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Sample records for prelims cp1 classical

  1. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  2. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole station lime-carbon dioxide purification. The results preliming felt not only on the properties of the filtration of the carbonated juices, but a lso on the quality of performance of all intermediates and produced of sugar, in particular the color and turbidity of an aqueous solution, the content of the ash. In our investigations using the raw juice from sugar beet low quality found that when a uniform progressi ve change in pH of the juice during warm preliming best results for deposition rate and volume solids of the resulting precipitate are achieved when the length of 7 to 10 minutes. If it increases to 15 minutes and further reduced the deposition rate of the solid phase with a significant increase in turbidity decantate. It found that as a result of excess visit a large part of the raw juice in a progressive preliming at 60 °C increase in color prelimed juice was 30–55%, which is in agreement with the calculated values decay reducing agents in alkaline solution and formation of any additional colorants. The results confirming the feasibility of the use preddefekatsionnoy for processing the raw juice of condensed carbonate refunds.

  3. Improving the process of progressive preliming in sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Golybin; V. A. Fedoruk; N. A. Voronkova; I. S. Bushmin

    2016-01-01

    Tasks progressive preliming are to conduct neutralization, coagulation, deposition of non-sugars, the formation of a precipitate structure. This is the first operation of physical and chemical cleaning of the raw juice in the case of it in optimum conditions enables the coagulation and transferred to precipitate a substantial portion of high-molecular non-sugars, poorly soluble calcium salts that provides the cleaning effect of 14–18%, that is, up to half of the total effect on the whole stat...

  4. Experience on CP1 turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinaud, C.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the experience acquired on the behaviour of the turbine itself, excluding alternators, superheaters... of the nuclear power plants of the French program contract CP1 (Fessenhein prototype): method of anomaly process (assumption, scenarios, calculations and hierarchy of the assumptions), study of the accidents on the shutdown valves and control valves (HP admission devices), on the LP admission devices, on the HP module (leakage at the parting line, bolt and screw accidents), on the LP module (diaphragm, diapragm support erosion, rotor anomaly, blade anomaly with rupture of the wire bracing), behaviour of the shafting and of the pillars (radial and axial floating) and at last global behaviour of the group [fr

  5. The CP 1 type separators-superheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the functionnement of the separators superheaters in the first French 900 MW PWR units (Fessenhein 1-2 and Bugey 2-3-4-5) and in the program CP 1 units: localization of the separators superheaters, design, tests and choice of the materials, description of the separators superheaters (shells, separators, superheater bundles, internal lagging, purging tank and condensate stank, steam line equipments); study of the various operation modes (nominals, transients, malfunctions, conservation during shutdowns) and the in service behaviour of the components; study of the modifications on the CP 1 equipments and their behaviour; description of the measures, tests and on site controls (controls during planned shutdowns and controls during service) [fr

  6. Numerical simulations of the O(3) and CP1 models using the Langevin equations and the Metropolis algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Carneiro, C.E.I.

    1988-12-01

    The O(3) model, the pure CP 1 model and the CP 1 model minimally coupled to fermions are numerically simulated. The equivalence between the O(3) and the bound state of the pure CP 1 model is investigated. It is shown that: the relations g O(3 ) = 2 g CP 1 and E O(3 )= 2E CP 1 + 2, for the coupling constants and energies hold beyond the classical level; the mass gap as a function of the coupling is the same for both models. The mass gap for the CP 1 minimally coupled to fermions is also calculated. The calculations are performed using different techniques. The proposal by Namiki and colaborators to enforce constraints on Langevin equations and Parisi's technique to calculate correlation functions via Langevin equations is tested. The results are compared with those obtained using the multi-hit Metropolis algorithm. (author) [pt

  7. 60 years controlled nuclear fission: CP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, the Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical for the first time. In this way, the scientists and engineers involved in the project under the leadership of Enrico Fermi succeeded in demonstrating that a self-sustaining nuclear reaction with nuclear fission processes was technically feasible. Only four years after the discovery and proof of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, and Lise Meitner, the experiment consisting of graphite blocks as the moderator and uranium dioxide pellets as the fuel, as well as instrumentation and control devices, had been set up in the former squash court of the field and track stadium of the University of Chicago. Precisely at 3.36 a.m. Chicago time, after control rods had been withdrawn, the instruments showed the chain reaction by the neutron flux they indicated. An important cornerstone in the use of nuclear power had thus been laid. (orig.)

  8. On the energy crisis in noncommutative CP(1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sourrouille, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    We study the CP(1) system in (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative space with and without Chern-Simons term. Using the Seiberg-Witten map we convert the noncommutative CP(1) system to an action written in terms of the commutative fields. We find that this system presents the same infinite size instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model without a potential term. Based on this result we argue that the BPS equations are compatible with the full variational equations of motion, rejecting the hypothesis of an 'energy crisis'. In addition we examine the noncommutative CP(1) system with a Chern-Simons interaction. In this case we find that when the theory is transformed by the Seiberg-Witten map it also presents the same instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model.

