and encourages the continuing development of this probe's techniques.

  18. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  19. Skin lesions caused by orthopoxvirus infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K C; Bennett, M; Garrett, D C

    1999-10-01

    A seven-year-old male dobermann was presented for examination of a non-pruritic ulcerated lesion occurring at the site of a suspected rat bite on the muzzle. Biopsy revealed focal ulcerative dermatitis, with cells in the epidermis, follicular infundibula and interposed sebaceous glands undergoing ballooning degeneration and containing large acidophilic intracytoplasmic structures resembling poxvirus inclusion bodies. The diagnosis of orthopoxvirus infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The biopsy site healed uneventfully, without evidence of recurrence or development of further cutaneous or internal lesions, and a serum sample collected eight weeks after first presentation had a low titre of poxvirus antibodies. This report demonstrates that orthopoxvirus infection should be considered as a cause of ulcerative skin lesions in dogs, particularly if there has been recent contact with rodents or other small mammals.

  20. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  1. Interventions for preventing and managing of skin lesions after radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bafe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiotherapy has a pivotal role in the fight against cancer. However 85% of patients, who undergo radiotherapy, will face moderate to severe skin reactions, for the treatment of which various local products, available in the market, are used. Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate the prevention and treatment of these skin lesions induced by radiation. Methods: For this purpose 34 articles were collected concerning materials, approved by the FDA, for the prevention and treatment of skin damage due to radiation, preclinical factors tested in animal models, factors involved in the prevention and treatment of moist desquamation and unauthorized agents or with little information about them. Results: According to the study results, the moisturizing and hydrophilic creams, herbal preparations, gels based on hyaluronic acid, and Vitamin E, heparinoid creams and formulations based on oils appear to have a positive effect in preventing dermatitis as well as in providing symptom relief. Patches are suitable for the case of moist desquamation. Vasculotide, agent EUK-207, agent RTA 408, agent ALDH2 and the agent Celecoxib are still in the preclinical stage but may become future therapeutic targets. Conclusion: Skin reactions due to radiation remain a significant problem for patients undergoing radical treatment. However, thanks to the multitude of formulations available in the market and several clinical trials it is possible that early prevention and treatment for actinic dermatitis could be achieved. In conclusion, it is crucial that health professionals are aware of the formulations indicated and contraindicated in case of skin reactions induced by radiation and adjust the treatment for the prevention and management of skin reactions in patients receiving radiation therapy.

  2. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  3. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allma Koçinaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute, or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-year-old female and review the patient’s clinical and laboratory features, the causes of the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment.

  4. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  5. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Shawar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  6. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  7. HLA-DPDQDR is expressed in all lesional skin from patients with autoimmune skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human genes responsible for human antigen presentation and transplant rejection functions are located on the short arm of Chromosome 6 and are called the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC. Moreover, the primary physiologic function of MHC molecules is to present peptides to T lymphocytes. MHC molecules are integral components of the ligands that most T cells recognize, since the T cell receptor (TCR has specificity for complexes of foreign antigenic peptides, as well as self-MHC molecules. Aim: Our investigation attempts to investigate the presence of HLA-DPDQDR within lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of HLA-DPDQDR in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for HLA-DPDQDR in the lesional blisters and/or inflamed neurovascular plexus in the superficial dermis, and also at mesenchymal-endothelial like-cell junctions in the dermis. In BP, EBA and EPF, the HLA-DPDQDR staining was also seen in the dermal eccrine sweat gland coils and and ducts. Conclusion: Here, we document that HLA-DPDQDR is expressed in several anatomic areas of lesional skin in patients with ABDs. Notably, HLA-DPDQDR positivity was also consistently present in areas of the classic immune response in pemphigus epidermal keratinocytic intercellular junctions, and at basement membrane sites in bullous pemphigoid and other subepidermal blistering diseases.

  8. Ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanie, Mersha; Negash, Tamiru; Sirak, Asegedech

    2010-08-01

    Ectoparasites are the major causes of skin lesions in animals. Clinical, skin scraping examination, and histopathological studies were conducted to identify and characterize skin lesions in small ruminants caused by ectoparasites. Mange mites, lice, sheep keds, and ticks were collected from the skin of affected animals for species identification. Skin biopsies were collected from affected part of the skin and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Of 1,000 sheep and 600 goats examined, 815 (81.50%) sheep and 327 (54.5%) goats were infested with one or more types of ectoparasites. Sarcoptes scabiei var ovis, Demodex ovis, Psoroptes ovis, Bovicola ovis, Melophagus ovinus, and Amblyomma variegatum and other tick species were identified from sheep. S. scabiei var caprae, Demodex caprae, Linognathus stenopsis, and A. variegatum and other tick species were identified from goats. Gross skin lesions or defects observed on the skin include stained and ragged wool, loss of wool/hair, nodules, crusts, lichenification, and fissuring. Microscopic evaluation of H and E stained skin sections revealed lesions in the epidermal layer such as hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and melanin inconsistency on the basal cells of the epidermis. Follicular keratosis, perifolliculitis, frunculosis, perivasculitis, and aggregates of inflammatory cells (of acute and chronic type) with fibrosis were experiential in the dermal layer of the skin. Most of the skin lesions caused by ectoparasites are overlapping. Thus, ectoparasites control program should be executed to reduce skin lesions as skins are the major export commodity of the country.

  9. Goltz syndrome: A newborn with ectrodactyly and skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatanik Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby.

  10. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often......The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... also on basal cells, with expression of Lex and Ley restricted to the most superficial part of the epithelium above the H-positive cell layers. In carcinomas most cells were negative for H antigen but were positive for Ley and Lex in 5 out of 8 cases....

  11. Murine HPV16 E7-expressing transgenic skin effectively emulates the cellular and molecular features of human high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.K. Tuong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently available vaccines prevent HPV infection and development of HPV-associated malignancies, but do not cure existing HPV infections and dysplastic lesions. Persistence of infection(s in immunocompetent patients may reflect induction of local immunosuppressive mechanisms by HPV, providing a target for therapeutic intervention. We have proposed that a mouse, expressing HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a Keratin 14 promoter (K14E7 mice, and which develops epithelial hyperplasia, may assist with understanding local immune suppression mechanisms that support persistence of HPV oncogene-induced epithelial hyperplasia. K14E7 skin grafts recruit immune cells from immunocompetent hosts, but consistently fail to be rejected. Here, we review the literature on HPV-associated local immunoregulation, and compare the findings with published observations on the K14E7 transgenic murine model, including comparison of the transcriptome of human HPV-infected pre-malignancies with that of murine K14E7 transgenic skin. We argue from the similarity of i the literature findings and ii the transcriptome profiles that murine K14E7 transgenic skin recapitulates the cellular and secreted protein profiles of high-grade HPV-associated lesions in human subjects. We propose that the K14E7 mouse may be an appropriate model to further study the immunoregulatory effects of HPV E7 expression, and can facilitate development and testing of therapeutic vaccines.

  12. Salivary detection of human Papilloma virus 16 & 18 in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Is it feasible in Pakistani context of Socio-Cultural Taboos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate salivary detection of HPV-16 & 18 would be feasible and informative biomarker for oral pre-malignant and malignant lesion in our population. This non-interventional, case control study was carried out at department of E.N.T, Head and Neck Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan between July 2011 to December 2012. Total of 105 cases were recruited. These were divided in three groups 'A', 'B' & 'C' having 35 subjects each. Group'A' constitutes patients having strong clinical evidence of oral pre-malignant lesions (PML). Group 'B' includes histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group 'C' comprised disease free subjects as controls. After taking informed consent, relevant clinical history was recorded on institutional approved performa. Saliva from all subjects was procured by standard 'drooling method'. Samples were stored at +4°C and later transferred to Laboratory to store at-20°C before further process. Samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. Cell pellets sediments were used for identification of HPV-16 & 18 by real-time PCR method. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 16. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard. In group 'A', HPV-16 was detected in 3 (8.6%) cases while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subject. In group 'B', HPV-16 was detected in 07 (20%) while HPV-18 was found in 06 (17.1%) cases. Mixed HPV-16 and HPV-18 were found in 02 (5.7%) cases. In group 'C', HPV-16 was detected in 03(8.6%) while HPV-18 was not detected in any of the subjects. Significant relationship was observed between the groups for HPV-18 detection (P= 0.002) while for HPV-16, no significant association was found (P= 0.245). HPV infection for the causation of oral cancer cannot be fully established possibly due to small sample size. More over differences in genetic makeup, environment, indulgence in peculiar risk factor habits, sexual practices and

  13. Cylindrical SUV distribution model for detecting skin lesions in body trunk FDG-PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Hanaoka, Shouhei

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a computerized detection method for skin lesions in body trunk fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT images. Spots on the skin with a high standard uptake value (SUV) are due not only to glucose metabolism in skin lesions but also to the physiological metabolism of organs near the skin. The distribution pattern of regional SUV on the skin is important information for the differential diagnosis of such high-SUV spots. In this study, we have developed a new skin lesion detection method based on a cylindrical SUV distribution model of the skin. The shape of the SUV distribution model is an approximation of the body trunk, and the SUV distribution model includes standard values for regional skin SUV. Classifier ensembles based on CT image features, SUV features, and subtraction features between the SUVs in FDG-PET images and the values in the SUV distribution model are used to extract and classify candidate regions for skin lesions. In a study of skin lesion detection using FDG-PET/CT images in 36 clinical cases, the true-positive rate was 61.7%, with 11.7 false-positive regions per case. The training results of the classifier ensemble for extracting and classifying candidate regions showed the effective features for detecting skin lesions in the study. (author)

  14. An ICA-based method for the segmentation of pigmented skin lesions in macroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Pablo G; Scharcanski, Jacob; Di Persia, Leandro E; Milone, Diego H

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step in computer-aided diagnostic systems for pigmented skin lesions, since that a good definition of the lesion area and its boundary at the image is very important to distinguish benign from malignant cases. In this paper a new skin lesion segmentation method is proposed. This method uses Independent Component Analysis to locate skin lesions in the image, and this location information is further refined by a Level-set segmentation method. Our method was evaluated in 141 images and achieved an average segmentation error of 16.55%, lower than the results for comparable state-of-the-art methods proposed in literature.

  15. Evaluation Methodology between Globalization and Localization Features Approaches for Skin Cancer Lesions Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. M.; Al-azawi, R. J.; Abdulhameed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been put in the developing of diagnostic methods to skin cancer disease. In this paper, two different approaches have been addressed for detection the skin cancer in dermoscopy images. The first approach uses a global method that uses global features for classifying skin lesions, whereas the second approach uses a local method that uses local features for classifying skin lesions. The aim of this paper is selecting the best approach for skin lesion classification. The dataset has been used in this paper consist of 200 dermoscopy images from Pedro Hispano Hospital (PH2). The achieved results are; sensitivity about 96%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 97% for globalization approach while, sensitivity about 100%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 100% for Localization Approach, these results showed that the localization approach achieved acceptable accuracy and better than globalization approach for skin cancer lesions classification.

  16. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  17. TNF-alpha impairs the S-G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in premalignant skin cells: Role of the PI3K-Akt pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.; Calay, D.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is induced by UVB radiation and has been implicated in the early stages of skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that in normal keratinocytes and the transformed keratinocyte cell lines, HaCaT and A431, TNF-alpha stimulates protein kinase B/Akt, which results...... cycling. TNF-alpha enhanced apoptosis less potently and did not increase the level of CPD or stimulate cell cycle progression in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha overrides the G2/M checkpoint in premalignant skin cells and allows for some cells containing unrepaired CPD to enter...... in activation of the survival complex mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) and inhibition of the proapoptotic proteins Bad and Fox03a. In UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells (10-20 mJ cm(-2)), TNF-alpha increased the proportion of cycling cells and enhanced the rate of apoptosis. A significantly higher...

  18. Clinical analysis of skin lesions in 796 Chinese HIV- positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-jie; Li, Hai-ying; Chen, De-xi; Wang, Xi-cheng; Li, Zai-chun; Wu, Ya-song; Zhang, Tong; Gao, Yan-qing; Wu, Hao

    2011-09-01

    Skin lesions are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, reflecting the immunocompromised status of the individual. We investigated the relationship between skin lesions and immune function in a retrospective study of 796 Chinese HIV patients with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the 651 patients who had not received HAART, we found that 531 (81.6%) had apparent skin lesions. The incidence of infectious skin diseases (fungi, viruses, bacteria, spirochetes and parasites) and non-infectious skin diseases (excluding skin cancer) was 68.8% and 34.9%, respectively. Mean CD4(+) T-cell counts and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios were lower in patients with skin lesions than in patients without lesions (178 ± 96/µl vs. 306 ± 189/µl (p Candidiasis (25.8%), eczema (19.2%), nodular prurigo (13.8%), dermatophyte infections (10.6%) and herpes zoster (9.4%) were most common in Chinese patients with HIV. Among the 145 patients who had started HAART, there was a significantly lower prevalence of skin diseases (29.0%), although drug eruptions (12.4%) were more commonly observed. These findings indicate that HAART often reduces the incidence of infectious and non-infectious skin lesions in patients with HIV, but can itself be the cause of drug eruptions.

  19. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  1. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria | Oseni | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 ... Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower ... Conclusion: skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country.

  2. La ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2) y el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EFG) en lesiones epiteliales orales premalignas Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in oral premalignant epithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    S. Díaz Prado; A. Gallego Guadalupe; J.L. López-Cedrún; J. Ferreras Granado; L. Antón Aparicio

    2009-01-01

    Las lesiones premalignas orales incluyen eritroplasias (manchas rojas) y leucoplasias (manchas blancas), las cuales se desarrollan a lo largo de superficies epiteliales. Estas lesiones son considerados marcadores en la "carcinogénesis de campo" ya que pacientes con lesiones premalignas orales pueden desarrollar carcinoma de células escamosas (CCS) en el sitio de las lesiones, así como en otros lugares de tracto aerodigestivo superior. Se está haciendo un gran esfuerzo para identificar nuevos ...

  3. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  4. Clinicopathologic review of 19 patients with systemic candidiasis with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gee Young; Lee, Hae Woong; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Koh, Jai Kyoung

    2005-07-01

    A diagnosis of systemic candidiasis is often delayed or missed owing to the absence of sensitive, specific, and timely diagnostic tools. Skin lesions are not common, but they can help to rapidly establish a diagnosis. We report on a 14-year experience of systemic candidiasis with skin lesions in our institution. We report the prevalence, clinical findings, histologic findings, etiologic Candida species, underlying conditions, treatment modalities, and outcomes of the cases and compare them with the previous reports. We reviewed the medical records and laboratory data of patients diagnosed with systemic candidiasis from June 1989 to September 2002 at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. We thoroughly reviewed the data on those patients with characteristic skin lesions. We included the cases in which Candida organisms were either shown or cultured from the skin. We also included the patients who had developed the characteristic rash at the onset of infection if there was no other possible explanation for the rash. Of 53 documented systemic candidiasis cases, 19 (35.8%) had the characteristic skin lesions. Fifteen patients (78.9%) had hematologic problems and were neutropenic. The skin lesions were a maculopapular or nodular rash and plaques. In addition to the trunk and proximal extremities, the rash also involved the face and distal extremities. The rashes were mostly purpuric, not consistently associated with underlying thrombocytopenia but also associated with underlying vascular damage as a result of Candida organisms. The underlying vascular damage also caused intraepidermal necrotic and vesicular change. One case of transepidermal elimination of organisms was newly found. The most common causative species was Candida tropicalis in the 19 patients with skin lesions, in contrast with Candida albicans in a total of 53 patients. The mortality rate was 84.2%. The prevalence of systemic candidiasis-associated skin lesions may be higher than previously reported

  5. No evidence for mutations in exons 1, 8 and 18 of the patched gene in sporadic skin lesions of Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granja F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that the patched (PTCH gene is a gene for susceptibility to the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PTCH has also been shown to mutate in both familial and sporadic basal cell carcinomas. However, mutations of the gene seem to be rare in squamous cell carcinomas. In order to characterize the role of the gene in the broader spectrum of sporadic skin malignant and pre-malignant lesions, we performed a polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP analysis of genomic DNA extracted from 105 adult patients (46 females and 59 males. There were 66 patients with basal cell carcinomas, 30 with squamous cell carcinomas, 2 with malignant melanomas and 7 patients with precancerous lesions. Two tissue samples were collected from each patient, one from the central portion of the tumor and another from normal skin. Using primers that encompass the entire exon 1, exon 8 and exon 18, where most of the mutations have been detected, we were unable to demonstrate any band shift. Three samples suspected to present aberrant migrating bands were excised from the gel and sequenced directly. In addition, we sequenced 12 other cases, including tumors and corresponding normal samples. A wild-type sequence was found in all 15 cases. Although our results do not exclude the presence of clonal alterations of the PTCH gene in skin cancers or mutations in other exons that were not screened, the present data do not support the presence of frequent mutations reported for non-melanoma skin cancer of other populations.

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Showing Vascular Skin Lesions Predominantly on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Korekawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with dark blue papules and nodules on his face. There were multiple soft papules and nodules, dark blue in color, compressive, and ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. A few similar lesions were seen on the patient's right dorsal second toe and right buccal mucosa. There were no skin lesions on his trunk and upper limbs. The patient's past history did not include gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. Histopathological examination showed dilated vascular spaces lined by the normal epithelium extending beneath the dermis and into the subcutaneous fat. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract to check for colon involvement was not performed. X-ray images of the limbs revealed no abnormalities in the bones or joints. Laboratory investigations did not show anemia. Although we failed to confirm a diagnosis by endoscopy, the skin lesions, histopathological findings, lack of abnormal X-ray findings, and the presence of oral lesions as a part of gastrointestinal tract guided the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS. Skin lesions of BRBNS occur predominantly on the trunk and upper limbs. However, the present case showed multiple skin lesions predominantly on the face. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to know about a possible atypical distribution of skin lesions in BRBNS.

  8. [Premalignant conditions of the small bowel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastich, P

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal dysplastic lesions are rare and difficult to detect before they progress to cancer. New investigative modalities, such as capsule endoscopy and doubleballoon enteroscopy, are very promising in search for premalignant lesions. Screening patients at high-risk for small bowel neoplasia is the only sensible approach. Duodenal adenoma represents the most easily accessible tumors with the possibility of curative endoscopic resection. Due to the strong association of the small bowel and colonic adenomas, it is always necessary to perform colonoscopy. In young patients, the exclusion of familial polyposis by genetic testing is always mandatory. Patients with celiac disease are especially at risk of developing nonHodgkins lymphomas and adenocarcinomas. There is a high-risk of ampuloma and other adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Patients with prolonged and complicated course of Crohns disease, Peutz Jeghers syndrome and patients with ileoanal pouch have higher risk of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine.

  9. Traumatic degloving lesion of penile and scrotal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Zanettini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avulsions of penile and scrotal skin are uncommon events and are caused mainly by accidents with industrial machines and agricultural machine belts. We report the case of a 30-year old patient with avulsion and traumatic degloving of the penile and scrotal skin, with exposure of the cavernous bodies, spongy body, and testes due to an industrial machine accident. Reconstruction was performed in steps, achieving a satisfactory esthetic result, normal voiding and reestablished sexual function.

  10. Independent histogram pursuit for segmentation of skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, D.D.; Butakoff, C.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an unsupervised algorithm, called the Independent Histogram Pursuit (HIP), for segmenting dermatological lesions is proposed. The algorithm estimates a set of linear combinations of image bands that enhance different structures embedded in the image. In particular, the first estima...... to deal with different types of dermatological lesions. The boundary detection precision using k-means segmentation was close to 97%. The proposed algorithm can be easily combined with the majority of classification algorithms....

  11. Etiology of chronic skin lesions in subjects with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, G; Chisari, E M; Borzì, A M; Grasso, A; Chisari, C G

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions can be defined as lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints, and often this cutaneous skin process is a primary or secondary consequence of the structural changes in the skin itself. Subjects with peripheral arteripathies that develop chronic skin lesions in the lower extremities of the Western world are constantly increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in peripheral arterial disease CSLpa subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions CSL (controls). 30 subjects with peripheral atheropathies PA (22 F - 8 M mean age 74,5 ± 4,9) and with chronic skin lesions (CSLpa) in the lower limbs "A" group were admitted to our study according to a randomized and compared to 30 no peripheral atheropathies subjects (19 F-11 M, mean age 81,5 ± 7,3 - controls) group B with chronic skin lesions (CSL). These two groups "A" and "B" have been studied and compared on the basis of infectious etiology responsible for the infectious skin process. In the subjects of the "A" group we found a 12 positive assay of 40.0% of the examinations, while in the group "B" we achieved a total cultured positivity of 9 cases corresponding to 30.0% of the examinations . For the number of bacterial species identified for "A" group we obtained 3 mono microbial and 6 poly microbial bacteriological tests and for group "B" we observed 7 mono microbial and 2 poly microbial tests. All bacteriological isolates showed "in vitro" sensitivity to satisfactory ciprofloxacin with MICs range of 0.78-1.56mg/L. The data observed after 4 weeks after the amniotic membrane (MA) in the two study groups A and B were respectively the following: and for group A 50% scarring, 46.6% partial resolution and in one case worsening for the B-healing group in 63.3%, the partial resolution in the remaining 36.6. The data from this study show a different etiology between subjects with CSLpa than subjects with CSL. This phenomenon confirms

  12. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  13. The Impact of Quantitative Data Provided by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device on Dermatologists'Decisions to Biopsy Pigmented Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farberg, Aaron S; Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of melanoma is critical to survival. New technologies, such as a multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) device [MelaFind, STRATA Skin Sciences, Horsham, Pennsylvania] may be useful to enhance clinician evaluation of concerning pigmented skin lesions. Previous studies evaluated the effect of only the binary output. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how decisions dermatologists make regarding pigmented lesion biopsies are impacted by providing both the underlying classifier score (CS) and associated probability risk provided by multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis. This outcome was also compared against the improvement reported with the provision of only the binary output. METHODS: Dermatologists attending an educational conference evaluated 50 pigmented lesions (25 melanomas and 25 benign lesions). Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, and were asked this question again after being shown multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis data that included the probability graphs and classifier score. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from a total of 160 United States board-certified dermatologists. Biopsy sensitivity for melanoma improved from 76 percent following clinical evaluation to 92 percent after quantitative multi-spectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided ( p quantitative data were provided. Negative predictive value also increased (68% vs. 91%, panalysis (64% vs. 86%, p data into physician evaluation of pigmented lesions led to both increased sensitivity and specificity, thereby resulting in more accurate biopsy decisions.

  14. Epidemiological investigation of tattoo-like skin lesions among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah N; Wallen, Megan M; Bansal, Shweta; Mann, Janet

    2018-07-15

    Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. We provide important baseline data by documenting epidemiological patterns of tattoo-like skin lesions in a healthy, free-ranging population that builds on the previous data of tattoo skin disease (TSD) derived from free ranging, stranded, and dead dolphins. Individual dolphins were classified as symptomatic with tattoo-like skin disease if at least one photograph showed a lesion similar to TSD. The average age of infection was 26.6months (±34.8months) with the symptomatic period lasting 137±29.8days. Overall prevalence of tattoo-like skin disease in the population was 19.4%. Age, but not sex, was significant, with yearlings (1-2years) exhibiting tattoo-like lesions more than younger and older calves. Tattoo-like lesions were rare among juvenile and adult dolphins (N=68 calves, 4 juveniles, and 3 adults). We hypothesize that the lower prevalence in youngest calves (2years) have infection-acquired immunity, as reported for other small cetaceans. The low prevalence of tattoo-like lesions in Shark Bay compared to other populations with poxvirus is consistent with reproductive and demographic viability analyses. Furthermore, by documenting the demography of the disease, we can monitor changes in the prevalence of tattoo-like lesions as a sentinel indicator of ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of skin lesions in newborn children: meeting the needs of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vidal Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To understand, together with nursing staff, the care needed to treat skin lesions in newborn children hospitalized in a neonatal unit. Method Qualitative research, of the convergent care type. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were conducted from November to December 2012, in the neonatal unit of a hospital in southern Brazil. The participants were four auxiliary nurses, six nursing technicians and four nurses. Results The following three categories were designated: questions about what can be used in relation to newborn children; hospitalization can cause lesions on the skin of newborn children; and knowledge about care promotes professional autonomy. Conclusion There is an urgent need for staff to know more about the treatment of skin lesions, which would provide safer care for newborn children and would also support the autonomy of professional nurses in providing that care.

  16. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  17. Visualization of dermal alteration in skin lesions with discoid lupus erythematosus by multiphoton microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L H; Yu, H B; Zhu, X Q; Zhuo, S M; Chen, J X; Wang, Y Y; Yang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease which lacks valid methods for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Considering the collagen and elastin disorder due to mucin deposition of DLE, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging techniques were employed to obtain high-resolution collagen and elastin images from the dermis. The content and distribution of collagen and elastin were quantified to characterize the dermal pathological status of skin lesions with DLE in comparison with normal skin. Our results showed a significant difference between skin lesions with DLE and normal skin in terms of the morphological structure of collagen and elastin in the dermis, demonstrating the possibility of MPM for noninvasively tracking the pathological process of DLE even in its early stages and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy at the molecular level. (paper)

  18. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate diagnosis of melanoma relies on a histopathologic gold standard; thus, aggressive excision of melanocytic skin lesions has been the mainstay of treatment. It is estimated that 36 biopsies are performed for every melanoma confirmed by pathology among excised lesions. There is significant morbidity in misdiagnosing melanoma such as progression of the disease for a false negative prediction vs the risks of unnecessary surgery for a false positive prediction. Every year, poor diagnostic precision adds an estimated $673 million in overall cost to manage the disease. Currently, manual dermatoscopic imaging is the standard of care in selecting atypical skin lesions for biopsy, and at best it achieves 90% sensitivity but only 59% specificity when performed by an expert dermatologist. Many computer vision (CV) algorithms perform better than dermatologists in classifying skin lesions although not significantly so in clinical practice. Meanwhile, open source deep learning (DL) techniques in CV have been gaining dominance since 2012 for image classification, and today DL can outperform humans in classifying millions of digital images with less than 5% error rates. Moreover, DL algorithms are readily run on commoditized hardware and have a strong online community of developers supporting their rapid adoption. In this work, we performed a successful pilot study to show proof of concept to DL skin pathology from images. However, DL algorithms must be trained on very large labelled datasets of

  19. Skin lesions simulating blue toe syndrome caused by prolonged contact with a millipede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Scardazan Heeren Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals are those that, by means of a hunting and defense mechanism, are able to inject their prey with a toxic substance produced in their bodies, directly from specialized glands (e.g., tooth, sting, spur through which the poison passes. Millipedes are poisonous animals; they can be harmful to humans, and their effects usually manifest as erythematous, purpuric, and cyanotic lesions; local pain; and paresthesia. Here, we report a case of skin contact with a millipede for 6h resulting in skin lesions similar to blue toe syndrome.

