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Sample records for prelingually deafened children

  1. Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A.; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9–8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1–9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the e...

  3. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A; Xu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9-8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1-9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the effects of different vocal tract sizes. Results showed that the CI children produced significantly longer vowels and less compact vowel categories than the NH children did. The CI children's acoustic vowel space was reduced due to a retracted production of the vowel [i]. The vowel space area showed a strong negative correlation with age at implantation (r = -0.80). The analysis of acoustic distance showed that the CI children produced corner vowels [a, u] similarly to the NH children, but other vowels (e.g., [ʅ, ɿ]) differently from the NH children, which suggests that CI children generally follow a similar developmental path of vowel acquisition as NH children. These findings highlight the importance of early implantation and have implications in clinical aural habilitation in young children with CIs.

  4. Cochear implantion for prelingually deafened children with leukoencephalopathy%脑白质病语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莎; 华清泉; 曹永茂; 杨琨; 张志敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对脑白质病语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术疗效的观察,探讨人工耳蜗植入术在脑白质病语前聋儿童中的临床应用。方法经术前常规听力学、影像学、智力、心理等评估,筛选30例脑白质病语前聋儿童(脑白质病组)实施人工耳蜗植入术,并与同期30例接受人工耳蜗植入未伴脑白质病等中枢神经系统疾病的语前聋儿童(对照组)进行术后听觉语言康复情况疗效比较。结果(1)术后半年行声场测试,脑白质病组声场听阈为39.67±5.28dBHL,对照组为37.67±3.84dBHL,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);(2)术后1年行听觉语言能力评估,听觉能力评估显示脑白质病组言语识别率为83.48±7.63%,对照组为85.03±9.43%;语言能力评估显示脑白质病组语言年龄为2.63±0.69岁,对照组语言年龄为2.71±0.74岁,两组患儿听觉能力及语言能力均无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论脑白质病语前聋儿童在经过术前充分评估及观察筛选后实施人工耳蜗植入术与单纯语前聋儿童疗效相当,说明脑白质病聋儿实施人工耳蜗植入术是可行的。%Objective To observe the effects of cochear implantion for prelingually deafened children with leukoence-phalopathy. Methods 30 prelingually deafend children with leukoencephalopathy were screened in this study as leukoencephalopathy group by preoperative audiology, imaging data, intelligence and psychology assessment , and another 30 prelingually deafend children without central nervous diseases and accepted cochlear implantation at the same period were chosen as control group. The postoperative outcomes of the two groups were compared. Results (1)Half a year after cochlear implication, the field hearing threshold of leukoencephalopathy group was 39.67±5.28dBHL, the control group was 37.67±3.84dBHL, there was no significant difference in the two groups(P>0.05);(2)All children were

  5. Cochlear implantation in late-implanted prelingually deafened adults: changes in quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, L.V.; Huinck, W.J.; Langereis, M.C.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mulder, J.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With expanding inclusion criteria for cochlear implantation, the number of prelingually deafened persons who are implanted as adults increases. Compared with postlingually deafened adults, this group shows limited improvement in speech recognition. In this study, the changes in health-re

  6. Behavioral Assessment of Prelingually Deaf Children Before Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Pisoni, David B.; Sanders, Mary; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To determine whether scores from a behavioral assessment of prelingually deafened children who present for cochlear implant surgery are predictive of audiological outcomes Study Design Retrospective review of longitudinal data collected from 42 children with prelingual hearing loss who presented for a cochlear implant before age 5 years. Methods The Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS) was administered during the preimplant workup. Standardized scores reflect daily living skills, socialization, and motor development compared with a normative sample. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether any subject variables were related to VABS scores. Mixed-model analyses were computed to determine whether preimplant VABS scores were predictive of longitudinal spoken-language data obtained after cochlear implant surgery. Results Motor scores tended to be higher than nonmotor scores. Nonmotor scores were significantly lower than the normative mean and decreased with testing age. Children with acquired deafness demonstrated lower motor scores than children with congenital causes. Children with higher motor scores demonstrated significantly higher performance on language, vocabulary, and word recognition tests than children with lower motor scores. Nonmotor domains were not as robustly related to spoken-language measures, although similar trends were observed Conclusion Profound deafness and language delay may confound the assessment of daily living skills and socialization in the population studied. Motor development appears to proceed normally in prelingually deafened children and is a preimplant predictor of spoken-language outcome in young infants and children with cochlear implants, a finding consistent with the large body of work establishing links between perceptual-motor and language development. PMID:16148703

  7. Vowel acquisition by prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Marie-Eve; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Ménard, Lucie; Goud, Marilyne; Cohen, Henri

    2004-05-01

    Phonetic transcriptions (study 1) and acoustic analysis (study 2) were used to clarify the nature and rhythm of vowel acquisition following the cochlear implantation of prelingually deaf children. In the first study, seven children were divided according to their degree of hearing loss (DHL): DHL I: 90-100 dB of hearing loss, 1 children; DHL II: 100-110 dB, 3 children; and DHL III: over 110 dB, 3 children. Spontaneous speech productions were recorded and videotaped 6 and 12 months postsurgery and vowel inventories were obtained by listing all vowels that occurred at least twice in the child's repertoire at the time of recording. Results showed that degree of hearing loss and age at implantation have a significant impact on vowel acquisition. Indeed, DHL I and II children demonstrated more diversified as well as more typical pattern of acquisition. In the second study, the values of the first and second formants were extracted. The results suggest evolving use of the acoustic space, reflecting the use of auditory feedback to produce the three phonological features exploited to contrast French vowels (height, place of articulation, and rounding). The possible influence of visual feedback before cochlear implant is discussed.

  8. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication and Parental Self-Esteem with a Video-Feedback Intervention: Outcomes with Prelingual Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Cassettari, Christa; Wadnerkar-Kamble, Meghana B.; James, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on best practice for optimizing communication with prelingual deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children is lacking. This study examined the effect of a family-focused psychosocial video intervention program on parent-child communication in the context of childhood hearing loss. Fourteen hearing parents with a prelingual DHH child…

  9. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication and Parental Self-Esteem with a Video-Feedback Intervention: Outcomes with Prelingual Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Cassettari, Christa; Wadnerkar-Kamble, Meghana B.; James, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on best practice for optimizing communication with prelingual deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children is lacking. This study examined the effect of a family-focused psychosocial video intervention program on parent-child communication in the context of childhood hearing loss. Fourteen hearing parents with a prelingual DHH child…

  10. [Suprasegmental speech in prelingual hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants, hearing-impaired children without implants and normal hearing children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthelm, A; Groenewald, E

    1999-01-01

    A review of the relevant literature indicates a lack of knowledge regarding suprasegmental speech characteristics in prelingual hearing impaired children with cochlear implants. This study is aimed at examining certain suprasegmental features in the speech of prelingual hearing impaired children with cochlear implants by perceptual ratings and acoustic analyses, comparing these results to that of prelingual hearing impaired children without implants, and normal hearing children of the same age. Twelve Afrikaansspeaking children between the ages of six and ten years were included in three groups. An integrated view of the perceptual and acoustic results shows that the cochlear implanted children's suprasegmental speech characteristics bear closer resemblance to those of the normal hearing group than those of the hearing impaired group.

  11. Preoperative cerebral metabolic difference related to the outcome of cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, G. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) has known to be variable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative regional glucose metabolism difference related to the speech perception outcome after CI in prelingually deaf children. Forty-one prelingually deaf children who underwent CI at age 2{approx}10 years were included. All patients underwent F-18 FDG brain PET within one month before CI and measured speech perception using the institute version of the CID at 2 years after CI. Patients were classified into younger (2{approx}6 years) and older (7{approx}10 years) groups. Each group was also divided into a GOOD (CID scores>80) and a BAD (CID scores<60) subgroup. We assessed regional metabolic difference according to CID scores and age by voxel based analysis (SPM2) comparing normal controls (n =8, 20{approx}30 years). Speech perception was good in 19 (68%) of 28 younger patients and 5 (38%) of 13 older patients after CI. Regional metabolism of both younger and older GOOD subgroup was significantly decreased in right temporal, left cerebellar and right frontal regions compared to normal controls (uncorrected p<0.001). In younger GOOD subgroup, left frontotemporal and both parietal regions showed decreased metabolism and right frontal, left temporal and anterior cingulate regions showed increased metabolism compared to BAD subgroup (uncorrected p<0.005). In younger group, regional metabolism in left superior frontal, right temporal and right occipital regions showed a significant negative correlation with CID scores (uncorrected p<0.005). In older group, the pattern of regional metabolic difference correlated with CID score was not similar to that of younger group. Preoperative regional cerebral metabolism is decreased in several brain regions related to the language in preligually deaf patients and the neuralplasty of younger patients are different according to the outcome of speech perception after CI.

  12. Prelingual auditory-perceptual skills as indicators of initial oral language development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianesi, Federica; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Giannantonio, Sara; Micardi, Mariella; Resca, Alessandra; Marsella, Pasquale

    2016-03-01

    To assess when prelingually deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) achieve the First Milestone of Oral Language, to study the progression of their prelingual auditory skills in the first year after CI and to investigate a possible correlation between such skills and the timing of initial oral language development. The sample included 44 prelingually deaf children (23 M and 21 F) from the same tertiary care institution, who received unilateral or bilateral cochlear implants. Achievement of the First Milestone of Oral Language (FMOL) was defined as speech comprehension of at least 50 words and speech production of a minimum of 10 words, as established by administration of a validated Italian test for the assessment of initial language competence in infants. Prelingual auditory-perceptual skills were assessed over time by means of a test battery consisting of: the Infant Toddler Meaningful Integration Scale (IT-MAIS); the Infant Listening Progress Profile (ILiP) and the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP). On average, the 44 children received their CI at 24±9 months and experienced FMOL after 8±4 months of continuous CI use. The IT-MAIS, ILiP and CAP scores increased significantly over time, the greatest improvement occurring between baseline and six months of CI use. On multivariate regression analysis, age at diagnosis and age at CI did not appear to bear correlation with FMOL timing; instead, the only variables contributing to its variance were IT-MAIS and ILiP scores after six months of CI use, accounting for 43% and 55%, respectively. Prelingual auditory skills of implanted children assessed via a test battery six months after CI treatment, can act as indicators of the timing of initial oral language development. Accordingly, the period from CI switch-on to six months can be considered as a window of opportunity for appropriate intervention in children failing to show the expected progression of their auditory skills and who would have higher risk of

  13. Background and educational characteristics of prelingually deaf children implanted by five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann; Brenner, Chris

    2003-02-01

    This study documents child, family and educational characteristics of a large representative sample of 8- to 9-yr-old prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant by 5 yr of age. Because pre-existing factors such as the child's gender, family characteristics, additional handicaps, age at onset of deafness and at implant, may affect postimplant outcomes, these variables must be accounted for before the impact of educational factors on performance with an implant can be adequately determined. Classroom variables that may affect postimplant outcomes include placement in public or private, mainstream or special education, oral or total communication environments. Other intervention variables include type and amount of individual therapy, experience of the therapist and parent participation in therapy. Documenting these characteristics for a large representative sample of implanted children can provide clinicians and researchers with insight regarding the types of families who sought early cochlear implantation for their children and the types of educational programs in which they placed their children after implantation. It is important to undertake studies that control for as many of these factors as possible so that the relative benefits of specific educational approaches for helping children to get the most benefit from their cochlear implant can be identified. Over a 4-yr period, 181 children from across the US and Canada, accompanied by a parent, attended a cochlear implant research camp. Parents completed questionnaires in which they reported the child's medical and educational history, characteristics of the family, and their participation in the child's therapy. The parent listed names and addresses of clinicians who had provided individual speech/language therapy to the child and signed permission for these clinicians to complete questionnaires describing this therapy. To the extent that this sample is representative of those families seeking a

  14. Enhancing Parent–Child Communication and Parental Self-Esteem With a Video-Feedback Intervention: Outcomes With Prelingual Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadnerkar-Kamble, Meghana B.; James, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on best practice for optimizing communication with prelingual deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children is lacking. This study examined the effect of a family-focused psychosocial video intervention program on parent–child communication in the context of childhood hearing loss. Fourteen hearing parents with a prelingual DHH child (Mage = 2 years 8 months) completed three sessions of video interaction guidance intervention. Families were assessed in spontaneous free play interactions at pre and postintervention using the Emotional Availability (EA) Scales. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was also used to assess parental report of self-esteem. Compared with nontreatment baselines, increases were shown in the EA subscales: parental sensitivity, parental structuring, parental nonhostility, child responsiveness, and child involvement, and in reported self-esteem at postintervention. Video-feedback enhances communication in families with prelingual DHH children and encourages more connected parent–child interaction. The results raise implications regarding the focus of early intervention strategies for prelingual DHH children. PMID:25819293

  15. [Development of early auditory and speech perception skills within one year after cochlear implantion in prelingual deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Chen, Yuan; Xi, Xin; Hong, Mengdi; Chen, Aiting; Wang, Qian; Wong, Lena

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the development of early auditory capability and speech perception in the prelingual deaf children after cochlear implantation, and to study the feasibility of currently available Chinese assessment instruments for the evaluation of early auditory skill and speech perception in hearing-impaired children. A total of 83 children with severe-to-profound prelingual hearing impairment participated in this study. Participants were divided into four groups according to the age for surgery: A (1-2 years), B (2-3 years), C (3-4 years) and D (4-5 years). The auditory skill and speech perception ability of CI children were evaluated by trained audiologists using the infant-toddler/meaningful auditory integration scale (IT-MAIS/MAIS) questionnaire, the Mandarin Early Speech Perception (MESP) test and the Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (MPSI) test. The questionnaires were used in face to face interviews with the parents or guardians. Each child was assessed before the operation and 3 months, 6 months, 12 months after switch-on. After cochlear implantation, early postoperative auditory development and speech perception gradually improved. All MAIS/IT-MAIS scores showed a similar increasing trend with the rehabilitation duration (F=5.743, P=0.007). Preoperative and post operative MAIS/IT-MAIS scores of children in age group C (3-4 years) was higher than that of other groups. Children who had longer hearing aid experience before operation demonstrated higher MAIS/IT-MAIS scores than those with little or no hearing aid experience (F=4.947, P=0.000). The MESP test showed that, children were not able to perceive speech as well as detecting speech signals. However as the duration of CI use increased, speech perception ability also improved substantially. However, only about 40% of the subjects could be evaluated using the most difficult subtest on the MPSI in quiet at 12 months after switch-on. As MCR decreased, the proportion of children who could be tested

  16. When Hearing Is Tricky: Speech Processing Strategies in Prelingually Deafened Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants Having Good and Poor Speech Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Magdalene; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Knief, Arne; Baare, Johanna; Brinkheetker, Stephanie; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Dobel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants. In this study, two groups of cochlear implant users, both with very good basic hearing abilities but with non-overlapping speech performance (very good or very poor speech performance), were matched according to device experience and age at implantation. We tested the perception of phonemes in the context of specific other phonemes from which they were very hard to discriminate (e.g., the vowels in /bu/ vs. /bo/). The most difficult pair was individually determined for each participant. Using behavioral measures, both cochlear implants groups performed worse than matched controls, and the good performers performed better than the poor performers. Cochlear implant groups and controls did not differ during time intervals typically used for the mismatch negativity, but earlier: source analyses revealed increased activity in the region of the right supramarginal gyrus (220–260 ms) in good performers. Poor performers showed increased activity in the left occipital cortex (220–290 ms), which may be an index for cross-modal perception. The time course and the neural generators differ from data from our earlier studies, in which the same phonemes were assessed in an easy-to-discriminate context. The results demonstrate that the groups used different language processing strategies, depending on the success of language development and the particular language context. Overall, our data emphasize the role of neural plasticity and use of adaptive strategies for successful language development with cochlear implants. PMID:28056017

  17. [Permanent hearing loss in the prelingual phase in children with a non-aberrant neonatal hearing screening result].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, A M H; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J; Briaire, J J; Frijns, J H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M

    2008-02-23

    --Neonatal hearing screening is fully implemented in the Netherlands since June 2006 using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) technology. --A normal neonatal hearing screening result unfortunately does not guarantee childhood normal hearing. Hearing loss may not become manifest until after the neonatal period. --Hearing loss at a later stage may be classified in three categories: (a) delayed onset hearing loss which occurs when the cause of the hearing loss is present at birth but the hearing loss itself becomes detectable at a later stage; (b) progressive hearing loss in which a very slight hearing loss may be present at birth but is not yet detectable and the hearing loss becomes progressively more severe; and (c) acquired hearing loss that results from a number of external factors, such as meningitis, ototoxic drugs, neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia necessitating an exchange transfusion, and trauma. --Neonatal hearing screening can result in detection of moderate to profound permanent hearing loss at an early age when therapeutic options may have maximum effect. However, even after this period, constant vigilance is necessary to detect permanent hearing loss in young children, especially during the prelingual period.

  18. Long-term language levels and reading skills in mandarin-speaking prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Chen, Yen-An; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Bao-Guey; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document receptive and expressive language levels and reading skills achieved by Mandarin-speaking children who had received cochlear implants (CIs) and used them for 4.75-7.42 years. The effects of possible associated factors were also analyzed. Standardized Mandarin language and reading tests were administered to 39 prelingually deaf children with Nucleus 24 devices. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess their receptive vocabulary knowledge and the Revised Primary School Language Assessment Test for their receptive and expressive language skills. The Graded Chinese Character Recognition Test was used to test their written word recognition ability and the Reading Comprehension Test for their reading comprehension ability. Raw scores from both language and reading measurements were compared to normative data of nor- mal-hearing children to obtain standard scores. The results showed that the mean standard score for receptive vocabulary measurement and the mean T scores for the receptive language, expressive language and total language measurement were all in the low-average range in comparison to the normative sample. In contrast, the mean T scores for word and text reading comprehension were almost the same as for their age-matched hearing counterparts. Among all children with CIs, 75.7% scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers on receptive vocabulary measurement. For total language, Chinese word recognition and reading scores, 71.8, 77 and 82% of children with CIs were age appropriate, respectively. A strong correlation was found between language and reading skills. Age at implantation and sentence perception scores account for 37% of variance for total language outcome. Sentence perception scores and preimplantation residual hearing were revealed to be associated with the outcome of reading comprehension. We concluded that by using standard tests, the

  19. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C; Frijns, Johan H M; Free, Rolien H; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Vermeulen, Anneke M

    2016-11-01

    Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels. This holds especially for children in spoken language environments. However, speech perception in complex listening situations and the acquisition of complex verbal skills remains difficult. Bilateral CI was expected to enhance the acquisition of verbal intelligence by improved understanding of speech in noise. This study examined the effect of bilateral CI on verbal intelligence of 49 deaf children (3;5-8;0 years). Relations between speech perception in noise, auditory short-term memory and verbal intelligence were analysed with multiple linear regressions. In addition, the interaction of educational setting, mainstream or special, on these relations was analysed. Children with bilateral CI obtained higher scores on verbal intelligence. Significant associations were present between speech perception in noise, auditory short-term memory and verbal intelligence. Children with simultaneous bilateral CIs showed better speech perception in noise than children with unilateral CIs, which mediated by the auditory short-term memory capacity, enhanced the ability to acquire more complex verbal skills for BICI children in mainstream education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  1. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.; Langereis, M.C.; Frijns, J.H.; Free, R.H.; Goedegebure, A.; Smits, C.; Stokroos, R.J.; Ariens-Meijer, S.A.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Vermeulen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  2. Benefits of simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation on verbal reasoning skills in prelingually deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Evi; Langereis, Margreet C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Free, Rolien H.; Goedegebure, Andre; Smits, Cas; Stokroos, Robert J.; Ariens-Meijer, Saskia A. M.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Vermeulen, Anneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired auditory speech perception abilities in deaf children with hearing aids compromised their verbal intelligence enormously. The availability of unilateral cochlear implantation (Cl) auditory speech perception and spoken vocabulary enabled them to reach near ageappropriate levels.

  3. Intelligence development of pre-lingual deaf children with unilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Xun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xiao, Zi-An

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to test whether deaf children with unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) have higher intelligence quotients (IQ). We also try to find out the predictive factors of intelligence development in deaf children with CI. Totally, 186 children were enrolled into this study. They were divided into 3 groups: CI group (N = 66), hearing loss group (N = 54) and normal hearing group (N = 66). All children took the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude to assess the IQ. After that, we used Deafness gene chip, Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) methods to evaluate the genotype, auditory and speech performance, respectively. At baseline, the average IQ of hearing loss group (HL), CI group, normal hearing (NH) group were 98.3 ± 9.23, 100.03 ± 12.13 and 109.89 ± 10.56, while NH group scored higher significantly than HL and CI groups (p  0.05). The growth of SIR was positive correlated with the growth of IQ (r = 0.247, p = 0.046), while no significant correlation were found between IQ growth and other possible factors, i.e. gender, age of CI, use of hearing aid, genotype, implant device type, inner ear malformation and CAP growth (p > 0.05). Our study suggests that CI potentially improves the intelligence development in deaf children. Speech performance growth is significantly correlated with IQ growth of CI children. Deaf children accepted CI before 6 years can achieve a satisfying and undifferentiated short-term (12 months) development of intelligence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sentence Production after Listener and Echoic Training by Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfeto, Raquel M.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    Three children with neurosensory deafness who used cochlear implants were taught to match video clips to dictated sentences. We used matrix training with overlapping components and tested for recombinative generalization. Two 3?×?3 matrices generated 18 sentences. For each matrix, we taught 6 sentences and evaluated generalization with the…

  5. Non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness: the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the cause of their children's deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fidjy; Paneque, Milena; Reis, Cláudia; Venâncio, Margarida; Sequeiros, Jorge; Saraiva, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics have allowed the determination of the genetic cause of some childhood non-syndromic deafness. In Portugal only a small proportion of families are referred to a clinical genetics service in order to clarify the etiology of the deafness and to provide genetic counseling. Consequently, there are no published studies of the prior beliefs of parents about the causes of hereditary deafness of their children and their genetic knowledge after receipt of genetic counseling. In order to evaluate the impact of genetic counseling, 44 parents of 24 children with the diagnosis of non-syndromic sensorineural prelingual deafness due to mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26), completed surveys before and after genetic counseling. Before counseling 13.6 % of the parents knew the cause of deafness; at a post-counseling setting this percentage was significantly higher, with 84.1 % of the parents accurately identifying the etiology. No significant differences were found between the answers of mothers and fathers either before or after genetic counseling. Parents' level of education was a significant factor in pre-test knowledge. After genetic counseling 95.5 % of the parents stated that the consultation had met their expectations, 70.5 % remembered correctly the inheritance pattern, and 93.2 % correctly recalled the chance of risk of deafness. These results underline the importance of genetic counseling in demystifying parents' beliefs about the etiology of their children's deafness.