  20. [Healing of skin lesions in diabetic foot syndrome during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkovská, A

    2006-05-01

    Wound healing during the diabetic foot disease is indicated to in-patient treatment in case of non-healing wound, in case of serious infection and/or critical ischemia and in case of necessity of surgical treatment. Diabetic foot disease is the main reason for in-patient treatment of people with diabetes, which our experience confirms. Chronic wound is characterised by non-healing for at least 4 weeks. Ischemia and recurrent trauma caused by incomplete off-loading, prolong inflammation and infection are the main reasons for difficult healing of chronic wound. Infection is also leading cause for prolonged hospitalisation of patients with diabetic foot disease. Local decrease of grow factors and increase of tissue protease are characteristics of chronic wound. The process of wound healing is characterized by a cascade of interrelated events involving infection and inflammatory factors. The results of these investigations led to the moist wound healing concept and use of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes. We have good experience with the use of xenotransplant skin substitues in the treatment of diabetic foot. Off loading techniques including total contact casting, local therapy by debridement and skin substitutes had the best evidence based efficacy. We are introducing new method of the treatment of diabetic foot--VAC--vacuum assisted closure. The fundamental principle in the therapy during in-patient period, is comprehensive approach; the omitting of any of the principle of the therapy--e.g. the off-loading of the ulcers, the infection and ischemia control, may contribute to its failure.

  1. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.

  2. Cryotherapy for Intra- and Perianal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV-Positive Men who have Sex with Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Matthijs L.; Gosens, Karien C. M.; Prins, Jan M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Background Available treatment options for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are limited by low response rates and frequent recurrences. Cryotherapy is an established therapeutic option for several pre-malignant skin disorders.

  3. Dermoscopic features of skin lesions in patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; De las Heras, Elena; Heras, Elena De Las; Morgado, J M; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Plana, Maria N; Planas, Maria Nieves; Jaén, Pedro; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate dermoscopic features in a group of 127 patients with mastocytosis in the skin and to investigate the relationship between different dermoscopic patterns and other clinical and biological characteristics of the disease. Clinical and laboratory data were compared among patients with mastocytosis grouped according to the different dermoscopic patterns. Patients were selected from the Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla La Mancha and the Department of Dermatology of Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from April 1 through September 30, 2009. Patients Overall, 127 consecutive patients (70 females [55.1%] and 57 males [44.9%]; median age, 17 years; range, 0-81 years) with mastocytosis in the skin were included in the study. Evaluation of dermoscopic patterns and investigation of potential predictive factors for more symptomatic forms of the disease according to the need for daily antimediator therapy. Four distinct dermoscopic patterns were observed: yellow-orange blot, pigment network, reticular vascular pattern, and (most frequently) light-brown blot. A reticular vascular pattern was identified in all telangiectasia macular eruptiva and some maculopapular mastocytosis. In turn, all patients with mastocytoma displayed the yellow-orange blot pattern. The reticular vascular dermoscopic pattern was associated with the need for daily antimediator therapy; this pattern, together with serum tryptase levels and plaque-type mastocytosis, represented the best combination of independent factors to predict the need for maintained antimediator therapy. Dermoscopy is a feasible method for the subclassification of mastocytosis. Of note, a reticular vascular pattern is more frequently associated with the need for antimediator therapy.

  4. [The morphological characteristic of the skin lesions inflicted by plastic knives with four cutting edges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V; Finkel'shtein, V T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the morphological features of the skin lesions inflicted by the blades of the Fgx Boot Blade I knives having four cutting edges. The study revealed the signs that can be used to distinguish between morphological characteristics of the stab and lacerated wounds having the primary and secondary incisions made by the four-edge blade.

  5. Defects of filaggrin-like proteins in both lesional and nonlesional atopic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Laurence; Henry, Julie; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Balica, Stéfana; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Hansmann, Britta; Rodriguez, Elke; Weindinger, Stefan; Schmitt, Anne-Marie; Serre, Guy; Paul, Carle; Simon, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a disturbed epidermal barrier. In a subset of patients, this is explained by nonsense mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG). We sought to evaluate the respective role of FLG mutations and proinflammatory cytokines and to assess the expression of FLG, hornerin (HRNR), and FLG2, 2 FLG-like proteins, which are involved in epidermal barrier functions, in normal skin and both lesional and nonlesional skin of patients with AD. An FLG-genotyped cohort of 73 adults with AD and 73 aged-matched control subjects was analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Normal primary human keratinocytes were differentiated in either the absence or presence of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-25. Compared with control subjects, FLG, HRNR, and FLG2 were detected at significantly lower levels in the skin of patients with AD, irrespective of their FLG genotype. The reduction was greater in lesional compared with nonlesional skin. In addition, the proFLG/FLG ratio was found to be higher in the skin of wild-type patients than in control subjects. Cytokine treatment of keratinocytes induced a dramatic reduction in FLG, FLG2, and HRNR expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. The stratum corneum of lesional but also clinically unaffected skin of adults with AD is abnormal, with reduced expression of FLG and FLG-like proteins. In addition to nonsense mutations, proinflammatory cytokines and some defects in the proFLG processing can contribute to the FLG downregulation. Our study suggests that skin inflammation reduces the expression of FLG-like proteins, contributing to the AD-related epidermal barrier dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  7. An Improved Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis and Suppression of Skin Lesions by an Inhibitor of Tec Family Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kawakami

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: We established a highly efficient, highly reproducible protocol to induce skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and successfully applied it to show the efficacy of terreic acid in treating skin lesions. This mouse model of atopic dermatitis will be useful to study the pathogenetic processes of atopic dermatitis and to evaluate the efficacy of drug candidates.

  8. Molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in UK cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Blacklaws

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the UK. Tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. Limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (CPVs belong to an unassigned genus of the Chordopoxvirinae. To obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between CPV and other Chordopoxvirinae members we partially characterized viral DNA originating from tattoo lesions collected in Delphinidae and Phocoenidae stranded along the UK coastline in 1998-2008. We also evaluated the presence of CPV in skin lesions other than tattoos to examine specificity and sensitivity of visual diagnosis. After DNA extraction, regions of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with other isolates. The presence of CPV DNA was demonstrated in tattoos from one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, eight harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena and one short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis and in one 'dubious tattoo' lesion detected in one other porpoise. Seventeen of the 18 PCR positive skin lesions had been visually identified as tattoos and one as a dubious tattoo. None of the other skin lesions were PCR positive. Thus, visual identification had a 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The DNA polymerase PCR was most effective in detecting CPV DNA. Limited sequence phylogeny grouped the UK samples within the odontocete poxviruses (CPV group 1 and indicated that two different poxvirus lineages infect the Phocoenidae and the Delphinidae. The phylogenetic tree had three major branches: one with the UK Phocoenidae viruses, one with the Delphinidae isolates and one for the mysticete poxvirus (CPV group 2. This implies a radiation of poxviruses according to the host suborder and the families within

  9. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine

    2016-01-01

    in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions...... at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social...... mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting...

  10. Communicating the location of potential skin neoplasms for excision between the referring and the operating doctor--an audit of skin lesion referrals in Whanganui, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Fraser; Bullen, Naomi; Aiono, Semisi

    2013-08-30

    The importance of correctly defining the location of potential skin cancer when surgical treatment may be required is self-evident. Clear communication is essential if the professional diagnosing potential skin cancer is not the same professional providing treatment. We aimed to assess the nature of the localising information provided in referrals to the local anaesthetic skin lesion theatre in our institution. Information localising target lesions for new patients seen in our local anaesthetic skin excision theatre was recorded during a 2-month period April to May 2012 inclusive 100 patients were seen in our skin excision theatre during the study period; 16 patients were not able to identify the target skin lesion at the time they entered the operating theatre. The target lesion could not be determined from the referral text in 30/100 cases. Diagrams were provided in 19/100 cases. Photographs were provided in 3/100 cases. Pictorial and photographic means of communicating the location of suspicious lesions are under-utilised in our service. Relying on the patient or the referral text to correctly identify the lesion leaves considerable room for error. We suggest that photographic information for skin lesion referrals is adopted as a minimum standard.

  11. Improved detection reveals active β-papillomavirus infection in skin lesions from kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Lanfredini, Simone; Peretti, Alberto; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Colombo, Enrico; Quaglia, Marco; Boldorini, Renzo; Miglio, Umberto; Doorbar, John; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Quint, Koen D; de Koning, Maurits N C; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of β-HPV gene products, as defined in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancer, could also be observed in lesions from kidney transplant recipients alongside the viral DNA. A total of 111 samples, corresponding to 79 skin lesions abscised from 17 kidney transplant recipients, have been analyzed. The initial PCR analysis demonstrated that β-HPV-DNA was highly present in our tumor series (85%). Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize productive infection in 4 out of 19 actinic keratoses, and in the pathological borders of 1 out of 14 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 out of 31 basal cell carcinomas. Increased expression of the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), that extended into the upper epithelial layers, was a common feature of all the E4-positive areas, indicating that cells were driven into the cell cycle in areas of productive viral infections. Although the present study does not directly demonstrate a causal role of these viruses, the detection of E4 and L1 positivity in actinic keratosis and the adjacent pathological epithelium of skin cancer, clearly shows that β-HPV are actively replicating in the intraepidermal precursor lesions of kidney transplant recipients and can therefore cooperate with other carcinogenic agents, such as UVB, favoring skin cancer promotion.

  12. The effect of hydroxychloroquine on lupus erythematosus-like skin lesions in MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomatsu, Tatsuya; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Mikita, Naoya; Nakatani, Yumi; Li, Hong-Jin; Inaba, Yutaka; Ikeda, Takaharu; Kondo, Toshikazu; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effect and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on lupus erythematosus (LE)-like skin lesions in the MRL/lpr mouse, a model for systemic LE (SLE). We divided the MRL/lpr mice into three groups that were given: (1) drinking water, (2) HCQ at a dose of 4 mg/kg/d, or (3) HCQ at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d. The HCQ was administered to examine the effect and safety of HCQ on skin lesions and the number of infiltrating cells including mast cells in the dermis. Six of 13 mice in the group given drinking water, 3 of 11 mice in the group administered low-dose HCQ (4 mg/kg/d), and 1 of 10 mice in the group administered high-dose HCQ (40 mg/kg/d) presented the skin lesions. The average number of mast cells was 81, 50, and 12 (magnification, ×100), the mortality rate was 24%, 8%, and 9% and the mean body weight gain was 4.6 g, 8.0 g and 5.1 g, respectively. HCQ was demonstrated to decrease the appearance of LE-like lesions and the number of mast cells in the dermis. Furthermore, there were no obvious systemic adverse effects. This study provides evidence that suggests benefits in human patients.

  13. Mast cell heterogeneity and anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in leprosy skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maurício B; Mimura, Kallyne K O; Freitas, Aline A; Hungria, Emerith M; Sousa, Ana Lúcia O M; Oliani, Sonia M; Stefani, Mariane M A

    2018-03-29

    Mast cells (MCs) have important immunoregulatory roles in skin inflammation. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein that can be expressed by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial and T cells. This study investigated MCs heterogeneity and ANXA1 expression in human dermatoses with special emphasis in leprosy. Sixty one skin biopsies from 2 groups were investigated: 40 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients (18 reaction-free, 11 type 1 reaction/T1R, 11 type 2 reaction/T2R); 21 patients with other dermatoses. Tryptase/try+ and chymase/chy + phenotypic markers and toluidine blue stained intact/degranulated MC counts/mm 2 were evaluated. Try + /chy + MCs and ANXA1 were identified by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunostaining and density was reported. In leprosy, degranulated MCs outnumbered intact ones regardless of the leprosy form (from tuberculoid/TT to lepromatous/LL), leprosy reactions (reactional/reaction-free) and type of reaction (T1R/T2R). Compared to other dermatoses, leprosy skin lesions showed lower numbers of degranulated and intact MCs. Try + MCs outnumbered chy + in leprosy lesions (reaction-free/reactional, particularly in T2R), but not in other dermatoses. Compared to other dermatoses, ANXA1 expression, which is also expressed in mast cells, was higher in the epidermis of leprosy skin lesions, independently of reactional episode. In leprosy, higher MC degranulation and differential expression of try + /chy + subsets independent of leprosy type and reaction suggest that the Mycobacterium leprae infection itself dictates the inflammatory MCs activation in skin lesions. Higher expression of ANXA1 in leprosy suggests its potential anti-inflammatory role to maintain homeostasis preventing tissue and nerve damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies.

  15. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: From the Genetics to the Development of Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Bonciani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a rare autoimmune disease linked to gluten sensitivity with a chronic-relapsing course. It is currently considered to be the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease (CD. Both conditions are mediated by the IgA class of autoantibodies, and the diagnosis of DH is dependent on the detection of granular deposits of IgA in the skin. There is an underlying genetic predisposition to the development of DH, but environmental factors are also important. This paper describes these different factors and discusses the known mechanism that lead to the development of skin lesions.

  16. Survey on the importance of mange in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Van Wyngaarden, T; Vercruysse, J; Symoens, C; Jalia, A

    1994-05-01

    A survey on mange mite infestations in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia is described. Skin lesions were observed in 25 (93%) of the 27 goat farms investigated. Mange mites were found in 22 (88%) of these goat herds. Chorioptes texanus was found in 20.7%, Psoroptes cuniculi in 19.3%, Sarcoptes scabiei in 18.6% and Demodex canis var. caprae in 0.4% of the samples, taken from the skin lesions. Thirteen cases of generalised manage were diagnosed, from which 9 were caused by S. scabiei, 2 by P. cuniculi and one by C. texanus. All other cases had more or less localised lesions. No significant differences could be found in incidence and distribution of skin lesions between age classes.

  17. Is there just one lesion? The need for whole body skin examination in patients presenting with non-melanocytic skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Patricia Jane; Fairbanks, Sian; Bailey, Michael

    2009-10-01

    In patients presenting with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) the frequency of concurrently presenting tumours is poorly documented. Whole body skin examination is recommended but in a recent survey of Australian General Practitioners and skin cancer clinics doctors it was infrequently performed. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of concurrent skin cancer at initial presentation and therefore to examine the need for whole body skin examination for NMSC presentations. One hundred consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis indicative of NMSC were examined. Data was analysed as to the referring doctor's diagnosis, whole body skin examination findings and histology of excised lesions. Epidemiological data was obtained by patient questionnaire. One hundred patients, 41 males and 59 females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 39-91 years) underwent whole body skin examination. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were found to have additional lesions requiring treatment, 46% sin cancers (30 patients basal cell carcinomas, five squamous cell carcinomas, seven basal and squamous cell carcinomas, two lentigo maligna, two adenexal tumours) and 21% solar keratoses. Thirty-four of the additional lesions detected were in areas covered by clothing. Sixty-eight patients had a past history of skin cancer excision. In the Australian patient population, the need for whole body skin examination is essential to avoid missing concurrent lesions. Ongoing surveillance is also essential as these patients have a high risk of developing future NMSC.

  18. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitre Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatoses. Case report. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a 6-month history of skin lesions misdiagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Conscientious history taking and physical examination enabled the diagnosis of SISL. Conclusions. The proper approach to patients presenting with psychodermatoses differs from that for other dermatological patients and requires considering several additional aspects. We would like to emphasize the distinguishing aspects and importance of the proper approach to patients with SISL that might aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating these individuals in the future.

  19. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  20. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenz Weitgasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction.

  1. Aerobic bacteria and fungi from skin lesions of fish in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hassan Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Fishes with skin lesions are harboring many pathogenic bacteria and fungi and may act as a source of zoonotic infections and can transmit several pathogens to workers in fish industry and consumers. Therefore, thorough and strict routine inspection of fish is recommended to ensure safety and that there are no serious risks to consumers. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 375-385

  2. Self-inflicted skin lesions: the importance of a proper diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitre Dimitrov; Radomir Reszke; Jacek Szepietowski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Patients with self-inflicted skin lesions (SISL) are most often referred to dermatologists. Since psychological and psychiatric conditions might be the underlying reasons for the behavior of these patients, the psychology-associated component should always be kept in mind when approaching such individuals. Objective. To discuss distinctive aspects of the approach towards patients with SISL and emphasize the most relevant issues concerning the management of psychodermatose...

  3. Mycotic skin lesions in an adult reindeer caused by Debaryomyces bansenii. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This report apparently is the first to describe candidosis in reindeer. It is imperative that reindeer kept in corrals during winter and spring for supplementary feeding, are provided clean, dry conditions and that strict hygenic measures are followed. If reindeer on the other hand are kept in dirty, wet and muddy corrals, among other things, skin lesions due to fungal infections may possibly appear rather frequently.

  4. Prevalence of skin lesions and need for treatment in a cohort of 90 880 workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M; Herberger, K; Hintzen, S; Heigel, H; Franzke, N; Schäfer, I

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare planning requires robust data on the prevalence and need for care of dermatological diseases. To date, no systematic data in population-based samples are available for Germany. Determination of the prevalence of skin lesions and of the need for care based on dermatological examinations in working adults in Germany. From 2004 to 2009, workers aged between 16 and 70years from different branches of industry throughout Germany underwent a single dermatological whole-body examination on the occasion of company screening for skin cancer. The data were recorded electronically and evaluated descriptively. In addition to the clinical findings, case history data on previous skin diseases were documented and the need for further clarification or treatment was determined on the basis of the dermatologist's assessment. Data from n=90 880 persons from a total of 312 companies were evaluated. Of the pigmented skin lesions, dermal naevi were found in 25·1% of the cohort, and 16·7% displayed more than 40 each. The most frequent inflammatory skin diseases were acne vulgaris (3·9%), psoriasis (2·0%), rosacea (2·3%) and atopic eczema (1·3%). Examination of the case histories showed that the most frequent condition was allergic sensitizations (41·1%); of these, pollen accounted for the biggest group (21·4%), followed by contact allergens (8·0%). In total, 26·8% of the cohort exhibited a dermatological finding in need of treatment or further clarification. Dermatological lesions and diseases requiring clarification are frequent and indicate a high demand for treatment in the adult population. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Segmentation of skin lesions in chronic graft versus host disease photographs with fully convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Chen, Fuyao; Dellalana, Laura E.; Jagasia, Madan H.; Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2018-02-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and commonly affects the skin, resulting in distressing patient morbidity. The percentage of involved body surface area (BSA) is commonly used for diagnosing and scoring the severity of cGVHD. However, the segmentation of the involved BSA from patient whole body serial photography is challenging because (1) it is difficult to design traditional segmentation method that rely on hand crafted features as the appearance of cGVHD lesions can be drastically different from patient to patient; (2) to the best of our knowledge, currently there is no publicavailable labelled image set of cGVHD skin for training deep networks to segment the involved BSA. In this preliminary study we create a small labelled image set of skin cGVHD, and we explore the possibility to use a fully convolutional neural network (FCN) to segment the skin lesion in the images. We use a commercial stereoscopic Vectra H1 camera (Canfield Scientific) to acquire 400 3D photographs of 17 cGVHD patients aged between 22 and 72. A rotational data augmentation process is then applied, which rotates the 3D photos through 10 predefined angles, producing one 2D projection image at each position. This results in 4000 2D images that constitute our cGVHD image set. A FCN model is trained and tested using our images. We show that our method achieves encouraging results for segmenting cGVHD skin lesion in photographic images.

  6. Treatment of radiation skin lesions in various stages with different preparations of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hui; Chen Qiang; Yang Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    Since the aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 was firstly used to treat efficaciously the acute radiation injury of skin and superficial second-degree skin burn, we have successfully treated radiation skin lesions in acute, chronic and recovering stages with the cream or oil preparation of Vit. B 12 . In the period of ten years (1979-1988), altogether 418 cases of radiation or non-radiation skin injury were observed and 48 out of 49 cases with acute radiation skin ulcer treated with aqueous solution of Vit. B 12 were healed with an effective rate of 97.95% and average healing time of 12.6 days. All of 37 cases with chronic radiation skin injury treated with oil preparation of Vit. B 12 were healed or improved with an effective rate of 100% and average healing time of 21.49 days. However, in the control group, of 18 cases treated with conventional drugs only 13 were healed, the effective rate being 72.22% and healing time 63.5 days, and both of these indices were of significant difference, as compared with those treated with Vit. B 12

  7. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, P [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hospital L. Sacco Unit, University of Milan, Via G B Grassi, 74-20157 Milan (Italy); Lualdi, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Colombo, A [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Marchesini, R [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-05-21

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  8. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P; Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2007-01-01

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al 2 O 3 particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  9. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  10. Investigation of relations between skin cancer lesions' images and their fluorescent spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Petkova, El.; Troyanova, P.

    2010-03-01

    This investigation is based on images obtained from healthy tissue and skin cancer lesions and their fluorescent spectra of cutaneous lesions derived after optical stimulation. Our analyses show that the lesions’ spectra of are different of those, obtained from normal tissue and the differences depend on the type of cancer. We use a comparison between these “healthy” and “unhealthy” spectra to define forms of variations and corresponding diseases. However, the value of the emitted light varies not only between the patients, but also depending on the position of the tested area inside of one lesion. These variations could be result from two reasons: different degree of damaging and different thickness of the suspicious lesion area. Regarded to the visible image of the lesion, it could be connected with the chroma of colour of the tested area and the lesion homogeneity that corresponds to particular disease. For our investigation, images and spectra of three non-melanoma cutanous malignant tumors are investigated, namely—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. The images were processed obtaining the chroma by elimination of the background—healthy tissue, and applying it as a basic signal for transformation from RGB to Lab colorimetric model. The chroma of the areas of emission is compared with the relative value of fluorescence spectra. Specific spectral features are used to develop hybrid diagnostic algorithm (including image and spectral features) for differentiation of these three kinds of malignant cutaneous pathologies.

  11. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  12. Prevalence of Oral, Skin, and Oral and Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505

  13. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; flooring. No differences for skin lesions were observed between floor treatments. The improved scores for gait toward the end of gestation and some types of claw disorders at mid gestation suggest that rubber flooring in group housing has a beneficial effect on the overall leg health of sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d

  14. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  15. Pigmented skin lesion detection using random forest and wavelet-based texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Yang, Tie-jun

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, a disease of worldwide distribution and is the deadliest form of skin cancer, has been rapidly increasing over the last few decades. Because advanced cutaneous melanoma is still incurable, early detection is an important step toward a reduction in mortality. Dermoscopy photographs are commonly used in melanoma diagnosis and can capture detailed features of a lesion. A great variability exists in the visual appearance of pigmented skin lesions. Therefore, in order to minimize the diagnostic errors that result from the difficulty and subjectivity of visual interpretation, an automatic detection approach is required. The objectives of this paper were to propose a hybrid method using random forest and Gabor wavelet transformation to accurately differentiate which part belong to lesion area and the other is not in a dermoscopy photographs and analyze segmentation accuracy. A random forest classifier consisting of a set of decision trees was used for classification. Gabor wavelets transformation are the mathematical model of visual cortical cells of mammalian brain and an image can be decomposed into multiple scales and multiple orientations by using it. The Gabor function has been recognized as a very useful tool in texture analysis, due to its optimal localization properties in both spatial and frequency domain. Texture features based on Gabor wavelets transformation are found by the Gabor filtered image. Experiment results indicate the following: (1) the proposed algorithm based on random forest outperformed the-state-of-the-art in pigmented skin lesions detection (2) and the inclusion of Gabor wavelet transformation based texture features improved segmentation accuracy significantly.

  16. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  17. Clinical studies of pigmented lesions in human skin by using a multiphoton tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Kelly, Kristen M.; Zachary, Christopher B.; Harris, Ronald M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; König, Karsten; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-02-01

    In vivo imaging of pigmented lesions in human skin was performed with a clinical multiphoton microscopy (MPM)-based tomograph (MPTflex, JenLab, Germany). Two-photon excited fluorescence was used for visualizing endogenous fluorophores such as NADH/FAD, keratin, melanin in the epidermal cells and elastin fibers in the dermis. Collagen fibers were imaged by second harmonic generation. Our study involved in vivo imaging of benign melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi and melanoma. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify in vivo the characteristic features and their frequency in pigmented lesions at different stages (benign, atypical and malignant) and to evaluate the ability of in vivo MPM to distinguish atypical nevi from melanoma. Comparison with histopathology was performed for the biopsied lesions. Benign melanocytic nevi were characterized by the presence of nevus cell nests at the epidermal-dermal junction. In atypical nevi, features such as lentiginous hyperplasia, acanthosis and architectural disorder were imaged. Cytological atypia was present in all the melanoma lesions imaged, showing the strongest correlation with malignancy. The MPM images demonstrated very good correlation with corresponding histological images, suggesting that MPM could be a promising tool for in vivo non-invasive pigmented lesion diagnosis, particularly distinguishing atypical nevi from melanoma.

  18. The hallmarks of premalignant conditions: a molecular basis for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Bríd M; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M

    2016-02-01

    The hallmarks of premalignant lesions were first described in the 1970s, a time when relatively little was known about the molecular underpinnings of cancer. Yet it was clear there must be opportunities to intervene early in carcinogenesis. A vast array of molecular information has since been uncovered, with much of this stemming from studies of existing cancer or cancer models. Here, examples of how an understanding of cancer biology has informed cancer prevention studies are highlighted and emerging areas that may have implications for the field of cancer prevention research are described. A note of caution accompanies these examples, in that while there are similarities, there are also fundamental differences between the biology of premalignant lesions or premalignant conditions and invasive cancer. These differences must be kept in mind, and indeed leveraged, when exploring potential cancer prevention measures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The use of tissue expander in repairing skin and hair lesions of the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatir A

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Of 14 cases who underwent this operation only in one of them because of infection in operation site, we had to extract the expander. Also, in the first day of the operation that we injected serum inside the expander of two other patients, the wound opened up and the expander appeared and came out automatically. The remaining ten patients have tolerated the operation after treatment period without any complications and good result was achieved. This method in covering up skin lesions and in eliminating burn as well as old wound scars was very effective and the patient become satisfied because there was no need to remove skin from other parts of the body and thus no new scars would have been created. The only problems in this method of treatment were its duration which is needed for injection inside the expander as well as bad appearance in operation region and these problems cause the patients to become depressed and to become isolated from the public for a long period. For the past three years that we used this method for covering skin lesions in different parts of the body and even in treating extensive spots and the hemantrium we achieved excellent results and the report will subsequently be submitted.

  20. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haynes P. H.; Svenmarker, Pontus; Xie, Haiyan; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jensen, Ole B.; Bendsoe, Niels; Svanberg, Katarina; Petersen, Paul Michael; Pedersen, Christian; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Andersen, Peter E.

    2010-04-01

    We report preliminary clinical results of autofluorescence imaging of malignant and benign skin lesions, using pulsed 355 nm laser excitation with synchronized detection. The novel synchronized detection system allows high signal-tonoise ratio to be achieved in the resulting autofluorescence signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image capture is sampled at 5 kHz and the resulting autofluorescence is captured with the liquid crystal filter cycling through seven wavelengths between 420 nm and 580 nm. The clinical study targets pigmented skin lesions and evaluates the prospects of using autofluorescence as a possible means in differentiating malignant and benign skin tumors. Up to now, sixteen patients have participated in the clinical study. The autofluorescence images, averaged over the exposure time of one second, will be presented along with histopathological results. Initial survey of the images show good contrast and diagnostic results show promising agreement based on the histopathological results.