  6. Effect Analysis of Inner Ear Malformations Pre-lingual Deaf Children after Cochlear Implantation*%内耳畸形语前聋患儿人工耳蜗植入术后效果分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟润兰; 冯永; 管志伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of cochlear implantation for inner ear malformations pre-lingual deaf children, and evaluates the rehabilitation effect on hearing and speech after the surgery. Methods:Used cochlear implantation to inner ear mal-formations pre-lingual deaf children, compared with pre-lingual deaf children of normal inner ear structure, recorded the transfer ma-chine T value after the surgery in 1 year, then evaluated and analyzed the rehabilitation effect of hearing and speech, and investigated the satisfaction about the effect of surgery of the patents. Results:There was no significant differences on the test results of hearing and speech and T value between the inner ear in pre-lingual deaf children and those of normal inner ear structure (P>0.05), and most of parents were satisfied with the effect of surgery. Conclusion:After the cochlear implantation, the rehabilitation effect on the hear-ing of inner ear malformation pre-lingual deaf children is great, and no differences from that of pre-lingual deaf children of normal inner ear structure, which is worth promotion.%  目的:探讨内耳畸形语前聋患儿人工耳蜗植入术的可行性,并对其术后听觉言语康复效果进行评估。方法:对内耳畸形的语前聋患儿进行人工耳蜗植入术,并与内耳结构正常的语前聋患儿比较,记录术后1年的调机T值,评估和分析其术后听觉言语康复效果,并调查患儿家长对术后效果的满意度。结果:内耳畸形的语前聋患儿的术后听力及言语测试结果、调机T值等与内耳结构正常的患儿比较无显著性差异(P>0.05),且多数患儿家长对手术效果感到满意。结论:内耳畸形语前聋患儿行人工耳蜗植入术后,听觉康复效果显著,与内耳结构正常的语前聋患儿无明显差别,值得临床推广。

  7. Individual Differences in Effectiveness of Cochlear Implants in Children Who Are Prelingually Deaf: New Process Measures of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, David B; Cleary, Miranda; Geers, Ann E; Tobey, Emily A

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of cochlear implants in children who are deaf has been firmly established in the literature. However, the effectiveness of cochlear implants varies widely and is influenced by demographic and experiential factors. Several key findings suggest new directions for research on central auditory factors that underlie the effectiveness of cochlear implants. First, enormous individual differences have been observed in both adults and children on a wide range of audiological outcome measures. Some patients show large increases in speech perception scores after implantation, whereas others display only modest gains on standardized tests. Second, age of implantation and length of deafness affect all outcome measures. Children implanted at younger ages do better than children implanted at older ages, and children who have been deaf for shorter periods do better than children who have been deaf for longer periods. Third, communication mode affects outcome measures. Children from "oral-only" environments do much better on standardized tests that assess phonological processing skills than children who use Total Communication. Fourth, at the present time there are no preimplant predictors of outcome performance in young children. The underlying perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic abilities and skills emerge after implantation and improve over time. Finally, there are no significant differences in audiological outcome measures among current implant devices or processing strategies. This finding suggests that the major source of variance in outcome measures lies in the neural and cognitive information processing operations that the user applies to the signal provided by the implant. Taken together, this overall pattern of results suggests that higher-level central processes such as perception, attention, learning, and memory may play important roles in explaining the large individual differences observed among users of cochlear implants. Investigations of the content

  8. A comparison of vowel productions in prelingually deaf children using cochlear implants, severe hearing-impaired children using conventional hearing aids and normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudonck, Nele; Van Lierde, K; Dhooge, I; Corthals, P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare vowel productions by deaf cochlear implant (CI) children, hearing-impaired hearing aid (HA) children and normal-hearing (NH) children. 73 children [mean age: 9;14 years (years;months)] participated: 40 deaf CI children, 34 moderately to profoundly hearing-impaired HA children and 42 NH children. For the 3 corner vowels [a], [i] and [u], F(1), F(2) and the intrasubject SD were measured using the Praat software. Spectral separation between these vowel formants and vowel space were calculated. The significant effects in the CI group all pertain to a higher intrasubject variability in formant values, whereas the significant effects in the HA group all pertain to lower formant values. Both hearing-impaired subgroups showed a tendency toward greater intervowel distances and vowel space. Several subtle deviations in the vowel production of deaf CI children and hearing-impaired HA children could be established, using a well-defined acoustic analysis. CI children as well as HA children in this study tended to overarticulate, which hypothetically can be explained by a lack of auditory feedback and an attempt to compensate it by proprioceptive feedback during articulatory maneuvers. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 语前聋儿童康复训练后听觉能力的动态评估%The Dynamic Assessment of Hearing of Prelingually Deaf Children after Rehabilitation Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郁明; 梁勇; 谭少珍

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析和总结语前聋患儿佩戴助听器并经康复训练后听觉能力提高的规律和效果以及评估方法.方法语前聋且双耳佩戴助听器的儿童135例(女57例,男78例)为研究对象,根据初次接受康复训练时的年龄分为三组:>5岁组(42例),4~5岁组(44例)和中的听觉能力评估方法,分别在训练前、训练后6个月和12个月对各组儿童进行听觉能力评估,对结果进行比较分析.10项评估内容总计100分,总分70分以上为有效,得分越高,听觉能力越好.结果 135例患儿经过康复训练6、12个月后,听觉能力均明显提高,训练前、训练后6、12个月评估得分的均值分别为51.33±9.44、70.19±9.43及87.55±6.15分,训练后评估得分明显高于训练前的评估得分(P<0.01);不同性别、年龄、听力损失程度组聋儿康复训练12个月后听觉能力评估得分均较训练前明显提高,差异有极显著统计学意义(P<0.01),有效率达100%.结论规范的康复训练对提高语前聋儿童听觉能力可取得良好的效果,定期评估其听觉能力,有利于为针对性个性化康复训练提供参考.%Objective To dynamically assess the effects of the hearing under rehabilitation training in 135 prelingually deaf children. To analyze and summarize the methods of hearing assessment, regularity and experience of prelingually deaf children under rehabilitation training. Methods 135 prelingually deaf children (57 girls and 78 boys) were included, classified into three groups according to the ages when receiving the first training(grcatcr than 5 years old, 4- 5 years old and less than 4 years old). According to the hearing loss they were classified into two groups of severe and profound hearing loss. The hearing of the prelingually deaf children before training, after six months and after twelve months was evaluated by using the Hearing and Language assessment of hearing - impaired children. The results were analyzed by SPSS 16. 0

  10. Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears%语前聋患儿一侧人工耳蜗对侧助听器效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田彦静; 周慧芳; 张静; 杨东; 许轶; 郭玉玺

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对人工耳蜗植入对侧耳不同听力损失的患儿联合使用助听器与人工耳蜗语前聋患儿的听觉、语言及学习能力进行评估和比较,探索对患儿更为有效的助听方法,帮助患儿获得最大限度的言语交流。方法:将30例3~6岁语前聋患儿按照植入人工耳蜗对侧耳听力损失程度及是否佩戴助听器,分为一侧人工耳蜗+对侧重度听力损失助听器组(CI+SHA组)、一侧人工耳蜗+对侧极重度听力损失助听器组(CI+PHA组)、单耳人工耳蜗组(CI组).评估各组在康复3、6、9、12、15、18个月时听觉、语言及学习能力,并记录结果。结果:随着术后康复时间的延长,聋儿听觉、语言及学习能力逐渐提高(P<0.05),CI+SHA组听觉能力优于CI+PHA组及CI组(均P<0.05),语言能力及学习能力无明显差异(P>0.05)。结论:语前聋患儿单耳人工耳蜗植入后,若对侧耳尚有残余听力,佩戴助听器后听觉能力效果显著,长期佩戴有助于患儿的康复。%Objective; To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant(CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability,language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation,and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Method: According to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not,30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear(CH-SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear(CI+PHA) ,cochlear implant only(CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times(3,6, 9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear

  11. Auditory pathway functioning in prelingual deafness : The clinical consequences for cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implantation has proven itself as a very successful treatment for both children and adults with severe to profound hearing loss. Although most patients obtain a high level of speech perception, performance is more variable in prelingually deaf patients, i.e., patients with an onset of sever

  12. 语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术后元音声调发声状况分析%Characteristics of Tones in Vowels in Prelingual Hearing-impaired Children after Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓丽; 管燕平; 蒋功达; 俞鲁婷; 周静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the pronunciation characteristics of vowels' tone in prelingual hearing-impaired children accepted co-chlear implant (CI). Methods 8 prelingual hearing-impaired children accepted CI aged 3~4 years (group CI) and 8 normal-hearing children (group NH) with the same age were asked to pronounce the vowels of/a/,/o/,/e/,/i/,/u/, and/ü/ in four tones with the direction of speech training teacher. The sounds were recorded and analyzed with Praat software extract Formants (F1, F2) and duration of the sounds. Results The error of vowels in four tones was more in group CI than in group NH, but difficult level was almost the same between groups. There was significant difference in the F1 of/e/, F2 of/i/and/u/in tone 2, F2 of/e/and duration of/o/,/e/, and/ü/in tone 3 between groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Pronouncing the four tones of vowels is more difficult for the hearing-impaired children. For vowels articulation training, it is important to focus on the mouth and breath training.%  目的探讨语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术后元音声调的发声特点。方法8例语前聋人工耳蜗植入儿童(聋儿组)和8例同年龄组(3~4岁)听力正常儿童(正常组),在语训教师(音量控制在60~70 dBSPL)带领下朗读四声状态下的元音/a/、/o/、/e/、/i/、/u/、/ü/。对语音录音采样,采用Praat语音分析软件提取共振峰(F1、F2)及音长。结果聋儿组元音四声错误率高于正常组,但两组儿童四声发音的难易程度一致。与正常组比较,聋儿组阳平/e/的F1,/i/和/u/的F2存在显著性差异(P<0.05);上声/e/的F2存在显著性差异(P<0.05);上声/o/、/e/和/ü/的音长存在显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论人工耳蜗植入儿童声调习得难度更大。共振峰、音长测试可为口型和舌位的训练提供参考。

  13. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  14. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Li; Jianhong Li; Jieqiong Wang; Peng Zhou; Zhenchang Wang; Junfang Xian; Huiguang He

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain ne...

  15. 语前聋患儿人工耳蜗植入术后听觉言语功能发育的观察%Development of Auditory and Speech Ability in Prelingual Deafness Children after Cochlear Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏征; 钱宇虹; 郭梦和

    2013-01-01

    prelingual deaf children between 14 month and 5 years and 10 month before CI and 3 ,6 ,and 12 months after im-plantation .The effects of genders ,age at implantation ,and duration of post -implantation time were evaluated .Re-sults Three MAIS scores were displayed :total ,detection ,and perception .Each score from all the subjects was significantly improved than that before cochlear implantation ,and still getting further better with CI use(P0 .05) .Conclusion After cochlear im-plantation ,a significant increase in auditory capability occurred ,especially in the first 3 months .The factor of gen-der was no influence on auditory development .These results provide preliminary validation of MAIS/IT -MAIS for evaluation of pre -lingual deaf pediatric CI recipients .

  16. [Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubbico, L; Bartolucci, M A; Broglio, D; Boner, A

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss still remain an important medical and social problem for the delayed language development. Object of this study is to provide an updated and close estimate of the economic burden involved in pre-lingual hearing loss. Data were provided by the Ministry of Health data bank, the Ministry of Education national data bank, the National Institute of Social Insurance national data bank and the Italian Central Statistics Institute. The information was collected by means of a specially provided Societal Cost Questionnaire (SCQ). Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect welfare costs involved in deafness were included in the cost estimate. Was enrolled in the study a sample of subjects with pre-lingual deafness, with a mean bilateral neuro-sensorial hearing impairment equal to 60 dB or more for 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz frequency tones in the better ear detected in neonatal age, had prevented speech from developing. The statistical assessment was performed according to an actuarial approach, considering the estimated life expectancy at birth, based on updated population data from census 2001. Based on life expectancy, the lifetime mean cost assessed for a subject affected by profound pre-lingual deafness turned out to be equal to Euro 737,994.76 for a male and Euro 755,404.02 for a female. Unlike other disabling affections, deafness weighs significantly more on the social system than on the health system. As a matter of fact, the direct medical costs, such as audiological diagnosis, hearing aids, etc., only account for 3.8% of the societal cost, whereas education, rehabilitation and welfare costs reach 96.2% of the total. Finally, our results suggest that societal costs can only be reduced by zeroing in on promotion and broadening of effective prevention strategies. The appropriate public health measures (such as the universal newborn hearing screening) set up and implemented in several European and non-European countries proved

  17. Speech feature discrimination in deaf children following cochlear implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2002-05-01

    Speech feature discrimination is a fundamental perceptual skill that is often assumed to underlie word recognition and sentence comprehension performance. To investigate the development of speech feature discrimination in deaf children with cochlear implants, we conducted a retrospective analysis of results from the Minimal Pairs Test (Robbins et al., 1988) selected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal study of speech perception and language development. The MP test uses a 2AFC procedure in which children hear a word and select one of two pictures (bat-pat). All 43 children were prelingually deafened, received a cochlear implant before 6 years of age or between ages 6 and 9, and used either oral or total communication. Children were tested once every 6 months to 1 year for 7 years; not all children were tested at each interval. By 2 years postimplant, the majority of these children achieved near-ceiling levels of discrimination performance for vowel height, vowel place, and consonant manner. Most of the children also achieved plateaus but did not reach ceiling performance for consonant place and voicing. The relationship between speech feature discrimination, spoken word recognition, and sentence comprehension will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD Research Grant No. R01DC00064 and NIH/NIDCD Training Grant No. T32DC00012.

  18. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells should be preserved forming an environment for the regenerated hair cells. In this study, we investigated how ototoxic treatment with kanamycin and furosemide changes the structure of cochlear sensory epithelium in mice. The study also compared different tissue preparation protocols for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cochleae were collected from deafened and nondeafened mice and further processed for plastic mid modiolar sections and SEM. For comparing SEM protocols, cochleae from nondeafened mice were processed using three protocols: osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium (OTO), tannic acid-arginine-osmium, and the conventional method with gold-coating. The OTO method demonstrated optimal cochlear tissue preservation. Histological investigation of cochleae of deafened mice revealed that the supporting cells enlarged and ultimately replaced the lost hair cells forming types 1 and 2 phalangeal scars in a base towards apex gradient. The type 3 epithelial scar, flattened epithelium, has not been seen in analysed cochleae. The study concluded that mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide formed scars containing supporting cells, which renders this mouse model suitable for testing various hair cell regeneration approaches. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:766-772, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Aphasia in a prelingually deaf woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, C; Knight, R; Mandel, M

    1982-03-01

    A left parietal infarct in a prelingually deaf person resulted in an aphasia for both American Sign Language (ASL) and written and finger-spelled English. Originally the patient had a nearly global aphasia affecting all language systems. By five to seven weeks post-onset her symptoms resembled those of hearing aphasics with posterior lesions: fluent but paraphasic signing, anomia, impaired comprehension and repetition, alexia, and agraphia with elements of neologistic jargon. In addition, there was a pronounced sequential movement copying disorder, reduced short-term verbal memory and acalculia. In general, the patient's sign errors showed a consistent disruption in the structure of ASL signs which parallels the speech errors of oral aphasic patients. We conclude that most aphasic symptoms are not modality-dependent, but rather reflect a disruption of linguistic processes common to all human languages. This case confirms the importance of the left hemisphere in the processing of sign language. Furthermore, the results indicate that the left supramarginal and angular gyri are necessary substrates for the comprehension of visual/gestural languages.

  20. Do Profoundly Prelingually Deaf Patients with Psychosis Really Hear Voices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, R.; Cromwell, J.; Austen, S.

    2006-01-01

    The psychiatric literature has described profoundly prelingually deaf people with psychosis who report hearing voices. The present study proposes that such reports in fact reflect the beliefs of professionals in mental health and deafness and not the hallucinatory experience of psychotic deaf people. The study demonstrates that it is functionally…

  1. Prelingual auditory verbal agnosia, A rare condition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Violeta Necula; Cristina Mirela Stamate; Krishna Luchoo; Marcel Cosgarea

    2017-01-01

    Auditory agnosia, agnosia for speech is a rare condition, caused mostly by stroke, in adults, while in children it is often a sequel of herpes simplex encephalitis or is associated with epilepsy, in Landau–Kleffner syndrome...

  2. The use of German aha in the classroom: Teachers’ demonstration and instrumentalization of aha as a response to the storytelling of children with cochlear implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    informed. In this paper I investigate one specific type of response particle, the German change-of-state token ‘aha’ and how it is used by a teacher in the classroom with prelingually deafened and cochlear-implanted children. ‘Aha’ has been documented to display surprise, thus indicating that an utterance...... has informed the speaker and marking an epistemic shift from that of –K (not knowing) to + K (knowing) of the producer. Based on 60 storytellings of children with cochlear-implants I show that the teacher in fact uses ‘aha’ for two purposes: firstly, as a demonstration of news receipt after unknown...... information within the story and secondly, as a tool to acknowledge the child’s effort to improve his/her language production. I conclude with a summary of the findings, discussing the implications the teacher’s differentiated use of ‘aha’ may have for the children and their acquisition of interactional...

  3. 语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术后一年内的听觉发展和言语识别%Development of early auditory and speech perception skills within one year after cochlear implantion in prelingual deaf children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅莹; 陈源; 郗昕; 洪梦迪; 陈艾婷; 王倩; 黄丽娜

    2015-01-01

    后儿童早期听觉、言语识别的可用工具.%Objective To investigate the development of early auditory capability and speech perception in the prelingual deaf children after cochlear implantation,and to study the feasibility of currently available Chinese assessment instruments for the evaluation of early auditory skill and speech perception in hearing-impaired children.Methods A total of 83 children with severe-to-profound prelingual hearing impairment participated in this study.Participants were divided into four groups according to the age for surgery:A (1-2 years),B (2-3 years),C (3-4 years) and D (4-5years).The auditory skill and speech perception ability of CI children were evaluated by trained audiologists using the infant-toddler/ meaningful auditory integration scale (IT-MAIS/MAIS) questionnaire,the Mandarin Early Speech Perception (MESP)test and the Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (MPSI) test.The questionnaires were used in face to face interviews with the parents or guardians.Each child was assessed before the operation and 3 months,6 months,12 months after switch-on.Results After cochlear implantation,early postoperative auditory development and speech perception gradually improved.All MAIS/IT-MAIS scores showed a similar increasing trend with the rehabilitation duration (F =5.743,P =0.007).Preoperative and post operative MAIS/IT-MAIS scores of children in age group C (3-4 years) was higher than that of other groups.Children who had longer hearing aid experience before operation demonstrated higher MAIS/IT-MAIS scores than those with little or no hearing aid experience(F =4.947,P =0.000).The MESP test showed that,children were not able to perceive speech as well as detecting speech signals.However as the duration of CI use increased,speech perception ability also improved substantially.However,only about 40% of the subjects could be evaluated using the most difficult subtest on the MPSI in quiet at 12 months after switch-on.As MCR

  4. Environmental sounds recognition in children with cochlear implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to document the recognition performance of environmental sounds (ESs in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs and to analyze the possible associated factors with the ESs recognition; (2 to examine the relationship between perception of ESs and receptive vocabulary level; and (3 to explore the acoustic factors relevant to perceptual outcomes of daily ESs in pediatric CI users. Forty-seven prelingually deafened children between ages 4 to 10 years participated in this study. They were divided into pre-school (group A: age 4-6 and school-age (group B: age 7 to 10 groups. Sound Effects Recognition Test (SERT and the Chinese version of the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R were used to assess the auditory perception ability. The average correct percentage of SERT was 61.2% in the preschool group and 72.3% in the older group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The ESs recognition performance of children with CIs was poorer than that of their hearing peers (90% in average. No correlation existed between ESs recognition and receptive vocabulary comprehension. Two predictive factors: pre-implantation residual hearing and duration of CI usage were found to be associated with recognition performance of daily-encountered ESs. Acoustically, sounds with distinct temporal patterning were easier to identify for children with CIs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ESs recognition is not easy for children with CIs and a low correlation existed between linguistic sounds and ESs recognition in these subjects. Recognition ability of ESs in children with CIs can only be achieved by natural exposure to daily-encountered auditory stimuli if sounds other than speech stimuli were less emphasized in routine verbal/oral habilitation program. Therefore, task-specific measures other than speech materials can be helpful to capture the full profile of auditory perceptual progress after

  5. Music and Quality of Life in Early-Deafened Late-Implanted Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina; Mallinckrodt, Lisa; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien

    2013-01-01

    Hypothesis and Background: The early-deafened, late-implanted (EDLI) CI users constitute a relatively new and understudied clinical population. To contribute to a better understanding of the implantation outcome, this study evaluated this population for self-reported enjoyment and perception of musi

  6. Effect of the loss of auditory feedback on segmental parameters of vowels of postlingually deafened speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Barbara S; Baumgartner, Wolf Dieter; Hamzavi, Jafar Sasan

    2003-12-01

    The most obvious and best documented changes in speech of postlingually deafened speakers are the rate, fundamental frequency, and volume (energy). These changes are due to the lack of auditory feedback. But auditory feedback affects not only the suprasegmental parameters of speech. The aim of this study was to determine the change at the segmental level of speech in terms of vowel formants. Twenty-three postlingually deafened and 18 normally hearing speakers were recorded reading a German text. The frequencies of the first and second formants and the vowel spaces of selected vowels in word-in-context condition were compared. All first formant frequencies (F1) of the postlingually deafened speakers were significantly different from those of the normally hearing people. The values of F1 were higher for the vowels /e/ (418+/-61 Hz compared with 359+/-52 Hz, P=0.006) and /o/ (459+/-58 compared with 390+/-45 Hz, P=0.0003) and lower for /a/ (765+/-115 Hz compared with 851+/-146 Hz, P=0.038). The second formant frequency (F2) only showed a significant increase for the vowel/e/(2016+/-347 Hz compared with 2279+/-250 Hz, P=0.012). The postlingually deafened people were divided into two subgroups according to duration of deafness (shorter/longer than 10 years of deafness). There was no significant difference in formant changes between the two groups. Our report demonstrated an effect of auditory feedback also on segmental features of speech of postlingually deafened people.