  1. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Valent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection.

  2. Proposed Terminology and Classification of Pre-Malignant Neoplastic Conditions: A Consensus Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Akin, Cem; Arock, Michel; Bock, Christoph; George, Tracy I; Galli, Stephen J; Gotlib, Jason; Haferlach, Torsten; Hoermann, Gregor; Hermine, Olivier; Jäger, Ulrich; Kenner, Lukas; Kreipe, Hans; Majeti, Ravindra; Metcalfe, Dean D; Orfao, Alberto; Reiter, Andreas; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staber, Philipp B; Sotlar, Karl; Schiffer, Charles; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Cancer evolution is a step-wise non-linear process that may start early in life or later in adulthood, and includes pre-malignant (indolent) and malignant phases. Early somatic changes may not be detectable or are found by chance in apparently healthy individuals. The same lesions may be detected in pre-malignant clonal conditions. In some patients, these lesions may never become relevant clinically whereas in others, they act together with additional pro-oncogenic hits and thereby contribute to the formation of an overt malignancy. Although some pre-malignant stages of a malignancy have been characterized, no global system to define and to classify these conditions is available. To discuss open issues related to pre-malignant phases of neoplastic disorders, a working conference was organized in Vienna in August 2015. The outcomes of this conference are summarized herein and include a basic proposal for a nomenclature and classification of pre-malignant conditions. This proposal should assist in the communication among patients, physicians and scientists, which is critical as genome-sequencing will soon be offered widely for early cancer-detection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet ® hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons ≥15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among ≥15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI 2 . Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and

  5. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  6. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  7. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Deepak M W; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M J; Hulshof, Mieke M

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  8. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, a common skin disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. Studying both human psoriasis in 2 complementary xenotransplantation models and psoriasis-like skin lesions in transgenic mice......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue....... High-resolution ultrasound revealed reduced cutaneous blood flow in vivo after electroporation with RDD but not with control plasmids. In addition, angiogenesis- and inflammation-related molecular markers, keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, and clinical disease scores were downregulated...

  9. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Svenmarker, Pontus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image......We report preliminary clinical results of autofluorescence imaging of malignant and benign skin lesions, using pulsed 355 nm laser excitation with synchronized detection. The novel synchronized detection system allows high signal-to-noise ratio to be achieved in the resulting autofluorescence...

  10. Initial evaluation of an ultrasound measure for assessing the activity of skin lesions in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S C; Liebling, M S; Haines, K A; Weiss, J E; Prann, A

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of 2 proposed measures (the Ultrasound Disease Activity [U-DA] and the Tissue Thickness Score [TTS]) for evaluating sonographic differences in juvenile localized scleroderma skin lesions. We conducted a retrospective review of juvenile localized scleroderma patients who had ultrasound scans of their skin lesions between October 2005 and February 2009. Imaged lesions were classified as active or inactive based upon clinical assessment. Lesions had to have been imaged within 1 month of a clinic visit or have the same clinical assessment during both the visit before and the visit after the scan. Two physicians scored the scans using the U-DA, which scores for differences in lesion echogenicity and vascularity compared with normal tissue. Tissue thickness differences were evaluated by percent differences and by using the TTS. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was performed to assess differences. We studied 52 scans from 21 patients, 32 scans of active skin lesions and 20 scans of inactive skin lesions. Features reported by clinicians as indicative of active disease included erythema, warmth, violaceous color, new lesion, expansion of lesion, and induration. The U-DA was significantly different between active and inactive skin lesions (P = 0.0010) with significant differences found for the parameters of total echogenicity, hypodermis echogenicity, and deep tissue layer vascularity (P = 0.0014, P = 0.0023, and P = 0.0374, respectively). No significant differences were found for tissue layer thickness or TTS. The U-DA may be a useful tool in the identification of localized scleroderma activity. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of this potential monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  12. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  13. Large Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as fungating mass with skin ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christine E; Wachtel, Sarah; Leef, George; Ozdalga, Errol

    2016-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion, a type of soft tissue degloving injury that has also been referred to as a chronic expanding hematoma, is a relatively rare condition that usually develops following traumatic injury. Here, we present a case of a 60-year-old male with a Morel-Lavallée lesion diagnosed over 5 years after a traumatic injury of the hip. He presented with a large fungating mass and overlying skin ulceration, which was highly suspicious for sarcoma. However, lack of other systemic findings and constitutional complaints, as well as negative imaging studies, did not support a diagnosis of malignancy. This information, combined with the history of remote trauma to the affected area, instead led us to suspect the alternative diagnosis of a Morel-Lavallée lesion. The diagnosis was later confirmed by pathology showing a chronic expanding hematoma. To our knowledge, a Morel-Lavallée lesion presenting as a fungating mass has not been previously described.

  14. Skin lesions in the tail of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A D

    1982-01-01

    There are numerous reports of diseases and lesions of the major organs of a wide spectrum of bony fishes. By contrast, very few cases have been reported from elasmobranchs. This lack of information may reflect the fact that commercial exploitation of elasmobranch populations has been limited, although for several decades there have been fisheries for the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., in European waters. In both cases, many thousands of spiny dogfish have been sampled for population analysis. Further, the spiny dogfish has been dissected in senior biology courses in the UK for about 30 years and probably 5000 students take these courses annually. It is remarkable, with these numbers dissected, that so few lesions have been recorded. During the summer of 1980, whilst working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Maine, researchers sampled a large spiny dogfish which had a prominently engorged tail with numerous skin lesions. The fish was a mature female 100 cm long, weighing 6.5 kg, which was carrying 16 embryos in their second year of development. The dogfish was also remarkable in that one of the embryos had a marked developmental abnormality, its spinal column being severely twisted. Developmental damage appears to be unusual in dogfish and the embryo was examined further to see whether the damage might be related to the lesion of the mother.

  15. A novel papillomavirus isolated from proliferative skin lesions of a wild American beaver (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Baszler, Timothy V; Bradway, Daniel S; Bruning, Darren L; Davitt, Christine M; Evermann, James F; Burk, Robert D; Chen, Zigui; Mansfield, Kristin G; Haldorson, Gary J

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous papillomatosis was diagnosed in an adult American beaver (Castor canadensis). Gross lesions included numerous exophytic, roughly circular, lightly pigmented lesions on hairless areas of fore and hind feet and the nose. The most significant histopathologic findings were multifocal papilliform hyperplasia of the superficial stratified squamous epithelium, with multifocal koilocytes, and multiple cells with large, darkly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. A virus with properties consistent with papillomavirus (PV) was recovered by virus isolation of skin lesions, utilizing rabbit and feline kidney cell lines. The presence of the virus was confirmed by PV-specific polymerase chain reaction. The partial sequences of E1 and L1 genes did not closely match those of any PVs in GenBank, suggesting that this might be a new type of PV. Partial E1 and L1 nucleotide sequences of the beaver papillomavirus (hereafter, ARbeaver-PV1) were used to create a phylogenetic tree employing the complete E1 and L1 open reading frame nucleotide sequences of 68 PVs. The phylogenetic tree placed the ARbeaver-PV1 in a clade that included the Mupapillomavirus (HPV1 and HPV63) and Kappapapillomavirus (OcPV1 and SfPV1) genera. The present article confirms the papillomaviral etiology of cutaneous exophytic lesions in the beaver.

  16. Non-rinse skin cleansers: the way forward in preventing incontinence related moisture lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, F J; Begg, P A

    2016-05-01

    The use of non-rinse skin cleansers in the care of patients who are at risk of tissue breakdown is not new within the National Health Service (NHS). Back to the Floor Continence Care Rounds (introduced in 2012 to facilitate bedside continence care education) at University Hospitals Birmingham had identified that in the current climate of austerity and efficiency savings, the use of non-rinse cleanser was being randomly rationed. Our objective was to determine whether the introduction of a smaller tube of non-rinse cleanser with targeted education would improve usage and ultimately improve the skin of incontinent patients. There were five clinical areas randomised into two groups. In group 1 three clinical areas were provided with targeted education and new sizes of tubes of non-rinse skin cleanser. In group 2, the two remaining clinical areas acted as control groups, one receiving targeted education only and the remaining had no education or new sized tubes. The incidence of incontinence associated moisture lesions from each clinical area was monitored for 13 weeks pre and post study period. The in-depth study undertaken at University Hospitals Birmingham, over a 6-month period, confirmed a trend in staff committing to the ethos of prudency, and in turn compromising the use of the most effective treatment and prevention of incontinence associated moisture lesions. The ability of the Trust staff to recognise and respond to a change in practice and the responsiveness of a commercial provider to the proposed new methodology has resulted in a significant reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions across the trust. The clinical areas included in the study demonstrated a 70-76.9% reduction in moisture lesion incidence compared to an 8.3-13.6% reduction in the control groups. The results strongly suggest that a reduction in incontinence associated moisture lesions can be achieved by a simple change in nursing regime. The combination of solid education provision

  17. Dermatoses em pacientes com diabetes mellitus Skin lesions in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N T Foss

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ainda é desconhecida a relação do diabetes com fatores determinantes ou precipitantes de lesões dermatológicas em pacientes diabéticos. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar a presença de lesões cutâneas, não referidas pelo paciente diabético e sua relação com o controle metabólico da doença. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 403 pacientes, dos quais 31% eram diabéticos do tipo 1 e 69% do tipo 2. Em ambulatório de um hospital universitário, os pacientes foram atendidos por endocrinologista para a avaliação endócrino-metabólica e por dermatologista para a avaliação dermatológica. O grau de controle metabólico foi documentado em 136 pacientes por meio da dosagem de hemoglobina glicada. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de dermatofitoses (82,6%, seguido de grupo de dermatoses como acne e degeneração actínica (66,7%, piodermites (5%, tumores cutâneos (3% e necrobiose lipoídica (1%. Entre as dermatoses mais comuns em diabéticos, foram confirmados com exame histológico: dois diagnósticos de necrobiose (0,4%, cinco de dermopatia diabética (1,2% e três casos de mal perfurante plantar (0,7%. Os valores da hemoglobina glicada foram: 7,2% em pacientes com controle metabólico adequado nos dois tipos de diabetes e de 11,9% e 12,7% nos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente, com controle inadequado. Nos pacientes com controle metabólico inadequado foi observada freqüência maior de dermatofitoses, em ambos os tipos de diabetes. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados revelaram freqüência elevada de lesão dermatológica nos pacientes diabéticos, especialmente dermatofitoses. Dessa forma, o descontrole metabólico do diabético propicia maior suscetibilidade a infecções cutâneas.OBJECTIVE: It is yet unknown the relationship between diabetes and determinants or triggering factors of skin lesions in diabetic patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of unreported skin lesions in diabetic patients and their

  18. [Study of relationship between arsenic methylation and skin lesion in a population with long-term high arsenic exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liqin; Cheng, Yibin; Lin, Shaobin; Wu, Chuanye

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the difference of arsenic metabolism in populations with long-term high arsenic exposure and explore the relationship between arsenic metabolism diversity and skin lesion. 327 residents in an arsenic polluted village were voluntarily enrolled in this study. Questionnaire survey and medical examination were carried out to learn basic information and detect skin lesions. Urinary inorganic and methylated arsenic were speciated by high performance liquid chromatography combined with hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total arsenic concentration in hair was determined with DDC-Ag method. Hair arsenic content of studied polutions was generally high, but no significant difference were found among the studied four groups. MMA and DMA concentration in urine increased with studied polution age, and were positively related with skin lesion grade. The relative proportion of MMA in serious skin lesion group was significantly higher than in other 3 groups, while DMA/MMA ratio was significantly lower than control and mild group. The relative proportion of MMA was positively related with skin lesion grade, DMA/ MMA ratio was negatively related with skin lesion grade. Males could have higher arsenic cumulation and lower methylation capacity than those of females. The population of above 40 years old may have higher methylation capacity than those of adults below 40yeas old. Smokers and drinkers seemed lower methylation capacity than those of non-smokers and non-drinkers respectively. The methylation of arsenic could affect by several factors, including age gender, smoking and drinking. Arsenic methylation copacity mey be associated with skin lesion induced by arsenic exposure.

  19. Calciphylaxis: Temporal Artery Calcification Preceding Widespread Skin Lesions and Penile Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal artery calciphylaxis has rarely been described in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. We report a case of 72-year-old Caucasian man with multiple comorbidities and end-stage renal disease on dialysis who presented with temporal artery calcification leading to bilateral loss of vision followed by extensive skin lesions including one on glans penis. While on peritoneal dialysis, he developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, had no improvement on high dose steroids, and temporal artery biopsy showed marked calcification without any evidence of vasculitis. Few weeks later on hemodialysis, he developed widespread cutaneous lesions on extremities and penile necrosis with skin biopsy revealing calciphylaxis. On literature review of calciphylaxis in chronic kidney disease, we found only four cases of temporal artery calciphylaxis leading to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and blindness. We believe this is the first case in which the rare temporal artery calciphylaxis and the uncommon penile necrosis are being described together. The objective is to emphasize the need to recognize this condition early in the CKD patients on dialysis presenting with visual symptoms as the different treatment strategies may help prevent complete loss of vision and also modify or prevent a full blown calciphylaxis.

  20. Low selenium status affects arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Pei, Qiuling; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Sichum; Liang, Jiang; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low selenium status plays important roles in arsenism development. However, no study has been reported for humans suffering from chronic arsenic exposure with low selenium status. Sixty-three subjects were divided into 2 experimental groups by skin lesions (including hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and hyperpigmentation). Total urine and serum concentrations of arsenic and selenium were determined by ICP-MS with collision/reaction cell. Arsenic species were analysed by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC. The mean concentration of As in the drinking waters was 41.5 microg/l. The selenium dietary intake for the studied population was 31.7 microg Se/d, and which for the cases and controls were 25.9 and 36.3 microg Se/d, respectively. Compared with the controls, the skin lesions cases had lower selenium concentrations in serum and urine (41.4 vs 49.6 microg/l and 71.0 vs 78.8 microg/l, respectively), higher inorganic arsenic (iAs) in serum (5.2 vs 3.4 microg/l, PiAs in serum and urine (20.2) vs 16.9% and 18.3 vs 14.5%, respectively, PiAs and its inhibition to be biotransformed to DMA occurred in human due to chronic exposure of low selenium status.

  1. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...

  2. Polymorphisms in XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln) genes, sunburn and arsenic-related skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Kathleen M; Smith, Thomas J; Zhou, Wei; Gonzalez, Ernesto; Quamruzzaman, Quazzi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Ryan, Louise; Su, Li; Christiani, David C

    2007-08-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair capacity and ultraviolet exposure have not been well investigated in relation to skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure. This population based case-control study, of 600 cases and 600 controls, frequency matched on age and gender in Pabna, Bangladesh, in 2001-2002, investigated the association and potential effect modification between polymorphisms in Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) genes, tendency to sunburn and arsenic-related skin lesions. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No significant association was observed between skin lesions and the XPD 312 Asp/Asn (adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.65-1.15) Asn/Asn (adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.50-1.15) (referent Asp/Asp); XPD 751 Lys/Gln (adjusted OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.69-1.23) Gln/Gln (adjusted OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.66-1.45) (referent Lys/Lys). While we did not observe any evidence of effect modification of these polymorphisms on the association between well arsenic concentration and skin lesions, we did observe effect modification between these polymorphisms and sunburn tendency and arsenic-related skin lesions. Individuals with the heterozygote or homozygote variant forms (Asp/Asn or Asn/Asn) had half the risk of skin lesions (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.68) compared with those with the wild-type XPDAsp312Asn genotype (Asp/Asp) and individuals with heterozygote or homozygote variant forms (Lys/Gln or Gln/Gln) had half the risk of skin lesions (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31-0.72) compared with those with the wild-type XPDLys751Gln genotype (Lys/Lys), within the least sensitive strata of sunburn severity. We observed effect modification on the multiplicative scale for XPD 751 and XPD 312. XPD polymorphisms modified the relationship between tendency to sunburn and skin lesions in an arsenic exposed population. Further study is necessary

  3. Skin tags: A link between lesional mast cell count/tryptase expression and obesity and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Abdallah M Salem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The etiology of skin tags (STs is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG, postprandial blood glucose (PPBG, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control. Results:All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%. STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin ( P < 0.001, with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions:STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

  4. Adaptive technique for matching the spectral response in skin lesions' images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P; Borisova, E; Avramov, L; Pavlova, E

    2015-01-01

    The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 – 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second – translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: –Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; –Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; –Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; –Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour

  5. Differences of Urinary Arsenic Metabolites and Methylation Capacity between Individuals with and without Skin Lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete arsenic (As methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, the primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006 and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016 than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036 and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025 were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  6. Differences of urinary arsenic metabolites and methylation capacity between individuals with and without skin lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Juan; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-18

    Incomplete arsenic (As) methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), the primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006) and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016) than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036) and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025) were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  7. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in footpad skin lesions with diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Up Noh, Sun; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Yong-Taek; Jae Yoon, Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of diabetic neuropathy rat model and to assess the contributory role of migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was made in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Pain threshold was evaluated using von Frey monofilaments for 24 weeks. On comparable experiment time after streptozotocin injection, all footpads were prepared for following procedures; glutathione assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining, immunohistochemistry staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Additionally, human HaCaT skin keratinocytes were treated with methylglyoxal, transfected with migration inhibitory factor/control small interfering RNA, and prepared for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results As compared to sham group, pain threshold was significantly reduced in diabetic neuropathy group, and glutathione was decreased in footpad skin, simultaneously, cell death was increased. Over-expression of migration inhibitory factor, accompanied by low expression of glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers, was shown on the footpad skin lesions of diabetic neuropathy. But, there was no significance in expression of neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, mas-related G protein coupled receptor D, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 between diabetic neuropathy group and sham group. Intriguingly

  8. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries

  9. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne--results of a prospective, observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Occupational skin cancers

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    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  11. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Molecular Triage of Premalignant Lesions in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology and Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Urine, Using a Panel of Methylated Human Papilloma Virus and Host Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Valle, Blanca L.; Jedlicka, Anne; Turaga, Nitesh; Folawiyo, Oluwasina; Pirini, Francesca; Lawson, Fahcina; Vergura, Angelo; Noordhuis, Maartje; Dziedzic, Amanda; Perez, Gabriela; Renehan, Marisa; Guerrero-Diaz, Carolina; Rodriguez, Edgar De Jesus; Diaz-Montes, Teresa; Orengo, Jose Rodriguez; Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Trock, Bruce J.; Florea, Liliana; Sidransky, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2(+)) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV

  13. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 μg/L, mean 99 μg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  14. Development and psychometric testing of the 'Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index. Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. The primary strategy used to prevent skin cancer is promotion of sun avoidance and the use of sun protection. However, despite costly and extensive campaigns, cases of skin cancer continue to increase. If found and treated early, skin cancer is curable. Early detection is, therefore, very important. The study was conducted in 2013. Instrument Development. A literature review and a survey identified barriers (factors that hinder) and levers (factors that help) to skin self-examination. These were categorized according to a the Theoretical Domains Framework and this formed the basis of an instrument, which was tested for validity and reliability using confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively. A five-factor 20-item instrument was used that tested well for reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was good for all items and domains. The five factors were: (i) Outcome expectancies; (ii) Intention; (iii) Self-efficacy; (iv) Social influences; (v) Memory. The Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Early Detection of Skin Lesions Index provides a reliable and valid method of assessing barriers and levers to skin self-examination. The next step is to design a theory-based intervention that can be tailored according to individual determinants to behaviour change identified by this instrument. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of association between inefficient arsenic methylation capacity and demographic characteristics on the risk of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-01-15

    This study was conducted in rural Pakistan to assess the dose-response relationship between skin lesions and arsenic exposure and their variation by demographic characteristics. The study included 398 participants (66 participants with skin lesions and 332 without) residing in six previously unstudied villages exposed to ground water arsenic in the range of iAs), total arsenic (tAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analysed to determine methylation capacity, methylation efficiency and the dose-response relationship with skin lesions. Study participants with skin lesions were found to be exposed to arsenic >10μgL -1 with a daily arsenic intake of 3.23±3.75mgday -1 from household ground water sources for an exposure duration of 10-20years. The participants with skin lesions compared to those without skin lesions showed higher levels of urinary iAs (133.40±242.48 vs. 44.24±86.48μgg -1 Cr), MMA (106.38±135.04 vs. 35.43±39.97μgg -1 Cr), MMA% (15.26±6.31 vs.12.11±4.68) and lower levels of DMA% (66.99±13.59 vs. 73.39±10.44) and secondary methylation index (SMI) (0.81±0.11 vs. 0.86±0.07). Study participants carrying a lower methylation capacity characterized by higher MMA% (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 2.09-12.27), lower DMA% (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-1.26), primary methylation index (PMI) (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.28-1.12) and SMI (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) had a significantly higher risk of skin lesions compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for occupation categories. The findings confirmed that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was significantly associated with increased skin lesion risks and the effect might be modified by labour intensive occupations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

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    Nawal Bahia El Idrissi

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC. Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7, multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7, and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL (n = 6 or reversal reaction (RR (n = 4 and controls (n = 5 were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = <0.05, p = <0.001 and p = <0.001 respectively, with a significant association between LAM and C3d or MAC in the skin biopsies of leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, p< 0.0001 and r = 0.8585, p<0.0001 respectively. In skin lesions of multibacillary patients, MAC deposition was found on axons and co-localizing with LAM. In skin lesions of paucibacillary patients, we found C3d positive T-cells in and surrounding granulomas, but hardly any MAC deposition. In addition, MAC immunoreactivity was increased in both ENL and RR skin lesions compared to non-reactional leprosy patients (p = <0.01 and p = <0.01 respectively. The present findings demonstrate that complement is deposited in skin lesions of leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions

  17. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  18. Effect of Acer tegmentosum bark on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gabsik; An, Duckgun; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Bumjung; Suman, Chinannai Khanita; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2016-01-11

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition characterized by pruritic and eczematous skin lesions that requires safe and effective pharmacological therapy. The bark of Acer tegmentosum Maxim trees has been used in Korean folk and traditional medicine to treat abscesses, surgical bleeding, liver diseases, and AD. To investigate the therapeutic effect of A. tegmentosum, on a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD. Development of AD-like skin lesions was induced by repetitive skin contact with barrier-disrupted backs of NC/Nga mice with Df body ointment, and the effects of A. tegmentosum were evaluated on the basis of histopathological skin assessment results, ear swelling, and cytokine production in the dorsal skin. The component of A. tegmentosum, salidroside, inhibited the production of TSLP in KCMH-1 cells, which indicated that its production could be pharmacologically regulated. Topical application of A. tegmentosum for 1 week after Df body ointment challenge significantly reduced ear swelling and improved dorsal skin lesions. Suppression of dermatitis by combined therapy was accompanied by a decrease in the skin level of Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, plasma levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and IgE. Induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also reduced in in vivo and in vitro by A. tegmentosum and salidroside. Our findings suggest that A. tegmentosum treatment has a significant therapeutic effect on Df-induced AD-like skin lesions on NC/Nga mice through inhibition of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IgE via a mechanism that may inhibit Th2-mediated immune responses. These results suggest that A. tegmentosum and salidroside may be useful tools for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  20. A fractal analysis of skin pigmented lesions using the novel tool of the variogram technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrolonardo, Mario [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy)]. E-mail: mariomastrolonardo@libero.it; Conte, Elio [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy); Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology, TIRES-Center for Innovative Technology for Signal Detection and Processing, Bari University, 70100 Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of the cutaneous malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly in the world [Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0 IARC Cancer Base no. 5. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001]. The therapeutic address requires a method having high sensitivity and capability to diagnose such disease at an early stage. We introduce a new diagnostic method based on non-linear methodologies. In detail we suggest that fractal as well as noise and chaos dynamics are the most important components responsible for genetic instability of melanocytes. As consequence we introduce the new technique of the variogram and of fractal analysis extended to the whole regions of interest of skin in order to obtain parameters able to identify the malignant lesion. In a preliminary analysis, satisfactory results are reached.

  1. Properties of films obtained from biopolymers of different origins for skin lesions therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Zilioli Bellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the origin of xanthan used, in combination with chitosan, to prepare films for the treatment of skin lesions were evaluated. The characteristics of the films obtained with xanthan commercially available for the food industry sector and xanthan originated from a fermentation process conducted in a pilot plant were compared. Results showed that the source did not strongly interfere in many of the properties of the films, such as the mechanical properties, cytotoxicity to L929 cells, absorption of simulated body fluid and culture medium, stability in water and saline solution. Hence, even though the properties of biopolymers of different sources might vary, the films prepared with two distinct types of xanthan gum could be considered as potentially safe and similar in terms of relevant characteristics considering the aimed application.

  2. Evaluation of generalized pruritus in patients without primary skin lesions in Razi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomhori P

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. It has long been recognized as a presenting or concomitant symptom of many systemic diseases. Indeed, generalized pruritus is reported to be associated with underlying diseases in 10-50 percent of cases. This study was conducted to investigate the underlying diseases in pruritic patients without primary skin lesion. Seventy-five patients with at least one-month history of pruritus with no primary skin lesions, presenting to dermatological clinics of Razi Hospital, from April 97 until December 99 were evaluated. The work up procedure consisted of medical history, physical examination, laboratory findings (CBC, ESR, blood chemistry, thyroid function tests, urinalysis, stool exam, chest X-ray and in selected cases, additional specific tests. Fifty-four patients were female, and 21 male the mean age was 45.7y±16.41, and the mean duration of pruritus, 21.8m±21. In 43 patients (75.4 percent, no abnormal finding was detected. Five patients (6.66 percent had atopy. In the remaining 27 patients (36 percent, the following abnormalities were found: Iron deficiency in 6 patients (8 percent, diabetes mellitus in 6 patients (8 percent, hyperthyroidism in 4 patients (5.33 percent, hypothyroidism in 2 patients (2.66 percent, lymphoma in 3 patients (4 percent, chronic hepatitis, hypocalcaemia, cholelithiasis, psychosis and chronic renal failure each in one patient (1.3 percent. Evaluation of patients with pruritus may be a valuable tool for early detection of underlying systemic diseases.

  3. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  4. The Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S.; Ramot, Yuval; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous and often annular, cutaneous eruption. While the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 CANDLE syndrome patients by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder as well as further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe, life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  5. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy

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    Deepak M.W. Balak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. Methods: We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Results: Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Conclusions: Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  6. Skin Lesions Associated with Nutritional Management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraspong Uaariyapanichkul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inborn error of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolism. We report an infant with MSUD who developed 2 episodes of cutaneous lesions as a result of isoleucine deficiency and zinc deficiency, respectively. Case Presentation. A 12-day-old male infant was presented with poor milk intake and lethargy. The diagnosis of MSUD was made based on clinical and biochemical data. Management and Outcome. Specific dietary restriction of BCAAs was given. Subsequently, natural protein was stopped as the patient developed hospital-acquired infections which resulted in an elevation of BCAAs. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica developed and was confirmed to be from isoleucine deficiency. At the age of 6 months, the patient developed severe lethargy and was on natural protein exclusion for an extended period. Despite enteral supplementation of zinc sulfate, cutaneous manifestations due to zinc deficiency occurred. Discussion. Skin lesions in MSUD patients could arise from multiple causes. Nutritional deficiency including isoleucine and zinc deficiencies can occur and could complicate the treatment course as a result of malabsorption, even while on enteral supplementation. Parenteral nutrition should be considered and initiated accordingly. Clinical status, as well as BCAA levels, should be closely monitored in MSUD patients.