  7. Epidemiology of prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment at a children’s center in Bogotá, Colombia between 1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Talero-Gutiérrez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is a frequent problem in childhood with an incidence of about one case per 1000 births. Control of deafness should be aimed at prevention and early diagnosis in efforts to provide appropriate treatment and stimulate adequate communication in children affected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of different etiologies among deaf children with a diagnosis of prelingual sensorineural hearing loss referred to the Fundación CINDA in Bogotá, Colombia, between 1997 and 2008.Materials and methods: The medical records were selected from those with prelingual hearing loss. Information was gathered in a format containing variables related to the risk factors suggested by the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing.Results: We studied 254 children; boys and girls were equally distributed. The most common etiological diagnosis was «unknown cause», followed by genetic causes (31 cases, and 38 cases from TORCH infections (toxoplasmosis, others – syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, with rubella as the most common cause.Conclusions: Review of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history often reveals the cause of the deafness in children; therefore, appropriate evaluation of pregnant mothers could result in decreased frequency of deafness in children in our country.

  8. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  9. Pediatric cochlear implants in prelingual deafness: medium and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel M; Puterman, Moshe

    2010-02-01

    Unfortunately, no large-scale, well-designed, comprehensive studies on medium and long-term effect of cochlear implants in prelingual children exist. Furthermore, the few studies listed have addressed different aspects of this issue, in a non-standardized manner. With the question of outcomes becoming so important in modern medicine, standardized reporting methods are essential. This would enable a fair comparison between the different commercial devices and between rehabilitation-education methods. The studies presented above were published between 1999 and 2008. Due to the long follow-up period required for reporting medium and long-term outcomes, they actually represent patients implanted one and two decades ago. At present and in the near future, we may expect better results from patients who were implanted in the last few years for several reasons: a) superior cochlear implants with better coding strategies; b) developments in rehabilitation and higher awareness among parents and staff; c) better health care and universal screening programs, leading to implants being performed in an earlier age; and d) a high rate of performing bilateral cochlear implants (either simultaneously or sequentially) in the last decade, which accomplishes even better results compared to unilateral implants. From the studies reviewed above, mainstreaming the child who has auditory-verbal and oral communication is the preferred educational setting for maximizing the medium and long-term benefit from a cochlear implant. Hearing and speech skills continue to improve many years after the implant. Non-use and failure rates (as reported by the authors from the medical centers and not solely by the cochlear implant manufacturers) are low, ranging from 1% to 2.7% per year. Overall, patients have a high rate of employment, close to that of the general population. However, they may be less satisfied, as the individual and the parents may feel compromised by their communication skills.

  10. Comparison of speech perception performance between Sprint/Esprit 3G and Freedom processors in children implanted with nucleus cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Rosamaria; Magnavita, Vincenzo; De Filippi, Roberta; Ventura, Laura; Genovese, Elisabetta; Arslan, Edoardo

    2009-04-01

    To compare speech perception performance in children fitted with previous generation Nucleus sound processor, Sprint or Esprit 3G, and the Freedom, the most recently released system from the Cochlear Corporation that features a larger input dynamic range. Prospective intrasubject comparative study. University Medical Center. Seventeen prelingually deafened children who had received the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant and used the Sprint or Esprit 3G sound processor. Cochlear implantation with Cochlear device. Speech perception was evaluated at baseline (Sprint, n = 11; Esprit 3G, n = 6) and after 1 month's experience with the Freedom sound processor. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words and identification of vowels were performed via recorded voice in quiet (70 dB [A]), in the presence of background noise at various levels of signal-to-noise ratio (+10, +5, 0, -5) and at a soft presentation level (60 dB [A]). Consonant identification and recognition of disyllabic words, trisyllabic words, and sentences were evaluated in live voice. Frequency discrimination was measured in a subset of subjects (n = 5) by using an adaptive, 3-interval, 3-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Identification of disyllabic words administered at a soft presentation level showed a significant increase when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor in children using the Sprint or Esprit 3G. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words in the presence of background noise as well as consonant identification and sentence recognition increased significantly for the Freedom compared with the previously worn device only in children fitted with the Sprint. Frequency discrimination was significantly better when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor. Serial comparisons revealed that that speech perception performance evaluated in children aged 5 to 15 years was superior with the Freedom than previous generations of Nucleus

  11. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

    2014-07-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (∼50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation.

  12. Behavioral training enhances cortical temporal processing in neonatally deafened juvenile cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Ralph E; Vollmer, Maike; Raggio, Marcia W; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2011-08-01

    Deaf humans implanted with a cochlear prosthesis depend largely on temporal cues for speech recognition because spectral information processing is severely impaired. Training with a cochlear prosthesis is typically required before speech perception shows improvement, suggesting that relevant experience modifies temporal processing in the central auditory system. We tested this hypothesis in neonatally deafened cats by comparing temporal processing in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of cats that received only chronic passive intracochlear electric stimulation (ICES) with cats that were also trained with ICES to detect temporally challenging trains of electric pulses. After months of chronic passive stimulation and several weeks of detection training in behaviorally trained cats, multineuronal AI responses evoked by temporally modulated ICES were recorded in anesthetized animals. The stimulus repetition rates that produced the maximum number of phase-locked spikes (best repetition rate) and 50% cutoff rate were significantly higher in behaviorally trained cats than the corresponding rates in cats that received only chronic passive ICES. Behavioral training restored neuronal temporal following ability to levels comparable with those recorded in naïve prior normal-hearing adult deafened animals. Importantly, best repetitition rates and cutoff rates were highest for neuronal clusters activated by the electrode configuration used in behavioral training. These results suggest that neuroplasticity in the AI is induced by behavioral training and perceptual learning in animals deprived of ordinary auditory experience during development and indicate that behavioral training can ameliorate or restore temporal processing in the AI of profoundly deaf animals.

  13. Epidemiología de la pérdida auditiva neurosensorial pre-lingual en un centro de atención a niños de Bogotá, Colombia entre 1997 y 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Talero-Gutiérrez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is a frequent problem in childhood with an incidence of about one case per 1000 births. Control of deafness should be aimed at prevention and early diagnosis in efforts to provide appropriate treatment and stimulate adequate communication in children affected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of different etiologies among deaf children with a diagnosis of prelingual sensorineural hearing loss referred to the Fundación CINDA in Bogotá, Colombia, between 1997 and 2008. Materials and methods: The medical records were selected from those with prelingual hearing loss. Information was gathered in a format containing variables related to the risk factors suggested by the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing. Results: We studied 254 children; boys and girls were equally distributed. The most common etiological diagnosis was «unknown cause», followed by genetic causes (31 cases, and 38 cases from TORCH infections (toxoplasmosis, others – syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, with rubella as the most common cause. Conclusions: Review of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history often reveals the cause of the deafness in children; therefore, appropriate evaluation of pregnant mothers could result in decreased frequency of deafness in children in our country.

  14. Recovery characteristics of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve in deafened guinea pigs: relation to neuronal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-03-01

    Successful cochlear implant performance requires adequate responsiveness of the auditory nerve to prolonged pulsatile electrical stimulation. Degeneration of the auditory nerve as a result of severe hair cell loss could considerably compromise this ability. The main objective of this study was to characterize the recovery of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve, as well as to evaluate possible changes caused by deafness-induced degeneration. To this end we studied temporal responsiveness of the auditory nerve in a guinea pig model of sensorineural hearing loss. Using masker-probe and pulse train paradigms we compared electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) in normal-hearing animals with those in animals with moderate (two weeks after ototoxic treatment) and severe (six weeks after ototoxic treatment) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs). Masker-probe interval and pulse train inter-pulse interval was varied from 0.3 to 16 ms. Whereas recovery assessed with masker-probe was roughly similar for normal-hearing and both groups of deafened animals, it was considerably faster for six weeks deaf animals (τ ≈ 1.2 ms) than for two weeks deaf or normal-hearing animals (τ ≈ 3-4 ms) when 100-ms pulse trains were applied. Latency increased with decreasing inter-pulse intervals, and this was more pronounced with pulse trains than with masker-probe stimulation. With high frequency pulse train stimulation eCAP amplitudes were modulated for deafened animals, meaning that amplitudes for odd pulse numbers were larger than for even pulses. The relative refractory period (τ) and the modulation depth of the eCAP amplitude for pulse trains, as well as the latency increase for both paradigms significantly correlated with quantified measures of auditory nerve degeneration (size and packing density of SGCs). In addition to these findings, separate masker-probe recovery functions for the eCAP N1 and N2 peaks displayed a robust non-monotonic or shoulder

  15. Perception of Suprasegmental Features of Speech by Children with Cochlear Implants and Children with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Peled, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed perception of suprasegmental features of speech by 30 prelingual children with sensorineural hearing loss. Ten children had cochlear implants (CIs), and 20 children wore hearing aids (HA): 10 with severe hearing loss and 10 with profound hearing loss. Perception of intonation, syllable stress, word emphasis, and word pattern…

  16. Maximal vowel space method in analysis of vowels in prelingual speech phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problems in the analysis of vowels which occur in prelingual speech phase are centralization of utterance and unknown dimension of vocal tract. Most researches in this field are based on the analysis of maximal vowel space (MVS because discrimination of vowels is very difficult in this early period. MVS analysis includes the estimation of vocal tract (VT physical dimensions. The aim of this research was to estimate and define changes in vowel pronunciation during prelingual speech phase. The analysis and voice recording were performed in a two month old child until he turned one. The recording was performed in 42 sessions, on average 4 sessions every month. Sound segments that look like vowel pronunciation were extracted from the recordings and were used for the formant frequencies estimation by PRAAT software. The Burg method was used for formant frequency estimation. Research results showed that MVS can be used in diagnostic procedure from a child's earliest age. MVS analysis is appropriate for a child's earliest age as a child needs to pronounce individual phonemes, and does not need to respond to speech stimuli. These results need to be confirmed on a larger sample when extended analysis should define criteria for discrimination of typical and atypical formant frequencies.

  17. Dendrogenin A and B two new steroidal alkaloides increasing neural responsiveness in deafened guinea pig

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    Anette Elisabeth Fransson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the therapeutic potential for treating inner ear damage of two new steroidal alkaloid compounds, Dendrogenin A and Dendrogenin B, previously shown to be potent inductors of cell differentiation. Methods: Guinea pigs, unilaterally deafened by neomycin infusion, received a cochlear implant followed by immediate or a two-week delayed treatment with Dendrogenin A, Dendrogenin B, and, as comparison artificial perilymph and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor. After a 4-week treatment period the animals were sacrificed and the cochleae processed for morphological analysis. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses were measured weekly throughout the experiment. Results: Following immediate or delayed Dendrogenin treatment the electrical responsiveness was significantly maintained, in a similar extent as has been shown using neurotrophic factors. Histological analysis showed that the spiral ganglion neurons density was only slightly higher than the untreated group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that Dendrogenins constitute a new class of drugs with strong potential to improve cochlear implant efficacy and to treat neuropathy/synaptopathy related hearing loss. That electrical responsiveness was maintained despite a significantly reduced neural population suggests that the efficacy of cochlear implants is more related to the functional state of the spiral ganglion neurons than merely their number.

  18. Similarities and Differences in the Processing of Written Text by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers with Prelingual Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on similarities and differences in the processing of written text by individuals with prelingual deafness from different reading levels that used Hebrew as their first spoken language and Israeli Sign Language as their primary manual communication mode. Data were gathered from three sources, including (a) a sentence…

  19. Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... of guidelines and workshops. This paper discusses language practices used in the setting of a school for cochlear-implanted children. These children encounter language and pronunciation problems that accompany prelingual deafness and hearing with a cochlear implant. I examine two practices, which are used...

  20. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  1. Improved Auditory Nerve Survival with Nanoengineered Supraparticles for Neurotrophin Delivery into the Deafened Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Justin; Wang, Yajun; Caruso, Frank; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants electrically stimulate spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in order to provide speech cues to severe-profoundly deaf patients. In normal hearing cochleae the SGNs depend on endogenous neurotrophins secreted by sensory cells in the organ of Corti for survival. SGNs gradually degenerate following deafness and consequently there is considerable interest in developing clinically relevant strategies to provide exogenous neurotrophins to preserve SGN survival. The present study investigated the safety and efficacy of a drug delivery system for the cochlea using nanoengineered silica supraparticles. In the present study we delivered Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) over a period of four weeks and evaluated SGN survival as a measure of efficacy. Supraparticles were bilaterally implanted into the basal turn of cochleae in profoundly deafened guinea pigs. One ear received BDNF-loaded supraparticles and the other ear control (unloaded) supraparticles. After one month of treatment the cochleae were examined histologically. There was significantly greater survival of SGNs in cochleae that received BDNF supraparticles compared to the contralateral control cochleae (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.009). SGN survival was observed over a wide extent of the cochlea. The supraparticles were well tolerated within the cochlea with a tissue response that was localised to the site of implantation in the cochlear base. Although mild, the tissue response was significantly greater in cochleae treated with BDNF supraparticles compared to the controls (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.003). These data support the clinical potential of this technology particularly as the supraparticles can be loaded with a variety of therapeutic drugs. PMID:27788219

  2. Phenotype and genotype analysis of a Chinese family with prelingual X-linked hereditary hearing impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing; CHENG Jing; YANG Shu-zhi; CAO Ju-yang; SHEN Wei-dong; JI Fei; KANG Dong-yang; ZHANG Xin; DAI Pu; YUAN Hui-jun

    2009-01-01

    Background X-linked hearing impairment is clinically and genetically a heterogeneous disease.Although many disorders manifest with hearing loss,a limited number of sex-linked loci and only one gene (POU3F4) have been shown to be implicated in X-linked non-syndromic hearing impairment.In the present study,we have performed a clinical and genetic analysis of a Chinese family with X-linked non-syndromic hearing loss,with emphasis on audiological findings and genomic mapping.Methods The clinical features of Family JX01 were evaluated by physical and audiometric examination in eighteen family members.Mutation screening of POU3F4 was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing.Molecular evaluation consisted of X-chromosome wide genotyping by microsatellite makers (STR),followed by analyzing using MLINK computer program.Results Five affected males demonstrated bilateral,symmetrical sensorineural and profound hearing loss.The hearing impairment started prelingual.The female carriers did not have any complain of hearing loss,however,two of them were tested with milder loss with high frequency.No causative mutations in POU3F4 gene were detected by DNA sequencing.Linkage analysis indicated that the responsible gene was linked to locus DXS1227 (maximum lod score=2.04 at θ=0).Conclusions The affected males in Family JX01 have profound prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment,In addition,two female carriers showed mild to moderate hearing losses.However,none of females complained of any hearing loss.Analysis of hereditary deafness in this family mapped most compatibly to the Xq27.2.

  3. Classroom performance of children with cochlear implants in mainstream education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Oever-Goltstein, M.H. van den; Langereis, M.C.; Chute, P.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We compared classroom performance of children with a cochlear implant (CI) with that of their normal-hearing peers in mainstream education. METHODS: Thirty-two CI children in mainstream education, congenitally or prelingually deaf, participated in this study, as did 37 hearing classmates

  4. Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Zoe W. Y.; So, Lydia K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the phonological skills of 2 groups of Cantonese-speaking children with prelingual, profound bilateral hearing loss. The phonological abilities of 7 children fitted with hearing aids were compared with the abilities of 7 children who wore cochlear implants. Method: Participants in each group ranged in age from 5;1…

  5. Sarcasm and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding in Children and Adults with Prelingual Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Karin; Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies addressed key theoretical debates in theory of mind (ToM) development by comparing (a) deaf native signers (n = 18), (b) deaf late signers (n = 59), and (c) age-matched hearing persons (n = 74) in childhood (Study 1: n = 81) and adulthood (Study 2: n = 70) on tests of first- and second-order false belief and conversational sarcasm.…

  6. Effects of a Wearable, Tactile Aid on Language Comprehension of Prelingual Profoundly Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele

    Factors influencing the use of nonacoustic aids (such as visual displays and tactile devices) with the hearing impaired are reviewed. The benefits of tactile devices in improving speech reading/lipreading and speech are pointed out. Tactile aids which provide information on rhythm, rate, intensity, and duration of speech increase lipreading and…

  7. Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Reading for Deaf and Hearing Children in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Kyle, Fiona Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Forty-one children with severe-profound prelingual hearing loss were assessed on single word reading, reading comprehension, English vocabulary, phonological awareness and speechreading at three time points, 1 year apart (T1-T3). Their progress was compared with that of a group of hearing children of similar nonverbal IQ, initially reading at the…

  8. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and electrical stimulation on survival and function of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in deafened, developing cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Patricia A; Stakhovskaya, Olga; Hetherington, Alexander; Rebscher, Stephen J; Bonham, Ben

    2013-04-01

    Both neurotrophic support and neural activity are required for normal postnatal development and survival of cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons. Previous studies in neonatally deafened cats demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) from a cochlear implant can promote improved SG survival but does not completely prevent progressive neural degeneration. Neurotrophic agents combined with an implant may further improve neural survival. Short-term studies in rodents have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes SG survival after deafness and may be additive to trophic effects of stimulation. Our recent study in neonatally deafened cats provided the first evidence of BDNF neurotrophic effects in the developing auditory system over a prolonged duration Leake et al. (J Comp Neurol 519:1526-1545, 2011). Ten weeks of intracochlear BDNF infusion starting at 4 weeks of age elicited significant improvement in SG survival and larger soma size compared to contralateral. In the present study, the same deafening and BDNF infusion procedures were combined with several months of ES from an implant. After combined BDNF + ES, a highly significant increase in SG numerical density (>50 % improvement re: contralateral) was observed, which was significantly greater than the neurotrophic effect seen with ES-only over comparable durations. Combined BDNF + ES also resulted in a higher density of myelinated radial nerve fibers within the osseous spiral lamina. However, substantial ectopic and disorganized sprouting of these fibers into the scala tympani also occurred, which may be deleterious to implant function. EABR thresholds improved (re: initial thresholds at time of implantation) on the chronically stimulated channels of the implant. Terminal electrophysiological studies recording in the inferior colliculus (IC) revealed that the basic cochleotopic organization was intact in the midbrain in all studied groups. In deafened controls or after ES-only, lower IC

  9. The effects of early bilateral deafening on calretinin expression in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of aged CBA/CaJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Martha L; O'Neill, William E; Trang, Tung T; Frisina, Robert D

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calretinin (CR) levels in the aged mouse auditory brainstem depend upon hearing ability. Old animals with good hearing, and thus higher sound-evoked activity levels, were predicted to have higher levels of CR immunoreactivity than old animals with hearing loss. CR immunoreactivity was analyzed in the deep layer (layer III) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in CBA/CaJ mice that were bilaterally deafened at 3 months of age with kanamycin, and then aged until 24 months. This manipulation partially mimics the lack of sound-evoked auditory activity experienced by old C57BL/6J mice, who are deaf at 24 months of age (but show residual hearing at 15 months) and have lower levels of CR immunoreactivity than old CBA mice with normal hearing [Hear. Res. 158 (2001) 131]. Cell counts revealed that the density of CR+ cells in DCN layer III of the deafened CBA mice was statistically different from old intact CBA mice raised under identical conditions. Old deafened CBAs showed a decline of 47% in the mean density of CR+ cells compared to old hearing CBAs, thus supporting the hypothesis. Interestingly, while there tended to be fewer CR+ cells in the old deaf C57s as compared to young C57s and young and old CBAs with normal hearing, the difference was not statistically significant. It is possible that the residual hearing of C57 mice at 15 months may provide sufficient auditory input to maintain CR at levels higher than CBA mice that are deafened completely at 3 months of age, and are profoundly deaf for a much longer time (21 months).

  10. Beginnings of Song in Young Deaf Children Using Cochlear Implants: The Song They Move, the Song They Feel, the Song They Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennari, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the singing activity of prelingually deaf children under four years of age who are using cochlear implants (CIs) and presents a strand of a larger study that aimed to observe, record and analyse the musical activity of seven profoundly deaf children using CIs in the UK, for a period of one calendar year. The singing activity…

  11. Long-Term Predictors of Narrative Skill in Children with Early Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelsey E.; Wie, Ona Bø

    2015-01-01

    Narratives require the integration of many different linguistic skills and can be used as an ecologically valid measure of child language development. This study investigated the narrative skills of 18 six- to seven-year-old prelingually deaf children who received simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants (CI) between 5 and 18 months of age. No…

  12. The Music Experiences and Attitudes Of A First Cohort of Prelingually-Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults CI Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Smith, Rachel See; Scheperle, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the musical engagement (participation and attitude) of pediatric CI recipients who were implanted during early childhood and who have reached age 15 or older. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 31 prelingually deaf CI users who receive annual follow up services and assessment in a clinical research center. The questionnaire was used to examine involvement in and attitudes toward music in school, the community, and in the home; social affiliation (hearing, Deaf, both) and mode of communication (oral, manual, both) were also examined. Despite the technical limitations of cochlear implants in transmitting pitch, melody, and tone quality, over two thirds of this sample described music as being important or very important in their lives. A high level of past and present familial involvement in music was associated with higher levels of current involvement and importance of music in the lives of adolescent and young adult CI users. Comparisons were noted with data from prior studies of persons with hearing loss who were non-CI users. PMID:23565029

  13. Postural responses applied in a control model in cochlear implant users with pre-lingual hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hamlet; Ferreira, Enrique; Alonso, Rafael; Arocena, Sofia; San Roman, Cecilia; Herrera, Tamara; Lapilover, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions The assessment of postural responses (PR) based in a feedback control system model shows selective gains in different bands of frequencies adaptable with child development. Objective PR characterization of pre-lingual cochlear implant users (CIU) in different sensory conditions. Methods Total energy consumption of the body's center of pressure signal (ECCOP) and its distribution in three bands of frequencies: band 1 (0-0.1 Hz), band 2 (0.1-0.7 Hz), and band 3 (0.7-20 Hz) was measured in a sample of 18 CIU (8-16 years old) and in a control group (CG) (8-15 years old). They were assessed in a standing position on a force platform in two sensory conditions: 1 = Eyes open. 2 = Eyes closed and standing on foam. Results In condition 1, total ECCOP of PR and its proportion of energy consumption in the three bands of frequencies were similar between CIU and CG (p > 0.05). In condition 2, CIU have significantly higher ECCOP, mainly in high frequencies (bands 2 and 3) (p < 0.05). ECCOP values decreased with age also, mainly in bands 2 and 3. This behavior is interpreted in the control system model proposed as an adaptation process related with child development.