  7. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  8. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  9. Standard guidelines of care: CO 2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupashankar D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. Machines : Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. Indications for CO 2 laser: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. Aesthetic indications: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. Physicians′ qualifications: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer′s facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. Facility: CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be

  10. The somatic mutation landscape of premalignant colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hong; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Huff, Chad; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Han; Menter, David G; Morris, Jeffery; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R; Futreal, Andrew; Kopetz, Scott; Mishra, Lopa; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-06-12

    There are few studies which characterised the molecular alterations in premalignant colorectal adenomas. Our major goal was to establish colorectal adenoma genome atlas and identify molecular markers of progression from colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing were carried out in 149 adenoma samples and paired blood from patients with conventional adenoma or sessile serrated adenoma to characterise the somatic mutation landscape for premalignant colorectal lesions. The identified somatic mutations were compared with those in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A supervised random forest model was employed to identify gene panels differentiating adenoma from CRC. Similar somatic mutation frequencies, but distinctive driver mutations, were observed in sessile serrated adenomas and conventional adenomas. The final model included 20 genes and was able to separate the somatic mutation profile of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma with an area under the curve of 0.941. The findings of this project hold potential to better identify patients with adenoma who may be candidates for targeted surveillance programmes and preventive interventions to reduce the incidence of CRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Location of skin lesions in Henoch-Schönlein purpura and its association with significant renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Jessica; Vedak, Priyanka; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Hoang, Mai P; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel IgA-predominant vasculitis. To describe adult patients with HSP and determine if the distribution of skin lesions (ie, purpura above the waist or purpura below the waist only), is a predictor of significant renal involvement at the time of the skin biopsy and the months following. A retrospective study on renal function from 72 adult patients with skin-biopsy proven HSP. Longitudinal renal data were analyzed after HSP diagnosis by using baseline renal function for comparison. Statistical analysis adjusted for sex, age, and baseline creatinine revealed a trend between HSP lesions only on the upper and lower extremities and long-term renal involvement (4.767, P = .067). Moreover, in another analysis adjusted for age and baseline creatinine, lesions located only on the upper and lower extremities significantly increased the odds of having long-term significant renal involvement (6.55, P = .049) in men. This retrospective study used patient information that was subject to selection bias. In patients with HSP, skin lesion distribution on the extremities might be predictive of significant long-term renal involvement and might be critical for risk stratification and development of personalized diagnostics and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  13. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia masquerading as cutaneous indeterminate dendritic cell tumor: Expanding the spectrum of skin lesions in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Patel, Keyur P; Xu, Jie; Khoury, Joseph D; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Aung, Phyu P; Gibson, Bernard R; Goodwin, Brandon P; Kelly, Brent C; Korivi, Brinda R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Prieto, Victor G; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Tetzlaff, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm exhibiting both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Cutaneous involvement by CMML is critical to recognize as it typically is a harbinger of disease progression and an increased incidence of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Cutaneous lesions of CMML exhibit heterogeneous histopathologic features that can be challenging to recognize as CMML. We describe a 67-year-old man with a 3-year history of CMML who had been managed on single-agent azacitidine with stable disease before developing splenomegaly and acute onset skin lesions. Examination of these skin lesions revealed a dense infiltrate of histiocytic cells morphologically resembling Langerhans type cells (lacking frank histopathologic atypia), and with the immunophenotype of an indeterminate cell histiocytosis (S100+ CD1a+ and langerin-). Given the history of CMML, next-generation sequencing studies were performed on the skin biopsy. These revealed a KRAS (p.G12R) mutation identical to that seen in the CMML 3 years prior, establishing a clonal relationship between the 2 processes. This case expands the spectrum for and underscores the protean nature of cutaneous involvement by CMML and underscores the importance of heightened vigilance when evaluating skin lesions of CMML patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Accuracy of SIAscopy for pigmented skin lesions encountered in primary care: development and validation of a new diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Hunter, Judith; Hall, Per N; Watson, Anthony J; Moncrieff, Marc; Walter, Fiona M

    2010-09-25

    Diagnosing pigmented skin lesions in general practice is challenging. SIAscopy has been shown to increase diagnostic accuracy for melanoma in referred populations. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system for SIAscopic diagnosis of pigmented lesions in primary care. This study was conducted in two consecutive settings in the UK and Australia, and occurred in three stages: 1) Development of the primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) on a sub-set of lesions from the UK sample; 2) Validation of the PCSA on a different sub-set of lesions from the same UK sample; 3) Validation of the PCSA on a new set of lesions from an Australian primary care population. Patients presenting with a pigmented lesion were recruited from 6 general practices in the UK and 2 primary care skin cancer clinics in Australia. The following data were obtained for each lesion: clinical history; SIAscan; digital photograph; and digital dermoscopy. SIAscans were interpreted by an expert and validated against histopathology where possible, or expert clinical review of all available data for each lesion. A total of 858 patients with 1,211 lesions were recruited. Most lesions were benign naevi (64.8%) or seborrhoeic keratoses (22.1%); 1.2% were melanoma. The original SIAscopic diagnostic algorithm did not perform well because of the higher prevalence of seborrhoeic keratoses and haemangiomas seen in primary care. A primary care scoring algorithm (PCSA) was developed to account for this. In the UK sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.50 (0.18-0.81); specificity 0.84 (0.78-0.88); PPV 0.09 (0.03-0.22); NPV 0.98 (0.95-0.99). In the Australian sample the PCSA had the following characteristics for the diagnosis of 'suspicious': sensitivity 0.44 (0.32-0.58); specificity 0.95 (0.93-0.97); PPV 0.52 (0.38-0.66); NPV 0.95 (0.92-0.96). In an analysis of lesions for which histological diagnosis was available (n = 111), the PCSA had a significantly

  15. Skin Findings in Renal Transplantation Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Kartal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to identify skin findings those were seen in patients who undergone renal transplantation. Methods: Patients who have been followed in Erciyes University Nephrology Hospital renal transplantation outpatient clinic were included in the study. They were evaluated for dermatologic findings during routine controls. Age, gender, transplantation date, identity of organ donor, history of medications, dermatological history and dermatological findings during examination were recorded. Biopsy was performed when needed. Results: In total 94 patients, 25 female (26.6% and 69 male (73.4%, were recruited to the study. Mean age was 36±10 years. The most frequent skin finding was drug-related acne (n=20. Most common infectious disease was verruca (n=17. There were viral disease other than verruca such as herpes zoster (n=3, superficial mycosis such as onychomycosis (n=5, tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and bacterial skin disease (n=2, and paronychia (n=1 and pre-malign lesions such as actinic cheilitis and bowenoid papulosis. Besides these, stria (n=3, kserosis (n=2, cornu cutaneum, café-au-lait spots, sebaceous hyperplasia and seborrheic dermatitis, skin tag, hypertrichosis, unguis incarinatus and calcinosis were other skin findings those were seen. No malign skin lesion was observed in any of patients. Conclusion: Miscellaneous skin lesions should develop in patients those undergone renal transplantation due to long-term utilization of various immunosuppressive drugs.

  16. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  17. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin pricklike holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called ''classical crocodile pox'' and the newly discovered form ''atypical crocodile pox''. The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  18. Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%, followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%, red and blue lesions (11% and vesiculobullous diseases (6%. OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%, lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%, infectious lesions (56.5%, psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%, and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%. Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p Conclusions OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination

  19. CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 IS PRESENT IN THE MAJORITY OF LESIONAL SKIN FROM PATIENTS WITH AUTOINMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs is not well characterized. Aim: Based on the fact that the ABD immune response is considered an adaptive immune response, both an innate immune response and inflammation would be expected in these diseases. Our investigation investigates the presence of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, since this enzyme is commonly involved in innate immune responses. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of COX-2 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 20 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 12 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for COX-2 in the lesional blister and/or the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, accentuated in the upper neurovascular plexus. In BP and EPF, the COX-2 staining was also seen in the sweat glands. All controls were negative. Conclusions: We document that COX-2 is expressed in lesional skin of patients with ABDs.

  20. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Iyer, Anand M; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rosa, Patricia S; Soares, Cleverson T; Baas, Frank; Das, Pranab K

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM) during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7), multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7), and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (n = 6) or reversal reaction (RR) (n = 4) and controls (n = 5) were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, pleprosy patients (p = leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions of these patients. This should be regarded as an important factor in M. leprae nerve damage pathology.

  1. The causes of skin lesions in the returning travelers: with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Often people yearn of a greater travel adventure like a year in Africa to get away from their routine situations and locations, for a quick vacation or as a means of finding one's self, to enjoy new experiences, to learn and experience new languages, new food, and new cultures. While most people associate Sub-Saharan Africa with safaris, there are endless other possibilities for adventure. Some African countries have actual entry requirements and won't let you in unless you have proof you've been vaccinated against a specific disease. Every African country is unique in the quality of its parks and reserves, roads and other infrastructure, visitor accommodations and receptivity to tourists. Creating an itinerary and arranging travel logistics can intimidate even the most enthusiastic tourist. Others travel more nowadays for the better economy and the advancements in transportation make it easier to do so. If family members do not reside in the same country or are probably working abroad, other family members would want to visit them and would do so as frequently as their resources would allow. Visiting families and friends in different states or countries are probably the most important reasons for taking time off to travel. No doubt, travelling to different climates, cultures and environments abroad can expose to tropical infectious diseases and health risks. This review dealt with skin lesions in the returning travelers.

  2. Runaway Train: A Leaky Radiosensitive SCID with Skin Lesions and Multiple Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Børre Fevang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclease Artemis is essential for the development of T-cell and B-cell receptors and repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and a loss of expression or function will lead to a radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency with no functional T-cells or B-cells (T-B-SCID. Hypomorphic mutations in the Artemis gene can lead to a functional, but reduced, T-cell and B-cell repertoire with a more indolent clinical course called “leaky” SCID. Here, we present the case of a young man who had increasingly aggressive lymphoproliferative skin lesions from 2 years of age which developed into multiple EBV+ B-cell lymphomas, where a hypomorphic mutation in the Artemis gene was found in a diagnostic race against time using whole exome sequencing. The patient was given a haploidentical stem cell transplant while in remission for his lymphomas and although the initial course was successful, he succumbed to a serious Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 5 months after the transplant. The case underscores the importance of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of patients with suspected severe immunodeficiency.

  3. Risk factors for saddle-related skin lesions on elephants used in the tourism industry in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Scarlett; Spohn, Olivia; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Smith, Dale A; Pearl, David L

    2015-05-19

    Lesions related to working conditions and improper saddle design are a concern for a variety of working animals including elephants. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of cutaneous lesions in anatomic regions (i.e., neck, girth, back, tail) in contact with saddle-related equipment among elephants in Thailand working in the tourism industry, and to identify potential risk factors associated with these lesions. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected between May 2007 and July 2007 on 194 elephants from 18 tourism camps across Thailand. There was a high prevalence (64.4 %; 95 % CI 57.3 - 71.2) of active lesions, most often located on the back region. Using multilevel multivariable logistic regression modelling containing a random intercept for camp we identified the following risk factors: increasing elephant age, the use of rice sacks as padding material in contact with the skin, and the provision of a break for the elephants. Working hours had a quadratic relationship with the log odds of an active lesion where the probability of an active lesion initially increased with the number of working hours per day and then declined possibly reflecting a "healthy worker" bias where only animals without lesions continue to be able to work these longer hours. While we recognize that the cross-sectional nature of the study posed some inferential limitations, our results offer several potential intervention points for the prevention of these lesions. Specifically, we recommend the following until longitudinal studies can be conducted: increased monitoring of older elephants and the back region of all elephants, working less than 6 hours per day, and the avoidance of rice sacks as padding material in contact with skin.

  4. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  5. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  6. An improved strategy for skin lesion detection and classification using uniform segmentation and feature selection based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Attique Khan, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad; Lali, Ikram Ullah; Saba, Tanzila; Iqbal, Tassawar

    2018-02-21

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer with highest mortality rate. However, the annihilation in early stage implies a high survival rate therefore, it demands early diagnosis. The accustomed diagnosis methods are costly and cumbersome due to the involvement of experienced experts as well as the requirements for highly equipped environment. The recent advancements in computerized solutions for these diagnoses are highly promising with improved accuracy and efficiency. In this article, we proposed a method for the classification of melanoma and benign skin lesions. Our approach integrates preprocessing, lesion segmentation, features extraction, features selection, and classification. Preprocessing is executed in the context of hair removal by DullRazor, whereas lesion texture and color information are utilized to enhance the lesion contrast. In lesion segmentation, a hybrid technique has been implemented and results are fused using additive law of probability. Serial based method is applied subsequently that extracts and fuses the traits such as color, texture, and HOG (shape). The fused features are selected afterwards by implementing a novel Boltzman Entropy method. Finally, the selected features are classified by Support Vector Machine. The proposed method is evaluated on publically available data set PH2. Our approach has provided promising results of sensitivity 97.7%, specificity 96.7%, accuracy 97.5%, and F-score 97.5%, which are significantly better than the results of existing methods available on the same data set. The proposed method detects and classifies melanoma significantly good as compared to existing methods. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  8. Verrucous lesions arising in lymphedema and diabetic neuropathy: Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa or verrucous skin lesions on the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Eri; Asai, Jun; Okuzawa, Yasutaro; Hanada, Keiji; Nomiyama, Tomoko; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-03-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy (VSLDN) develop in areas with sensory loss in diabetic patients. Although various types of chronic stimulation, such as pressure or friction, are considered an important factor in the development of such lesions, the precise pathogenesis of VSLDN remains obscure, and there is currently no established treatment for this disease. Here, we present a case of VSLDN on the dorsum of the right foot. However, because lymphedema was also observed at the same site, this lesion could also be diagnosed as elephantiasis nostras verrucosa arising in diabetic neuropathy. The lesion was successfully treated with a combination of elastic stocking and mixed killed bacterial suspension and hydrocortisone ointment, which suggested that VSLDN might have been exacerbated by the pre-existing lymphedema. Because various types of chronic stimulation can trigger VSLDN, treatment plans should be devised on a case-by-case basis. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence of factors that can induce or exacerbate chronic inflammatory stimulation, such as lymphedema in our case, in each patient with VSLDN. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. How accurate are measurements of skin-lesion depths on prebiopsy supine chest computed tomography for transthoracic needle biopsies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yookyung; Shim, Sung Shine; Lee, Jin Hwa; Chang, Jung Hyun; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Rena J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of depth measurements on supine chest computed tomography (CT) for transthoracic needle biopsy (TNB). Materials and methods: We measured skin-lesion depths from the skin surface to nodules on both prebiopsy supine CT scans and CT scans obtained during cone beam CT-guided TNB in the supine (n = 29) or prone (n = 40) position in 69 patients, and analyzed the differences between the two measurements, based on patient position for the biopsy and lesion location. Results: Skin-lesion depths measured on prebiopsy supine CT scans were significantly larger than those measured on CT scans obtained during TNB in the prone position (p < 0.001; mean difference ± standard deviation (SD), 6.2 ± 5.7 mm; range, 0–18 mm), but the differences showed marginal significance in the supine position (p = 0.051; 3.5 ± 3.9 mm; 0–13 mm). Additionally, the differences were significantly larger for the upper (mean ± SD, 7.8 ± 5.7 mm) and middle (10.1 ± 6.5 mm) lung zones than for the lower lung zones (3.1 ± 3.3 mm) in the prone position (p = 0.011), and were larger for the upper lung zone (4.6 ± 5.0 mm) than for the middle (2.4 ± 2.0 mm) and lower (2.3 ± 2.3 mm) lung zones in the supine position (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Skin-lesion depths measured on prebiopsy supine chest CT scans were inaccurate for TNB in the prone position, particularly for nodules in the upper and middle lung zones.

  10. Skin Lesions in European Hibernating Bats Associated with Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, S?bastien J.; Ohlendorf, Bernd; M?hldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; G?rf?l, Tam?s; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Fr?d?ric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with si...

  11. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  12. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  13. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Sasaki, Kyoko; Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-08-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan.

  14. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Yuko; SASAKI, Kyoko; KASHIWAGI, Nobuyuki; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2015-01-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan. PMID:25866402

  15. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  16. Fungi isolated from the skin lesions of Ghezel and Makui sheep with suspected ringworm in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Araghi – Sooreh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-dermatophytic fungi are frequently isolated on the cultures used in surveys of animals suspected of having ringworm. The present study was conducted to identify of saprophytic fungi and dermatophyte isolated from sheep with suspected ringworm in Urmia, Iran. A total of 1323 sheep from two breeds of Ghezel (n = 727 and Makui (n = 596 were examined for skin lesions. Only 4(0.035 % lesions with hair loss and scaling were found on ears of Ghezel sheep. Samples were examined microscopically by KOH and cultured ontoSabouraud’s dextrose agar and Sabouraud’s dextrose with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide, incubated at 25 and 37 ° C and examined for 4weeks. All (100% of the specimens yielded positive culture. Fungal isolates were Alternariaspp. (3 cases, 75 % and Mucor spp. (2 cases, 50%. No dermatophyte fungi were cultured from suspected ringworm lesions. Saprophytic fungi isolated in the present study may not be considered as cause of skin lesions in Ghezel sheep.

  17. T lymphocytes in the lesional skin and the levels of peripheral blood cytokines in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kökçam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the roles of tissue cellular immunity and serum levels of cytokines in the patients with plaque psoriasis treated with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate.Materials and methods: The study included 20 patients with psoriasis. Peripheral blood and biopsy samples were collected from lesional and normal skins before and after treatment. The results were compared with each other.Results: Immunohistochemical examination revealed significant elevations of CD4+, CD8+ and CD25+ T lymphocytes in the lesional tissues when compared to that in the healthy tissues and post treatment tissue (p0.05. The levels of IL–4, IL–10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 in serum were not significantly different between before and after treatment periods (p>0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there were infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cell in the lesional skin and CD8+ T-lymphocytes were the dominant cell types. The improvement of the lesions and significant decreases in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in accordance with the treatment strongly support the hypothesis that Th lymphocytes may have prominent roles in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. However, our findings showed that sufficient T-cells still remains in the tissue, which is consistent with the chronic characteristic of the disease, and the topical treatment could not be able to prevent the activation of the disease.

  18. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  19. Late occurring lesions in the skin of rats after repeated doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Late radiation damage, characterized by atrophy and necrosis in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, has been demonstrated in both the tail and feet of rats. The incidence of necrosis increased with total dose. These total doses, in the range 72-144 Gy, were given as 4-8 treatment of 18 Gy, each dose separated from the next by an interval of 28 days. This treatment protocol minimized acute epithelial skin reactions. The same regime applied to the skin on the back of rats resulted in a very severe acute reaction occurring after the second to fifth dose of 18 Gy. This was surprising since back skin, like tail skin, is less sensitive to large single doses of radiation than that of the foot. The late radiation reaction in the foot and tail of rats are compared and contrasted with other attempts to assess late effects in rodent skin and with late changes seen in pig skin. (author)

  20. Zoon’s Balanitis: Benign or Premalignant Lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Balato

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoon’s balanitis or balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis is a chronic disease of unknown origin.This condition usually manifests in middle-aged or elderly uncircumcised men. Although of unknown etiology, different factors have been reported to be involved in its genesis (local infections, poor hygiene, heat, friction, and constant rubbing. It is generally considered to be a benign condition, and its association with malignancies has been rarely reported. We report the case of an uncircumcised man, who developed clinically and histopathologically evident squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in an area affected by Zoon’s balanitis.

  1. Gastric malignancies and associated pre-malignant lesions in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... were sarcomas and 2 (1.9%) cases were lymphomas. Of 102 cases of ..... Kaposi's sarcoma (Obekpa et al., 1994). Our findings .... Milne ANA, Carvalho R, Morsink FM, Musler AR, de Leng WWJ,. Ristimaki A (2006).

  2. HPV infection in premalign and malign cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to detect the incidence and rate of high risk HPV-DNA in patients with cervical cancer,HGSIL,LGSIL or ASCUS and compare those findings with patients presenting with totally benign servical smears as well as to search for the factors influencing these rates. Materials and Methods: 85 patients with cytologic and histologic proven cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL, ASCUS and 178 patients with totally benign (normal or infecton smear results as a control group who attented to Atatürk Training and Research Hospital 3rd Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics between the dates of January 2006- July 2008 were included to our study. Within these patients age, first sexual intercourse, age, smoking habit, number of sexual partners, age of menarche and contraception methods were recorded. Pap smears and smears for detection of high risk HPV were taken concurrently from cervical transformation zone and external cervical ostium and the incidence of high risk HPV-DNA were examined. Results: High risk HPV DNA rate was detected as 65.2% positive in cervical carcinoma patients in our study. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 54.8% of patients with HGSIL while it was positive in 25% of patients with LGSIL. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 5% of patients with benign cervical cytology results. Discussion: The positivity rates of high risk HPV-DNA results in cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL patients and in patients with benign cervical cytologies were statistically significant. When the age of menarche and contraception method were considered the HPV-DNA positivity rates’ differences were statistically insignificant.The differences for the age of first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, age and smoking habits were statistically significant.

  3. Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabulut, A.; Reibel, Jesper; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of oral leukoplakias has a major impact on the assessment of prognosis and treatment planning. We investigated the extent of agreement in grading epithelial dysplasia between pathologists with the same or different educational backgrounds. Two general pathologists...... and two oral pathologists were each given 100 sections of oral leukoplakia to grade from no dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ. The interobserver agreement rates were in the range of 49% to 69%. The calculated kappa values were in the range of 27% to 45%, showing poor to moderate agreement between...

  4. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  5. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Wibbelt

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011 revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  6. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in skin lesions, blood, nasal swabs and milk following preventive vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeković, T; Šimić, I; Krešić, N; Lojkić, I

    2018-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease caused by Capripoxvirus is at the moment the most important threat to European cattle industry. The only way for successful control of disease is fast and efficient diagnosis and vaccination. According to EU legislation, vaccination against LDS can be conducted only after confirmation of the disease. Croatia has a special position regarding LSD-in 2016, for the first-time vaccination of the entire cattle population was conducted without an index case. The presence of vaccine viral particles was detected in milk, skin nodules, blood and nasal swabs in seven from total of eight herds. The presence of virus genome was detected in five cows from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination. The virus was successfully isolated on cell culture from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination from three animals. The obtained results support the need for further efforts to develop safer vaccines against LSDV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  8. An overlap of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and Kimura′s disease: Successful treatment of skin lesions with cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kimura′s disease is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous masses, eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in tissues with marked increase in Serum Ig E. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE manifests with the presence of dermal papules and nodules. Unique clinical, histopathological, and biochemical findings are noted in these individual entities. A 32-year-female presented with multiple nodules in the axillae for 2 years. Peripheral smear showed eosinophilia with AEC of 6080. Histopathological examination showed features of overlap. Antinuclear antibody immunoflorescence was was negative. CD31, CD34, and FVIII were positive in vascular component. A CT chest revealed left axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated with Cryotherapy and there was complete regression of skin lesions, with no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. ALHE and KD are common in the head and neck region, but no reports of an overlap, presenting with lesions in the axillae are available to date, to the best of our knowledge. Response of skin lesions to cryotherapy is highlighted.

  9. Reappraisal of in situ immunophenotypic analysis of psoriasis skin: interaction of activated HLA-DR+ immunocompetent cells and endothelial cells is a major feature of psoriatic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, O. J.; van der Loos, C. M.; Hamerlinck, F.; Bos, J. D.; Das, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease of unknown aetiology. Many observations indicate that T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Upregulation of MHC class-II molecules on immunocompetent cells, endothelial cells and keratinocytes on lesional psoriatic skin has been

  10. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Dasom Shin; Won Choi; Hyunsu Bae

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA...

  11. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z M; Zhong, H Q; Zhai, J; Wang, C X; Xiong, H L; Guo, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo. (paper)

  12. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  13. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Hyunjung; Kang, Manho; Kim, Namsik; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-02-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE) in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  14. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P < .01). Acral melanocytic lesions correlated with increased mole counts, particularly on non-Hispanic white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents: review of the literature and two cases of factitious purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-01-01

    Self harm is a great diagnostic and treatment challenge. In addition, psychocutaneous conditions are rare in the pediatric population and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Dermatitis artefacta is a psychocutaneous syndrome, which is a subgroup of the general spectrum of self-inflicted skin lesions. Dermatitis artefacta encompasses an array of different clinical manifestations, including purpura. Factitious purpura has rarely been reported in children. Case report and review of the literature. We describe two Caucasian patients (9-year-old boy and 10-year-old girl) with striking purpuric lesions diagnosed as factitious purpura. The clinical lesions were similar, but the underlying psychological problems differed significantly (depression and stress). The current state of knowledge of dermatitis artefacta in children and adolescents was reviewed. The presence of purpura in children and adolescents typically causes extensive intervention programs due to the possible serious pathological consequences. The two cases demonstrate a need for a high degree of attention to psychological disturbances, lesional evolution, and distribution once the suspicion is established. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2001-01-01

    .... Toxicokinetic studies with male, fur-covered and hairless guinea pigs showed that SM disappeared from the skin 60 min after exposure whereas in the female, fur-covered guinea pig SM disappeared after 3 hours...

  17. Development of Protective Agent Against Sulfur Mustard-Induced Skin Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wormser, Uri

    2002-01-01

    The present study is a final report of the project. During the project we developed iodine formulation proved to be efficacious against SM in the guinea pig skin model at intervals of 15 and 30 rain between exposure and treatment...