  14. Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... during the storytelling activity: repeat requests and questions. Whereas repeat requests are used in ci-therapy, questions have been shown to be instrumentalized for educational purposes in the setting of a school. I will reveal the educational/rehabilitational issues that are linked to these practices....

  15. Cross-Modal and Intra-Modal Characteristics of Visual Function and Speech Perception Performance in Postlingually Deafened, Cochlear Implant Users.

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    Min-Beom Kim

    Full Text Available Evidence of visual-auditory cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals has been widely reported. Superior visual abilities of deaf individuals have been shown to result in enhanced reactivity to visual events and/or enhanced peripheral spatial attention. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between visual-auditory cross-modal plasticity and speech perception in post-lingually deafened, adult cochlear implant (CI users. Post-lingually deafened adults with CIs (N = 14 and a group of normal hearing, adult controls (N = 12 participated in this study. The CI participants were divided into a good performer group (good CI, N = 7 and a poor performer group (poor CI, N = 7 based on word recognition scores. Visual evoked potentials (VEP were recorded from the temporal and occipital cortex to assess reactivity. Visual field (VF testing was used to assess spatial attention and Goldmann perimetry measures were analyzed to identify differences across groups in the VF. The association of the amplitude of the P1 VEP response over the right temporal or occipital cortex among three groups (control, good CI, poor CI was analyzed. In addition, the association between VF by different stimuli and word perception score was evaluated. The P1 VEP amplitude recorded from the right temporal cortex was larger in the group of poorly performing CI users than the group of good performers. The P1 amplitude recorded from electrodes near the occipital cortex was smaller for the poor performing group. P1 VEP amplitude in right temporal lobe was negatively correlated with speech perception outcomes for the CI participants (r = -0.736, P = 0.003. However, P1 VEP amplitude measures recorded from near the occipital cortex had a positive correlation with speech perception outcome in the CI participants (r = 0.775, P = 0.001. In VF analysis, CI users showed narrowed central VF (VF to low intensity stimuli. However, their far peripheral VF (VF to high intensity

  16. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Knight

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4.Method and procedures: The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group were 3–5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0–2 years and five perilingual (2–4 years implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3–6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant’s caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab.Results: When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer. More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups.Conclusion: In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched.Keywords: cochlear implant; vocal development; age of implantation; prelingual; lingual

  17. [Language performance of deaf children and adolescents in verbal and written retelling of a picture story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Schildhammer, A; Ruoss, M

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the spoken and written language skills of prelingually deaf pupils is necessary to improve existing language curricula. Research on written language shows notable delays and substantial differences in the development of written language in comparison to hearing peers. It is difficult to investigate the spontaneous speech because of methodological problems (no control of speech parameters, language becomes a confounding variable). The written language is therefore a good indicator of language development. Nevertheless, oral communication ability can only be studied through spoken utterances. The present study deals with oral and writing performance of 23 prelingually deaf pupils from 9 to 15 years of age whose hearing losses range from 85 to 117 dB. Tape-recorded short picture sequences described by the children and adolescents were examined by experienced listeners. Furthermore, the written narratives of these picture sequences were also analyzed. Parameters included frequency of occurrence of content and function words, type-token ratio, mean length of sentence, and speech fluency. Speech intelligibility was rated by a panel of naive listeners. The results demonstrate the enormous retardation of oral and written language development and specific qualitative differences compared to hearing children. Language skills improve with age, especially in writing. However, oral and written narrative abilities are positively correlated. The loss of sound requires substitutional media for the acquisition of a formal language system. This should be taken into account in the teaching of language to the deaf in order to build up a language competence which is adequate for their age.

  18. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kerry; Ducasse, Simone; Coetzee, Ashley; van der Linde, Jeannie; Louw, Anel

    2016-06-27

    Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4. The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group) were 3-5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0-2 years) and five perilingual (2-4 years) implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3-6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant's caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab. When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer). More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups. In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched.

  19. MUSIC AND COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yitao; Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most people with modern multichannel cochlear implant systems can understand speech in qui-et environment very well. However, studies in recent decades reported a lack of satisfaction in music percep-tion with cochlear implants. This article reviews the literature on music ability of cochlear implant users by presenting a systematic outline of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients with regard to their music perception as well as production. The review also evaluates the similarities and differences be-tween electric hearing and acoustic hearing regarding music perception. We summarize the research results in terms of the individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, pitch, and timbre). Finally, we briefly intro-duce the vocal singing of prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants as evaluated by acoustic measures.

  20. Language sampling for children with and without cochlear implant: MLU, NDW, and NTW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahdiye; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Modarresi, Yahya; Zarandy, Masoud Motasaddi

    2015-12-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can considerably improve the oral language of prelingual hearing-impaired children. However, because most studies have been performed with English speaking children, available information regarding Persian-speaking children is scarce. Therefore, this study compared measures of lexical diversity (numbers of different words and total words), and syntactic complexity (mean length of utterance) in Persian-speaking children with and without CIs. A cross-sectional study with 20 children with CIs and 20 typically developing children was conducted. To collect the data, the children's language samples were gathered via picture descriptions. The first 50 utterances were analyzed. All measures were significantly different between children with CIs and their typically developing age-matched peers, whereas no differences between children with CIs and their typically developing hearing age-matched peers were detected (pchildren to acquire speech and language abilities similar to their typically developing hearing age-matched peers. After implantation, the performance of children with CIs is similar to the performance of normal children with the same hearing experience. The duration of the hearing experience after the implantation is an important factor for determining the development of speech and language abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cochlear implant: Speech and language development in deaf and hard of hearing children following implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Almost 200 cochlear implantations were done in the four centers (two in Belgrade, per one in Novi Sad and Niš in Serbia from 2002 to 2009. Less than 10% of implantees were postlingually deaf adults. The vast majority, i.e. 90% were pre- and perilingually profoundly deaf children. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of improved auditory perception due to cochlear implantation on comprehension of abstract words in children as compared with hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids and normal hearing children. Methods. Thirty children were enrolled in this study: 20 hearing impaired and 10 normal hearing. The vocabulary test was used. Results. The overall results for the whole test (100 words showed a significant difference in favor of the normal hearing as compared with hearing impaired children. The normal hearing children successfully described or defined 77.93% of a total of 100 words. Success rate for the cochlear implanted children was 26.87% and for the hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids 20.32%. Conclusion. Testing for abstract words showed a statistically significant difference between the cochlear implanted and the hearing impaired children with hearing aids (Mann- Whitney U-test, p = 0.019 implying considerable advantage of cochlear implants over hearing aids regarding successful speech development in prelingually deaf children.

  2. Cochlear implantation (CI) for prelingual deafness: the relevance of studies of brain organization and the role of first language acquisition in considering outcome success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) for profound congenital hearing impairment, while often successful in restoring hearing to the deaf child, does not always result in effective speech processing. Exposure to non-auditory signals during the pre-implantation period is widely held to be responsible for such failures. Here, we question the inference that such exposure irreparably distorts the function of auditory cortex, negatively impacting the efficacy of CI. Animal studies suggest that in congenital early deafness there is a disconnection between (disordered) activation in primary auditory cortex (A1) and activation in secondary auditory cortex (A2). In humans, one factor contributing to this functional decoupling is assumed to be abnormal activation of A1 by visual projections-including exposure to sign language. In this paper we show that that this abnormal activation of A1 does not routinely occur, while A2 functions effectively supramodally and multimodally to deliver spoken language irrespective of hearing status. What, then, is responsible for poor outcomes for some individuals with CI and for apparent abnormalities in cortical organization in these people? Since infancy is a critical period for the acquisition of language, deaf children born to hearing parents are at risk of developing inefficient neural structures to support skilled language processing. A sign language, acquired by a deaf child as a first language in a signing environment, is cortically organized like a heard spoken language in terms of specialization of the dominant perisylvian system. However, very few deaf children are exposed to sign language in early infancy. Moreover, no studies to date have examined sign language proficiency in relation to cortical organization in individuals with CI. Given the paucity of such relevant findings, we suggest that the best guarantee of good language outcome after CI is the establishment of a secure first language pre-implant-however that may be achieved, and

  3. Cochlear Implantation (CI for prelingual deafness: the relevance of studies of brain organization and the role of first language acquisition in considering outcome success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eCampbell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation (CI for profound congenital hearing impairment, while often successful in restoring hearing to the deaf child, does not always result in effective speech processing. Exposure to non-auditory signals during the pre-implantation period is widely held to be responsible for such failures. Here, we question the inference that such exposure irreparably distorts the function of auditory cortex, negatively impacting the efficacy of cochlear implantation. Animal studies suggest that in congenital early deafness there is a disconnection between (disordered activation in primary auditory cortex (A1 and activation in secondary auditory cortex (A2. In humans, one factor contributing to this functional decoupling is assumed to be abnormal activation of A1 by visual projections – including exposure to sign language. In this paper we show that that this abnormal activation of A1 does not routinely occur, while A2 functions effectively supramodally and multimodally to deliver spoken language irrespective of hearing status. What, then, is responsible for poor outcomes for some individuals with CI and for apparent abnormalities in cortical organization in these people? Since infancy is a critical period for the acquisition of language, deaf children born to hearing parents are at risk of developing inefficient neural structures to support skilled language processing. A sign language, acquired by a deaf child as a first language in a signing environment, is cortically organized like a heard spoken language in terms of specialization of the dominant perisylvian system. However, very few deaf children are exposed to sign language in early infancy. Moreover, no studies to date have examined sign language proficiency in relation to cortical organization in individuals with CI. Given the paucity of such relevant findings, we suggest that the best guarantee of good language outcome after CI is the establishment of a secure first language pre

  4. Cochlear implantation in autistic children with profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2016-11-19

    Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Speech perception in adolescents with pre-lingual hearing impairment with cochlear implants Percepção de fala em adolescentes com surdez pré-lingual usuários de implante coclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izi Patricia Souza de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Profound hearing loss is a disability that affects personality and when it involves teenagers before language acquisition, these bio-psychosocial conflicts can be exacerbated, requiring careful evaluation and choice of them for cochlear implant. AIM: To evaluate speech perception by adolescents with profound hearing loss, users of cochlear implants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with severe or profound pre-lingual hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation during adolescence, between 10 to 17 years and 11 months, who went through speech perception tests before the implant and 2 years after device activation. For comparison and analysis we used the results from tests of four choice, recognition of vowels and recognition of sentences in a closed setting and the open environment. RESULTS: The average percentage of correct answers in the four choice test before the implant was 46.9% and after 24 months of device use, this value went up to 86.1% in the vowels recognition test, the average difference was 45.13% to 83.13% and the sentences recognition test together in closed and open settings was 19.3% to 60.6% and 1.08% to 20.47% respectively. CONCLUSION: All patients, although with mixed results, achieved statistical improvement in all speech tests that were employed.A surdez profunda é uma deficiência que afeta a personalidade e quando se trata de adolescentes com surdez profunda pré-lingual, esses conflitos biopsicossociais são exacerbados, necessitando de cautela na avaliação e escolha destes candidatos ao implante coclear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a percepção de fala em adolescentes portadores de surdez pré-lingual do tipo neurossensorial grave a profunda bilateral com implante coclear. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Prospectivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Vinte e cinco indivíduos com surdez pré-lingual, sensório-neural, de grau severo ou profundo, que foram submetidos ao implante coclear na adolesc

  6. Audio-visual speech perception in noise: Implanted children and young adults versus normal hearing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Fostick, Leah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate auditory, visual and audiovisual speech perception abilities among two groups of cochlear implant (CI) users: prelingual children and long-term young adults, as compared to their normal hearing (NH) peers. Prospective cohort study that included 50 participants, divided into two groups of CI (10 children and 10 adults), and two groups of normal hearing peers (15 participants each). Speech stimuli included monosyllabic meaningful and nonsense words in a signal to noise ratio of 0 dB. Speech stimuli were introduced via auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. (1) CI children and adults show lower speech perception accuracy with background noise in audiovisual and auditory modalities, as compared to NH peers, but significantly higher visual speech perception scores. (2) CI children are superior to CI adults in speech perception in noise via auditory modality, but inferior in the visual one. Both CI children and CI adults had similar audiovisual integration. The findings of the current study show that in spite of the fact that the CI children were implanted bilaterally, at a very young age, and using advanced technology, they still have difficulties in perceiving speech in adverse listening conditions even when adding the visual modality. This suggests that adding audiovisual training might be beneficial for this group by improving their audiovisual integration in difficult listening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension.

  8. The development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia after cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to survey and compare the development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia and profoundly-deaf young children with radiologically normal inner ears over a period of 3 years after cochlear implantation. A total of 545 young children (age 7 to 36 months with prelingual, severe to profound hearing loss participated in this study. All children received cochlear implantation. Based on whether or not there was a Mondini dysplasia as diagnosed with CT scanning, the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (A 514 young children with radiologically normal inner ears and (B 31 young children with Mondini dysplasia. The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS was used to assess the children's auditory skills that include vocalization changes, spontaneous alerting to sounds in everyday living environments, and the ability to derive meaning from sounds. The assessment was performed prior to surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after implant device switch-on. The mean scores for overall auditory skills were not significantly different between groups A and B at pre-surgery, 1, 12, 24, and 36 months post-surgery, but were significantly different at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery. The mean scores for all auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia showed significant improvement over time. The mean scores for the three subcategories of auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia also showed significant differences at pre-surgery, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, however, there were no significant differences at 12, 24, and 36 months. Overall, the auditory skills of young children with Mondini dysplasia developed rapidly after cochlear implantation, in a similar manner to that of young children with radiologically normal inner ears. Cochlear implantation is an effective intervention for young children with Mondini dysplasia.

  9. Speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N

    2017-03-15

    This paper reviewed the literature on the trajectories and the factors significantly affecting post-implantation speech perception development in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). A systematic literature search of textbooks and peer-reviewed published journal articles in online bibliographic databases was conducted. PubMed, Scopus and Wiley online library were searched for eligible studies based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 14 journal articles were selected for this review. A number of consistent results were found. That is, children with CIs, as a group, exhibited steep improvement in early speech perception, from exhibiting few prelingual auditory behaviours before implantation to identifying sentences in noise after one year of CI use. After one to three years of CI use, children are expected to identify tones above chance and recognition of words in noise. In addition, early age at implantation, longer duration of CI use and higher maternal education level contributed to greater improvements in speech perception. Findings from this review will contribute to the establishment of appropriate short-term developmental goals for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs in mainland China and clinicians could use them to determine whether children have made appropriate progress with CIs.

  10. Assessment of Early Prelingual Auditory Development for 0-9-month-old Infants after Early Hearing Aid Fitting%9月龄内听力损失婴儿助听器干预后的早期语前听能发育规律初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圆; 郑芸; 李刚; Sigfrid D. Soli

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the early prelingual auditory development of 0-9-month-old infants after early hearing aid fitting.Methods The design of this study was longitudinal and prospective. The infant-toddler meaningful auditory integration scale (IT-MAIS) was used to evaluate 43 infants diagnosed with moderate, severe, and profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and fitted with hearing aids bilaterally before 9 months old. The early prelingual auditory development of all subjects was evaluated with IT-MAIS before hearing aid fitting, and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after fitting.Results The mean IT-MAIS scores showed significant improvements as time of hearing aid use increased for all three groups (P0.05). The multiple comparisons indicated that there was no significant difference between the moderate and severe group before and 1,3 and 6 months after fitting(P>0.05),but were significant differences between the moderate and profound group at each assessment interval(P0.05), but were significant differences before fitting and 3 and 6 months after fitting(P0.05)。对配戴前及配戴后1、3、6个月的IT-MAIS得分分别进行两两比较显示,中度组与重度组在6个月前均无显著性差异(P>0.05);中度组与极重度组在6个月前均具有显著性差异(P0.05)外,其余均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论听力损失婴儿助听后的早期语前听觉能力随助听器配戴时间延长而提高,早期语前听能发育主要受助听器配戴时间的影响。IT-MAIS可提供常规测听方法不能反映的重要听能发育信息,应作为听力损失患儿康复效果评估的常规测试方法在临床上应用。

  11. Mandarin Chinese Tone Recognition with an Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Wenle; ZHOU Ning; LEE Chaoyang; LI Yongxin; CHEN Xiuwu; ZHAO Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese tone patterns vary in one of the four ways, i.e, (1) high level; (2) rising; (3) low falling and rising; and (4) high falling. The present study is to examine the efficacy of an artificial neural network in recognizing these tone patterns. Speech data were recorded from 12 children (3-6 years of age) and 15 adults. All subjects were native Mandarin Chinese speakers. The fundamental frequencies (FO) of each monosyllabic word of the speech data were extracted with an autocorrelation method. The pitch data(i.e., the FO contours) were the inputs to a feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. The number of inputs to the neural network varied from 1 to 16 and the hidden layer of the network contained neurons that varied from 1 to 16 in number. The output of the network consisted of four neurons representing the four tone patterns of Mandarin Chinese. After being trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization, the neural network was able to successfully classify the tone patterns with an accuracy of about 90% correct for speech samples from both adults and children. The artificial neural network may provide an objective and effective way of assessing tone production in prelingually-deafened children who have received cochlear implants.

  12. The parents as assessors of the quality of life of their cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Andrea BORKOSKI-BARREIRO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Quality of life refers to the hability of an individual to enjoy normal life activities, including aspects of functional capacity and well-being. The concept of quality of life has been increasingly used in the field of health assessments. Only recently have the effects of Cochlear implantation from the perspective of emotional and social development begun to be investigate. To examine the results of health-related quality of life in cochlear implanted children between 11 and 12 years of age and their parents. Method: Observational, transversal descriptive study .24 unilateral or successive bilateral children implanted prelingually between 11 and 12 years of age and their parents. The pediatric quality of life questionnaire Persil ™ (Version 4.0, Spanish for Spain was used to measure health-related quality of life. It was completed independently by children and parents. Results: The results were analyzed by means of a T -Student test. The outcomes of children and parents at different scales evaluated show that statistically significant results appear on scales of emotional and academic functioning (p < 0.05. When comparing the overall result of the questionnaire with the different scales evaluated, all show statistically significant results (p < 0.05. Discussion: It has been proven the success of a cochlear implant in speech and language field, this leads us calls into question beyond these areas; yield at home, at school and in different social contexts. There are few studies that explain through parental questionnaires expectations and their perception of the quality of life in cochlear implanted in children. Conclusions: The results of the study show that children enjoy the benefits of using a cochlear implant. They report benefits in all areas studied (physical, emotional, social and academic. Parents are reliable reporters about the state of the overall quality of life of their children since their answers were

  13. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  14. Prelinguistic communication and subsequent language acquisition in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Mary O'Leary; Schopmeyer, Betty; Mellon, Nancy K; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between prelinguistic communication behaviors and subsequent language development after cochlear implantation in deaf children. Evaluative tools with predictive validity for language potential in very young deaf children remain elusive. A tertiary care cochlear implant center and a preschool setting of spoken language immersion in which oral language development is emphasized through auditory and oral motor subskill practice. Eighteen prelingually deaf children who underwent unilateral implantation at an average age of 15 months also underwent testing with the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) before device activation and with the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS) at an average of 20 months after cochlear implantation. A prospective study correlated preoperative communication behavior assessments of 18 children who were candidates for cochlear implantation. We examined the value of prelinguistic behavioral testing with the CSBS in predicting later language level after cochlear implantation as reflected in RDLS scores. We found positive, though weak, correlations between prelinguistic communication skills (CSBS scores) and language learning after cochlear implantation (RDLS scores). Linear correlation between test results failed to reach statistical significance (receptive comparisons, P =.17; expressive comparisons, P =.13). Evaluating the quality of prelinguistic communication behaviors potentially adds important predictive information to profiles of children who are candidates for cochlear implantation. Correlative analysis suggests that early CSBS testing may provide useful clinical information. Poor CSBS scores may serve as a precaution: if children lack an appropriate prelinguistic behavioral repertoire, the emergence of age-appropriate formal language may be at risk. Observations suggest that symbolic prelinguistic behaviors are necessary, but not sufficient, for the development of strong linguistic

  15. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD.

  16. The quality of life in cochlear implant children after two years from surgery and its impact on the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cochlear implant has been established as effective option in rehabilitation of individuals with profound hearing impairment. As much of the studies about cochlear implants concentrated on aspects of speech perception and production, so we decided to study the quality of life of pre-lingual deaf children after at least 2 years of implantation. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients’ parents in Fars Center were selected that had been implanted for at least 2 years and they filled the quality of life questionnaire. Three months later this questionnaire was filled again and results of two stages were analyzed. Results: In part of assessments p-value shows significant change in parent’s satisfaction. They believe that they can be beneficial for their children and in another part of this study, parents believe that the children communicate better, but still they need special care to do school homework and they have some difficulties in articulation. Conclusion: cochlear implantation is associated with improvement in quality of life. The improvement is significant in aspects of social communications and happiness.   

  17. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells s

  18. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells

  19. Acoustic Analysis of Persian Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users: A Comparison With Hearing-impaired Children Using Hearing Aid and Normal-hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narges; Yadegari, Fariba; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2016-11-01

    Vowel production in essence is auditorily controlled; hence, the role of the auditory feedback in vowel production is very important. The purpose of this study was to compare formant frequencies and vowel space in Persian-speaking deaf children with cochlear implantation (CI), hearing-impaired children with hearing aid (HA), and their normal-hearing (NH) peers. A total of 40 prelingually children with hearing impairment and 20 NH groups participated in this study. Participants were native Persian speakers. The average of first formant frequency (F1) and second formant frequency (F2) of the six vowels were measured using Praat software (version 5.1.44). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between the three3 groups. The mean value of F1 for vowel /i/ was significantly different (between CI and NH children and also between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 9.229, P vowel /a/, the mean value of F1 was significantly different (between HA and NH groups) (F2, 57 = 3.707, P vowel /o/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 4.572, P vowel /a/ was significantly different (F2, 57 = 3.184, P vowel spaces than hearing-impaired listeners with hearing aids. Probably, this condition is because CI has a subtly positive impact on the place of articulation of vowels. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of auditory feedback in speech produced by cochlear implanted adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Tobey, Emily A.; Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.

    2002-05-01

    A prominent theory of speech production proposes that speech segments are largely controlled by reference to an internal model, with minimal reliance on auditory feedback. This theory also maintains that suprasegmental aspects of speech are directly regulated by auditory feedback. Accordingly, if a talker is briefly deprived of auditory feedback speech segments should not be affected, but suprasegmental properties should show significant change. To test this prediction, comparisons were made between speech samples obtained from cochlear implant users who repeated words under two conditions (1) implant device turned ON, and (2) implant switched OFF immediately before the repetition of each word. To determine whether producing unfamiliar speech requires greater reliance on auditory feedback than producing familiar speech, English and French words were elicited from English-speaking subjects. Subjects were congenitally deaf children (n=4) and adventitiously deafened adults (n=4). Vowel fundamental frequency and formant frequencies, vowel and syllable durations, and fricative spectral moments were analyzed. Preliminary data only partially confirm the predictions, in that both segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech were significantly modified in the absence of auditory feedback. Modifications were greater for French compared to English words, suggesting greater reliance on auditory feedback for unfamiliar words. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  1. [The application of artificial neural network on the assessment of lexical tone production of pediatric cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y T; Chen, Z M; Xu, L

    2017-08-07

    Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the tone production ability of the Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CI) by using an artificial neural network model and to examine the potential contributing factors underlining their tone production performance. The results of this study might provide useful guidelines for post-operative rehabilitation processes of pediatric CI users. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight prelingually deafened children who received unilateral CI participated in this study. As controls, 170 similarly-aged children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited. A total of 36 Chinese monosyllabic words were selected as the tone production targets. Vocal production samples were recorded and the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of each syllable was extracted using an auto-correlation algorithm followed by manual correction. An artificial neural network was created in MATLAB to classify the tone production. The relationships between tone production and several demographic factors were evaluated. Results: Pediatric CI users produced Mandarin tones much less accurately than did the NH children (58.8% vs. 91.5% correct). Tremendous variability in tone production performance existed among the CI children. Tones 2 and 3 were produced less accurately than tones 1 and 4 for both groups. For the CI group, all tones when in error tended to be judged as tone 1. The tone production accuracy was negatively correlated with age at implantation and positively correlated with CI use duration with correlation coefficients (r) of -0.215 (P=0.003) and 0.203 (P=0.005), respectively. Age was one of the determinants of tonal ability for NH children. Conclusions: For children with severe to profound hearing loss, early implantation and persistent use of CI are beneficial to their tone production development. Artificial neural network is a convenient and reliable assessment tool for the development of tonal ability of hearing

  2. Impact of hearing aid use on auditory perception and verbal short-term memory in children with bimodal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The combination of electric stimulation from cochlear implant (CI with acoustic stimulation from hearing aid (HA, otherwise known as bimodal hearing, may provide several binaural benefits including binaural summation, binaural squelch, reduction of the head shadow effect, and improved localization. Purpose: This study investigated the influence of preoperative rehabilitation and bilateral HA use, bimodal stimulation post-implantation (CI on one ear and HA on the non-implanted ear and hearing thresholds in the verbal short-term memory. Method: Immediate verbal memory test for Serbian language consisting of four subtests was used for auditory perception testing on 21 pre-lingually deaf children. Results: Duration of bimodal hearing proved to be significant in the terms of auditory perception and verbal short-term memory. Mid- and high-frequency amplified thresholds on the non-implanted ear were correlated with poorer perception and reproduction of monosyllables and nonsense words. Conclusion: Duration of bimodal hearing proved to be significant in the terms of auditory perception, speech reproduction and semantic ability. Patients with a unilateral cochlear implant who have measurable residual hearing in the non-implanted ear should be individually fitted with a hearing aid in that ear, to improve speech perception and maximize binaural sensitivity.

  3. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of DFNA24: prelingual progressive sensorineural hearing impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R.L.; Hafner, F.M.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Linder, T.E.; Schinzel, A.; Spillmann, T.; Leal, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the hearing impairment (HI) phenotype which segregates in a large multi-generation Swiss-German family with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HI. The locus segregating within this pedigree is located on chromosome 4q35-qter and is designated as DFNA24. For this pedigree, audiome

  5. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  6. Visual Temporal Acuity Is Related to Auditory Speech Perception Abilities in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Kelly N; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers. However, no studies have examined whether speech perception performance is related to any type of visual processing abilities following cochlear implantation. The purpose of the present study was to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between clinical, auditory-only speech perception tests, and visual temporal acuity in prelingually deafened adult CI users. It was hypothesized that prelingually deafened CI users, who exhibit better (i.e., more acute) visual temporal processing abilities would demonstrate better auditory-only speech perception performance than those with poorer visual temporal acuity. Ten prelingually deafened adult CI users were recruited for this study. Participants completed a visual temporal order judgment task to quantify visual temporal acuity. To assess auditory-only speech perception abilities, participants completed the consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition test and the AzBio sentence recognition test. Results were analyzed using two-tailed partial Pearson correlations, Spearman's rho correlations, and independent samples t tests. Visual temporal acuity was significantly correlated with auditory-only word and sentence recognition abilities. In addition, proficient CI users, as assessed via auditory-only speech perception performance, demonstrated

  7. It's All a Matter of Timing: Sign Visibility and Sign Reference in Deaf and Hearing Mothers of 18-Month-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M

    2001-01-01

    The signed and spoken language produced by 14 mothers to their 18-month-old children during free play was analyzed. All the children had profound prelingual deafness. Seven of the mothers were profoundly deaf and fluent users of British Sign Language (BSL) or Auslan. The other seven were hearing and had enrolled in a signing program. Maternal signed utterances were classified according to whether they were made in the child's line of sight and whether they had a salient context; that is, they referred to an object or event at the child's current focus of attention. Spoken utterances were coded by word length. Comparisons between the two groups showed that both deaf and hearing mothers produced a majority of single-sign utterances (rather than utterances containing two or more signs). Deaf mothers also produced a majority of single-word spoken utterances, whereas the hearing mothers produced a significantly greater proportion of multiword utterances. As predicted, deaf mothers were more successful than hearing mothers in presenting signed utterances with a salient context that were visible to their children. Across the group as a whole, the total number of visible and salient signed utterances produced in 10 minutes was positively correlated with the total number of occasions on which mothers successfully redirected their child's attention or the child spontaneously turned to look at the mother. This suggests that deaf children who are visually attentive to their mothers receive a greater number of visible signed utterances with a salient context. I argue that this provides a more secure context for early language development.

  8. 语前聋患者人工耳蜗植入术后听觉言语康复相关影响因素的研究%Research on the Influencing Factors of Auditory and Speech Rehabilitation Outcomes of Prelingually Deaf Patients with Cochlear Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯斯; 林有辉; 张榕; 叶胜难

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨语前聋人工耳蜗植入患者的听觉言语康复效果及其相关影响因素。方法对159例人工耳蜗植入患者家长和康复教师进行调查随访。根据听觉行为分级标准(Categories of Auditory Performance,CAP)和言语可懂度分级标准(Speech Intelligibility Rating,SIR),对患者的听觉能力和言语能力进行分级评估。用组内单因素秩和检验和多因素Logistic回归分析CAP和SIR分级结果与性别、惯用手、内耳发育、颅脑影像学情况、术前助听器使用、术前语训、植入耳侧、植入电极类型、植入年龄、植入后时间、术后语言环境、术后康复模式、家庭经济状况等13个因素的关系。结果单因素分析结果显示,不同的术前助听器使用情况、术前语训、植入后时间、家庭经济状况组间CAP分级结果有显著性差异(P值均<0.05);不同的植入耳侧、植入后时间、家庭经济状况组间SIR分级结果有显著性差异(P值均<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,植入后时间、家庭经济状况与CAP、SIR分级结果均有显著相关。结论植入后时间、家庭经济状况对人工耳蜗植入术后患者的听觉言语康复效果起决定性的作用。%Objective To explore the auditory and speech rehabilitation outcomes of prelingually hearing-impaired patients with cochlear implants and the related influencing factors. Methods One hundred fifty-nine cochlear implantees were recruited in this study.The parents or teachers were interviewed to assess the auditory and speech abilities of the subjects using Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). The relationships were investigated between auditory and speech rehabilitation outcomes represented by CAP/SIR results and 13 possible influencing factors including gender, handedness, inner ear malformations, brain abnormalities, hearing aid use, language training before

  9. ASSESSMENT OF IMPROVEMENT IN SPEECH PERCEPTION AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN COCHLEAR IMPLANT SURGERY : AN INTERESTING STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe to profound prelingual deafness that is either congenital or acquired is estimated to occur in 0.5 to 3 per 1000 live births. This is often associated with early delays in language development, speech perception, socialization and results in lower academic achievement. These de velopmental and behavioral problems are severe as 90 % of children are born to normal patients whereas with deaf parents it is less as they have a mutual communication. After much research in this field the first 22 channel cochlear implant surgery was don e in 1982. The number of prelingually deafened adults seeking cochlear implant is increasing as these individuals can derive substantial benefit, although their performance is poorer than adults with post - lingual deafness. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of ENT, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College and Dr. B. R.A.M. Hospital, Raipur (C.G. The subject selected were prelingually deafened individuals who were undergoing post cochlear implant speech therapy in the Depar tment. This study included individuals, who underwent cochlear implant surgery in this Department during the period of July, 2008 to September, 2010 and the age was within 10 years at the time of surgery. The study was designed as a prospective longitudina l analysis to asses functioning of patients, who underwent cochlear implantation. A total 37 cochlear implant surgeries were carried out in Department. Of these 3 cases were outside the age criteria of the present study and another 2 cases were lost in fol low up. Pre - operatively, detailed information of subject including the age, sex and address as well as contact number was collected. Then a General Examination was followed with reference to Built, Nutrition, Pulse, and Blood pressure, Oedema, Cyanosis, Cl ubbing and Citrus. A systemic examination was also performed. A Local Examination with special emphasis to tympanic membrane and any middle ear

  10. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  11. Prevalence of Epileptiform Discharges in Children with Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss and Behavioral Problems Compared to Their Normal Hearing Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan AMIRSALARI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 How to Cite This Article: Amirsalari S, Radfar Sh, Ajallouyean M, Saburi A, Yousefi J, Noohi S, Tavallaie SA, Hassanalifard M, Ghazavi Y. Prevalence of Epileptiform Discharges in Children with Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss and Behavioral Problems Compared to Their Normal Hearing Peers. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:29-33.ObjectiveOveractivity and behavioral problems are common problems in children with prelingually profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL. Data on epileptiform electroencephalography (EEG discharges in deaf children with psychologicaldisorders are so limited. The primary focus of this study was to determine the prevalence of epileptiform discharges (EDs in children with SNHL and overactivity or behavioral problems.Materials & MethodsA total of 262 patients with prelingually profound SNHL who were referred to our cochlear implantation center between 2008 and 2010 were enrolled in this study. Children with SNHL who had diagnosis of overactivity and/or behavioralproblems by a pediatric psychiatrist, underwent electroencephalography (EEG.EEG analysis was carried out by a board-certified pediatric neurologist. The control group consisted of 45 cases with overactivity or behavioral problems and normal hearing.ResultsOne hundred thirty-eight children with mean age of 3.5±1.23 year were enrolled in the case group, of whom 88 cases (63.7% were boy. The control group consisted of 45 cases with mean age of 3.2±1.53 years, of whom 30 (66.6%cases were male. EDs were detected in 28 (20.02% children of the case group (with SNHL in comparison with 4 (8.88% in the control group (without SNHL, which was statistically significantly different.ConclusionIn this study, we obtained higher frequency of EDs in deaf children with overactivity and/or behavioral problem compared to the children without SNHL. Further studies are required to evaluate the possible association of SNHL withEDs in overactive children.References1

  12. Comparing the effect of auditory-only and auditory-visual modes in two groups of Persian children using cochlear implants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Hasanzadeh, Saeid; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Shemshadi, Hashem; Purdy, Suzanne C; Mahmudi Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Vahab, Maryam

    2013-09-01

    Since the introduction of cochlear implantation, researchers have considered children's communication and educational success before and after implantation. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare auditory, speech, and language development scores following one-sided cochlear implantation between two groups of prelingual deaf children educated through either auditory-only (unisensory) or auditory-visual (bisensory) modes. A randomized controlled trial with a single-factor experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the Instruction and Rehabilitation Private Centre of Hearing Impaired Children and their Family, called Soroosh in Shiraz, Iran. We assessed 30 Persian deaf children for eligibility and 22 children qualified to enter the study. They were aged between 27 and 66 months old and had been implanted between the ages of 15 and 63 months. The sample of 22 children was randomly assigned to two groups: auditory-only mode and auditory-visual mode; 11 participants in each group were analyzed. In both groups, the development of auditory perception, receptive language, expressive language, speech, and speech intelligibility was assessed pre- and post-intervention by means of instruments which were validated and standardized in the Persian population. No significant differences were found between the two groups. The children with cochlear implants who had been instructed using either the auditory-only or auditory-visual modes acquired auditory, receptive language, expressive language, and speech skills at the same rate. Overall, spoken language significantly developed in both the unisensory group and the bisensory group. Thus, both the auditory-only mode and the auditory-visual mode were effective. Therefore, it is not essential to limit access to the visual modality and to rely solely on the auditory modality when instructing hearing, language, and speech in children with cochlear implants who are exposed to spoken language both at home and at school

  13. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  14. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  15. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  16. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  17. Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children: parents' perspective and device use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparreboom, Marloes; Leeuw, A Rens; Snik, Ad F M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to measure parental expectations before surgery of a sequentially placed second cochlear implant and compare these results with parental observations postoperatively and (2) to measure device use of the second cochlear implant and compare to unilateral implant use. Thirty prelingually deaf children with a unilateral cochlear implant (mean age at first implant 1.8 years) received a second implant at a mean age of 5.3 years. To measure parental expectations and observations, parents completed the Parents' Perspective before surgery of the second implant and after 12 and 24 months. The questionnaire included 1 additional question on sound localization. Device use of both the first and second implants was assessed retrospectively after 6, 12 and 24 months of implant use. Device use of the study group was also compared to a reference group of 30 unilateral implant users matched for age at second implantation. Parental expectations with regard to sound localization were significantly higher than the observed changes within the first year of bilateral implant use. The observed changes in communication, listening to speech without lipreading, and speech and language skills met or surpassed parental expectations. Irrespective of age at second implantation, the second implant was significantly less worn than the first implant. No significant difference was observed between the use of the second implant of the study group and device use of the reference group. Second implant use was significantly correlated with the difference in speech recognition between the 2 implants alone. Preoperative parental expectations were too high with regard to the observed localization skills within the first year of bilateral implant use. The study showed that several of these sequentially implanted children had more difficulties in wearing the second implant than in wearing the first implant during the rehabilitation period. The present results suggest that

  18. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  19. Deafening silence? Time to reconsider whether organisations are silent or deaf when things go wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aled; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Several public inquiries into healthcare failings in the UK have noted that employees of failing organizations attempt to raise concerns about shortcomings in care, often over a prolonged period of time, only for those concerns to be ignored. However, healthcare literature has largely focused on how organizations and their employees are silent in the face of such failings, positioning employees as daring not to speak in response to serious workplace problems or issues. We argue that only focussing on organizational silence is a critical mistake which misrepresents actual events and overly-simplifies the complexities of workplace culture. The disregard shown by academics, practitioners and policy makers to employee voice strategies, which do not amount to whistle-blowing, but equally cannot either be defined as "silence", results in signals being ignored that can be effective in preventing and ending wrongdoing by others. In addition to understanding silence we suggest therefore that better understanding of why organizations are deaf to, or disregard, employee concerns are needed. We propose that a virtuous cycle is possible, whereby the introduction of systems that result in better listening and valuing of employee concerns reinforces a culture of speaking up and, in turn, organizational learning. Similarly, organizations that disregard employees concerns are destined not to learn, ultimately falling silent and failing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Neurotrophic treatment of the degenerating auditory nerve; cochlear implants in deafened guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To date, the cochlear implant is the most successful sensorineural prosthesis. The device consists of a small array with a number of electrodes implanted in the cochlea of profoundly hearing impaired people. Some people with an implant are able to use the telephone. Unfortunately, others hardly bene

  1. Recovery characteristics of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve in deafened guinea pigs : Relation to neuronal status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B.; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Successful cochlear implant performance requires adequate responsiveness of the auditory nerve to prolonged pulsatile electrical stimulation. Degeneration of the auditory nerve as a result of severe hair cell loss could considerably compromise this ability. The main objective of this study was to ch

  2. Assessment and Preservation of Auditory Nerve Integrity in the Deafened Guinea Pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramekers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Profound hearing loss is often caused by cochlear hair cell loss. Cochlear implants (CIs) essentially replace hair cells by encoding sound and conveying the signal by means of pulsatile electrical stimulation to the spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) which form the auditory nerve. SGCs progressively degen

  3. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological mea

  4. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  5. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...

  6. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the Administration on Children, Youth and Families' anti-trafficking strategy and resources about preventing, identifying, and responding ... Laws Technical Bulletins Policy Resources Monitoring AFCARS Assessment Reviews Child & Family Services Reviews NYTD Reviews SACWIS Assessment ...

  7. Children's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Demartini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of children's rights is of paramount importance in the face of social and economic context in which it is the Brazilian society and as a result of childhood. Speaking in childhood can not think of a single child, because it reflects the variations of human culture and in the same society are built different childhoods. The variation of social conditions the children live is the main factor of heterogeneity in the constitution of childhood.

  8. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  9. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - Hodgkin - children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... In children, Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur between ages 15 to 19 years. The cause of this type of ...

  10. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  11. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  12. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  13. Children and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the ... and Children TV Violence and Children Home Alone Children Music and Music Videos Teen Suicide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents Threats by Children: ...

  14. Invisible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them.

  15. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  16. Phonological Priming in Children with Hearing Loss: Effect of Speech Mode, Fidelity, and Lexical Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Damian, Markus F; Abdi, Hervé

    This research determined (1) how phonological priming of picture naming was affected by the mode (auditory-visual [AV] versus auditory), fidelity (intact versus nonintact auditory onsets), and lexical status (words versus nonwords) of speech stimuli in children with prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment (CHI) versus children with normal hearing (CNH) and (2) how the degree of HI, auditory word recognition, and age influenced results in CHI. Note that the AV stimuli were not the traditional bimodal input but instead they consisted of an intact consonant/rhyme in the visual track coupled to a nonintact onset/rhyme in the auditory track. Example stimuli for the word bag are (1) AV: intact visual (b/ag) coupled to nonintact auditory (-b/ag) and 2) auditory: static face coupled to the same nonintact auditory (-b/ag). The question was whether the intact visual speech would "restore or fill-in" the nonintact auditory speech in which case performance for the same auditory stimulus would differ depending on the presence/absence of visual speech. Participants were 62 CHI and 62 CNH whose ages had a group mean and group distribution akin to that in the CHI group. Ages ranged from 4 to 14 years. All participants met the following criteria: (1) spoke English as a native language, (2) communicated successfully aurally/orally, and (3) had no diagnosed or suspected disabilities other than HI and its accompanying verbal problems. The phonological priming of picture naming was assessed with the multimodal picture word task. Both CHI and CNH showed greater phonological priming from high than low-fidelity stimuli and from AV than auditory speech. These overall fidelity and mode effects did not differ in the CHI versus CNH-thus these CHI appeared to have sufficiently well-specified phonological onset representations to support priming, and visual speech did not appear to be a disproportionately important source of the CHI's phonological knowledge. Two exceptions occurred, however

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  18. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  19. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  7. Reading Comprehension of an Inferential Text by Deaf Students with Cochlear Implants Using Cued Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Santiago; Rodriguez, Jose-Miguel; Garcia-Orza, Javier; Calleja, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of children who are profoundly deaf to reach high levels of reading proficiency on an inferential reading task. In an experimental narrative reading task, four children with prelingual hearing loss who used cued speech (MOC group) were compared with 58 students with typical hearing: 30 peers at the…

  8. Thromboembolism in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-xin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thromboembotic events are being increasingly diagnosed in children. The incidence of symptomatic thrombolic events is 0.07%/10 000 children , 5.3/10 000hospital admissions of children and 2.4/1 000 admissions of newborns to intensive care units in west, but the incidence of thromboembotic events in children in China is an unknow now.

  9. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  10. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  11. PROBLEMS OF EARLY TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING DIFFICULTIES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja DIONISIEVA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss acquired in the pre-lingual period of child’s development leads to problems in oral speech and communication. Speech and language development are as difficult as severe the damaged hearing is. This affects many mental processes and disables the child for a long period of time.It is important to provide the hearing-impaired child with appropriate hearing aids and specific methods of treatment as early as possible in order to avoid such disabling conditions as mentioned above.

  12. Children's rights in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Jürg C; Michel, Margot; Vayena, Effy

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of Children's Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection of children's rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals are interacting with children and therefore with children's rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the 54 articles are relevant for pediatric practice, there is limited systematic training on how pediatricians can support children's rights in the clinical setting. This article discusses the principles and aims of the UNCRC and proposes a comprehensive checklist of rights vis-à-vis issues that arise in clinical practice.