  18. The role of skin trauma in the distribution of morphea lesions: a cross-sectional survey of the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Daniel; Hsieh, Clifford; Andrew, Rachel; Martires, Kathryn; Kim, Andrew; Vasquez, Rebecca; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-09-01

    Skin trauma may play a role in the development of morphea lesions. The association between trauma and the distribution of cutaneous lesions has never been examined to our knowledge. We sought to determine whether patients enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort exhibit skin lesions distributed in areas of prior (isotopic) or ongoing (isomorphic) trauma. This was a cross-sectional analysis of the MAC cohort. Of 329 patients in the MAC cohort, 52 (16%) had trauma-associated lesions at the onset of disease. Patients with lesions in an isotopic distribution had greater clinical severity as measured by a clinical outcome measure (mean modified Rodnan Skin Score of 13.8 vs 5.3, P = .004, 95% confidence interval 3.08-13.92) and impact on life quality (mean Dermatology Life Quality Index score 8.4 vs 4.1, P = .009, 95% confidence interval 1.18-7.50) than those with an isomorphic distribution. Most frequent associated traumas were chronic friction (isomorphic) and surgery/isotopic. Recall bias for patient-reported events is a limitation. Of patients in the MAC cohort, 16% developed initial morphea lesions at sites of skin trauma. If these findings can be confirmed in additional series, they suggest that elective procedures and excessive skin trauma or friction might be avoided in these patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of skin trauma in the distribution of morphea lesions: a cross-sectional survey of the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabell, Daniel; Hsieh, Clifford; Andrew, Rachel; Martires, Kathryn; Kim, Andrew; Vasquez, Rebecca; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin trauma may play a role in the development of morphea lesions. The association between trauma and the distribution of cutaneous lesions has never been examined. Objective Determine whether patients enrolled in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort exhibit skin lesions distributed in areas of prior (isotopic) or ongoing (isomorphic) trauma. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the MAC cohort. Results Of 329 patients in the MAC cohort, 52 (16%) had trauma associated lesions at the onset of disease. Patients with lesions in an isotopic distribution had greater clinical severity as measured by a clinical outcome measure (mean modified Rodnan Skin Score of 13.8 vs. 5.3, P=0.004, 95% CI=3.08-13.92) and impact on life quality (mean Dermatology Life Quality Index 8.4 vs. 4.1, P=0.009, 95% CI 1.18-7.50) than those with an isomorphic distribution. Most frequent associated trauma were chronic friction (isomorphic) and surgery/isotopic. Limitations Recall bias for patient reported events. Conclusion Sixteen percent of patients in the MAC cohort developed initial morphea lesions at sites of skin trauma. If these findings can be confirmed in additional series, they suggest that elective procedures and excessive skin trauma or friction might be avoided in these patients. PMID:24880663

  20. Expression and Localization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Nuclear Factor κB in Normal and Lesional Psoriatic Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal epidermal proliferation and differentiation characterize the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate that expression of PPARdelta mRNA and protein is markedly upregulated in psoriatic lesions and that lipoxygenase products accumulating in psoriatic lesions are potent...... activators of PPARdelta. The expression levels of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 were not significantly altered in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. In the basal layer of normal epidermis both p50 and p65 were sequestered in the cytoplasm, whereas p50, but not p65, localized to nuclei...... in the suprabasal layers, and this distribution was maintained in lesional psoriatic skin. In normal human keratinocytes PPAR agonists neither impaired IL-1beta-induced translocation of p65 nor IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding. We show that PPARdelta physically interacts with the N-terminal Rel homology...

  1. Stereotoracic skin biopsy in non-palpable woman mammary glands lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Francisco; Mezzera, Julieta

    1999-01-01

    Seventy stereotactic breast biopsies in non palpable lesions were performed in asintomatic patients, studied with mammography, physical examination and high-resolution ultrasonography. A 14-gauge cutting needle was used with excursion of 2 and 20 mm. in high likelihood probably benign lesions and low likelihood probably malignant lesions, not snographical evident and not less than 4 mm. in diameter. Long term follow-up or surgical correlation is available in only 46 biopsies, with 35 negative results and 11 positive results for cancer. Follow-up mammography was recommended in 34 of 35 negative results and one case showed mammographic lesion progression, a false negative result, with sensitivity 90.9% and NPV 97%. Needle wire localization and open surgery was recommended in 11 positive results, with total agreement between stereotactic core biopsy and open surgery, with specificity 100% and PPV 100%. The indication of stereotactic biopsy in non palpable lesions as an alternative to surgical biopsy in order to decrease the number of surgical biopsies with negative results and in consequence lowering costs of diagnosis of asintomatic malignant lesions, with error of 2.1% and 2.8% minor complications

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Nonblanching, Palpable Skin Lesions With a Linear Pattern in Children With Henoch-Schönlein Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Ramelli, Vera; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2017-11-01

    Linear nonblanching skin lesions are thought to occur very rarely in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of linear nonblanching skin lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. A prospective case series was conducted at the ambulatory practice of a hospitalist between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015, among 31 consecutive children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Thirty-one consecutive children affected with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome who were from 3.0 to 12.0 years of age (median age, 6.2 years). Children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome underwent a careful, structured skin examination established in advance with emphasis on the presence of palpable lesions with a linear pattern. Among the 31 children in the study (12 girls and 19 boys; median age, 6.2 years [range, 3.0-12.0 years]), 8 (26%) had linear lesions on the legs, groin, waistline, wrists, or forearms. Patients with or without linear lesions did not differ significantly with respect to sex, age, and cutaneous, abdominal, articular, or renal involvement. This study illustrates the prevalence and characteristics of linear skin lesions in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Patients with symptoms suggestive of this vasculitis should be evaluated for the presence of nonblanching, palpable lesions with a linear pattern.

  3. Effectiveness of an employee skin cancer screening program for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Ugur; Hees, Felix; Winnik, Eva; Uter, Wolfgang; Sticherling, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Incidences of UV-induced skin cancer are continuously increasing. For this reason, early diagnosis is becoming more important. In this study, 783 employees of a technical company participated in an employee skin cancer screening program, which consisted of a physical examination for benign and malignant skin lesions and premalignant conditions. To ensure the quality of the examinations, screening was only performed by 5 trained dermatologists. Participants also were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire prior to examination. A total of 661 skin lesions were diagnosed among 48% of participants; 12.8% of participants exhibited 50 or more melanocytic nevi and the risk for developing skin cancer was categorized as at least moderate for 64.9%. Additionally, 84.4% of participants with at least 1 skin lesion were advised to have a checkup within 1 year. The high rate of suspicious nevi detected in this study suggested that employee skin cancer screening programs are effective and also should be recommended at companies where employees are not at increased risk for developing skin cancer due to the nature of their work (eg, those who work outdoors). Despite the comparatively selective and young study population, these examinations provide evidence of the importance of skin cancer screening for the wider population.

  4. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  5. Porcine skin visible lesion thresholds for near-infrared lasers including modeling at two pulse durations and spot sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, C P; Polhamus, G D; Roach, W P; Stolarski, D J; Schuster, K J; Stockton, K L; Rockwell, B A; Chen, Bo; Welch, A J

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 micros) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 J cm(-2) for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 J cm(-2) for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.

  6. Skin lesions over the pocket area that may mimic cardiac implantable electronic device infection: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Plakoutsi, Sofia; Florou, Elizabeth; Bechlioulis, Aris

    2018-05-21

    The early and correct diagnosis of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is critical given that early aggressive treatment with complete removal of the system along with antimicrobial therapy dramatically improves outcomes. Pocket infection manifested by local signs of inflammation is the most common form of CIED infections. Conditions mimicking pocket infection have been described in the literature. These include various types of malignancy and rarely allergic reactions/contact dermatitis to pacemaker compounds. We aimed to describe skin lesions and disorders over the pocket area that mimic CIED infection. We present a series of 5 cases with skin lesions that mimic pocket infection. We document these cases with corresponding photographs. Most of them have not been described in this setting. We report the following cases of conditions that proved not to be CIED infection: One case of superficial cellulitis, one case of herpes zoster over the pocket area, one case of spontaneous bruising over the pocket a long time after implantation in a patient taking oral anticoagulation, and 2 cases of contact dermatitis due to prolonged postoperative application of povidone iodine. All cases had favorable outcome after conservative treatment and no CIED infection was developed during follow-up. Clinicians should be aware of rare conditions that mimic CIED infection. Incorrect diagnosis of these disorders may falsely lead to CIED extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin lesions diagnostics by on diffuse reflection spectres using computational algorithms: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Guillen, E.E.; Delgado-Atencio, J.A.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Villanueva-Luna, E.; Gutierrez-Delgado, F.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of diffuse reflection spectrum on human skin in the spectral range from 400nm-1000nm using an optical fiber spectrometers is a non-invasive technique widely used to study the optical parameters of this tissue, provides information about the absorption and scattering properties of light that can be employed to study the morphology and physiology of the tissue and to detect and diagnose skin diseases in early stages. In this paper a computational algorithm for the selection of the most important attributes of diffuse reflection spectra of human skin obtained with an experimental system that basically consists of a spectrometer, a white light source and bifurcated fiber optic probe that allows send and collect light. To classify the spectral signal was designed a Matlab2006 graphical interface which use support vector machines and algorithm for selecting attributes that allows to achieve a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 80% and 85% of accuracy in the classification. (Author)

  8. Skin and skeletal system lesions of european pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić-Kovačević, Sanja; Ozvegy, József; Krstić, Nikola; Rusvai, Miklós; Jakab, Csaba; Stanimirović, Zoran; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.

  9. Upregulation of proinflammatory genes in skin lesions may be the cause of keloid formation (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, XIANGLIN; MAO, SHAOLIN; WEN, HAO

    2013-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that the main cause behind keloid formation may be keloid fibroblast abnormalities, which are closely associated with the microenvironment of the keloid lesion. The post-traumatic and chronic inflammation of the keloid lesion area suggest that inflammatory mediators play an important role in the keloid microenvironment and are crucial for keloid fibroblast abnormalities. In this study, we hypothesized that the mechanism underlying keloid formation may involve the continuous upregulation of proinflammatory gene expression in keloid lesions. This hypothesis may explain the inflammatory response, invasive growth and recurrence following resection of keloids, as well as the selective localization of keloids in specific parts of a patient’s body and the differences in localization among different patients. PMID:24649037

  10. Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Toru; Ichikawa, Miki; Sato, Bunpei; Shibata, Shinji; Hara, Yuichi; Naritomi, Yuji; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Koyanagi, Samon; Hara, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tetsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is caused by infiltrating lymphocytes and associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17. Effective treatments, including pathogenesis-based biological agents against psoriasis, are currently under development. Although the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been investigated, it remains to be fully elucidated; ROS-targeted therapeutic strategies are also lacking at present. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess whether H2, a ROS scavenger, has a therapeutic effect on psoriasis-associated inflammation by reducing hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrite in the immunogenic psoriasis cascade. Three methods were used to administer H2: Drop infusion of saline containing 1 ppm H2 (H2-saline), inhalation of 3% H2 gas, and drinking of water containing a high concentration (5-7-ppm) of H2 (high-H2 water). Treatment efficacy was estimated using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) system, based on C-reactive protein levels, and the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, determined at baseline and following each H2 treatment. Furthermore, levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-17 were analyzed. The DAS28 and PASI score of the three patients decreased during H2 treatment, regardless of the administration method. The psoriatic skin lesions almost disappeared at the end of the treatment. IL-6 levels decreased during H2 treatment in Case 1 and 2. IL-17, whose concentration was high in Case 1, was reduced following H2 treatment, and TNFα also decreased in Case 1. In conclusion, H2 administration reduced inflammation associated with psoriasis in the three cases examined and it may therefore be considered as a treatment strategy for psoriasis-associated skin lesions and arthritis.

  11. The dependence of skin lesions on the depth-dose distribution from β-irradiation of people in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanova, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study was made of conditions of exposure of 56 Chernobyl victims who suffered skin radiation lesions. The most typical conditions were experimentally reconstructed to investigate specific characteristics of dose distribution to the skin according to depth for different exposure conditions. Absorbed doses at depths of 7 mg cm -2 and 150 mg cm -2 were calculated on the basis of measurements with multilayer skin dosemeters. Patients were classified into four groups. Dosimetric characteristics for each group were compared with clinical pictures to establish critical factors in the occurrence of lesions. It was demonstrated that depth-dose distribution of β-radiation to the skin is of great influence not only for early effects of radiation but also for later effects. Radiation lesions in the skin led to death if the area of the lesions exceeded about 50% total body surface, and if doses to the skin were about 200-300 Gy at 7 mg cm -2 and more than about 30 Gy at 150 mg cm -2 . (author)

  12. The effects of tungstate on skin lesions caused by PPD in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Gug; Lee, Sang-Il

    2008-04-01

    P-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been used as one of the ingredients in hair dye. The purpose of this study is to investigate the skin toxicity of PPD application in a tungstate-induced xanthine oxidase (XO) deficient animal model. PPD (2.5% PPD in 2% NH4OH) was applied to rat skin (25 mg/16.5 cm2) five times every other day in rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a tungstate supplemented diet (TD). The skin structure in the SD and the TD group was intact, whereas XO activity was not detected in the TD group during experimental periods. Furthermore, there were no differences between the SD and the TD group in dermal reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. In these experimental conditions, although XO activity was not detected in the applied PPD rats fed a tungstate supplemented diet (PTD) group, it showed more severe tissue damage compared with the applied PPD rats fed a standard diet (PSD) group. In addition, the PTD group showed higher increased rates of ROS scavenging enzyme activity and lipid peroxide (LPO) content, and decreased glutathione (GSH) content than in the PSD group. In conclusion, the increase of PPD dermal toxicity in tungstate-induced XO deficient animals may be due to excessive ROS via ROS imbalance during PPD skin application.

  13. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valencene (VAL isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  15. Reduction of regulatory T cells in skin lesions but not in peripheral blood of patients with systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Kretz, C C; Ruland, V; Stumpf, C; Haust, M; Hartschuh, W; Hartmann, M; Enk, A; Suri-Payer, E; Oberle, N; Krammer, P H; Kuhn, A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the frequency and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and their association with clinical parameters in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Peripheral blood from 25 patients with SSc, 15 patients with localised scleroderma (LS) and 29 healthy controls (HC) was studied. Analysis of CD4(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) subpopulations was carried out by flow cytometry and cell proliferation was quantified by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Quantitative analysis of T(reg) was further performed in skin biopsies from 17 patients with SSc and 21 patients with LS using anti-CD4 and anti-Foxp3 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemistry. The frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in peripheral blood from patients with SSc was not significantly different from that of patients with LS or HC. The suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(++) T(reg) in SSc was also found to be similar to that of HC. Phenotypic and functional data revealed no significant difference between the limited or diffuse form of SSc. Moreover, therapy with bosentan showed no significant effect on the frequency of T(reg) during the course of the disease. However, the frequency of T(reg) in skin lesions from patients with SSc or LS, determined as the percentage of CD4(+) cells expressing Foxp3 in the inflammatory infiltrate, was significantly reduced compared with other inflammatory skin diseases. These results indicate that although the authors found no defect in the frequency or function of peripheral T(reg) subpopulations, the reduction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in the skin of patients with SSc may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  16. Influence of laser wavelength on the thermal responses of port wine stain lesions in light, moderate and heavy pigmented skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Chen, B.; Wu, W.J.; Ying, Z.X.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surgery for port wine stain (PWS) was studied by local non-equilibrium theory. • Wavelength selection in laser surgery under various skin pigmentation was explored. • High pigmented skin prefers to 585 nm rather then 595 nm. • Dual-wavelength laser (585/595 + 1064 nm) has better clinic effect than single one. • Deep buried blood vessels can be damaged by 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. - Abstract: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) in visible band (e.g. 585 or 595 nm) together with cryogen spray cooling has become the golden standard for treatment of vascular malformation such as port wine stain (PWS). However, due to the limited energy penetration depth of the PDL, deeply buried blood vessels are likely to survive from the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG laser in near infrared (1064 nm) has great potential in the laser treatment of PWS due to its deeper penetration depth. In this study, the influence of laser wavelength in treating PWS lesions with various melanin concentrations in epidermis was theoretically investigated by a two-temperature model following the local thermal non-equilibrium theory of porous media. The results showed that deeply buried blood vessels can be coagulated by dual-wavelength laser combing 585 or 595 nm with 1064 nm laser. Furthermore, the therapeutic results by dual-wavelength laser were highly related to the melanin concentration in epidermis. In the light and moderate pigmented skin, the 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect in treating PWS with deeply-buried blood vessels than of 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser. For a high pigmented skin, the 585/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser showed better treatment effect than 595/1064 nm dual-wavelength laser.

  17. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution.

  18. Simulating light transport through skin for color prediction of port wine stain lesions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tom; Wright, Philip A.; Chappell, Paul H.

    2012-11-01

    A survey of the literature is presented regarding the simulation of port wine stain (PWS) skin color. Knowledge of PWS features, such as the depths and diameters of affected vessels, is essential for informing laser treatment. These may be determined through the inverse application of a skin model. The techniques which have been applied to achieve this are analyzed in detail. Radiative transfer (RT) is found to be the preferred method of simulation. By far the most common approximations to RT are the diffusion approximations, which have been applied successfully in the past and Monte Carlo techniques, which are now the methods of choice. As the requirements for improvement of laser treatment on an individual basis continues, the needs for further work towards accurate estimations of individual optical coefficients and robust, flexible simulation techniques are identified.

  19. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Radiation exposure to patient's skin during percutaneous coronary intervention for various lesions, including chronic total occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furui, Shigeru; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Kozuma, Ken; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    Radiation skin injuries have been reported as a result of various procedures, so in the present study the patients' entrance skin dose (ESD) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was evaluated. ESDs were assessed during 97 procedures (13 for chronic total occlusion (CTO), 14 for multivessel stenoses, 22 for single-vessel multiple stenoses, and 48 for single stenosis). The patients wore jackets that had 48 or 52 radiosensitive indicators placed on the back during the PCI procedures, with 8 other indicators placed on both upper arms. After the procedure, the color of the indicators was analyzed with a color measuring instrument, and the patients' ESDs were calculated from the color difference of the indicators. The average maximum ESDs of the patients were 4.5±2.8 Gy (median: 4.6 Gy) for CTO, 2.3±0.7 Gy (median: 2.4 Gy) for multi-vessel stenoses, 1.8±1.0 Gy (median: 1.5 Gy) for single-vessel multiple stenoses, and 1.4±0.9 Gy (median: 1.2 Gy) for single stenosis. Skin injury can occur during PCI, especially for CTO, so it is important to estimate each patient's ESD and attempt to reduce it. (author)

  1. Cutaneous malignant and premalignant conditions caused by chronic arsenicosis from contaminated ground water consumption: a profile of patients from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Samik Kumar; Debbarma, Kuntal

    2013-01-01

    Natural arsenic pollution is a major global health problem. The two worst affected areas e Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen that affects many organs including the skin. The authors sought to find out the clinical patterns of different malignant and premalignant conditions associated with chronic arsenicosis from drinking contaminated ground water in a group of patients from eastern India. This was a clinical observational study. Patients with chronic arsenicoses with suspected cutaneous malignancies for whom dermatology service was sought were enrolled in the study. A total of 24 patients (male to female ratio, 11:1; age range, 32-71 years; mean age, 52.2 years) were evaluated. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the commonest malignancies in our series, seen in 10 (41.7%) patients. This was followed by Bowen's disease (9 [37.5%]) and basal cell carcinoma (8 [33.3%]). Three patients (12.5%) had > 1 type of cutaneous malignancies. Multicentric lesions were seen in 3 cases. The most common site of involvement was the chest (8 [33.3%]). No statistically significant correlation was found between number of lesions and arsenic content in the hairs and nails of the patients.

  2. Enhancement of human papilloma virus type 16 E7 specific T cell responses by local invasive procedures in patients with (pre)malignant cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jeroen; van Baarle, D; Hoogeboom, BN; Reesink, N; Klip, H; Schuuring, E; Nijhuis, E; Pawlita, M; Bungener, L; de Vries-Idema, J; Nijman, H; Miedema, F; Daemen, T; van der Zee, A

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that local invasive procedures may alter the natural course of (pre)malignant cervical disease. This could be due to partial excision of the lesions, or via induction of cellular immunity against human papillomavirus (HPV) by the local invasive procedures. We studied the

  3. Nonhealing skin lesions in a sailor and a journalist returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesho, Emil P; Wortmann, Glenn; Neafie, Ronald; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    US health care providers who are not familiar with cutaneous leishmaniasis may now begin to encounter more patients with this challenging entity as military personnel return from rotations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Diagnosis requires a skin scraping, aspiration, or biopsy, followed by examination by an experienced microscopist or pathologist. Demonstration of the parasite DNA by PCR or culture in special media can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. Sodium stibogluconate is the mainstay of therapy, but other options for selected cases include topical thermal or cryotherapy treatment and oral triazole compounds. Assistance is available through the CDC and, for Department of Defense beneficiaries, certain military facilities.

  4. Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Zanotti, Roberta; González-de-Olano, David; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Vega, Arantza; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Morgado, José Mário; Perbellini, Omar; García-Montero, Andrés; De Matteis, Giovanna; Teodósio, Cristina; Rossini, Maurizio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Schena, Donatella; Mayado, Andrea; Zamò, Alberto; Mollejo, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Paula; Cabañes, Nieves; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of ISMs(-) associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis (insectISMs(-)) versus other patients with ISM. A total of 335 patients presenting with MC activation syndrome, including 143 insectISMs(-), 72 ISMs(-) triggered by other factors (otherISMs(-)), 56 ISMs(+), and 64 nonclonal MC activation syndrome, were studied. Compared with otherISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, insectISMs(-) cases showed marked male predominance (78% vs 53% and 46%; P < .001), a distinct pattern of MC-related symptoms, and significantly lower median serum baseline tryptase levels (22.4 vs 28.7 and 45.8 μg/L; P ≤ .009). Moreover, insectISMs(-) less frequently presented BM MC aggregates (46% vs 70% and 81%; P ≤ .001), and they systematically showed MC-restricted KIT mutation. ISMs(-) patients with anaphylaxis triggered exclusively by insects display clinical and laboratory features that are significantly different from other ISM cases, including other ISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, suggesting that they represent a unique subgroup of ISM with a particularly low BM MC burden in the absence of adverse prognostic factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. PDGFRa amplification in multiple skin lesions of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: A clue for intimal sarcoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, Amélie; Vignon-Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Pedeutour, Florence; Le Maignan, Christine; Koskas, Fabien; Lebbé, Célèste; Janin, Anne; Battistella, Maxime

    2017-05-01

    A 62-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man was admitted for multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules on his lower limbs, corresponding to an undifferentiated proliferation of spindle and pleomorphic cells, with irregular nuclei and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells were negative for a large panel of immunohistochemical markers, except CD10. MDM2 immunohistochemical staining was also negative, leading to the diagnosis of Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le Cancer grade III undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed a highly complex karyotype, with amplification of the 4q12 region, an area that contains only the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRa) gene. This amplification of PDFGRa, molecular hallmark of intimal sarcoma (IS), led to the diagnosis of skin IS metastasis. A positron emission tomography showed a hypermetabolic mass protruding in the preaortic area, consistent with the diagnosis of aortic IS. Our study shows that a rare differential diagnosis in peripheral UPS can be IS skin metastasis, and underlines the importance of molecular analyses in UPS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  8. Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Yedlin, Victoria; Kortte, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull's-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID:23133445

  9. Interface dermatitis in skin lesions of Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease: a histopathological marker of evolution into systemic lupus erythematosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradela, S; Lorenzo, J; Martínez-Gómez, W; Yebra-Pimentel, T; Valbuena, L; Fonseca, E

    2008-12-01

    Kikuchi's disease (KD) is a self-limiting histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL). Cutaneous manifestations are frequent and usually show histopathological findings similar to those observed in the involved lymph nodes. HNL with superposed histological features to KD has been described in patients with lupus erythematosus (LE), and a group of healthy patients previously reported as having HNL may evolve into LE after several months. Up to date, features to predict which HNL patients will have a self-limiting disease and which could develop LE have been not identified. In order to clarify the characteristics of skin lesions associated with KD, we report a case of HNL with evolution into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a review of previous reports of KD with cutaneous manifestations. A 17-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of fever and generalised lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of HNL was established based on a lymph node biopsy. One month later, she developed an erythematoedematous rash on her upper body, with histopathological findings of interface dermatitis. After 8 months, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) at titre of 1/320, anti-DNA-ds antibodies and marked decrease of complement levels were detected. During the following 2 years, she developed diagnostic criteria for SLE, with arthralgias, pleuritis, aseptic meningitis, haemolytic anaemia and lupus nephritis. To our knowledge, 27 cases of nodal and cutaneous KD have been reported, 9 of which later developed LE. In all these patients, the skin biopsy revealed interface dermatitis. Skin biopsy revealed a pattern of interface dermatitis in all reviewed KD cases, which evolved into LE. Even this histopathological finding was not previously considered significant; it might be a marker of evolution into LE.

  10. Eighty-two year old female with long term abdominal pain, fever and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Nicolás, G; Zafar Iqbal-Mirza, S; Gonzáles Carhuancho, J A; Mollejo Villanueva, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an old woman, consulting for fever, abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms one year of evolution. The differential diagnosis is between infectious, tumoral, or inflammatory disease, which may be located at the abdominal level, performing additional tests to rule out abdominal process. The existence of pain in the legs and level scan left thigh of a mass of hard consistency, makes us raise another diagnosis. Finally show on ultrasound soft tissue inflammatory changes regarding panniculitis. From this finding aetiologies of panniculitis are reviewed. Skin biopsy that shows the final diagnosis is made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. Utilidad en la combinación de oligonucleótidos universales para la detección del virus del papiloma humano en cáncer cervicouterino y lesiones premalignas Usefulness of combining universal oligonucleotides in detecting human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Carrillo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia y distribución del virus del papiloma humano en los diferentes estadios que conforman la historia natural del cáncer cérvico uterino, y optimizar la detección mediante el uso de diferentes oligonucleótidos universales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, en el que las muestras fueron colectadas durante enero a diciembre de 1999. El procesamiento de las muestras y el análisis de los datos se realizaron en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología en la Ciudad de México. Se hizo análisis comparativo con t de Student para valores continuos y con ji cuadrada para proporciones, y análisis de concordancia entre biopsia y exudado cervical con la prueba estadística de Kappa. Para la detección del virus se utilizó la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con oligonucleótidos universales los cuales reconocen diferentes regiones del gen L1 (MY09/11; GP5/6; L1C1/2, y oligonucleótidos específicos para el VPH 16 y el VPH 18, así como secuenciación directa de los productos de la PCR. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 154 muestras: 65 (42.2% citologías normales, 45 (29.2% lesiones de alto y bajo grado, y 44 (28.6% de cáncer invasor. El VPH fue detectado en 95.5% de los casos de cáncer invasor, en 91.6% de lesiones de alto grado, en 66.7% de lesiones de bajo grado y en 23.1% de citologías normales, por la PCR con al menos uno de los juegos de oligonucleótidos utilizados. La detección fue más eficiente en las muestras obtenidas por biopsia que en los exudados cervicovaginales. El porcentaje total de detección del VPH con un juego de oligonucleótidos universales (37.6% aumentó sustancialmente (60.4% al combinarlo con otros dos juegos de oligonucleótidos universales. CONCLUSIONES: La presencia del VPH de alto riesgo es elevada inclusive en mujeres con epitelios cervicales con diagnóstico citológico normal. La detección del VPH mejora al utilizar distintos

  12. Detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum from Skin Lesions, Serum, and Cerebrospinal Fluid in an Infant with Congenital Syphilis after Clindamycin Treatment of the Mother during Pregnancy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicová, Vladana; Šmajs, David; Wechsler, Dan; Matějková, Petra; Flasarová, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    We report here a case of congenital syphilis in a newborn after clindamycin treatment in pregnancy. Using PCR detection of tmpC (TP0319) and DNA sequencing of the genes TP0136 and TP0548, DNA sequences identical to Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum strain SS14 were detected in the infant's skin lesions, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:17151205

  13. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  14. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  15. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis versus dermoscopy for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions: prospective, double-blind study in a secondary reference centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-01-01

    Dermoscopy is considered to be the golden standard for the clinical assessment of pigmented skin lesions. In expert hands, this instrument improves both sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of melanoma, however, the outcome is highly dependent on the skills and experience of the examiner...