  13. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... side effects. Side effects from sulfasalazine may include headache, sun sensitivity rash, or other signs of sulfa ...

  14. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  15. Medicines and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually ...

  17. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and teens in our Learning Center . FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Childbirth and Delivery Neurologic Disease or Injury Colorectal Cancer Other Contributing Factors Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's ...

  18. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  19. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  1. A Children's Rights Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A survey shows that, although no occupational group tested so far approves of all of the proposed laws protecting children, the most accepting were the people who professionally work most closely with children; the least accepting were lawmakers. (RM)

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...

  3. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  4. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  5. Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could be GERD. What causes reflux and GERD in children? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In children who have reflux and GERD, this muscle ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy ...

  7. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Secondhand Smoke and Children Secondhand Smoke and Children Patient Health ... in homes with at least one adult smoker. Smoke’s effect on…... The fetus and newborn Maternal, fetal, ...

  10. Giving Medication to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  11. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  12. Children and Facial Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Children and Facial Trauma Children and Facial Trauma Patient Health Information News ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is facial trauma? The term facial trauma means any injury to ...

  13. Children Teach Children: Learning by Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan; And Others

    This book describes current educational programs in which young people have been tutoring younger students; the programs are based on the assumption that children learn more from teaching other children. To the degree that they offer a chance to enact an adult role, teaching tasks can provide reassurance and confidence for many youths. Strategies…

  14. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  15. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  16. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  17. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  18. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  19. Treating Children Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines whether children are receiving less than their share of public resources, considering (1) how the economic situations of children and the elderly have changed; (2) effects of insufficient resources and causes of disparities in treatment of young people; and (3) proposals for increasing society's investment in children. (SLD)

  20. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  1. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  2. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  3. Literature with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.

    Articles concerning the teaching of literature to children are presented. "Providing Balanced Contacts with Literature for Children" covers the potential of literature in the curriculum. In "The Classics in Children's Literature," a classic is defined as a book or story or poem that usually has long outlived its author. "Fostering Lifetime Reading…

  4. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  5. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  6. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines…

  7. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  8. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  9. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun

    2009-01-01

    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  10. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  11. Counseling with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…

  12. Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  13. On Japanese Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  14. Bullying among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Janis R.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that teachers have differing views toward children who bully. Addresses characteristics of bullies and their victims, incidences of bullying among children, the effects of bullying on children, and recommendations for teachers' support, including school-wide, classroom, and individual interventions. (DLH)

  15. Bad Air For Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  16. On Children Writing Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two approaches to teaching poetry writing to children: a method approach that molds children's creativity into acceptable forms, and an experimental approach that allows children to try out personal feelings and different forms, which is more conducive to their perceptions, creativity, and developing sense of self. (HTH)

  17. Electrically evoked middle latency responses in children with different cochlear implant ages and durations%不同植入年龄和植入后时间的EMLR反应特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子健; 马芙蓉; 潘滔; 鲁兆毅

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research, using electrically evoked middle latency responses (EMLR) as a measure of auditory performance, aimed to investigate the effect of age at cochlear implant on auditory perfor-mance and to study dynamic changes in auditory performance after cochlear implant, in the hope of providing theoretical foundation for guiding future cochlear implantation and rehabilitation training. Methods There were 42 prelingual deafness children included in this research, divided into 2 groups by age at cochlear im-plant, i.e. before 3 years (n=28) or after (n=14) (mean=2.98±1.64 years);and into 4 groups by duration of implant use, i.e. less than 6 months (n=12), 6 to 12 months (n=16), 12 to 24 months (n=4) and more than 24 months (n=10) (mean=15.06±15.53 months). EMLRs were tested and results analyzed for each group. Result EMLRs were induced in 38 of the 42 children (90.48%). The PaNb amplitude was 2.34 ± 1.26μV in children who received implants before 3 years of age, and 1.48 ± 0.49 μV in those implanted after 3 years of age (p<0.05). Pa latency was 30.52±0.85 ms in children who had used cochlear implant for 6 to 12 months, and 25.98± 1.80 ms in those who had used implant for more than 24 months (p<0.05). Conclusion The age at cochlear im-plant and the duration after cochlear implantation affect auditory performance in children with prelingual deaf-ness, which appears to be bettern in those implanted before 3 years of age than after. Auditory performance ap-pears to rapidly improve in the first 2 years after implantation, suggesting that rehabilitation training in the first 2 years after cochlear implant is very important.%目的:利用电诱发中潜伏期反应(Electrically evoked middle latency response,EMLR)对语前聋人工耳蜗植入患儿进行听觉功能评估,了解人工耳蜗植入年龄对听觉功能的影响,研究语前聋患儿人工耳蜗植入后听觉功能的变化规律。为人工耳蜗植入时间的选择及植入

  18. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...

  19. Releases of surgically deafened homing pigeons indicate that aural cues play a significant role in their navigational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Experienced homing pigeons with extirpated cochleae and lagenae were released from six sites in upstate New York and western Pennsylvania on 17 days between 1973 and 1975 by William T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University. The previously unpublished data indicate that departure directions of the operated birds were significantly different from those of sham-operated control birds (314 total), indicating that aural cues play an important part in the pigeon's navigational system. Moreover, propagation modeling of infrasonic waves using meteorological data for the release days supports the possibility that control birds used infrasonic signals to determine their homeward direction. Local acoustic 'shadow' zones, therefore, could have caused initial disorientation of control birds at release sites where they were normally well oriented. Experimental birds plausibly employed an alternate 'route-reversal' strategy to return home perhaps using their ocular-based magnetic compass. We suggest, based on Keeton's results from another site of long-term disorientation, that experienced pigeons depend predominantly on infrasonic cues for initial orientation, and that surgical removal of their aural sense compelled them to switch to a secondary navigational strategy.

  20. Morphine sulphation in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Choonara, I.; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  1. Implantes cocleares em crianças portadoras de deficiência auditiva decorrente de meningite Cochlear implant in deaf children due to meningites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Bevilacqua

    2003-12-01

    and attention deficits as well as inability for learning. Characteristically the hearing loss due to meningitis is bilateral profound sensorineural symmetric and descendent and it is more common in males and in children under 5 years old and it brings severe implications in the emotional, social and development. AIM: To compare the performance of two groups of pre-lingually deaf implanted children, with age varying from 1 year and 10 months to 6 years, with hearing loss due to meningitis and other varied causes. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 63 profoundly deaf implanted children were evaluated, 25 (40% were male and 38 (60% were females. In 12 cases (19% the hearing loss was caused by meningitis and in 51 cases (81% hearing loss was due to a variety of causes. All participants were submitted to ear nose throat examination and clinical and objective audiological evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: the occurrence of partial insertion was higher in the meningitis group. There were no statically significant differences on word and phoneme recognition as well as in the questionnaire for evaluation of the hearing (MAIS and language (MUSS skills between the groups.

  2. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  3. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  4. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  5. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to deliver new data and to bring attention to the subject of evacuation of children. Evacuation characteristics such as flow, densities and walking speeds are in focus. Currently literature on evacuation com-prehends mostly studies on adults. Ten Danish daycare centers...... higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  6. Children and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, M

    1989-01-01

    Program developers in India's mass media are turning to the discipline of child development to increase their sensitivity to the special needs and capacities of child audiences. Children are particularly susceptible to having their thoughts, feelings, values, and behavior influenced by media programming. In India, radio is the medium with the greatest opportunity to communicate with children and programming for young people includes educational material, variety programs, quiz shows, drama, and live programs in which children participate. The 1st Children's Film Festival was held in India in 1952 and India participates in the International Center of Films for Children and Young People. Television enjoys popularity among children, illiterates, and the poor, but its potential to create social awareness, change behaviors, and raise the standard of living of the Indian people has not been fully realized. Drama is less able to reach large numbers of children, but offers children the opportunity to participate directly in the portrayal of different characters and emotions. Recently, the tradition of puppetry has been rivived and integrated into India's school curriculum. Finally, India is taking steps to expand the number of books available to children and the Government has established 2 trusts to support the publication of children's literature. Regardless of the form of media, it is important for parents to play a role in ensuring the appropriateness of the programming for the child and processing its content.

  7. [Watching over the children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1 million children are infected with HIV worldwide. More than 50% of HIV infected children in developing countries die before they reach 12 months old. The lives of many other children who do not suffer from HIV themselves are affected by it because family members have AIDS. Families with adult members with AIDS become more poor and are under more stress because the adults lose their income or are too sick to be involved in agricultural activities. Women can be both HIV infected and in charge of caring for family members with AIDS or for the young children. Often, children must quit school to look for work in order to provide family needs. More than 5 million children will lose their mothers or both parents to AIDS between 1995 and 2000. Grandparents, aunts, or uncles care for the orphans but they are not in the position to pay for the extra food or school. Orphans can lose their rights to inherit family land or homes. Without an education, professional training, and family support, orphans face the risk of becoming street children. These children are especially vulnerable and often become sexually active at a young age, exposing them to HIV. AIDS control programs must find solutions to the needs and problems of children as well as those of adults. The programs must continue to focus on HIV prevention, guarantee access to primary health care for women and children, support children and other family members caring for sick parents, make sure that older children benefit from sexual education, provide the means to prevent HIV infection, and care for more orphans and for older people who can no longer count on their children for their major needs.

  8. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  9. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  10. Long-term results of Nurotron Cochlear Implant System in deaf children%儿童诺尔康人工耳蜗植入者术后长期康复效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽玫; 李佳楠; 王丽燕; 王倩; 苗艳; 张阳; 申敏; 薛静; 魏佩芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term safety and performance of Nurotron cochlear implant system.To analyze the auditory and speech rehabilitation characteristic of pediatric deafened patients after cochlear implantation.Methods To analyze 3 years results of pediatric deafened patients with Nurotron(R) VenusTM cochlear implants.From April to June 2011,sixty deaf children received domestic cochlear implant.All subjects were switched on after 3 to 4 weeks of surgery,and were assessed the auditory rehabilitation on 3 months,12 months,24 months and 36 months after switching on.To evaluate the rehabilitation results by Aided Hearing Thresholds,Auditory & Verbal Ability Test and IT-MAIS Questionnaire.Meanwhile,the safety and performance of cochlear implant system were followed-up.Before surgery,all the recipients in this study were 12 to 71 months of age with the average hearing threshold higher than 90 dBHL.Results Sixty cases of deaf children were implanted successfully.All the recipients used their devices every day,and all of their devices worked well.No complication or side effect related to implantation were found.The sound field aided hearing thresholds,vowels,consonants,monosyllabic words and two-syllable words test,as well as Ling's test,and IT-MAIS Questionnaire of all recipients were improved significantly with prolonged use of CI device.The results of grammatical competence,understanding,communication and presentation skills tests also get significantly promotion in 3 years follow up.Conclusions With prolonged use of CI device,the hearing and language tests of children recipients could obtain significantly improvement.The Nurotron(R) VenusTM CI system works safely and effectivelv.%目的 观察儿童诺尔康人工耳蜗植入患者术后3年的康复效果,评价该国产人工耳蜗的安全性和有效性.方法 2011年4月至6月植入诺尔康晨星人工耳蜗系统的双侧重度或极重度感音神经性聋患儿60例,植入年龄12 ~71

  11. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...

  12. Osteosarcoma in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakewich, H; Perez-Atayde, A R; Goorin, A M; Wilkinson, R H; Gebhardt, M C; Vawter, G F

    1991-02-01

    The clinicopathologic features of osteosarcoma in 12 children younger than 16 years of age treated at The Children's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, during a 70-year time period are presented. Only one of six children treated before 1972 is a long-term survivor. Four of six children (67%) treated after 1972 are disease-free with an average follow-up of 8.8 years. The year 1972 marked the onset of use of effective chemotherapy in osteosarcoma, namely, high-dose methotrexate and leucovorin rescue. It would appear that the pathologic features and behavior of osteosarcoma in young children is similar to that of osteosarcoma in older children and adolescents. A combination of complete (wide) surgical resection or amputation and aggressive chemotherapy offers the best chance of long-term survival.

  13. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  14. Children in Risk Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to WilliamCorsaro,children do not only interpret adults’culture,but also create their own culture(40).However,how children interpret adults’culture and create their own culture to a large extent depends on adults,so adults influence the way children perceive the world and themselves.In Corsaro’s Orb Web Model,both social institutions and

  15. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  16. Design for children's apps

    OpenAIRE

    MORANTE BONET, MIRIAM; Costa Ferrer, María; Rodríguez Calatayud, María Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Are children under 2 years old exposed to apps? Which ones? How often? What kind of apps would be best suited for small children based on their physical and cognitive development, the evolution of their play patterns and their ability to interact with mobile devices? How to design apps as appropriate as possible for children under 2 years old? These are some of the main questions that are answered through the research presented in this publication. An investigation that demonstra...

  17. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate...... with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....

  18. Measuring Vision in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Verweyen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring vision in children is a special skill requiring time, patience and understanding. Methods should be adapted to the child’s age, abilities, knowledge and experience. Young children are not able to describe their vision or explain their visual symptoms. Through observation, and with information from the mother or guardian, functional vision can be evaluated. While testing and observing children, an experienced assessor notices their responses to visual stimuli. These must be compared with the expected functional vision for children of the same age and abilities, so it is important to know the normal visual development.

  19. [Acute fever in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  20. Children and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C

    2006-01-01

    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  1. Children and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...

  2. Spirometry in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram

    2013-06-01

    Respiratory disorders are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Spirometry is a useful investigation for diagnosing and monitoring a variety of paediatric respiratory diseases, but it is underused by primary care physicians and paediatricians treating children with respiratory disease. We now have a better understanding of respiratory physiology in children, and newer computerised spirometry equipment is available with updated regional reference values for the paediatric age group. This review evaluates the current literature for indications, test procedures, quality assessment, and interpretation of spirometry results in children. Spirometry may be useful for asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital or acquired airway malformations and many other respiratory diseases in children. The technique for performing spirometry in children is crucial and is discussed in detail. Most children, including preschool children, can perform acceptable spirometry. Steps for interpreting spirometry results include identification of common errors during the test by applying acceptability and repeatability criteria and then comparing test parameters with reference standards. Spirometry results depict only the pattern of ventilation, which may be normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed. The diagnosis should be based on both clinical features and spirometry results. There is a need to encourage primary care physicians and paediatricians treating respiratory diseases in children to use spirometry after adequate training.

  3. Atrial Fibrillation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  4. Compartment Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Análise da ortografia de crianças usuárias de implante coclear Analysis of orthographic errors of children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prass Lemes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo de caso coletivo foi analisar os erros ortográficos de crianças usuárias de implante coclear que freqüentam o ensino fundamental. Foram selecionadas quatro crianças que adquiriram a perda auditiva em período pré-lingual. Todas começaram usar prótese auditiva e freqüentar terapia fonoaudiológica antes de um ano e meio e foram submetidas à cirurgia de implante entre três anos e meio e quatro anos e meio. Foi utilizado o roteiro de observação ortográfica, os erros foram classificados, quantificados, registrados em tabelas e analisados. As quatro primeiras categorias de maior freqüência de erros ortográficos foram: surdos x sonoros, representações múltiplas, "outras" e omissões de letras. Todas as crianças apresentaram um índice de erros muito maior nas atividades envolvendo ditado, em comparação com as atividades de redação. Com isto pudemos inferir que em termos ortográficos o ditado foi mais difícil do que a redação. As causas dos erros que aconteceram em alta freqüência, se relacionavam com padrões acústicos e articulatórios; habilidades metalingüísticas de consciência fonológica, lexical e morfossintática e demais aspectos vinculados à linguagem e oralidade. Entre os possíveis motivos para o índice de erro ter sido muito maior nas atividades envolvendo ditado, pode-se citar o fato que durante o ditado a criança tende a manter uma postura pouco desenvolvida de autocorreção. Outro motivo bastante importante estaria relacionado ao efeito freqüência da palavra e ao repertório vocabular mais restrito devido ao atraso de linguagem. Em linhas gerais, este estudo apontou caminhos que auxiliam o fonoaudiólogo a compreender melhor a produção gráfica do aluno usuário de implante coclear.The aim the present collective case-study was to analyze the orthographic errors of elementary school children with cochlear implants. Four children who became deaf in the pre-lingual period

  6. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  8. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  9. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  10. 中国人工耳蜗植入儿童前语言交流能力发育研究%The development of preverbal communication skills in Chinese deaf children with cochlear implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪清; 陈冬旭; 蒋文博; 郑妍; 龚树生

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate preverbal communication skills in Chinese deaf children with cochlear implants, and to provide a basis for designing the habilitation program and establish a precursor for outcomes of habilitation. Method:Thirty children with cochlear implants participated in this study with a mean age of 32 months. They all had used the cochlear implant system within 12 months with a mean of 5.8 months. All the children were diagnosed with prelingual profound hearing loss before cochlear implantation. Tait video analysis was used to analyze and assess the preverbal communication skills including turn-taking, autonomy, eye contact and auditory awareness. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 13.0 statistical software package with a criterion of statistical significance set at P<0.05. Result: The skill of turn-taking developed quickly within 12 months after cochlear implantation. The vocal turn developed in a similar pattern, and the score of gesture turn decreased slowly. The skills of autonomy and appropriate eye contact showed small changes over time at a lower level. The score of auditory awareness increased gradually after surgery. Conclusion: Children established a vocal/auditory mode of early communicative behavior following cochlear implantation. They preferred to communicate with others in a more vocal style. Video analysis is a useful tool to assess preverbal communication skills in deaf children with cochlear implants in China.%目的:探讨中国人工耳蜗植入儿童前语言交流能力的发展规律,为早期预测康复效果及制定合理的康复训练计划提供依据.方法:30例接受人工耳蜗植入手术的语前聋儿童参与本次研究,术前均为极重度聋.所有患儿使用人工耳蜗的时间均在12个月以内,平均5.8个月.使用录像分析法对患儿的轮流交流、主动交流、视觉交流及听觉注意等4项前语言交流能力进行分析和评估.结果:患儿的轮流交流能力

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo. ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation Safety ...

  14. Foster Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…

  15. Query recommendation for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we propo

  16. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for all types of mental health problems. Outcome measures. ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edition, revised). ... children and adolescents receiving treatment for psychological ... fathers and 25% of those abused by other trusted adults exhibited .... development these older children have also acquired the.

  17. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan being performed, you will receive specific preparation instructions for what your child may eat and drink before the exam, especially ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo. ...

  19. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  20. Children's rights: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    The issue of children's rights has become very prominent over the past few decades during which attempts were being made to formulate an international agreement about the person status of children world-wide. These attempts have brought together and formalised a trend that has evolved over at least 400 years to broaden and develop society's understanding and acceptance of children as unique, necessary valuable societal assets. The ensuing social evolution in the realm of children's rights has led most countries to the understanding that by investing in and protecting children's best interests, a solid foundation is laid for healthy nation-building. This review article focuses on a variety of documented aspects pertaining to the topic of children's rights. Definitions and descriptions of various types of children's rights are given as well as the arguments posed for and against. Finally the various proposals and motivations for the inclusion of certain types of children's rights as they presently occur in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are noted and discussed.

  1. Children's television in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriyani, H.; Hollander, E.H.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Beentjes, J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the structure, conduct, and performance of children's television in Indonesia during the last four decades, reflecting on its interaction with the government, the market, and civil society. A striking trend in Indonesia's children's television is undoubtedly its exponential gr

  2. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children with vario

  3. Children of Deaf Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between

  4. Dengue in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with

  5. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  6. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  7. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  8. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  9. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  10. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  11. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  12. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  13. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  14. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  15. Cushing's Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? · CS ... conditions may cause what is known as pseudo-Cushing’s syndrome. Although this is more common in adults, it ...

  16. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  17. Children and Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland

    1977-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between early childbearing and marital instability. Women with large families and those with no children were the most likely to experience disruption. The lowest dissolution rates were found for those with moderate numbers of children. (Author)

  18. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  19. The Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  20. Raising Children Who Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie

    2000-01-01

    Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive culture…

  1. FY 1991 Children's Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Coalition for Children and Families, East Lansing.

    Addressed to advocates and decision makers, this agenda identifies state services in Michigan that will be most vital to the state's children and families in fiscal year 1991. Initial contents provide general policy recommendations of the Michigan Coalition for Children and Families. Policy recommendations for the programs of the departments of…

  2. Intestinal Polyps (in Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With small amounts of bleeding over months, some children can develop iron-deficiency anemia and have symptoms of this. Bleeding may not happen with every bowel movement, and tends to recur over weeks to months. It is rare for children to have other symptoms, but when they do ...

  3. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Content Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ... and Diseases Diarrhea Celiac Disease IBS in Children Lactose Intolerance Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Upper GI ...

  4. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪秋

    2002-01-01

    All the parents want their children to go to bed by themselves and sleep through the night. Unluckily, over 30% of today--s parents do not have such children. Instead, their kids are awake at night crying or resist going to bed in the evening.

  5. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  6. Treating Sexually Aggressive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Biegler, Bryan N.; Davis, Kathleen; Frevert, Vada S.; Taylor, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Although clinical and empirical data have been offered about sexually aggressive children, few have suggested the necessary components of clinical treatment protocols for them. This article reviews the plausible etiologies and the correlates of sexual aggression by children to delineate the necessary treatment elements for them and their families.…

  7. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  8. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  9. Divorce and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Zang Xiaoping (editor of the Literary Gazette) Whether or not to get divorced for the sake of the children is an important question for every couple that is having problems. I think the key to solving the problem is to start by considering what would be best for the healthy development of their children.

  10. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  11. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue.

  12. Children As People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiering, Alvin; And Others

    This 35-minute, black and white, 16mm, sound film was made at the Fayerweather Street School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and narrated by John Holt. It is designed to show what happens in a school in which children are free to move about, to talk, and to plan and direct their own work. The film shows children of different ages engaged in…

  13. Children's theories of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children......The purpose of this study is to deliver new data and to bring attention to the subject of evacuation of children. Evacuation characteristics such as flow, densities and walking speeds are in focus. Currently literature on evacuation com-prehends mostly studies on adults. Ten Danish daycare centers...... participated in full scale evacuation experiments where the age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. The work had the following overall finding. Flows through doors, walking speeds and densities are age-dependent and differ strongly from the data in existing literature. The results show...