  16. Spotlight on talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orloff M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marlana Orloff Department of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: On October 27, 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, a first in class intralesional oncolytic virotherapy, was granted the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of melanoma in the skin and lymph nodes. Its approval has added yet another therapeutic option to the growing list of effective therapies for melanoma. Though the Phase III OPTiM trial has demonstrated its efficacy as a single agent, the target patient population remains narrow. With numerous effective and tolerable treatments available for unresectable and metastatic melanoma, intralesional therapies such as T-VEC are still finding their niche. T-VEC is now widely accepted as option for treatment; however, its combination with various other agents in an effort to expand its use and synergize with other interventions is still being explored. This article will review the pre-clinical and clinical work that eventually led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this first-in-class agent, as well as address concerns about clinical application and ongoing research. Keywords: T-VEC, talimogene laherparepvec intralesional, melanoma, oncolytic virus, virotherapy, immunotherapy

  17. High-level intuitive features (HLIFs) for intuitive skin lesion description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Glaister, Jeffrey; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2015-03-01

    A set of high-level intuitive features (HLIFs) is proposed to quantitatively describe melanoma in standard camera images. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. With rising incidence rates and subjectivity in current clinical detection methods, there is a need for melanoma decision support systems. Feature extraction is a critical step in melanoma decision support systems. Existing feature sets for analyzing standard camera images are comprised of low-level features, which exist in high-dimensional feature spaces and limit the system's ability to convey intuitive diagnostic rationale. The proposed HLIFs were designed to model the ABCD criteria commonly used by dermatologists such that each HLIF represents a human-observable characteristic. As such, intuitive diagnostic rationale can be conveyed to the user. Experimental results show that concatenating the proposed HLIFs with a full low-level feature set increased classification accuracy, and that HLIFs were able to separate the data better than low-level features with statistical significance. An example of a graphical interface for providing intuitive rationale is given.

  18. [Terbinafine : Drug-induced lupus erythematodes and triggering of psoriatic skin lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P

    2016-09-01

    Based on the technical information that oral terbinafine must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis or lupus erythematosus, the literature was summarized. Terbinafine belongs to the drugs able to induce subcutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)-with a relatively high risk. The clinical picture of terbinafine-induced SCLE may be highly variable and can also include erythema exsudativum multiforme-like or bullous lesions. Thus, differentiation of terbinafine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may be difficult. Therefore, terbinafine should be prescribed with caution in patients who show light sensitivity, arthralgias, positive antinuclear antibodies or have a history of SLE or SCLE. Case reports include wide-spread, but mostly nonlife-threatening courses, which did not require systemic therapy with steroids or antimalarials in every case. Terbinafine is also able to induce or to aggravate psoriasis. The latency period seems to be rather short (Terbinafine therefore is not first choice if a systemic therapy with antimycotics is indicated in a patient with psoriasis or psoriatic diathesis. Azole derivatives according to the guidelines may be used as an alternative.

  19. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  20. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Choi, Won; Bae, Hyunsu

    2018-04-02

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract ( Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA2 treatment inhibited epidermal thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and cytokine levels, macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the ear of an AD model induced by DFE and DNCB. In contrast, these effects were abrogated in CD206 mannose receptor-deficient mice exposed to DFE and DNCB in the ear. These data suggest that bvPLA2 alleviates atopic skin inflammation via interaction with CD206.

  1. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gunhyuk, E-mail: uranos5@kiom.re.kr [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dal-Seok [The K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon [Major in Cosmeceutical Science, Division of Bio-technology and Convergence, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-ung, E-mail: ykim@dhu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  2. 6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, alleviates allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions via cytokine inhibition by activating the Nrf2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Dal-Seok; Lee, Mi Gi; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Yong-ung

    2016-01-01

    Allergic dermatitis (AD) clinically presents with skin erythematous plaques, eruption, and elevated serum IgE, and T helper cell type 2 and 1 (Th2 and Th1) cytokine levels. 6-Shogaol [1-(4-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-4-decen-one], a pungent compound isolated from ginger, has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on AD are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether 6-shogaol inhibits AD-like skin lesions and their underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. An AD-like response was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) + IFN-γ in human keratinocytes or by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice. In vivo, 6-shogaol inhibited the development of DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions and scratching behavior, and showed significant reduction in Th2/1-mediated inflammatory cytokines, IgE, TNF-α, IFN-γ, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-1, 4, 12, and 13, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase levels. In vitro, 6-shogaol inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling, and increased the levels of total glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and quinone 1 via nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. 6-Shogaol can alleviate AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting immune mediators via regulating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. - Highlights: • 6-Shogaol inhibited Th2/1-mediated inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. • 6-Shogaol regulated ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2 signaling pathway. • 6-Shogaol can protect against the development of AD-like skin lesions.

  3. Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameño people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A H; Arroyo, A P; Mazumder, D N; Kosnett, M J; Hernandez, A L; Beeris, M; Smith, M M; Moore, L E

    2000-07-01

    It has been suggested that the indigenous Atacameño people in Northern Chile might be protected from the health effects of arsenic in drinking water because of many centuries of exposure. Here we report on the first intensive investigation of arsenic-induced skin lesions in this population. We selected 11 families (44 participants) from the village of Chiu Chiu, which is supplied with water containing between 750 and 800 microg/L inorganic arsenic. For comparison, 8 families (31 participants) were also selected from a village where the water contains approximately 10 microg/L inorganic arsenic. After being transported to the nearest city for blind assessment, participants were examined by four physicians with experience in studying arsenic-induced lesions. Four of the six men from the exposed village, who had been drinking the contaminated water for more than 20 years, were diagnosed with skin lesions due to arsenic, but none of the women had definite lesions. A 13-year-old girl had definite skin pigmentation changes due to arsenic, and a 19-year-old boy had both pigmentation changes and keratoses on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. Family interviews identified a wide range of fruits and vegetables consumed daily by the affected participants, as well as the weekly intake of red meat and chicken. However, the prevalence of skin lesions among men and children in the small population studied was similar to that reported with corresponding arsenic drinking water concentrations in both Taiwan and West Bengal, India--populations in which extensive malnutrition has been thought to increase susceptibility.

  4. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  5. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  6. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  7. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  8. Efficiency of ablative fractional Er: YAG (Erbium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Koç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Er: YAG lasers are precise ablation systems used in the treatment epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. In this study, we restrospectively analysed efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy in the treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated our clinical records of 116 patients treated with Er: YAG laser between April 2011 and April 2013. The clinical records of 103 patients (47 men, 56 women were included in our study. Of these 103 patients included in the study were xanthelasma, solar lentigo, epidermal nevus, seborrheic keratosis, nevus of ota, syringoma, cafe au lait macules (CALM and other than these. Treatment parameters, demographic features and before and after photographs of the lesions were investigated from patients’ records in order to evaluate efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy. Results: Of these 103 patients included in the study were evaluated in 8 groups, described as xanthelasma (n=21, syringoma (n=17, solar lentigo (n=16, epidermal nevus (n=11, seborrheic keratosis (n=9, nevus of ota (n=5, CALM (n=3 and other than these (n=21. In the Er: YAG laser treatment, the average energy flow was 3-7 J/cm2, the average pulse duration was 300 ms, the average number of passes was 3-5 repeat, and the average pulse frequency was 3-7 Hz. While 4.9% of the patients showed no improvement, 59.2% showed marked improvement, 26.2% showed moderate improvement and 9.7% showed mild improvement. Treatment responses in xanthelasma, syringoma, epidermal nevus, solar lentigo and CALM lesions were statistically significant. Observed side effects were hyperpigmentation in 4 patients, hypopigmentation in 3 patients, hypertrophic scar in 2 patients and persistent erythema in one patient and the treatment was well tolerated by all the patients. Conclusion: Er: YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment option in the treatment of benign skin lesions especially in epidermal lesions.

  9. Associations between site of skin lesions and depression, social anxiety, body-related emotions and feelings of stigmatization in psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łakuta, Patryk; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Słomian, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a link between psoriasis and a multitude of psychological impairments; however, relatively few studies have examined the importance of site of skin lesions for negative psychological outcomes in psoriasis patients. To investigate relationships between anatomical location of psoriatic lesions and experiences of stigmatization, negative emotional attitude towards the body, depression and social anxiety. Adult psoriasis patients ( N = 193) completed the Stigmatization Scale, the Body Emotions Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Social Anxiety Questionnaire. The body surface area index was used to assess the location and extent of psoriasis. Feelings of stigmatization were found to be most closely related to the presence of psoriatic lesions on the chest, and the arms and hands. Higher levels of social anxiety were found to be most closely related to the location of psoriatic lesions on the head and neck. Negative emotional attitude towards the body was found to be most closely related to the location of psoriatic lesions on the arms and hands, and on the head and neck. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were most closely related to the presence of psoriatic lesions on the head and neck, the arms and hands, and the genital area. The presence of psoriatic lesions on the head, neck, and chest, and also on the arms and hands and the genital area, should alert clinicians to a higher risk of psychological impairments. This may help to better recognize and prevent cumulative life course impairment.

  10. Dermatologia comparativa: lesão de ataque por caravela portuguesa (Physalia physalis Comparative dermatology: skin lesion produced by attack of jellyfishes (Physalia physalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Araújo Palmeira Queiroz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demonstra-se lesão dermatológica, em caprichoso formato de coração, característica de ataque por caravela-portuguesa, em banhista do sexo feminino, 21 anosIt is reported the case of a 21-year-old female bather with a skin lesion, heart-shaped ,characteristic of attack by jellyfish

  11. Molecular and Cellular Determinants of Malignant Transformation in Pulmonary Premalignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing...as premalignant- and malignant-specific mutations, were identified. The mutational data was analyzed in the pathway context. Based on the...Milestone Achieved: HRPO/ACURO Approval Completed Major Task 2 Subtask 1: To construct sequencing libraries and perform exome enrichment (50

  12. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly L. Kile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Results We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin < 120 g/L compared to women with normal hemoglobin levels [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.32, 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI: 1.29, 8.52] after adjusting for arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75 % of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/L, suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Conclusions Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  13. Distribución de las lesiones de la piel en la región de cabeza y cuello Distribution of skin lesions on the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Simão

    Full Text Available El cáncer de piel (incluyendo el melanoma y los tipos de cáncer de piel de células basales y de células escamosas es por mucho, el tipo de cáncer más común de todos los cánceres. La mayoría de éstos son cánceres de células basales. Los cánceres de células escamosas ocurren con menos frecuencia. Noventa y seis por ciento de las resecciones de lesiones cutáneas, en la clínica de cirugía plástica del Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, están representadas por lesiones en las regiones de la cara, cabeza y cuello. El conocimiento del perfil epidemiológico del servicio, nos ayuda a establecer medidas de prevención y tratamiento de neoplasias cutáneas.Skin cancer (including melanoma and basal cell and squamous cell cancers is by far the most common type of cancer of all cancers. Most of these are basal cell cancers. Squamous cell cancers occur less frequently. Ninety-six percent of resections of skin lesions in the plastic surgery clinic of the Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, are represented by lesions in the regions of the face, head and neck. The knowledge of the epidemiological profile of service, helps us to establish prevention and treatment of skin malignancies.

  14. Antibodies against human cytomegalovirus late protein UL94 in the pathogenesis of scleroderma-like skin lesions in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastano, Rocco; Dell'Agnola, Chiara; Bason, Caterina; Gigli, Federica; Rabascio, Cristina; Puccetti, Antonio; Tinazzi, Elisa; Cetto, Gianluigi; Peccatori, Fedro; Martinelli, Giovanni; Lunardi, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and its reactivation correlate both with the increased risk and with the worsening of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Because scleroderma-like skin lesions can occur in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in allogeneic stem-cell transplant (HCT) patients and hCMV is relevant in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), we evaluated the possible pathogenetic link between hCMV and skin cGVHD. Plasma from 18 HCT patients was tested for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies, identified in SSc patients, by direct ELISA assays. Both donors and recipients were anti-hCMV IgG positive, without autoimmune diseases. Patients' purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 IgG binding to human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts was performed by FACS analysis and ELISA test. HUVECs apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation induced by patients' anti-NAG-2 antibodies were measured by DNA fragmentation and cell viability, respectively. About 11/18 patients developed cGVHD and all of them showed skin involvement, ranging from diffuse SSc-like lesions to limited erythema. Eight of eleven cGVHD patients were positive for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies. Remarkably, 4/5 patients who developed diffuse or limited SSc-like lesions had antibodies directed against both UL94 and NAG-2; their anti-NAG-2 IgG-bound HUVECs and fibroblasts induce both endothelial cell apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation, similar to that induced by purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 antibodies obtained from SSc patients. In conclusion, our data suggest a pathogenetic link between hCMV infection and scleroderma-like skin cGVHD in HCT patients through a mechanism of molecular mimicry between UL94 viral protein and NAG-2 molecule, as observed in patients with SSc.

  15. Immunohistological Analysis of In Situ Expression of Mycobacterial Antigens in Skin Lesions of Leprosy Patients Across the Histopathological Spectrum : Association of Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid-I (PGL-I) with Leprosy Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, Claudia; Faber, William; Klatser, Paul; Buffing, Anita; Naafs, Ben; Das, Pranab

    1999-01-01

    The presence of mycobacterial antigens in leprosy skin lesions was studied by immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) and to cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens of 36 kd, 65 kd, and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). The staining patterns with MAb to 36 kd and 65 kd were heterogeneous and were also seen in the lesions of other skin diseases. The in situ staining of PGL-I and LAM was seen only in ...

  16. Benign breast lesions in an African population: A 25-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: BBDs constituted 70% of breast lumps and were mostly fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change. BBDs occurred predominantly in young females with a peak in the third decade. Though premalignant lesions of atypical hyperplasia were less common, biopsy of all BBDs should be done to exclude these lesions ...

  17. Pseudolaric acid B extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Cortex Pseudolaricis ameliorates DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Teng Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pseudolaric acid B (PB is a newly identified diterpenoid isolated from Tujinpi (Cortex Pseudolaricis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of PB on atopic dermatitis (AD, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. Methods: BALB/c mice treated with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene were orally administered with PB (10 mg∙kg-1∙d-1. After evaluating the AD score, serum levels of IgE and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR respectively. Results: The results showed that PB treatment significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PB inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β in skin lesions, and downregulated serum IgE levels. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory properties of PB were demonstrated using the 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced mouse model of AD-like skin lesions. Our study highlighted the potential use of PB as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated skin diseases.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Propionibacterium acnes Strains Isolated from Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis Lesions of Human Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rolf; Lomholt, Hans B.; Scholz, Christian F. P.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is prevalent on human skin. It has been associated with skin disorders such as acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH). Here, we report draft genome sequences of two type III P. acnes strains, PMH5 and PMH7, isolated from...

  19. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  20. Video education to improve recognition of common benign and malignant cutaneous lesions and skin cancer prevention in the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lenczowski, BS

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that a brief, plain-language video was effective at conveying understandable content to help subjects learn to identify common cancerous and benign skin growths while also teaching them strategies to protect against skin cancer.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin after 20 years of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Poddar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of developing malignancies due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin can occur in these patients even after decades of organ transplant. A 45-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end-stage renal disease 23 years ago and was on immunosuppressive drugs since then. The patient was on regular follow-up. Three years back, he developed squamous cell carcinoma of both forearms and hands, which was treated with radiation therapy using 8 MeV electrons, by parallel opposed fields to a dose of 60 Gy/30 fractions. Complete response to treatment was achieved at 3 months posttreatment. The patient is currently on follow-up and asymptomatic for skin lesions. Hence, these patients require longer follow-up, active surveillance, and screening for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the premalignant and malignant conditions.

  2. CD1a, HAM56, CD68 and S-100 are present in lesional skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research on autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD has primarily focused on the humoral immune response; moreover, little attention has been given to the potential role of the antigen presenting cells (APCs in lesional skin. Aim: The purpose of our study was to immunophenotype selected APC in the lesional skin of ABDs, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC stains. Materials and Methods: We utilized IHC to stain for dendritic cells (DC, staining with CD1a, CD68, HAM56, and S-100 in lesional skin from 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 2 with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA. Results: Cells stained by CD68, HAM56 and S-100 were present in the majority of the ABD skin biopsies; these cells were located primarily in perivascular infiltrates surrounding dermal vessels subjacent to the blisters. However, these cells were also noted within the blisters, in vessels supplying dermal eccrine glands and ducts, and in areas of dermal endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, especially in BP cases. In our CD1a staining, the number and location of positive staining cells varied with each disease, being abundant in most ABD in the epidermis suprajacent to the blisters, or in the epidermis surrounding the blister site if the blister site epidermis was missing. In the control biopsies, most did not display positive IHC staining, with the exception of a few CD1a positive cells in the epidermis Conclusion: Our findings confirm positive IHC staining for APCs in areas of the skin besides the disease blisters. Our findings suggest that the antigen presentation in ABD proceeds in areas distant from the blister site

  3. Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions. Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Kurov, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals

  4. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, F.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Abad, E.D. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lyra, Y.C. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, D.C. [Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (Microbial Ecology), Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Programa de Pós Graduação em Odontologia, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, K.R.N. dos [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  5. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; Santos, K.R.N. dos

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD

  6. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; Mansilla, E.; Drago, H.; Dubner, D.; Radl, A.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial micro-vessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radio-pathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radio-pathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. (authors)

  7. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  8. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  9. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition op......One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High......-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM. However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis...

  10. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  11. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  12. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  13. Cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T regulatory cells in skin lesions of polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M T; Arisi, M; Lonardi, S; Lorenzi, L; Ungari, M; Serana, F; Fusano, M; Moggio, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P G; Venturini, M

    2018-02-11

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is the most common autoimmune photodermatosis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are important mediators of innate antimicrobial immunity involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases. In addition to PDCs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in controlling inflammation and adaptive immunity in skin by their immunosuppressive capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of PDCs and Tregs in photoexposed skin from PLE compared to healthy skin. Patients with PLE diagnosis and healthy controls were recruited and underwent a photoprovocative test. A 4-mm punch biopsy was taken from the site of positive photoprovocation test reaction, and immunohistochemistry for BDCA2 as marker for PDCs, CD4 and FOXP3 as markers for Tregs was performed. Double immunostain for FOXP3 and CD4 was performed as well. Absolute counts for CD4, BDCA2 and FOXP3 were performed in at least 5 High Power Fields (HPF). Percentage of CD4-, BDCA2- and CD4FOXP3-positive cells over the total inflammatory infiltrate was assessed for each case. We enrolled 23 patients and controls. BDCA2+ cells were present in 91.3% of PLE skin samples and 100% of healthy volunteer. Both in PLE patients and healthy controls, PDCs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients (P PLE patients and healthy controls, Tregs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients compared to controls (P PLE, and dermal distribution of PDCs in PLE skin biopsies seems to confirm a possible overlap with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Thygesen, Sandra K; Nelson, Jeanenne J

    2016-05-03

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997-2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40% of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70% died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6% with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9% with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7% with Bowen's disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8% (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8% (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1% (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen's disease, 0.04% (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0%. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1%; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and non-cuSCC were

  15. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Thygesen, Sandra K.; Nelson, Jeanenne J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997–2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40 % of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70 % died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6 % with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9 % with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7 % with Bowen’s disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8 % (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8 % (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1 % (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen’s disease, 0.04 % (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0 %. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1 %; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and

  16. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S

    2014-07-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 366-385 nm) elicits a distinct orange-yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange-yellow wing fluorescence (n=80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n=88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n=22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n=40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  17. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 368–385 nm) elicits a distinct orange–yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange–yellow wing fluorescence (n = 80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n = 88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n = 22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n = 40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  18. Long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser ameliorates LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions through promoting collagen remodeling in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Jongsic; Jeong, Seo-Won; Jo, Hyunmu; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2018-02-01

    Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (LPND) effectively treats rosacea, although the underlying mechanism is unclear, to evaluate the histological effects and molecular mechanism of LPND on LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions in mice. Intradermal injection of LL-37 was performed into the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice (n = 30) twice a day for 2 days. Fifteen mice were treated with LPND. After 48 h, the excised skin sample was stained for histology and type I collagen; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1α mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Intradermal injection of LL-37 induced rosacea-like clinical features. LPND treatment significantly reduced erythema and increased dermal collagen production. Levels of Type I collagen, TGF-β, and MMP-1 mRNA were significantly higher in LPND-treated mice than in untreated mice. LPND may improve rosacea by ameliorating dermal connective tissue disorganization and elastosis through MMP-mediated dermal collagen remodeling.

  19. Genome-wide relatedness of Treponema pedis, from gingiva and necrotic skin lesions of pigs, with the human oral pathogen Treponema denticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Svartström

    Full Text Available Treponema pedis and T. denticola are two genetically related species with different origins of isolation. Treponema denticola is part of the human oral microbiota and is associated with periodontitis while T. pedis has been isolated from skin lesions in animals, e.g., digital dermatitis in cattle and necrotic ulcers in pigs. Although multiple Treponema phylotypes may exist in ulcerative lesions in pigs, T. pedis appears to be a predominant spirochete in these lesions. Treponema pedis can also be present in pig gingiva. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of T. pedis strain T A4, isolated from a porcine necrotic ear lesion, and compared its genome with that of T. denticola. Most genes in T. pedis were homologous to those in T. denticola and the two species were similar in general genomic features such as size, G+C content, and number of genes. In addition, many homologues of specific virulence-related genes in T. denticola were found in T. pedis. Comparing a selected pair of strains will usually not give a complete picture of the relatedness between two species. We therefore complemented the analysis with draft genomes from six T. pedis isolates, originating from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in pigs, and from twelve T. denticola strains. Each strain carried a considerable amount of accessory genetic material, of which a large part was strain specific. There was also extensive sequence variability in putative virulence-related genes between strains belonging to the same species. Signs of lateral gene-transfer events from bacteria known to colonize oral environments were found. This suggests that the oral cavity is an important habitat for T. pedis. In summary, we found extensive genomic similarities between T. pedis and T. denticola but also large variability within each species.

  20. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  1. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a Chinese family with distinct skin lesions refractory to vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S H; Sourial, N A; Lu, K C; Hsueh, E J

    1994-01-01

    Two brothers in a Chinese family with selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 associated with proteinuria (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome) presented with widespread mottled skin pigmentation, termed poikiloderma. In contrast to anaemia, this pigmentary disturbance remained unresponsive to vitamin B12 replacement. This is different from the reported hyperpigmentation sometimes seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is reversible following treatment. As far as is known, an irreversible and persistent...

  2. Fluoxetine ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  3. p16 mutation spectrum in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Paulson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation, promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity involving the tumor suppressor gene p16 (CDKN2a/INK4a have been detected in a wide variety of human cancers, but much less is known concerning the frequency and spectrum of p16 mutations in premalignant conditions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have determined the p16 mutation spectrum for a cohort of 304 patients with Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition that predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Forty seven mutations were detected by sequencing of p16 exon 2 in 44 BE patients (14.5% with a mutation spectrum consistent with that caused by oxidative damage and chronic inflammation. The percentage of patients with p16 mutations increased with increasing histologic grade. In addition, samples from 3 out of 19 patients (15.8% who underwent esophagectomy were found to have mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest the environment of the esophagus in BE patients can both generate and select for clones with p16 mutations.

  4. Use of the spectrophotometric color method for the determination of the age of skin lesions on the pig carcass and its relationship with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, M; Conte, S; Lessard, M; Deschêne, K; Benoit-Biancamano, M O; Celeste, C; Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Guay, F; Faucitano, L

    2017-09-01

    The presence of lesions on the pig carcass is an indicator of poor animal welfare and has economic impact as it downgrades the carcass value. The assessment of the age of lesions on the carcass may help identify risk factors and ultimately prevent their occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the age of lesions on pig carcasses through spectrophotometric color evaluation and to relate the results with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters. A total of 96 barrows were mixed 4 times over 3 d before slaughter and 80 lesions were selected after skin lesion observations to define 4 age categories: carcass, and the color was assessed visually by a pictorial chart and instrumentally through a spectrophotometer. Delta values (Δ) were calculated as the difference between the value of the lesion and the value of the control for all measures, except for the histological analysis. Results indicated that visual color observation was not sufficiently accurate to discriminate lesions by time of infliction ( > 0.10), while the spectrophotometer ΔL* and Δa* values variation allowed the identification of 25 h old lesions ( 25 h old lesions; carcass lesions at slaughter appears to be a reliable method to discriminate between fresh and older lesions on the carcass at the abattoir.

  5. Beta-defensin-2 protein is a serum biomarker for disease activity in psoriasis and reaches biologically relevant concentrations in lesional skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A M Jansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have extensively documented antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of beta-defensins. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 is strongly expressed in lesional psoriatic epidermis, and recently we have shown that high beta-defensin genomic copy number is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. It is not known, however, if biologically and pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of hBD-2 protein are present in vivo, which could support an antimicrobial and proinflammatory role of beta-defensins in lesional psoriatic epidermis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that systemic levels of hBD-2 showed a weak but significant correlation with beta defensin copy number in healthy controls but not in psoriasis patients with active disease. In psoriasis patients but not in atopic dermatitis patients, we found high systemic hBD-2 levels that strongly correlated with disease activity as assessed by the PASI score. Our findings suggest that systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number. Modelling of the in vivo epidermal hBD-2 concentration based on the secretion rate in a reconstructed skin model for psoriatic epidermis provides evidence that epidermal hBD-2 levels in vivo are probably well above the concentrations required for in vitro antimicrobial and chemokine-like effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum hBD-2 appears to be a useful surrogate marker for disease activity in psoriasis. The discrepancy between hBD-2 levels in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis could explain the well known differences in infection rate between these two diseases.

  6. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and severity of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of cervical cancer relies on the detection and treatment of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL), a premalignant disease stage. Worldwide there are overwhelming reports associating SIL and HIV infection, however in Tanzania such reports are limited. A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was ...

  8. Adjunctive aids for the detection of oral premalignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Charanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer greatly decreases the morbidity and mortality rates and thereby increases the 5-year survival rates. In developing countries like India where the disease is highly prevalent focus is mainly on decreasing the mortality rates which can be easily achieved by detection at an asymptomatic stage. Visual examination has been the standard screening method for screening oral cancer through several decades, and it is well known that conventional visual examination is limited to subjective interpretation and cannot be easily achieved in certain anatomical sites. As a solution to all these adjunctive techniques have emerged, and it has been widely used. An effort is made through this paper to review the most commonly used adjunctive aids for the detection of premalignancy and cancer.