  15. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    where needed, not leaving a boundary layer as the theory for adults suggests. Handrails were frequently used by both age groups in the daycare centers, more when walking on their own than when assisted. It was found that children using a low handrail achieved on average a 23.5% higher travel speed than...... include elements of three different areas, namely measurable parameters such as travel speed and flow though doors, human behavior such as choice of route and actions and processes such as evacuation procedures and warning methods. These areas are all related and influence each other, making it hard...... and carrying through an evacuation where the youngest children need the most assistance in both phases. Self preservation i.e. where children descended stairs unassisted, was less than 25 % for children aged 0-2 years but over 85 % for children aged 3-6 years. Warning method influenced pre-evacuation time...

  16. Recurrent wheezing in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Piacentini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent wheezing have a significant morbidity and it’s estimated that about one third of school-age children manifest the symptom during the first 5 years of life. Proper identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age may predict long-term outcomes and improve treatment and preventive approach, but the possibility to identify these children at preschool age remains limited. For many years authors focused their studies to identify early children with recurrent wheezing at risk to develop asthma at school age. Different phenotypes have been proposed for a more precise characterization and a personalized plan of treatment. The main criticism concerns the inability to define stable phenotypes with the risk of overestimating or underestimating the characteristics of symptoms in these children. The aim of this review is to report the recent developments on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent paediatric wheezing. PMID:26835404

  17. Lyme disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sunil K

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    , 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...... disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.......Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...

  19. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  20. Using Art with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John

    2009-01-01

    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  1. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  2. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  3. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  4. Using Art with Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John

    2009-01-01

    Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…

  5. RECURRENT CROUP IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Piskunova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examination of 1849 children, entering children's infectioushospitalofVladivostokwith the clinical picture of croup of viral etiology. The clinical features of primary and recurrent croup are described. Frequency of recurrent croup inVladivostokis 8%. Children with a recurrent croup had the burdened premorbid background, and also persistent herpetic infections (cytomegalic infection in 42,9% cases, cytomegalic infection in combination with the herpes simplex virus -1. Frequency of croups substantially rose in the period of epidemic of influenza.

  6. Headache In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary headache seen in children. Although there is a paucity of clinical trials the management of childhood migraine, the important role of correct pharmacological approach has been delineated. The pivotal role of non-pharmacological treatment is emphasized.

  7. Pacing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of cardiac pacing devices in children and young adults can be challenging and different from the adult population due to their smaller size, their longer life expectancy, and anatomical variations associated with congenital heart defects. A knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations, and the technical skills are important for those who implant and care for children with pacemakers. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  8. Medical marijuana and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains.

  9. Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Lindy

    Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

  10. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  11. Shellfish allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  12. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little data looking at nutrition posttransplantation in children. Improvement in growth ... are provided by fat with some as medium chain triglycerides, if fat .... with physical activity is important to decrease the complications of metabolic ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...

  14. School-Phobic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel

    1976-01-01

    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  15. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  16. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are hesitant to discipline the child they have adopted. They may set fewer limits than they would ...

  17. Hepatitis A - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fulminant hepatitis (liver failure) is rare in healthy children. The symptoms are often easy to manage and include: Dark urine Tiredness Loss of appetite Fever Nausea and vomiting Pale stools Abdominal pain ( ...

  18. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...

  19. Children with Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect their ability to function well with ... ET is frustrating and embarrassing for children and adolescents, and can lead to anxiety, depression, and social ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an ...

  1. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  2. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  3. Hearing Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...

  4. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending ...

  6. Children and Families: 1984?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop normally, children need emotional involvement and shared activities with one or more adult(s). Public policy in the United States, unlike that of most industrialized societies, is not supportive of family life. (Author/GC)

  7. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  8. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need sedation for the imaging. During this procedure, parents are usually allowed and often encouraged to stay ... discomfort from having to remain still during imaging. Parents are encouraged to stay with their children to ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer ...

  11. The "Children's Rights" Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    The author argues that the "children's rights" movement is an attack on the authority of parents and teachers and that it is undermining school discipline and traditional family roles. Condensed from "American Educator," Spring 1981, pp30-33. (SJL)

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top ... to be followed after leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the ...

  13. Children and Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Collins) / Your Adolescent (1999 Harper Collins) Order Your Child from Harper Collins Order Your Adolescent from Harper Collins Related Facts for Families Death of Pets: Talking to Children Foster Care Sleep Problems Chronic ...

  14. Children's Craniofacial Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & Events Help CCA ... Pierre Robin Sequence • Pfeiffer syndrome • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome • Treacher Collins syndrome Children's Craniofacial Association is a national, 501( ...

  15. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  16. Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but a common one is a specific learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder may make teachers and parents concerned about their ...

  17. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the procedure ...

  19. Treating Arrhythmias in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Treating Arrhythmias in Children Updated:Dec 21,2016 Many options ... card This content was last reviewed September 2016. Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia • Why Arrhythmia Matters • Understand Your ...

  20. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  1. Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.; Wallerstein, Judith S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the emotional trauma children experience at home and in school when their parents divorce. Also considers the actual and potential role of the school in providing support to these youngsters. (Author/LD)

  2. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Thomsen, Lise L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...... after six and 12 months. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were offered by a team of specialists (physicians, headache nurses, a physiotherapist and a psychologist). Patients: The subjects comprised 169 children (mean age 11.7 (range 4-17), 91 females, 78 males), 39% of whom suffered...... from chronic headache (≥15 days/month). All children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition; 20% had migraine, 34% tension-type headache, 27% mixed headache, 4% medication- overuse headache, and 15% were diagnosed with other types of headaches...

  3. Headaches in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma. It's important to pay attention to your child's headache symptoms and consult a doctor if the headache worsens or occurs frequently. Headaches in children usually can be treated with over-the-counter ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam, but they may be given ...

  5. NECROTIZING FASCIITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kharlamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented a review of literature of necrotizing fasciitis in children. A rare case of necrotizing fasciitis in 3-year-old child is described. The difficulties of differential diagnostics of the given disease are presented.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How ... pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body. Hybrid ...

  7. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  8. ANALGESIA IN SMALL CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opioids provide effective analgesia, but also have known side ... significance of the study lies in the improvement in post-operative pain management in children after day-case .... have required intervention or delay in discharge from hospital.

  9. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  11. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References ... flowing water. It can cause itching and impaired vision in children, and lead to blindness in adulthood. ...

  12. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  13. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  14. CHILDREN AS TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SOMESFALEAN Vasilica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...

  15. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children.

  16. Headache in children

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa R

    2013-01-01

    Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary h...

  17. Decision Making By Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Shelly; Romich, Jennifer; Tsang, Kwok P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the determinants of decision-making power by children and young adolescents. Moving beyond previous economic models that treat children as goods consumed by adults rather than agents, we develop a noncooperative model of parental control of child behavior and child resistance. Using child reports of decision-making and psychological and cognitive measures from the NLSY79 Child Supplement, we examine the determinants of shared and sole decision-making in seven domains...

  18. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  19. Solidarity, children and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Barry

    2012-09-01

    While research on children is supported by many professional guidelines, international declarations and domestic legislation, when it is undertaken on children with no possibility of direct benefit it rests on shaky moral foundations. A number of authors have suggested that research enrolment is in the child's best interests, or that they have a moral duty or societal obligation to participate. However, these arguments are unpersuasive. Rather, I will propose in this paper that research participation by children seems most reasonable when considered as an act of solidarity; a form of identification with, and provision of practical assistance to, those who are less well off. This is an articulation of the view that many children, and their parents, seem to take seriously the suffering of others, and wish to assist in advancing other children's wellbeing. Perhaps, by fostering an environment in which children are encouraged to take solidarity seriously, participation in research which holds out substantial hope of benefit to those less well off would come to be perceived as a behavioural norm rather than an exceptional practice.

  20. Children's rights in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadóttir, H

    2000-01-01

    To address the use of children and children's genetic information in research, analyze Icelandic laws as an example, review existing literature on children in clinical research, and describe nurses' actions as children's advocates. An integrated literature review was conducted using theoretical and empirical literature on children as human subjects in clinical research. Five Icelandic laws were analyzed. Legal protection of children as human subjects is an international issue and is lacking in Icelandic legislation. In spite of an identified need to protect children as human subjects, research on children's rights in clinical research is scarce. Nurses have not taken an active stance in protecting children as human subjects. The recently passed Bill on Health Sector Database in Iceland raises questions about protection of human subjects regardless of age and stature. The effects of this Icelandic case could have international implications regarding centralized health care databases, ownership of data, and related ethical and legal decisions.

  1. The Importance of Vowel Diacritics for Reading in Hebrew: What Can Be Learned from Readers with Prelingual Deafness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of vowel diacritics for the reading of Hebrew in individuals with different levels of phonological control. A paradigm calling for written ordered-recall of 12 lists of 8 consecutively displayed Hebrew nouns was used as a test tool. Item presentation and between-item interval were computer-controlled. Half of…

  2. Children's specific fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Dogra, N; Doos, L; Ford, T; Goodman, R

    2009-11-01

    Most children experience some degree of fear during their development. Specific fears are considered as an appropriate response provided that they are proportionate to the intensity of the perceived threat. Our aim is to present the prevalence of specific fears among children in the Great Britain, their socio-demographic correlates, in particular their association with ethnicity. Data on the child's experience of specific fears were obtained from parents of a national representative sample of 5- to 16-year-olds using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the child and the family were included in the questionnaire. About one-third of children were assessed by their parents as having at least one of 12 specific fears. The most commonly reported fears were animals (11.6%), blood/injections (10.8%) and the dark (6.3%). Just less than 1% of all children were assessed according to International Classification of Diseases research diagnostic criteria as having a specific phobia. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with a greater likelihood of a child having particular fears. The most marked associations were fears of the dark, loud noises, imagined supernatural beings in younger children and fear of animals among girls and all non-white groups. Although fears are only labelled as phobias when they impair functioning and interfere with life, they can cause personal distress to children and also can interfere with their daily activities. Children's fears differ in nature across different ethnic groups. Culturally mediated beliefs, values and traditions may play a role in their expression.

  3. Children at health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, H R

    1992-01-01

    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  4. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  5. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Jahromi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of infection-related death worldwide. Children represent 5 to 15% of all TB cases around the world and are more frequently infected and more easily affected by the most severe forms of the disease such as meningitis and disseminated form .Here, we reviewed TB in children with impact on the routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, treatment, control, and prophylaxis. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched from June1995 to May 2014 by using key words (pulmonaryTB,epidemiology,transmission,clinical manifestations,treatment,control, and prophylaxis . Pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest in several forms, including endobronchial TB with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease . Symptoms of primary pulmonary disease in the pediatric population are often insignificant. Gastric aspirates are used instead of sputum in children younger than 6 years. BCG vaccination is used in many parts of the world and the major role of vaccination is the prevention of life-threatening illness such as disseminated TB and meningitis in children.Treatment is the same as for adults. Most people infected with M .tuberculosis do not develop active disease. In healthy individuals, the lifetime risk of developing infection to disease is 5-10%. Reactivation of TB often occurs in older children and adolescent and is more common in patients who acquire TB at age 7 years and older.

  6. Perioperative counseling in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Counseling is a part of professional role of nurses and a prerequisite for holistic care. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about Counseling of children that undergo surgery. Material and method: The methodology οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, between 2005-2009 mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to Counseling of children that undergo surgery, using the key words: Counseling, perioperative treatment, holistic care . Results: In the literature it is cited that counseling is provided by well trained and balanced individuals that have communication skills. Prerequisite of effective counseling is Conversation, where the nurse-consultant after elaborate listening proposes remarks, proposals, in order to enhance self-image, self-knowledge and self-esteem of the child and improve its’ personal emotional state. Perioperative counseling procedure as a part of the holistic care of children should follow and individualized approach either on preoperative and postoperative stage. Conclusion: Ultimate goal of effective counseling to children that undergo surgery is to improve the quality of provided care and increase the degree of satisfaction of hospitalized children and their families.

  7. Dysphonia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Hidalgo Ribeiro, Caio Bosquê; Fernandes de Mello, Bruno Marcos Zeponi; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2012-09-01

    Vocal symptoms are common among the pediatric population and are often caused by vocal abuse. Laryngoscopy is essential for their diagnosis because it helps differentiate several laryngeal lesions, leading to a decision for suitable treatments considering each case. This study aims to present the clinical characteristics, and the laryngoscopic diagnosis of a dysphonic child population. The parents of 304 children, aged from 4 to 18 years and presenting prolonged hoarseness, answered a questionnaire about their children's voice, and all children were subjected to videolaryngostroboscopy. Male children aged from 7 to 12 years (64%) were predominant. Vocal abuse (n-162) and nasal obstruction symptoms (n-10) were the most frequent associated symptoms. The vocal symptoms had a chronic evolution (over 1 year) and were reported by most parents (n-200). The most commonly diagnosed lesions in the laryngoscopic exams were vocal nodules (n-175) and epidermal cysts (n-47). Furthermore, there was an association of some lesions, especially minor structural alterations. In the present study, dysphonia occurred mainly in children aged from 7 to 12 years, predominantly males. Vocal abuse and nasal obstruction symptoms were frequently reported. Vocal nodules and cysts were the most commonly diagnosed laryngeal lesions in the laryngoscopic exams. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S T; Dodson, W E

    1996-12-01

    Childhood epilepsies comprise a broad range of disorders which vary from benign to progressive and disabling. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy type and determination of aetiology, when possible, are essential for appropriate treatment. The most common seizure type encountered in children is febrile seizures. These represent a benign condition which is not, in fact, epilepsy and usually does not require antiepileptic medication. When partial seizures occur in childhood, benign syndromes with spontaneous remission, such as rolandic epilepsy, must be distinguished from symptomatic epilepsies which may be refractory to medical management. Complex partial seizures in young children may appear different than in adults. The adverse effect profiles and dosing regimens of antiepileptic drugs in children are also different than in adults, and influence the choice of treatment. Epilepsy surgery should be considered for some children with intractible partial seizures. Generalized epilepsies also have a broader spectrum in children. The idiopathic generalized absence epilepsies are usually easy to control with medication. They range from childhood absence epilepsy which tends to remit in adolescence to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy which is a lifelong condition. In contrast, the seizures of West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are difficult to control, and treatment involves therapeutic modalities rarely used in adults such as ACTH and the ketogenic diet. Many childhood epilepsy syndromes have a familial predisposition, and the genetic bases for several disorders have been described.

  9. Diabetic neuropathy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide burden of diabetes and its complications in children continues to increase due to the rise in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although overt diabetic neuropathy is rarely present in children and adolescents with diabetes, subclinical diabetic neuropathy has been estimated to occur in approximately half of all children with type 1 diabetes with a duration of 5 years or longer and up to 25% of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed diabetes have abnormal findings on nerve conduction studies. The present review on the state of pediatric diabetic neuropathy covers the definition, prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors, and possible treatment approaches specific to children and adolescents with diabetes. It also highlights the many unknowns in this field. Nonetheless, new emerging interventions that can either prevent or delay the progression of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications may become available in the near future. Until specific interventions for diabetic neuropathy are available for use in children, it will be hard to justify screening for neuropathy other than through clinical assessment. Meanwhile, the search for quicker, easily administered, and quantifiable tests for diabetic neuropathy and efforts to establish valid pediatric norms for well-established measures used in adults will need to continue.

  10. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  11. [Caffeine and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'ius, P B

    1997-01-01

    Beverages containing caffeine are consumed by most people in most countries most days. Consumption is mostly in beverages such as coffee, tea and some soft drinks, and smaller amounts from other foods such as chocolate. Children also consume caffeine, though in smaller amounts even relative to their smaller size. Many questions have been asked about possible health effects of caffeine and have been answered by scientific research. Studies on pregnant women consuming caffeine show no effects on the fetus, infants, or on development followed up to school age. There have been many studies on children of school age. For example, it has been shown that a single dose of 3 mg/kg is without appreciable effect on a variety of behavioral and physiological functions, and even 10 mg/kg, had only minimal effects, within the normal range of differences between the children without caffeine. While newborn infants metabolize caffeine slowly, children from less than 1 year to adolescence metabolize caffeine about twice as fast as non-smoking adults. The numerous studies showing safety of caffeine in adults, combined with the direct studies in children showing they are similar and not more susceptible to caffeine than adults, gives assurance that lifelong consumption of caffeine in foods and beverages, starting in childhood, is without deleterious effects on health.

  12. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  13. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  14. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  15. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Speech Rehabilitation after Cochlear Implantation in Preschool Children Who Lost Their Hearing before Learning to Speak All Ages%学龄前不同年龄段语前聋人工耳蜗植入患儿康复效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠良; 董耀东; 刘东亮; 胡月; 马秀岚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of rehabilitation in the 55 prelingually deaf pediatric cases for two years after cochlear implantation ,factors including cochlear implantation and recovery time ;to compare the re-covery effects in the group of 1 to 3 years old children with the group of 3~5 years old (including the age of 3 years old) who lost their hearing before learning to speak ,and to provide clinical evidence for providing cochlear implant therapy to the prelingually deaf children as early as possible .Methods A total of 55 pediatric relingually deaf cases were included in this study .According to their implantation time and application duration ,they were divided into 2 groups :1 to 3 years old group (32 cases) ,and >3 to 5 years old group (23 cases) respectively .The hearing ,lan-guage and learning abilities on 1 ,3 ,6 ,12 ,18 ,24 months after cochlear implantation were evaluated ,using statisti-cal method to record CAP and SIR scores .Results The rehabilitation effects ,the average ages ,CAP ,speech rec-ognition rates and SIR were increased two years afterwards .The effects of younger age group were more noticeable than that in the older group .The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Av-erage speech recognition rates ,average speech rehabilitation effects in each postoperative period of younger age group were better than those of in older age group ,showing significant differences (P<0 .05);CAPs in the younger age group on 1 ,3 and 12 months after CI surgery were significantly higher than those of in the older group (P value were 0 .001 ,0 .001 and 0 .002 ,respectively) .SIR in the younger age group at the time of 1 ,3 ,12 ,24 months were significantly higher than those of in the older group(P values were 0 .00 ,0 .00 ,0 .00 and 0 .024 ,respectively) . Conclusion Implanted age and recovery time are the key factors that influence the effects of postoperative rehabilita-tion .The younger when the children get

  16. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  17. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    , and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in identifying the genetic causes have resulted in increased understanding of the underlying biological pathways and improvements......Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present......-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually...

  18. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiaka Ejike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.

  19. Sleep problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R

    2013-10-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  20. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  1. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  2. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede

    2017-01-01

    Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...... such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition...

  3. The Children's Loneliness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vanhalst, Janne; Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS), a popular measure of childhood loneliness, in Belgian children. Analyses were conducted on two samples of fifth and sixth graders in Belgium, for a total of 1,069 children. A single-factor structure proved superior to alternative solutions proposed in the literature, when taking item wording into account. Construct validity was shown by substantial associations with related constructs, based on both self-reported (e.g., depressive symptoms and low social self-esteem), and peer-reported variables (e.g., victimization). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the CLS and a peer-reported measure of loneliness. Collectively, these findings provide a solid foundation for the continuing use of the CLS as a measure of childhood loneliness.

  4. Pulmonary Embolism in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmar Urooj Zaidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE in the pediatric population is relatively rare when compared to adults; however, the incidence is increasing and accurate and timely diagnosis is critical. A high clinical index of suspicion is warranted as PE often goes unrecognized among children leading to misdiagnosis and potentially increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of children with PE are lacking and current practices are extrapolated from adult data. Treatment options include thrombolysis and anticoagulation with heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists, with newer direct oral anticoagulants currently in clinical trials. Long-term sequelae of PE, although studied in adults, are vastly unknown among children and adolescents. Additional research is needed in order to provide pediatric focused care for patients with acute PE.

  5. Primary thrombocytosis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110

  6. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  7. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2017-09-15

    Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually caused by parathyroid tumors, which may give rise to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which usually arises in association with chronic renal failure and in the treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets. Acquired causes of PTH-dependent hypercalcemia in neonates include maternal hypocalcemia and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. PHPT usually occurs as an isolated non-syndromic and non-hereditary endocrinopathy, but may also occur as a hereditary hypercalcemic disorder such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in

  8. Children and the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Shirley

    1970-01-01

    Resume of testimony given at hearings at the White House Conference on Children, September, 1970. Topics considered were the influence of the mass media on children and ways to improve media products. (NH)

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a recovery period and will be given instructions on any limitations in activity for the day. ... Images related to Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as ... the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will ... to help diagnose a wide range of conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. ...

  12. Integrating Music and Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Joanna M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on why and how to integrate music education with children's literature. Discusses the use of the thematic approach. Describes a unit on animals, focusing on books to include in the unit. Includes a bibliography of children's books. (CMK)

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  14. [Therapy of tinnitus in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczyńska, Danuta; Drobik-Wasiewicz, Katarzynca; Malicka, Małgorzata; Kotecki, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus in childhood is quite common when children are directly asked about this syndrom. Children rarely spontaneously complain of tinnitus. Material consists of 67 children (6-18 year old) with tinnitus, treated in the Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic and Outpatient. Between children there were 2 groups: I tinnitus connected with hearing loss--35 children, II tinnitus without hearing loss--32 children. Methods. Anamnesis, otolaryngologic, neurologic, psychologic examinations, panel of audiologic tests before and after treatment of betahistine. In 12 patients there were recognized conductive hearing loss and they were excluded from therapy of betahistine. 55 children were treated with betahistine (Betaserc). Results indicates that betahistine is a good drug in therapy of tinnitus in children.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  16. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside ... develops quickly. Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ). This article is about AML in children.

  17. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  18. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  19. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  20. Recurrent parotitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattarai M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.

  1. Children in Conflict Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A N; Prasad, P L

    2009-04-01

    The nature of war has changed dramatically. Today's conflicts happen where people live and they take a brutal toll on children. Heavy bombardment and destruction in war creates a humanitarian crisis where there is lack of adequate food, clean water and medicine. The consequences of war can have major impact on the health of children for years to come. Traumatic events can have a profound and lasting impact on the emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological functioning of an individual. Depending on the circumstances, the psychosocial impacts of disasters can range from mild stress reactions to problems such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse and post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

  2. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  3. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  4. Trichotillomania in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Tarighati

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.

  5. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts......, the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  6. When cities move children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant Klinker, Charlotte; Schipperijn, Jasper; Toftager, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method to assess context-specific physical activity patterns using accelerometer and GPS. The method efficiency is investigated by providing descriptive results on the use of domains and subdomains, and assessing how much of children's and adolescents' daily activity...... time can be classified by these domains and subdomains. Four domains and 11 subdomains were defined as important contexts for child and adolescent behaviour. During weekdays (n=367) and weekend days (n=178) the majority of children and adolescents spent time in active transport, urban green space...

  7. Subdural empyema in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohammed A

    2013-08-14

    Subdural Empyema in infants and children might be life threatening if not managed properly. A search of the Pub Med database was carried out using a combination of the following terms: Subdural empyema, children, and management. Neurosurgical textbooks were reviewed as well. The prevalence, etiology, clinical features, investigations and management of SDE are reviewed in this article. Conservative management with antibiotics and follow up imaging is recommended if there are no focal deficits, change in mental status or if the patient is responding well to antibiotics. Alternatively, craniotomy is warranted in addition to antibiotics therapy. The surgeon might opt for burr holes in case the patient is frail or in septic shock.

  8. Factors of children's school readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Katja Bajc

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progress...

  9. LITERATURE CHILDREN - CHILD AS PROTAGONIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio do Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs is recognized as children's literature. 

  10. Young Children's Concepts of Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  11. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  12. How Healthy Are Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…

  13. Problem children or harassed childhood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    instition as stressed andnoisy, and thus it is the children they try to change (re-socialize) to solve the problems. The paper concludes that the discoruses tend to individualize structural problems with the result that a large group of children are identified as problem children rather than given better...

  14. Parents Were Children Once Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…

  15. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, A.E.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that

  16. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  17. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  18. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  19. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  20. Fibromatosis of bone in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capusten, B.M.; Azouz, E.M.; Rosman, M.A.

    1984-09-01

    Radiographs, computed tomograms, and radionuclide bone scans were obtained preoperatively in three children with fibromatosis involving the bones and soft tissues of the extremities. Two of the children had identical scar-like bone lesions of the proximal tibia, which, to the author's knowledge, have not been reported before in this disease. The lesions recurred in two children.

  1. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th

  2. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  3. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  4. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  5. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  6. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strife, Susan Jean

    2012-01-01

    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  7. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... Center Blog Press Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos Administration for Children & Families U.S. Department of Health & Human ...

  8. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002017.htm School-age children development To use the sharing features on this page, ... of children ages 6 to 12. Information PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children most often have smooth and strong motor skills. ...

  9. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    2016-01-01

    , designed to accommodate children's participation through graphic illustrations of young children's critique and utopias. The study is informed by a commitment to democratic participation and processes (Reason and Bradbury 2001, Gunnarsson et al. 2016). Ethical guidelines implied dialogues and discussions......, children's voice, critique and utopias, pedagogical work...

  10. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  11. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  12. Tracheobronchial stents in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-Pacheco, Juan L

    2016-06-01

    Tracheobronchial obstruction is infrequent in children and still remains a challenging matter of concern. Management alternatives vary from conservative treatment to complex surgical techniques or endoscopic interventional procedures. Airway stenting in children is relatively recent and follows the trail of the experience in adult patients. Nevertheless, there are basic differences between both age groups like the benign nature of most obstructions and the small size of the pediatric airway. These specific features raise the issues of the precise role of tracheobronchial stenting in children and the selection of the most adequate device. Stents fall into four main categories according to the material they are made of: metallic, plastic, hybrid, and biodegradable. Each type has its own advantages and drawbacks so the ideal stent is not yet available. Despite increasing experience with stenting, definite clinical criteria for their use in children are yet to be established. Even so, there seems to be a basic general agreement that stents may play a role in particular clinical settings in which there are no other therapeutic options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MIGRANT CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WYCKOFF, FLORENCE R.

    A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED AS A MEMBER OF A FAMILY OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO MUST TRAVEL A GREAT DISTANCE TO WORK. THE WORKERS FOLLOW A SEASONAL COURSE, OFTEN THROUGH SEVERAL STATES, AND RETURN HOME AFTER THE CROP SEASON IS OVER. THERE ARE ABOUT 415,000 MIGRANT CHILDREN UNDER 14 YEARS OF AGE IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 1960 THE MIGRANT FARM WORKER…

  14. in children in Gondar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the prevalence of bacterial etiologic agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. A total of 390 subjects were studied out of which 63% were cases from Gondar Hospital and Gondar Health ... Clinical findings, such as cough, raised respiratory rate, difficult breathing, and fever ... Pneumonia and diarrhea.

  15. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  16. Hearing Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to develop communication, language, and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are ...

  17. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2009-01-01

    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...

  18. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...... otitis media....

  19. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  20. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  1. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  2. Severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting β-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future.

  3. Helping Children Manage Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Maggie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  4. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Delden, van Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing pl

  5. Teaching Children of Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2008-01-01

    It was heartwarming to see so many states, school districts, and communities throughout the United States open their doors to the children of Katrina. This response was a graphic portrayal of the spirit of volunteerism, the value of the more able assisting the less fortunate, and the sense of altruism that surfaces when major crises occur.…

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders ...

  7. Children of Addicted Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this “fetal origins” approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development. PMID:20407981

  8. Playgrounds for City Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, M. Paul

    The work of a contemporary landscape architect is a living realization of the possibilities for increasing children's learning by improving play environment. The designer's philosophy and photographs of six playgrounds are contained in this bulletin, directed wherever there is need to make parks and school playgrounds open, aesthetic, and…

  9. Collection Preferences of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eighty nursery school and upper elementary school children selected picture cards from varying stimulus arrays in order to indicate their preference for unorganized mixed collections, groups of identical cards, or sets of different cards that together formed a whole figure. (CW)

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine exams will involve an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and ... medicine exams will involve an injection into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...

  11. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  12. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  13. Muslim Children's Other School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  14. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  15. Severe asthma in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta-agonists and other add on therapies such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control including reviewing the diagnosis and the removal of causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041

  16. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing pl

  17. Are children like werewolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; Leblanc, Allana G

    2016-01-01

    24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India...

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar or foods that are very spicy Avoiding chocolate, peppermint, or drinks with caffeine Avoiding acidic drinks ... with your child's provider before limiting fats. The benefit of reducing fats in children is not as ... 8, 2015. www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/ger-and-gerd- ...

  19. How Children Grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…

  20. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  1. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), has joined forces with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to author A Parent’s Guide to Building Resilience in Children and Teens: Giving Your Child Roots ...

  2. PARANEOPLASTIC MANIFESTATIONS IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, JH; TAMMINGA, RYJ; KAMPS, WA

    1994-01-01

    Paraneoplastic manifestations are signs and symptoms observed in patients with cancer, distant from the tumour or its metastases and not caused by invasion, obstruction or bulk mass. In children with cancer, paraneoplastic manifestations are rare and distinct from those observed in adults. Knowledge

  3. Young Children's Combinatoric Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…

  4. Children's Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  5. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  6. Death, Children, and Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  7. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Pariente, Danièle [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Roebuck, Derek J., E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  8. [Traveling with small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  9. BAD TIMES, SLIMMER CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellés-Obrero, Cristina; Jiménez-Martín, Sergi; Vall-Castello, Judit

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of the literature has confirmed that recessions are beneficial for adults' health and babies' outcomes at delivery, this effect should not necessarily be the same for children. In this paper, we study the effect of business cycle conditions on infant underweight, overweight, and obesity. We exploit eight waves of repeated cross-sectional data (1987-2012) of the Spanish National Health Survey for children aged 2-15 and use the regional unemployment rate of the trimester of the interview as a proxy for the business cycle phase at the local level. We find that an increase in the unemployment rate is associated with lower obesity incidence, especially for children under 6 years old and over 12 years old. However, economic shocks also proof to have potentially negative consequences as they increase the prevalence of infant underweight for the same age groups. Moreover, we show that the possible mechanisms through which the cycle is impacting infant obesity is the nutritional composition of the children's diet, as well as, increases in the frequency of exercise. We provide some evidence that suggests that the impact of business cycle conditions on infant weight disorders have little objective health consequences in the short run. However, the potential long-term effects may become important as underweight during childhood is associated with worse outcomes later in life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) ... be obtained using other imaging procedures. Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications ...

  12. Children's Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents on Talking to Children About the Flu - español (Spanish) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention After ... Do If Your Child Gets Sick With the Flu - español (Spanish) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tagalog ( ...

  13. Proteinuria in Sudanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hag, A I; el Seed, A M; Mustafa, M D

    1984-06-01

    One thousand, eight hundred and forty-six apparently healthy nursery and school children living in the Khartoum area and belonging to different socio-economic classes were studied. Nine hundred and thirty-seven were boys, 909 girls. Their ages ranged from three to 16 years. N-multistix strips were used to test for proteinuria and haematuria, the former being also checked by the sulphosalicylic acid test. Children with proteinuria of 1+ or more were further investigated by examining their urinary sediment for abnormal deposits and by testing for orthostatic proteinuria using day and night specimens of urine with specific gravity of 1.018 or more. Children who had no proteins on orthostatic testing were rescreened for proteinuria 10-14 days after the initial screening. The prevalence rate for proteinuria was 7.2% with no significant difference between boys and girls. In both sexes the prevalence rate increased significantly with age but was not influenced by the socio-economic status. Of the children with proteinuria, haematuria occurred in 27% and abnormal urinary deposits in 14.8%. Orthostatic testing showed a negative result for proteins in 44%, orthostatic proteinuria in 40%, of whom a third had either abnormal urinary sediments or haematuria, and continuous proteinuria in 15.6% of whom the majority had abnormal deposits.

  14. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  15. Placing Children First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jeanie

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall near New Orleans, Louisiana, on August 29, 2005. The author discusses the efforts she and other Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) colleagues made for the welfare of children who suffered from the storm. After her initial search for family, friends, and professional colleagues, she began trying…

  16. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  17. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  18. Are children like werewolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; Leblanc, Allana G;

    2016-01-01

    24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Ind...

  19. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  20. Compilation of Shona Children's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Peniah Mabaso, African Languages Research Institute (ALRI), University of. Zimbabwe, Harare ... thirteen years age group and their teachers. Student ... The Compilation of a Shona Children's Dictionary: Challenges and Solutions. 113 language .... The current orthography is linguistically constricting in a number of ways.

  1. Children, Mobility, and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Romero Mikkelsen, Miguel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  2. Strangulation injuries in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sep, D.Ph.; Thies, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a case of fatal strangulation with playground equipment in a 4-year-old child and a review of the literature. Playground injuries are a major cause of injury in children but fatalities are rare. However, strangulation is the cause of death in more than 50% of all playgroun

  3. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  4. Sex Bias in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  5. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    embodying of know-how of traffic power relations and mobility technology. The paper examines how parents’ perception of risks are transgressed by cycle training and how cycling is fitted into complex household routines. By shedding light on the sensitive mechanisms that ‘make’ and sustain cycling children...

  6. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  7. Rich Pickings for Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ALTHOUGH Chinese televisionworkers didn’t neglect children asan audience even in the early days oftelevision broadcasting in China,in thelate 1950’s,a lack of equipment confinedchildren’s programs to photographs andpictures.These have become part of a

  8. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  9. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    A child with language disorder may have one or two of the symptoms listed below, or many of the symptoms. Symptoms ... Parents who are concerned that their child's speech or language is ... to a speech and language therapist. Children who are diagnosed ...

  10. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  11. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  12. DYSLIPIDEMIA FEATURES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Turkinа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary scientific and practical data about various lipid metabolism disorders (dyslipidemia in children are discussed. Spectra lipids, phospholipids and lipoproteins in blood serum and erythrocyte membranes are presented. Characteristics of dyslipidemia and hypolipidemia, classification of hyperlipidemia, a description of acetonemic vomiting syndrome are given. Basic principles of dyslipidemia treatment as well as therapy of obesity associated with dyslipidemia are described.

  13. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  14. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2001-06-01

    supported the diagnosis. There was no positive results of acid fast bacilli and culture done for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in gastric aspirate as well as ascitic fuid. Peritonitis tuberculosis was most commonly diagnosed (80.0%, followed by mesenterial/nodal tuberculosis (20.0%. All of the children followed (60.0% responded well to the drugs therapy.

  15. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our body's filter to control electrolytes, fluid balance, blood pressure and pH balance. The kidneys are strong organs. In most cases, ... often, children experience problems with the way their spine grows. Physical therapy is helpful to strengthen muscles ...

  16. Children's Rights with Endogenous Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses hypothetical contractarianism to consider the value of children's rights laws as a means of protecting children. Laws protecting children from their parents have the unintended but predictable consequence of making child-rearing less desirable for some parents and thereby reducing the number of children born. Such laws therefore produce a trade-off between the expected wellbeing of actual and possible persons. I show that a possible child behind an appropriate veil of ignorance may rationally oppose laws which benefit some and harm no actual children.

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  18. 小龄耳聋儿童听觉能力发展问卷评估%Evaluation of the Auditory Skill for Hearing Impaired Children with Hearing Instruments Using Littl EARS Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪清; 张忠心

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估选配助听器和人工耳蜗植入儿童的听觉能力,为制定合理的康复训练计划提供资料和依据.方法 调查对象为50名语前聋儿童(患儿组),其中使用人工耳蜗和助听器者各25名;生理年龄为3至65个月,平均28±14个月;听力年龄为0至21个月,平均8±5个月.使用小龄儿童听觉发展测评工具中的进行调查,同卷由家长填写,结果与引自小龄儿童听觉发展测评工具中听力正常儿童的正常值进行对比分析.结果 患儿选配助听器或植入人工耳蜗的平均月龄为20±13个月.3岁以下32人(64%,32/50),3岁以上18人(36%,18/50).33名患儿出生时接受过听力筛查(66%,33/50),17名未接受过听力筛查(34%,17/50).随听力年龄的增长,各组儿童的听觉能力均不断提高,使用人工耳蜗患儿的听觉能力进步速度比佩带助听器的患儿快,3岁以下选配助听器或植入人工耳蜗的患儿听觉能力的发展速度比3岁以上快;各组患儿听觉能力的发展速度均比正常儿童慢.结论 耳聋患儿使用助听装置时间越长,其听觉能力发育的越好.重度以上耳聋儿童宜早期进行人工耳蜗植入.%Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the auditory ability of hearing impaired children with hearing aids or cochlear implants, thas providing a baseline and reference for the hearing and speech habilita-tion. Methods 50 prelingual children with severe or profound hearing loss participated in this study. 25 children were with cochlear implants and 25 with hearing aids. The chronological age ranged from 3 to 65 months with a mean of 28 months and a standard deviation of 14 months. The hearing age ranged from 0 to 21 months with a mean of 8 months and a standard deviation of 5 months. The littl EARS questionnaire was used to evaluate the auditory skill of children who received cochlear implants or fitted hearing aids. Parents were required to fill out all the questions one by one after the

  19. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  20. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  1. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  2. Jaw fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, R; Kärjä, J; Kullaa-Mikkonen, A

    1990-03-01

    From a total of 350 jaw fractures treated in 1980-1984 at Kuopio University Central Hospital, 20% were in children. These injuries were evaluated retrospectively regarding age, sex, incidence and etiology. Forty-five of the patients were boys and 25 girls. The frequency of maxillary and mandibular fractures in 70 young patients was 28.6%. The most common type of bone fractures was fracture of the alveolar process, which was prevalent in persons with mixed dentition. Before the age of 7 years, falls from height were the common causes of jaw fractures. The major cause of the jaw fractures in children from 7 to 15 years old was road accidents (47.1%), especially in boys. Most of these were cycling accidents, only a few patients were victims of automobile accidents. In addition, about one third (25.7%) of the patients were treated in the hospital because of multiple injuries to other organs.

  3. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified...... as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...... a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home...

  4. Neutrophilic dermatoses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic dermatoses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide an up-to-date review of (i) classical neutrophilic dermatoses, focusing on distinctive features in children and (ii) neutrophilic dermatoses which may largely be pediatric or genodermatosis-associated (Majeed, SAPHO [synovitis, severe acne, sterile palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis] syndrome, PAPA (pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne), PFAPA (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenopathy), and other periodic fever syndromes, and congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis healing with reticulated supple scarring).

  5. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children

  6. Hydrocephalus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-02-20

    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder.

  7. Visible epiglottis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin Ahmed, Farooque; Shinohara, Andrá Luis; Bonifécio da Silva, Salete Moura; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Visible epiglottis is a rare anatomical variant which is usually asymptomatic without the need of any medical or surgical intervention. It is most commonly seen in children but there are some reports of its prevalence in adults too. Cases of visible epiglottis seem to be unfamiliar among dental professionals. In this report, we have attempted to present this anatomical variant of epiglottis in the feld of dentistry by describing a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented to the department of pediatric dentistry for normal dental check-up unaware of the existence of the visible epiglottis. How to cite this article: Ahmed FJ, Shinohara AL, da Silva SMB, Andreo JC, de Castro Rodrigues A. Visible Epiglottis in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):223-224.

  8. [Separation anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Franc, Nathalie

    2010-06-20

    Separation anxiety disorder can be differentiated from developmental anxiety because of its intensity, persistence and negative impact on adaptive functioning. This disorder is closely linked to other anxiety and mood disorders and can also be associated with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Severe separation anxiety can result in school refusal and intra-familial violence. Cognitive behavioral therapies have the best evidence-based support for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, it is important to detect factors associated with persistence of anxiety such as systematic avoidance of separation and parental overprotection. The role of pediatricians and general practitioners in recognizing clinical separation anxiety and encouraging appropriate care and positive parental attitudes is essential, as separation anxiety is often associated with a variety of somatic symptoms.

  9. Adiposity indices in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E; Péquignot-Guggenbuhl, F; Fautrad, V

    1982-07-01

    On the basis of a longitudinal study of growth in French children, we attempted to find a valid index for estimating adiposity, and to specify the optimal conditions for its use. The Quetelet index was found suitable for application to children, but as with all methods, a certain lack of precision proved unavoidable because of the different stages of growth observed at a given age. For use by clinicians, we provide charts, based on the Quetelet index and on age, permitting estimation of adiposity in any child on the basis of longitudinal study measurements. For use by epidemiologists, we give standard values for studying groups of subjects, even when a reference population is not available. Body adiposity may be expressed independently of age and sex.

  10. English Education of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雨潇

    2014-01-01

    With the further development of China's reform and opening up, our communication with the world more and more frequently, more and more closely. As the primary tool of international communication, English is particularly important. Now, to strengthen foreign language teaching, especially to learn foreign languages at children, has become a global trend. In China, many schools and teachers for many years to carry out a useful attempt of children's English teaching, and accumulated a lot of successful experience, of course, there are many difficulties and setbacks, and even failure. How to exclude the difficulty and the setback, avoid failure? I combined with my own teaching practice, discusses and studies for many years, has received the good ef-fect.

  11. Uveitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Rabinovich, Consuelo Egla

    2016-09-01

    The review provides updates on novel risk markers for the development of pediatric inflammatory uveitis and a severe disease course, on treatment of refractory disease, and on the measurement of visual outcomes. There are several new genetic markers, biomarkers, and clinical factors that may influence a child's uveitis disease course. It is important to identify children at risk for poor visual outcomes and who are refractory to traditional therapy. Racial disparities have recently been reported. We describe agents of potential benefit. In addition, we discuss the importance of patient reported outcomes in this population. Uveitis can lead to vision-threatening complications. Timely and aggressive treatment of children identified to be at risk for a severe uveitis course may lead to improved outcomes.

  12. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating app...... the paper inform a discussion of urban planning and transport policy measures important for stabilizing sustainable mobility.......Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating...... approaches in transport research, including cycling, understand travel behaviour individualistic and lack to grasp the relational complexities, which are inevitable when considering children’s mobilities. Furthermore has children’s cycling largely been studied as independent mobility and active school travel...

  13. Fabry disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, AK

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational...... retrospective cohort study of 10 children (9-16 years at baseline), who underwent regular systematic investigations for 1-8 years after initiation of ERT with agalsidase-beta (Fabryzyme®, Genzyme). Ophthalmological, echocardiographic abnormalities and hypohidrosis were found at baseline and during the follow......-up period. Serious kidney, heart or brain involvement had not developed at the last follow-up examination. For the majority of the patients improvements were found concerning headache, acroparaesthesias and gastrointestinal pain during the follow-up period. The level of energy and physical activity also...

  14. [Moral development in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, E

    1989-08-01

    In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence.

  15. Optics and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: mfcosta@fisica.uminho.pt [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  16. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  17. Gallbladder disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David H; Harmon, Carroll M

    2016-08-01

    Biliary disease in children has changed over the past few decades, with a marked rise in incidence-perhaps most related to the parallel rise in pediatric obesity-as well as a rise in cholecystectomy rates. In addition to stone disease (cholelithiasis), acalculous causes of gallbladder pain such as biliary dyskinesia, also appear to be on the rise and present diagnostic and treatment conundrums to surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children in wheelchairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wisbeach, A; Holt, K S

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five families replied to a questionnaire about the use of their disabled children's wheelchairs. Many problems were found, such as difficulty in folding the chair and placing it in the car boot and difficulty in using pulbic transport. These families need adequate guidance to anticipate and deal with the problems. Provision of a wheelchair does not solve the mobility problems. The parents are faced with the task of transporting both the disabled child and the wheelch...

  19. Arthralgia in Children

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Arthralgia is joint pain unaccompanied by obvious clinical signs of arthritis or trauma. In most children and adolescents, the affected joint is the knee, hip, ankle, or less commonly an arm joint. Causes of arthralgia include arthritis; systemic disease; tumor; infection; growing pains; transient synovitis of the hip; osteochondroses; ostochondritis dissecans; traction syndrome; chondromalacia of the patella and post-traumatic synovitis. Some pains can be diagnosed with confidence with histo...

  20. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201