  9. Type 1- and type 2-like lesional skin-derived Mycobacterium leprae-responsive T cell clones are characterized by coexpression of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha and IL-4/IL-5/IL-13, respectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, C. E.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Buffing, A. A.; Chand, M. A.; Faber, W. R.; Aarden, L. A.; Das, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a large number of Mycobacterium leprae-responsive and M. leprae-nonresponsive T cell clones (TCC) from the lesional skin of immunologic unstable borderline leprosy patients. In that study, we divided TCC into type 1- and type 2-like on the basis of their IFN-gamma

  10. Oculocutaneous Albinism and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin of the Head and Neck in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Lekalakala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculocutaneous albinism which is characterised by impaired melanin biosynthesis is the most common inherited pigmentary disorder of the skin and it is common among Blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. All albinos are at great risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of sun-exposed skin, and Black albinos in sub-Saharan Africa are at about a 1000-fold higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin than the general population. In Black albinos, skin carcinoma tends to run an aggressive course and is likely to recur after treatment, very probably because the aetiology and predisposing factors have not changed. Prevention or reduction of occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Black albinos might be achieved through educating the population to increase awareness of the harmful effects of exposure to sunlight and at the same time making available effective screening programs for early detection of premalignant and malignant skin lesions in schools and communities and for early treatment.

  11. Expressão de galectina-3 e beta-catenina em lesões pré-malignas e carcinomatosas de língua de camundongos Galectin-3 and beta-catenin expression in premalignant and carcinomatous lesions in tongue of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Moreira de Almeida Sant'ana

    2011-02-01

    . Altered galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions have been described in different tumors, however, there are no studies evaluating their expression in dysplasias and carcinomas induced in carcinogenic tongue models. OBJECTIVES: To study galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions in dysplasias and carcinomas experimentally induced in mouse tongue. METHODS: Twenty C57Bl/6 male mice were treated with 4NQO in their drinking water for 16 weeks and sacrificed at weeks 16 and 32. Tongues were removed, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to detect dysplasias and carcinomas. An immunohistochemical assay was performed to determine the level of positivity for galectin-3 and beta-catenin in these lesions as well as their correlation in carcinomas. RESULTS: The number of mice affected by carcinomas increased from week 16 to week 32 (22.2% vs. 88.9% and the number affected by dysplasias decreased (66.7% vs. 11.1%. There was an increase in non-membranous beta-catenin- and cytoplasmic galectin-3-positive cells in dysplasias and carcinomas, although this difference was not statiscally significant. Nonetheless, there was a significant increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in the evolution from dysplasia to carcinoma (p = 0.04. There was no correlation between beta-catenin and galectin-3. CONCLUSION: Wnt signaling pathway is active in both dysplasias and carcinomas and the increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in carcinomas suggests its influence on malignant transformation in the tongue epithelium.

  12. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  13. Interconnecting smartphone, image analysis server, and case report forms in clinical trials for automatic skin lesion tracking in clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Daniel; Doma, Aliaa; Gombert, Alexander; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    Today, subject's medical data in controlled clinical trials is captured digitally in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). However, eCRFs only insufficiently support integration of subject's image data, although medical imaging is looming large in studies today. For bed-side image integration, we present a mobile application (App) that utilizes the smartphone-integrated camera. To ensure high image quality with this inexpensive consumer hardware, color reference cards are placed in the camera's field of view next to the lesion. The cards are used for automatic calibration of geometry, color, and contrast. In addition, a personalized code is read from the cards that allows subject identification. For data integration, the App is connected to an communication and image analysis server that also holds the code-study-subject relation. In a second system interconnection, web services are used to connect the smartphone with OpenClinica, an open-source, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electronic data capture (EDC) system in clinical trials. Once the photographs have been securely stored on the server, they are released automatically from the mobile device. The workflow of the system is demonstrated by an ongoing clinical trial, in which photographic documentation is frequently performed to measure the effect of wound incision management systems. All 205 images, which have been collected in the study so far, have been correctly identified and successfully integrated into the corresponding subject's eCRF. Using this system, manual steps for the study personnel are reduced, and, therefore, errors, latency and costs decreased. Our approach also increases data security and privacy.

  14. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A Los nevos melanocíticos premalignos quiescentes no expresan la molécula MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA es una molécula casi ausente en células normales pero sobre-expresada por células tumorales, que promueve el reconocimiento por células citotóxicas naturales (natural killer o NK y por

  15. Skin lesions and inoculation eschars at the tick bite site in spotted fever group rickettsioses: experience from a patient series in eastern crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Antonis; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main clinical signs and symptoms caused by a rickettsial infection typically begin 6-10 days after the bite and are accompanied by nonspecific findings such as fever, headache and muscle pain. The diagnosis is mainly based on serological tests, however antibody presentation may be delayed, at least at the early stages of the disease, while seroconversion is usually detected 10-15 days after disease onset. Culture is difficult, requires optimized facilities and often proves negative. Under this scope, the presence of a characteristic inoculation eschar at the bite site may prove a useful clinical tool towards the early suspicion and diagnosis/differential diagnosis of tick-borne rickettsioses, even before the onset of rash and fever or serological confirmation. We describe herein the presence of skin lesions and/or an inoculation eschar at the tick bite site in 17 patients diagnosed, by molecular means, as suffering from spotted fever group rickettsioses. The detection of the pathogen's DNA in biopsy samples proved to be a useful means for early rickettsiae detection and identification. Moreover, the presence of an infiltrated erythema always seemed to precede the appearance of an eschar by 2-5 days and the initiation of fever by 1-10 days; these two signs might also prove useful in the context of the final diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  17. Cell cycle regulatory proteins and miRNAs in premalignant lesions and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Björner, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis and reliable prognosis and treatment prediction of breast cancer will ultimately lead to a decreased mortality rate. This can be achieved by identification of prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers, and by understanding the mechanisms behind early changes in the breast. The cell cycle is a closely controlled process, involving multiple components with regulation on several levels. Loss of adequate cell proliferation control and cell cycle regulation is one of the ma...

  18. Alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment in gastric cancer and its premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S M; Fang, D C; Luo, Y H; Lu, R; Battle, P D; Liu, W W

    2001-08-01

    In order to explore the role of alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Telomerase activity was detected in 176 specimens of gastric mucosa obtained through an operation or endoscopical biopsy by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Meanwhile, the mean length of TRF was measured with the use of a Southern blot in part of those samples. Telomerase activity was detected in 14 of 57 (24.6%) chronic atrophy gastritis patients, six of 18 (33.3%) intestinal metaplasia patients, three of eight (37.5%) dysplasia patients and 60 of 65 (92.3%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. Normal gastric mucosa revealed no telomerase activity. No association was found between telomerase activity and any clinicopathological parameters. The mean TRF length was decreased gradually with age in normal mucosa and in gastric cancer tissue. Regression analysis demonstrated that the reduction rate in these tissues was 41 +/- 12 base pairs/year. Among 35 gastric cancers, TRF length was shown to be shorter in 20 cases (57.1%), similar in 12 cases (34.3%) and elongated in three cases (7.6%), compared to the corresponding adjacent tissues. The mean TRF length tended to decrease as the mucosa underwent chronic atrophy gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and into gastric cancer. The mean TRF length in gastric cancer was not statistically correlated with clinicopathological parameters and telomerase activity. Our results suggest that telomerase is expressed during the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, and that the clinical significance of TRF length appears to be limited in gastric cancer.

  19. Optimized endoscopic autofluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of premalignant lesions in Barrett's oesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, Jasmin A.; Boerwinkel, David F.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Visser, Mike; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect early cellular changes in Barrett's oesophagus before these become visible. As the technique is based on varying concentrations of intrinsic fluorophores, each with its own optimal excitation wavelength, it is important to assess the optimal

  20. Analysis of clonal expansions through the normal and premalignant human breast epithelium reveals the presence of luminal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereser, Biancastella; Jansen, Marnix; Austin, Emily; Elia, George; McFarlane, Taneisha; van Deurzen, Carolien Hm; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Daidone, Maria G; Tadrous, Paul J; Wright, Nicholas A; Jones, Louise; McDonald, Stuart Ac

    2018-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the cell of origin of breast cancer is the adult mammary epithelial stem cell; however, demonstrating the presence and location of tissue stem cells in the human breast has proved difficult. Furthermore, we do not know the clonal architecture of the normal and premalignant mammary epithelium or its cellular hierarchy. Here, we use deficiency in the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), typically caused by somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome, as a means to perform lineage tracing in the human mammary epithelium. PCR sequencing of laser-capture microdissected cells in combination with immunohistochemistry for markers of lineage differentiation was performed to determine the clonal nature of the mammary epithelium. We have shown that in the normal human breast, clonal expansions (defined here by areas of CCO deficiency) are typically uncommon and of limited size, but can occur at any site within the adult mammary epithelium. The presence of a stem cell population was shown by demonstrating multi-lineage differentiation within CCO-deficient areas. Interestingly, we observed infrequent CCO deficiency that was restricted to luminal cells, suggesting that niche succession, and by inference stem cell location, is located within the luminal layer. CCO-deficient areas appeared large within areas of ductal carcinoma in situ, suggesting that the rate of clonal expansion was altered in the premalignant lesion. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. SU-E-T-785: Using Systems Engineering to Design HDR Skin Treatment Operation for Small Lesions to Enhance Patient Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, C; Baikadi, M; Peters, C; Brereton, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using systems engineering to design HDR skin treatment operation for small lesions using shielded applicators to enhance patient safety. Methods: Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field that offers formal methodologies to study, design, implement, and manage complex engineering systems as a whole over their life-cycles. The methodologies deal with human work-processes, coordination of different team, optimization, and risk management. The V-model of systems engineering emphasize two streams, the specification and the testing streams. The specification stream consists of user requirements, functional requirements, and design specifications while the testing on installation, operational, and performance specifications. In implementing system engineering to this project, the user and functional requirements are (a) HDR unit parameters be downloaded from the treatment planning system, (b) dwell times and positions be generated by treatment planning system, (c) source decay be computer calculated, (d) a double-check system of treatment parameters to comply with the NRC regulation. These requirements are intended to reduce human intervention to improve patient safety. Results: A formal investigation indicated that the user requirements can be satisfied. The treatment operation consists of using the treatment planning system to generate a pseudo plan that is adjusted for different shielded applicators to compute the dwell times. The dwell positions, channel numbers, and the dwell times are verified by the medical physicist and downloaded into the HDR unit. The decayed source strength is transferred to a spreadsheet that computes the dwell times based on the type of applicators and prescribed dose used. Prior to treatment, the source strength, dwell times, dwell positions, and channel numbers are double-checked by the radiation oncologist. No dosimetric parameters are manually calculated. Conclusion: Systems engineering provides methodologies to

  2. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    professionals, the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) recently proposed a classification of psychodermatological terms in order to establish a coherent use of terms across the medical fields involved. We reviewed current and previous psychodermatological diagnoses in order to clarify how...

  3. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  4. Oral administration of Uncariae rhynchophylla inhibits the development of DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via IFN-gamma down-regulation in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Young; Jung, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Ho; Seo, Sang-Wan; Jung, Sung-Ki; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2009-04-21

    Uncariae rhynchophylla (UR) is an herb which has blood pressure lowering and anti-inflammatory effects and has been prescribed traditionally to treat stroke and vascular dementia. In the present study, we examined whether UR suppress Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice treated with 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) under SPF conditions. The effect of UR in DNFB- treated NC/Nga mice was determined by measuring the skin symptom severity, levels of serum IgE, and of the amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma secreted by activated T cells in draining lymph nodes. Oral administration of UR to DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice was found to inhibit ear thickness increases and the skin lesions induced by DNFB. IFN-gamma production by CD4+ T cells from the lymph nodes of DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice was significantly inhibited by UR treatment, although levels of IL-4 and total IgE in serum were not. UR may suppress the development of AD-like dermatitis in DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice by reducing IFN-gamma production.

  5. Alocação do paciente hanseniano na poliquimioterapia: correlação da classificação baseada no número de lesões cutâneas com os exames baciloscópicos Allocation of leprosy patients for multidrugtherapy: correlation between the classification according to number of skin lesions and the skin smears examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Noviski Gallo

    2003-08-01

    preditivo positivo de 95.1%, e o negativo de 69.5%. CONCLUSÃO: o método clínico baseado no número de lesões cutâneas para classificação dos pacientes hansenianos apresenta limitações que não invalidam sua operacionalidade, porém novos critérios devem ser desenvolvidos possibilitando uma melhor acurácia na alocação dos pacientes nos esquemas poliquimioterápicos.BACKGROUND: The integration of leprosy control programs into the basic health system led to the updating of norms in legislation regarding control of the disease. The operational classification adopted for allocating patients for an appropriate multidrug therapy is the one recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO; it is essentially clinical, based on the number of skin lesions. Cases with up to 5 skin lesions are considered paucibacillary (PB and with more than 5 skin lesions are multibacillary (MB. OBJETIVES: The results of skin smears were correlated to the number of skin lesions, with the objective of evaluating the clinical method of classification. METHODS: The source of information was the data bank where detailed epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information on patients is kept. Data referring to the skin smears of 837 cases from 1986 to 1999 were collected. The criteria were to analyze, using the standard reference method, the number of lesions compared to the results of the skin smear exams. From this comparison, a calculation was made of the relative sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values using the criterion of cutaneous lesions to evaluate the agreement between the number of lesions and the skin smear calculated by means of the kappa index (k. RESULTS: Of the 837 cases evaluated, 652 presented positive skin smears and 185 negative. Thirty (16.0% of the patients with negative skin smears presented more than 5 skin lesions. Among the 652 patients with positive skin smears, 68 (11.4% presented less than 5 skin lesions. Regarding

  6. Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the

  7. Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex component DGCR8 and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) components argonaute-1, argonaute-2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Skrygan, Marina; Georgas, Dimitrios; Arenz, Christoph; Gambichler, Thilo; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-11-01

    The microprocessor complex mediates intranuclear biogenesis of precursor microRNAs from the primary microRNA transcript. Extranuclear, mature microRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) before interaction with complementary target mRNA leads to transcriptional repression or cleavage. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of the microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) and the RISC components argonaute-1 (AGO1), argonaute-2 (AGO2), as well as double-stranded RNA-binding proteins PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer and its premalignant stage. Patients with premalignant actinic keratoses (AK, n = 6), basal cell carcinomas (BCC, n = 15), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, n = 7) were included in the study. Punch biopsies were harvested from the center of the tumors (lesional), from healthy skin sites (intraindividual controls), and from healthy skin sites in a healthy control group (n = 16; interindividual control). The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 mRNA expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, and TARBP1 expression levels were significantly higher in the AK, BCC, and SCC groups than the healthy controls (P  0.05). This study indicates that major components of the miRNA pathway, such as the microprocessor complex and RISC, are dysregulated in epithelial skin cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ultraviolet-B irradiation decreases IFN-gamma and increases IL-4 expression in psoriatic lesional skin in situ and in cultured dermal T cells derived from these lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Koomen, Cornelis W.; Picavet, Daisy; Bos, Jan D.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 cytokine producing T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is effective in the treatment of this disease. In normal skin, UVB causes a change in dermal microenvironment, leading to a decrease of IFN-gamma expressing type 1 T cells and a

  9. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.; Lu, H.C.; Guo, W.C.; Meng, H.; Zhang, T.B.; Zhang, X.J.; Lu, D.R.; Golka, K.; Shen, J.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2006-12-15

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.

  10. Overrepresentation of IL-17A and IL-22 Producing CD8 T Cells in Lesional Skin Suggests Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Res, P.C.M.; Piskin, G.; de Boer, O.J.; van der Loos, C.M.; Teeling, P.; Bos, J.D.; Teunissen, M.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although recent studies indicate a crucial role for IL-17A and IL-22 producing T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, limited information is available on their frequency and heterogeneity and their distribution in skin in situ. Methodology/Principal Findings: By spectral imaging

  11. Do early premalignant changes in normal breast epithelial cells predict cancer development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Robert B; Bundred, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    A recent report suggests that, in an in vitro model of premalignant breast cells (vHMECs), silencing of INK4A gene is accompanied by over-expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2. This suggests that COX-2 over-expression may be an early event in breast cancer aetiology permitting clones within the normal epithelium to evade apoptosis, to increase their numbers and perhaps acquire further changes that promote the formation of hyperplasias, and eventually carcinomas. While COX-2 expression in normal breast epithelium in vivo has not been proven to be linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, its over-expression in the premalignant model in vitro does provide preliminary evidence that COX-2 inhibition may be a useful chemoprevention strategy

  12. Single-cell analysis reveals early manifestation of cancerous phenotype in pre-malignant esophageal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxin Wang

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity plays a pivotal role in a variety of functional processes in vivo including carcinogenesis. However, our knowledge about cell-to-cell diversity and how differences in individual cells manifest in alterations at the population level remains very limited mainly due to the lack of appropriate tools enabling studies at the single-cell level. We present a study on changes in cellular heterogeneity in the context of pre-malignant progression in response to hypoxic stress. Utilizing pre-malignant progression of Barrett's esophagus (BE as a disease model system we studied molecular mechanisms underlying the progression from metaplastic to dysplastic (pre-cancerous stage. We used newly developed methods enabling measurements of cell-to-cell differences in copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA, expression levels of a set of mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in hypoxia response pathways, and mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to bulk cell studies reported earlier, our study shows significant differences between metaplastic and dysplastic BE cells in both average values and single-cell parameter distributions of mtDNA copy numbers, mitochondrial function, and mRNA expression levels of studied genes. Based on single-cell data analysis, we propose that mitochondria may be one of the key factors in pre-malignant progression in BE.

  13. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  14. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  15. A study of onchocerciasis with severe skin and eye lesions in a hyperendemic zone in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical, parasitologic, and entomologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somo, R M; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G; Dinga, J S; Lafleur, C; Agnamey, P; Ngosso, A; Ngolle, E M

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of an onchocerciasis control program based on the mass administration of ivermectin in the rain forest of southwestern Cameroon, a preliminary baseline study of the area was conducted. The results of this study showed that onchocerciasis was hyperendemic in the area. Skin symptoms and signs were observed including pruritus (67.4% of the population examined), onchocerca nodules (51.6%), skin depigmentation (18.5%), and hanging groins (5.7%). Except for pruritus, the prevalence of these symptoms increased with age. Of the eyes examined, 44.9% had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, 33.5% had choroidoretinitis, 28.0% had punctate keratitis, 8.3% had papillary abnormalities, and 3.6% had sclerosing keratitis. Vision in 10.5% of the eyes examined was classified as blind or very poor (visual acuity = 0-0.10), in 15.7% as poor (visual acuity = 0.11-0.39), and in 73.8% as good (visual acuity = 0.4-1.00). Unlike previous reports that have linked serious ocular damage mainly to savanna onchocerciasis, the present study showed that forest onchocerciasis also caused significant ocular pathology, including blindness. Parasitologically, positive skin snips were recorded for 92.7% of the persons examined, with both sexes being equally infected. The parasite load, expressed as the geometric mean number of microfilariae per skin snip, was 53.6, and was much higher in males than in females. The flv vector, Simulium squamosum, had a high infection rate of 7.5% infective females in Bakumba and 6.8% infective females in Ngbandi, the two fly-catching points. The transmission potential was 266 infective larvae per person per month in Bakumba and 189 in Ngbandi.

  16. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  17. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  18. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  19. Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions on systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk of cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with psoriasis, but molecular mechanisms linking the two conditions have not been clearly established. Lack of appropriate animal models has hampered generation of new knowledge in this area of research and we therefore sought...... to develop an animal model with combined atherosclerosis and psoriasis-like skin inflammation. METHODS: Topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was applied to the ears twice per week for 8 weeks in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. RESULTS: TPA led to localized...

  20. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD. The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and interleukins (ILs. Glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13 levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

  1. Expression of a single, viral oncoprotein in skin epithelium is sufficient to recruit lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Choyce

    Full Text Available Established cancers are frequently associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate that fails to clear the tumour mass. In contrast, the importance of recruited lymphocytes during premalignancy is less well understood. In a mouse model of premalignant skin epithelium, transgenic mice that express the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a keratin 14 promoter (K14E7 mice display epidermal hyperplasia and have a predominant infiltrate of lymphocytes consisting of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Activated, but not naïve T cells, were shown to preferentially traffic to hyperplastic skin with an increased frequency of proliferative CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells expressing CCR6 within the tissue. Disruption of the interaction between E7 protein and retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRb led to reduced epithelial hyperplasia and T cell infiltrate. Finally, while K14E7 donor skin grafts are readily accepted onto syngeneic, non-transgenic recipients, these same skin grafts lacking skin-resident lymphocytes were rejected. Our data suggests that expression of a single oncoprotein in the epidermis is sufficient for lymphocyte trafficking (including immunosuppressive lymphocytes to premalignant skin.

  2. Heterogeneity of mammary lesions represent molecular differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Ruria; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Maglione, Jeannie E; Davis, Ryan R; Baron, Colin A; Liu, Stephenie; Carmack, Condie E; Young, Lawrence JT; Borowsky, Alexander D; Cardiff, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, histopathologically, molecularly and phenotypically. The molecular basis of this heterogeneity is not well understood. We have used a mouse model of DCIS that consists of unique lines of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) outgrowths, the premalignant lesion in the mouse that progress to invasive carcinoma, to understand the molecular changes that are characteristic to certain phenotypes. Each MIN-O line has distinguishable morphologies, metastatic potentials and estrogen dependencies. We utilized oligonucleotide expression arrays and high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to investigate whole genome expression patterns and whole genome aberrations in both the MIN-O and tumor from four different MIN-O lines that each have different phenotypes. From the whole genome analysis at 35 kb resolution, we found that chromosome 1, 2, 10, and 11 were frequently associated with whole chromosome gains in the MIN-Os. In particular, two MIN-O lines had the majority of the chromosome gains. Although we did not find any whole chromosome loss, we identified 3 recurring chromosome losses (2F1-2, 3E4, 17E2) and two chromosome copy number gains on chromosome 11. These interstitial deletions and duplications were verified with a custom made array designed to interrogate the specific regions at approximately 550 bp resolution. We demonstrated that expression and genomic changes are present in the early premalignant lesions and that these molecular profiles can be correlated to phenotype (metastasis and estrogen responsiveness). We also identified expression changes associated with genomic instability. Progression to invasive carcinoma was associated with few additional changes in gene expression and genomic organization. Therefore, in the MIN-O mice, early premalignant lesions have the major molecular and genetic changes required and these changes have important phenotypic significance. In contrast, the changes

  3. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano C Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine.A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine.Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration.

  4. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum on patients with herpes skin lesions: a comparative, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Amy; Barnes, Matt; Endres, John R; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ghambeer, Daljit K S

    2012-02-01

    Topical Acyclovir has moderate efficacy on recurrent HSV symptoms, requiring repeat applications for several days. Topical Dynamiclear, which requires only a single dose application, may provide a more effective and convenient treatment option for symptomatic management of HSV. The study assessed the comparative efficacy and tolerability of a single use, topical formulation containing copper sulfate pentahydrate and Hypericum perforatum that is marketed as Dynamiclear™ to a topical 5% Acyclovir cream standard preparation and use. A prospective, randomized, multi-centered, comparative, open-label clinical study was conducted. A total of 149 participants between 18 and 55 years of age with active HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions were recruited for the 14-day clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: A (n=61), those receiving the Dynamiclear formulation, and B (n=59), those receiving 5% Acyclovir. Efficacy parameters were assessed via physical examination at baseline (day 1), day 2, 3, 8, and 14. Laboratory safety tests were conducted at baseline and on day 14. Use of the Dynamiclear formulation was found to have no significant adverse effects and was well tolerated by participants. All hematological and biochemical markers were within normal range for the Dynamiclear group. Statistically, odds for being affected by burning and stinging sensation were 1.9 times greater in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. Similarly, the odds of being affected by symptoms of acute pain, erythema and vesiculation were 1.8, 2.4, and 4.4 times higher in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. The Dynamiclear formulation was well tolerated, and efficacy was demonstrated in a number of measured parameters, which are helpful in the symptomatic management of HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions in adult patients. Remarkably, the effects seen from this product came from a single application.

  5. The "Buruli Score": Development of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Individuals with Ulcerative Skin Lesions, Akonolinga, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda K Mueller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to laboratory diagnosis can be a challenge for individuals suspected of Buruli Ulcer (BU. Our objective was to develop a clinical score to assist clinicians working in resource-limited settings for BU diagnosis.Between 2011 and 2013, individuals presenting at Akonolinga District Hospital, Cameroon, were enrolled consecutively. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Based on a latent class model using laboratory test results (ZN, PCR, culture, patients were categorized into high, or low BU likelihood. Variables associated with a high BU likelihood in a multivariate logistic model were included in the Buruli score. Score cut-offs were chosen based on calculated predictive values. Of 325 patients with an ulcerative lesion, 51 (15.7% had a high BU likelihood. The variables identified for the Buruli score were: characteristic smell (+3 points, yellow color (+2, female gender (+2, undermining (+1, green color (+1, lesion hyposensitivity (+1, pain at rest (-1, size >5cm (-1, locoregional adenopathy (-2, age above 20 up to 40 years (-3, or above 40 (-5. This score had AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.82-0.89, indicating good discrimination between infected and non-infected individuals. The cut-off to reasonably exclude BU was set at scores <0 (NPV 96.5%; 95%CI 93.0-98.6. The treatment threshold was set at a cut-off ≥4 (PPV 69.0%; 95%CI 49.2-84.7. Patients with intermediate BU probability needed to be tested by PCR.We developed a decisional algorithm based on a clinical score assessing BU probability. The Buruli score still requires further validation before it can be recommended for wide use.

  6. Warburg and Crabtree effects in premalignant Barrett's esophagus cell lines with active mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Suchorolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer metabolism, yet relatively little is known about this phenotype at premalignant stages of progression. Periodic ischemia occurs in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus (BE due to tissue damage from chronic acid-bile reflux and may select for early adaptations to hypoxia, including upregulation of glycolysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in four cell lines derived from patients with BE (CP-A, CP-B, CP-C and CP-D in response to metabolic inhibitors and changes in glucose concentration. We report that cell lines derived from patients with more advanced genetically unstable BE have up to two-fold higher glycolysis compared to a cell line derived from a patient with early genetically stable BE; however, all cell lines preserve active mitochondria. In response to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the most glycolytic cell lines (CP-C and CP-D had the greatest suppression of extra-cellular acidification, but were able to compensate with upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, these cell lines showed the lowest compensatory increases in glycolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, these cell lines also upregulated their oxidative phosphorylation in response to glucose via the Crabtree effect, and demonstrate a greater range of modulation of oxygen consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that cells from premalignant Barrett's esophagus tissue may adapt to an ever-changing selective microenvironment through changes in energy metabolic pathways typically associated with cancer cells.

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  8. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  9. Combined platelet-rich plasma and lipofilling treatment provides great improvement in facial skin-induced lesion regeneration for scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzì, Francesco; Bianca, Paola; Giammona, Alessandro; Apuzzo, Tiziana; Di Franco, Simone; Mangiapane, Laura Rosa; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Catalano, Dario; Scavo, Emanuela; Nicotra, Annalisa; Benfante, Antonina; Pistone, Giuseppe; Caputo, Valentina; Dieli, Francesco; Pirrello, Roberto; Stassi, Giorgio

    2017-10-23

    The use of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), for regenerative medicine is gaining interest for the clinical benefits so far obtained in patients. This study investigates the use of adipose autologous tissue in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve the clinical outcome of patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and PRPs were purified from healthy donors and SSc patients. The multilineage differentiation potential of AD-MSCs and their genotypic-phenotypic features were investigated. A cytokine production profile was evaluated on AD-MSCs and PRPs from both healthy subjects and SSc patients. The adipose tissue-derived cell fraction, the so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF), was coinjected with PRP in the perioral area of SSc patients. Histopathological and phenotypical analysis of adipose tissue from SSc patients revealed a disorganization of its distinct architecture coupled with an altered cell composition. Although AD-MSCs derived from SSc patients showed high multipotency, they failed to sustain a terminally differentiated progeny. Furthermore, SVFs derived from SSc patients differed from healthy donors in their MSC-like traits coupled with an aberrant cytokine production profile. Finally, the administration of PRP in combination with autologous SVF improved buccal's rhyme, skin elasticity and vascularization for all of the SSc patients enrolled in this study. This innovative regenerative therapy could be exploited for the treatment of chronic connective tissue diseases, including SSc.

  10. Combined platelet-rich plasma and lipofilling treatment provides great improvement in facial skin-induced lesion regeneration for scleroderma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Virzì

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, for regenerative medicine is gaining interest for the clinical benefits so far obtained in patients. This study investigates the use of adipose autologous tissue in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP to improve the clinical outcome of patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc. Methods Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs and PRPs were purified from healthy donors and SSc patients. The multilineage differentiation potential of AD-MSCs and their genotypic–phenotypic features were investigated. A cytokine production profile was evaluated on AD-MSCs and PRPs from both healthy subjects and SSc patients. The adipose tissue-derived cell fraction, the so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF, was coinjected with PRP in the perioral area of SSc patients. Results Histopathological and phenotypical analysis of adipose tissue from SSc patients revealed a disorganization of its distinct architecture coupled with an altered cell composition. Although AD-MSCs derived from SSc patients showed high multipotency, they failed to sustain a terminally differentiated progeny. Furthermore, SVFs derived from SSc patients differed from healthy donors in their MSC-like traits coupled with an aberrant cytokine production profile. Finally, the administration of PRP in combination with autologous SVF improved buccal’s rhyme, skin elasticity and vascularization for all of the SSc patients enrolled in this study. Conclusions This innovative regenerative therapy could be exploited for the treatment of chronic connective tissue diseases, including SSc.

  11. The occurrence of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 in skin and mucosal lesions in patients with suspicion of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Emilia; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Machura, Paulina; Majewska, Anna; Dzieciqtkowski, Tomasz; Mlynarzyk, Grazyna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Slawomir

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV 1 and 2 or Human herpesvirus HHV) are one of the most common infections in human. Real time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for diagnostics of HHV infections. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of HHV 1 and HHV 2 DNA in patient with clinical symptoms suggesting HHV infection. We used real time PCR to investigate swabs from genital and perianal lesions from 74 patients of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology Medical University Warsaw and of gynecological outpatient clinics in Warsaw 40 women and 34 men. The results were positive for HHV 2 in 25 cases (34%), for HHV 1 in 19 cases (26%) and for both viruses in 20 cases (27%). 10 samples were negative for both viruses. The results confirm that the main cause of symptomatic genital herpes is HHV 2, however the percentage of HHV 1 and specially of mixed HHV 1/HHV 2 infections was unexpectedly high.

  12. First Safety and Performance Evaluation of T45K, a Self-Assembling Peptide Barrier Hemostatic Device, After Skin Lesion Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, George; Prats, Jayne; Norchi, Terrence; Kates, Steven; McInerney, Veronica; Woods, Jack; Kelly, Jack

    2018-01-29

    The self-assembling peptide barrier T45K (SAPB-T45K) is an oligopeptide that rapidly forms a biocompatible hemostatic barrier when applied to wounds. Evaluate safety and performance of SAPB-T45K in cutaneous surgery. In this single-blind study, after sequential shave excision of 2 lesions, wounds were randomized (intrapatient) to SAPB-T45K or control treatment. Safety was assessed at treatment, Day 7, and Day 30. Performance was evaluated using time to hemostasis (TTH) and ASEPSIS wound scores, with a subgroup analysis for patients with or without antiplatelet therapy. Each of 46 patients (10 [22%] with antiplatelet therapy) received randomized SAPB-T45K or control treatment for 2 wounds. Safety assessments were similar, and ASEPSIS scores reflected normal healing in both wound groups. SAPB-T45K demonstrated significantly faster median TTH (24.5 [range, 7-165] seconds) compared with control (44 [10-387] seconds), for a 41% median TTH reduction (18 [95% confidence interval, 7-35] seconds, p safety profiles were similar.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  13. Usefulness of V-Y Advancement Flap for Defects after Skin Tumor Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAfter skin tumor excision on the face, extremities, or trunk, the choice of treatment for a skin defect is highly variable. Many surgeons prefer to use a local flap rather than a skin graft or free flap for small- or moderately-sized circular defects. We have used unilateral or bilateral V-Y advancement flaps, especially on the face. Here we evaluated the functional and aesthetic results of this technique.MethodsAll of the patients were pathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, basal cell carcinoma (BCC, or malignant melanoma or premalignant lesion (Bowen's disease. Thirty-two patients underwent V-Y advancement flap repair (11 unilateral and 21 bilateral from January 2007 to June 2011. We analyzed the patients' age and satisfaction, and location and size of defect. The patients were followed up for 6 months or more.ResultsThere were 22 women and 10 men. The ages ranged from 47 to 93 years with a mean age of 66 years. The causes were SCC in 15 cases, BCC in 13 cases, malignant melanoma in 1 case, Bowen's disease in 2 cases, and another cause in 1 case. The tumor locations were the face in 28 patients, and the scalp, upper limb, and flank each in one patient. All of the flaps survived and the aesthetic results were good. Postoperative recovery was usually rapid, and no complication or tumor recurrence was observed.ConclusionsThe V-Y advancement flap is often used not only for facial circular defects but also for defects of the trunk and extremities. Its advantages are less scarring and superior aesthetic results as compared with other local flap methods, because of less scarification of adjacent tissue and because it is an easy surgical technique.

  14. Vocal Fold Hyperplastic Lesions: an Evaluation of Surgical Outcome with Videolaryngostroboscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kezban Gürbüz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold hyperplastic lesions are premalignant lesions that can be treated effectively by removal of the lesions surgically. Aims: The aim of this study was to discuss the success of surgery in patients with vocal fold hyperplastic lesions in terms of preserving vibratory function by comparing the preoperative and postoperative videolaryngostroboscopy findings. Study Design: The medical charts and videolaryngostroboscopic recordings of patients diagnosed with hyperplastic lesions on the vocal folds were reviewed retrospectively. Methods: Twenty seven patients with unilateral lesions who underwent type1 subepithelial cordectomy were enrolled in the study. The videolaryngostroboscopic recordings were evaluated by three raters who were not the operating surgeon and who were blinded to the histology of patients. To evaluate the videolaryngostroboscopic findings, a form, which is a modification of criteria described by Hirano and Bless, was used. Preoperative and 6th month postoperative videolaryngostroboscopic recordings were compared with each other and with recordings of the control group, which included 50 healthy volunteers. Results: All videolaryngostroboscopic findings, except false cord vibration, were significantly improved after surgery. Conclusion: The principle of vocal fold surgery in patients with benign lesions is to preserve the vibratory tissue. This principle also applies to patients with hyperplastic lesions that are premalignant. The hydrodissection technique may be beneficial for this purpose.

  15. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Ouellet, V; Rahimi, K; Barres, V; Meunier, L; De Ladurantaye, M; Provencher, D; Mes-Masson, A M

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC). We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  16. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC. We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  17. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  18. Changing pattern of oral cavity lesions and personal habits over a decade: Hospital based record analysis from Allahabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Vatsala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To do a prospective clinicohistological study of premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity, and compare it with a 10-year retrospective data, especially in terms of incidence, age distribution, personal habits, and site and type of lesion. Material and Methods: Sections from 776 lesions of the oral cavity, which included 647 lesions of a 10-year (1993 - 2003 retrospective study and 129 lesions of a one-year (2003 - 2004 prospective study, were observed clinically, and a histological correlation was carried out. Results: Premalignant lesions included 78 cases of leukoplakia, 68 cases of oral submucous fibrosis, and 76 cases of squamous papilloma. Their incidence has increased in the last decade from 0.15 to 0.53. These lesions commonly presented in the fourth decade of life, as white patches in leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis, and as a growth in squamous cell papilloma. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest lesion (57%. Its incidence has increased significantly in the last decade. The mean age of presentation was the sixth decade. A personal history of tobacco chewing was given by most of the patients in the retrospective group, while the use of pan masala was found to be maximum in the prospective group. The overall agreement between the clinical and histological diagnosis was 95.36% (740 / 776 and the kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.9256. Conclusion: Histology along with a detailed clinical workup was found to be a useful, reliable, and accurate diagnostic technique for lesions of the oral cavity. An increase in premalignant lesions in the prospective study, associated with increased pan masala intake is alarming and needs to be taken care of.

  19. Biomarkers in premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract: Studies on Barrett’s esophagus and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we have described our research on genetic abnormalities in (pre)malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wide variation in biological behavior of cancerous and precancerous conditions may be largely explained by differences in genetic abnormalities. They are a source of

  20. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  1. Ação terapêutica da própolis em lesões cutâneas Acción propóleos en el tratamiento de lesiones en la piel: estudio de la revisión de la literatura Therapeutic properties of propolis for treatment of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    aimed to analyze the findings of studies that focused on the therapeutic properties of propolis for treatment of skin lesions. Studies were obtained through literature searches using LILACS, MEDLINE, and BDENF databases. The search was limited to publications in Portuguese, English, or Spanish languages from 1980 to 2007. Initially, 1127 publications were identified. However, only 38 publications met the study inclusion criteria. Seven publications (18.42% were clinical studies and remainder of the 31 publications (81.58% used "in vitro" or with animal experiments. These publications were focused on the therapeutic properties of propolis in wound healing and on the antimicrobial properties of propolis. Findings suggested the effectiveness of propolis for treating skin lesions, acting as a natural healing and antimicrobial agent whose therapeutic properties depends on the form and place of extraction and concentration of the product.

  2. Efficacy of a Film-Forming Medical Device Containing Piroxicam and Sun Filters in the Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis Lesions in a Subject with a History of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Scotti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinic keratosis (AK is considered a premalignant form of skin cancer due to chronic sun exposure. In addition, human papilloma virus (HPV has been advocated a role in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. HPV proteins (mainly E6 and E7 seem to act synergistically with ultraviolet (UV radiation in reducing the defensive mechanisms of keratinocyte apoptosis after UV damage. Data regarding the involvement of other viruses, i.e. human herpes viruses (HHV, in the pathogenesis of AK are so far controversial. HHV8 is considered the infective agent involved in the development of Kaposi sarcoma. Some experimental data have shown that AK lesions carry HHV8 in more than 30% of the bioptic samples. Topical piroxicam was shown to be effective in the treatment of AK. In addition, the molecule shows antiviral action against HPV and HHV8. Here, we report the efficacy of a medical device containing a film-forming substance (polyvinyl alcohol, chemical and physical sun filters (SPF 50+, and 0.8% piroxicam (ActixicamTM, Difa Cooper; ACTX in the treatment of multiple scalp AK lesions, unresponsive to other treatments, in a subject with Kaposi sarcoma and a history of severe contact dermatitis. The subject presented with severe involvement of the scalp, with multiple hypertrophic AK lesions. Previous lesion-directed and field-targeted treatments have not been effective. The subject was treated with ACTX applied twice daily on the affected scalp. Relevant clinical improvement was observed as soon as 1 month of therapy. Complete clinical resolution of all scalp lesions was observed after 3 months of treatment. The product was well tolerated.

  3. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  4. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Kyaw Phyu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia, acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland, lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen, and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  5. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels

    2008-01-01

    receptor (ER) and Progesteron receptor (PR) status. Also mastectomy specimens were included. In 2004 the previous malignancy grading was replaced by the Van Nuys classification, and information on microcalcifications was introduced. The axillary status now included the sentinel node technique only. In 2006...

  6. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity to dental materials in professionals and ... Keywords: Amalgam, Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion, Lichenoid reaction, Oral mucosa ... was associated with mild burning sensation. The patient did ... OLLD in which oral and/or skin lesions appear in temporal association ...

  7. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process.

  8. Concordance between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of oral mucosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kush J; De Silva, Harsha L; Tong, Darryl C; Love, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    To study the epidemiology of oral soft tissue lesions in New Zealand from 2002 to 2006 and to determine the concordance between the clinical diagnosis and the definitive histopathologic diagnosis achieved by general dental practitioners and by specialists. The details from biopsy referrals and the corresponding histopathologic reports of oral soft tissue lesions were recorded into a statistical software package, and the concordance between the clinical diagnosis and histopathologic diagnosis was determined for all the lesions. Most biopsies were benign lesions, and both clinician groups achieved a high diagnostic concordance for these lesions. However, when considering all lesion types, the overall concordance for both groups was a moderate 50.6%, with little difference between specialists and general dental practitioners, although specialists were more accurate in diagnosing a malignant or premalignant lesion. The clinical and histopathologic concordance achieved by oral health practitioners in New Zealand appears to be moderate. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transduction of the E6 and E7 genes of epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomaviruses alters human keratinocyte growth and differentiation in organotypic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxman, I. L.; Mulder, L. H.; Noya, F.; de Waard, V.; Gibbs, S.; Broker, T. R.; ten Kate, F.; Chow, L. T.; ter Schegget, J.

    2001-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papilloma virus DNA has been detected in skin cancers, in premalignant and benign skin lesions, and in plucked hairs from immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. The role of epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papilloma virus in

  10. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  11. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  12. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  13. Awareness of patients about existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions in Nashik city of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Sukdeo Ahire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from premalignant lesions/conditions of oral cavity. Hence, the awareness of such lesions/conditions is important. Aim: To assess the awareness about existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions among patients arriving for dental treatment at a dental hospital, in Nashik city of Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information from 80 patients with existing oral precancerous lesions/conditions attending the dental hospital, in Nashik city of Maharashtra. The questionnaire included questions to ascertain information on sociodemographic parameters, awareness, and sources of information about of oral precancerous lesions/conditions, habit of tobacco, areca nut chewing, smoking, alcohol, and combined habits. Results: We found that 40% (n = 32 respondents knew about the existence of lesion in their mouth of which only 50% (out of 40% had thought that it was precancerous lesion/condition. Among all subjects, only 47.5% (n = 38 were aware of oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Television was the major source of information about oral precancerous lesions/conditions almost all the subjects (97.5% wanted more information about oral precancerous lesions/conditions but through television (42.5% and lectures (27.5%. Conclusion: Awareness of patients (coming to hospital about oral precancerous lesions/conditions was found to be low. The people must be made aware of symptoms, signs, and preventive strategies of oral precancerous lesions/conditions through their preferred media – television and lectures.

  14. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nail and skin lesions caused by scytalidium dimidiatum in Medellín (Colombia, 1990-1999: report of 128 cases and review of the name of the agent Lesiones ungueales y cutáneas por Scytalidium dimidiatum en Medellín (Colombia, 1990-1999. Presentación de 128 casos y revisión del problema del nombre del agente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review the problem of the name of the agent, and to report epidemiologic features of 128 cases of nail and skin lesions caused by S.dimidiatum. Design: Descriptive study, partly retrospective (1990-1996 and partly prospective (1997-1999. Reference frame: Until recently there were problems with the nomenclature of the agent but now there exist arguments for solving the difficulties, and that was the first objective of our work: to present such arguments and to indicate the correct use of the different names. On the other hand, the importance of S. dimidiatum as agent of human lesions is increasing. This report is restricted to nail and skin lesions, of which we found 128 cases between 1990 and 1999. Methods: Laboratory records were reviewed and doubts were solved by means of consensus criteria. Mycological diagnostic criteria were established. Statistical analysis was performed with the Epi Info program, version 6.04; it consisted mainly of evaluating the association of variables with chi2 and in comparing positions of continuous and organized data according to their magnitude by means of the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: The different names of the agent should be used in precise situations, that are described. A total of 128 specimens was studied from which S. dimidiatum had been isolated in culture: 102 were from nails (92% from the feet and 26 from the skin (73% interdigital from feet. Epidemiologic features of a typical case of nail lesion due to S. dimidiatum indicate that in 41% the patients was an woman, 21-49 year-old, who uses “risk” shoes, presents hyperhydrosis and practices a sport. On the other hand typical epidemiologic features of a skin lesion due to S. dimidiatum are similar to these the only difference being the predominance of males (69%. Direct examination was positive in 97% of the cases and the most frequently found structures were threadlike hyphae charateristic of dermatophytes (72%, followed by sinous fungal

  16. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  18. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  19. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hellner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC. The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40 kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p < 2−16, which was not found in patients without cancer (n = 108. Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n = 100, and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n = 71 who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease.

  20. Classification of premalignant pancreatic cancer mass-spectrometry data using decision tree ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G William

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Consequently, identification of clinically relevant biomarkers for the early detection of this cancer type is urgently needed. In recent years, proteomics profiling techniques combined with various data analysis methods have been successfully used to gain critical insights into processes and mechanisms underlying pathologic conditions, particularly as they relate to cancer. However, the high dimensionality of proteomics data combined with their relatively small sample sizes poses a significant challenge to current data mining methodology where many of the standard methods cannot be applied directly. Here, we propose a novel methodological framework using machine learning method, in which decision tree based classifier ensembles coupled with feature selection methods, is applied to proteomics data generated from premalignant pancreatic cancer. Results This study explores the utility of three different feature selection schemas (Student t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and genetic algorithm to reduce the high dimensionality of a pancreatic cancer proteomic dataset. Using the top features selected from each method, we compared the prediction performances of a single decision tree algorithm C4.5 with six different decision-tree based classifier ensembles (Random forest, Stacked generalization, Bagging, Adaboost, Logitboost and Multiboost. We show that ensemble classifiers always outperform single decision tree classifier in having greater accuracies and smaller prediction errors when applied to a pancreatic cancer proteomics dataset. Conclusion In our cross validation framework, classifier ensembles generally have better classification accuracies compared to that of a single decision tree when applied to a pancreatic cancer proteomic dataset, thus suggesting its utility in future proteomics data analysis. Additionally, the use of feature selection

  1. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis : Spongiotic Skin Lesions in Allergic Contact Dermatitis Are Highly Infiltrated by T Cells Expressing Perforin and Granzyme B

    OpenAIRE

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in...

  3. Changes in Transepidermal Water Loss and Skin Hydration according to Expression of Aquaporin-3 in Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Je, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sin; Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kwon, Yoo-Bin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Im, Myung; Seo, Young Joon

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water transporting proteins present in many mammalian epithelial and endothelial cell types. Among the AQPs, AQP3 is known to be a water/glycerol transporter expressed in human skin. Objective The relationship between the expression level of AQP3 and transpidermal water loss (TEWL) in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis-affected patients, and skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, was investigated. Methods The expression of AQP3 in psoriasis-affected and healthy control skin was determined using immunohistochemical and immunofluroscence staining. TEWL and skin hydration were measured using a Tewameter® TM210 (Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) and a Corneometer® CM 820 (Courage & Khazaka), respectively. Results AQP3 was mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of stratum corneum and the stratum spinosum in normal epidermis. Unlike the normal epidermis, AQP3 showed decreased expression in the lesional and peri-lesional epidermis of psoriasis. TEWL was increased, and skin hydration was decreased, in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, compared with the healthy control sample. Conclusion Although various factors contribute to reduced skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis, AQP3 appears to be a key factor in the skin dehydration of psoriasis-affected skin. PMID:22577267

  4. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management.

  5. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  8. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  9. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  10. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  11. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  12. Ulcerative Cutaneous Lesions Synchronously Present with the Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of patients with lung cancer that develop skin metastases is low. The diagnosis is usually made using clinical information and skin biopsy in patients with suspicious skin lesions and history of smoking or lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is very poor. We describe findings in a 70-year-old man with lung cancer with skin metastases. Interestingly, multiple skin lesions were the first manifestation of the underlying lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is thus very poor.

  13. Self-Inflicted Lesions in Dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucía; Consoli, Silla M; Consoli, Sylvie G

    2017-01-01

    The classification of self-inflicted skin lesions proposed by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) group generated questions with regard to specific treatments that could be recommended for such cases. The therapeutic guidelines in the current paper integrate new psychother......The classification of self-inflicted skin lesions proposed by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) group generated questions with regard to specific treatments that could be recommended for such cases. The therapeutic guidelines in the current paper integrate new...

  14. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  15. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  16. Skin changes in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Przepiórka-Kosińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease causes skin changes which may sometimes be the first sign of kidney failure. Specific skin changes include acquired perforating dermatosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, pseudoporphyria, calcinosis and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The majority of patients present with cutaneous manifestations which are classified as non-specific, including xerosis, pruritus, pigmentation disturbances, nail plate abnormalities, uraemic frost and gynaecomastia. Treatment improving kidney function (dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation also leads to the resolution of skin lesions.

  17. Accumulation of low-avidity anti-melanocortin receptor 1 (anti-MC1R) CD8+ T cells in the lesional skin of a patient with melanoma-related depigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wankowicz-Kalinska, Anna; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Olson, Kathleen; Graham, Fiona; Edington, Howard; Kirkwood, John M.; Martinek, Stephanie; Das, Pranab K.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous or therapy-induced depigmentation in patients with melanoma has long been considered a favourable prognostic indicator. In this report, we isolated T cells infiltrating the depigmented skin of an HLA-A2+/DR4+ patient with melanoma, and detected a very high frequency of CD8+ T cells

  18. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  19. Skin changes in internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Ravi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal malignancies are accompanied by various skin changes which may be specific infiltrates or non-specific changes. This study is aimed at determining the frequency of such changes in malignant disease treatment center attendees in India. METHODS: A study of 300 confirmed cases of internal malignancy at a malignant disease treatment center was undertaken to evaluate these skin changes. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology. Statistical methods were employed to calculate significance in non-specific lesions by comparing with 300 controls not suffering from internal malignancy. RESULTS: Skin changes were present in 82 (27.3%. Cutaneous metastases were found in 19 (6.3%; non-contiguous in 5 (1.6%; contiguous in 14 (4.3%. Non-specific skin lesions numbered 74 (11.6% in 52 patients. Statistically significant non-specific skin changes were acquired ichthyosis, herpes zoster and generalized pruritus. CONCLUSION: Metastases usually occurred late in internal malignancy (17, 5.6% except in a case each of histiocytic lymphoma and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (2, 0.7% where the lesions preceded malignancy by 3 months and 1 month respectively. Contiguous nodules were a marker of relapse after surgery in 3 (1%.

  20. A facial lesion … the face of cutaneous tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesions of the facial skin can be difficult to diagnose in the absence ... Treatment. The Standard WHO regimen was started with rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for .... evidence of midline shift or of signs of raised intracranial.

  1. A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF NECK LESIONS IN A RURAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Lakshmi Surapaneni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A multitude of lesions occur in the neck and patients come to hospital on account of morbidity associated with these lesions. Therefore a histopathological study of the spectrum of neck lesions was undertaken. MATERIALS AND METHODS All histologically diagnosed lesions of the neck from January 2014 to December 2015 were noted. Details of gender, age, location and diagnosis were recorded. The lesions were classified based on anatomic location, gross and histological features and clinically. Clinically, lesions were classified as congenital, inflammatory/infective and neoplastic. Incidence of age, gender and location of different lesions was calculated using percentage, and median. The findings were compared with other studies. RESULTS A total of 140 neck lesions were included in the current study. Neck lesions were predominant in females with 94 cases. The median age group involved was the 21-30 group. Anterior neck lesions were more common. Anterior midline lesions were 74 and mostly thyroid and thyroglossal duct origin. Lesions of the lymph node were greater in the posterior triangle. 122 lesions were solid and 18 were cystic. Histologically, there were 64 thyroid gland lesions, 40 lymph node lesions, 13 soft tissue tumours, 8 salivary lesions, 10 thyroglossal cysts and 5 skin/adnexal lesions. Clinically, congenital/developmental lesions were 11, inflammatory/infective lesions were 68 and neoplastic lesions were 61. Of the neoplastic lesions, 17 were malignant. CONCLUSION Non-neoplastic lesions of the neck were common in our study in accordance with findings in other studies. The most common malignancy was Papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

  2. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  3. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  4. Effect of Rebamipide on the Premalignant Progression of Chronic Gastritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.

  5. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  6. Suction blister lesions and epithelialization monitored by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, M G; Gjerdrum, L M R; Larsen, H F

    2018-01-01

    suction blister was raised on each buttock, and the blister roof was excised. Lesions were covered with moisture-retaining dressing. In Study 1, the lesions were OCT-scanned on day 0 (D0), D2 and D4 and excised for histological examination. In Study 2, the progress of epithelialization and skin barrier...

  7. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  8. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  9. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    of referrals, types of suspected skin cancers, biopsies, confirmed skin cancers, and stages and thickness of skin cancers. For studies that reported test performance, we recorded the definition of a suspicious lesion, the "gold-standard" determination of disease, and the number of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative test results. When possible, positive predictive values, likelihood ratios, sensitivity, and specificity were recorded. No randomized or case-control studies have been done that demonstrate that routine screening for melanoma by primary care providers reduces morbidity or mortality. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are very common, but detection and treatment in the absence of formal screening are almost always curative. No controlled studies have shown that formal screening programs will improve this already high cure rate. While the efficacy of screening has not been established, the screening procedures themselves are noninvasive, and the follow-up test, skin biopsy, has low morbidity. Five studies from mass screening programs reported the accuracy of skin examination as a screening test. One of these, a prospective study, tracked patients with negative results to determine the number of patients with false-negative results. In this study, the sensitivity of screening for skin cancer was 94% and specificity was 98%. Several recent case-control studies confirm earlier evidence that risk of melanoma rises with the presence of atypical moles and/or many common moles. One well-done prospective study demonstrated that risk assessment by limited physical exam identified a relatively small (fair. We found no studies that assessed the effectiveness of periodic skin examination by a clinician in reducing melanoma mortality. Both self-assessment of risk factors or clinician examination can classify a small proportion of patients as at highest risk for melanoma. Skin cancer screening, perhaps using a risk

  10. Warfarin skin necrosis mimicking calciphylaxis in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin skin necrosis (WSN is an infrequent complication of warfarin treatment and is characterized by painful ulcerative skin lesions that appear a few days after the start of warfarin treatment. Calciphylaxis also appears as painful skin lesions caused by tissue injury resulting from localized ischemia caused by calcification of small- to medium-sized vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient who presented with painful skin ulcers on the lower extremities after the administration of warfarin after a valve operation. Calciphylaxis was considered first because of the host factors; eventually, the skin lesions were diagnosed as WSN by biopsy. The skin lesions improved after warfarin discontinuation and short-term steroid therapy. Most patients with end-stage renal disease have so