  9. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.

  10. CP1 model with Hopf interaction: the quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, B.; Ghosh, Subir; Malik, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The CP 1 model with Hopf interaction is quantised following the Batalin-Tyutin (BT) prescription. In this scheme, extra BT fields are introduced which allow for the existence of only commuting first-class constraints. Explicit expression for the quantum correction to the expectation value of the energy density and angular momentum in the physical sector of this model is derived. The result shows, in the particular operator ordering prescription we have chosen to work with, that the quantum effect has the usual divergent contribution of O(ℎ 2 ) in the energy expectation value. But, interestingly the Hopf term, though topological in nature, can have a finite O(ℎ) contribution to energy density in the homotopically nontrivial topological sector. The angular momentum operator, however, is found to have no quantum correction at O(ℎ), indicating the absence of any fractional spin even at this quantum level. Finally, the extended Lagrangian incorporating the BT auxiliary fields is computed in the conventional framework of BRST formalism exploiting Faddeev-Popov technique of path integral method

  11. Safety and safety analysis. From CP1 to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, George

    2012-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations has been a serious concern starting from the days of infancy of this technology. When Fermi and co-workers built the first nuclear reactor in 1941, the Chicago Pile-1 or CP1 at the University of Chicago, some basic safety principles still in use today were already part of this very simple experiment. During the fast-growth period in the 1960ies, a number of NPP systems were conceived, tested and some of them built, mainly in the US and in the Soviet Union, but also in the UK, in France and in Canada, before just a handful of nuclear systems dominated: the LWRs conquered some 3 quarters of the world market and their dominance continues till today. The fission process has been amazingly well ''designed'' by nature: a remarkably simple to produce, self-sustained reaction that can be easily controlled, modulated and adjusted by a variety of available materials. Fission leads to large release of energy that can be easily collected and transformed into useful work. The process has only a major drawback, the inexorable production and accumulation in the core of the radioactive fission products that also produce decay heat. Criticality considerations put apart, the major goal of reactor safety is the confinement and cooling of these fission products. Although safety has been a major concern from the very first nuclear developments, feedback and actions following incidents and accidents have contributed to continuous enhancements. In particular, the three major nuclear accidents, TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima had or will hopefully have in the future major impacts on safety improvements. Lessons learned from TMI have greatly enhanced the safety of LWRs, while Chernobyl triggered a number of radio-ecology studies and improved the readiness for radiological crisis management. It is hoped that Fukushima will be the trigger for much stronger international oversight and harmonization of safety practices, something that has already been launched

  12. Safety and safety analysis. From CP1 to Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, George [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    The safety of nuclear installations has been a serious concern starting from the days of infancy of this technology. When Fermi and co-workers built the first nuclear reactor in 1941, the Chicago Pile-1 or CP1 at the University of Chicago, some basic safety principles still in use today were already part of this very simple experiment. During the fast-growth period in the 1960ies, a number of NPP systems were conceived, tested and some of them built, mainly in the US and in the Soviet Union, but also in the UK, in France and in Canada, before just a handful of nuclear systems dominated: the LWRs conquered some 3 quarters of the world market and their dominance continues till today. The fission process has been amazingly well ''designed'' by nature: a remarkably simple to produce, self-sustained reaction that can be easily controlled, modulated and adjusted by a variety of available materials. Fission leads to large release of energy that can be easily collected and transformed into useful work. The process has only a major drawback, the inexorable production and accumulation in the core of the radioactive fission products that also produce decay heat. Criticality considerations put apart, the major goal of reactor safety is the confinement and cooling of these fission products. Although safety has been a major concern from the very first nuclear developments, feedback and actions following incidents and accidents have contributed to continuous enhancements. In particular, the three major nuclear accidents, TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima had or will hopefully have in the future major impacts on safety improvements. Lessons learned from TMI have greatly enhanced the safety of LWRs, while Chernobyl triggered a number of radio-ecology studies and improved the readiness for radiological crisis management. It is hoped that Fukushima will be the trigger for much stronger international oversight and harmonization of safety practices, something that has

  13. On a discrete version of the CP 1 sigma model and surfaces immersed in R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A M; Levi, D; Martina, L

    2003-01-01

    We present a discretization of the CP 1 sigma model. We show that the discrete CP 1 sigma model is described by a nonlinear partial second-order difference equation with rational nonlinearity. To derive discrete surfaces immersed in three-dimensional Euclidean space a 'complex' lattice is introduced. The so-obtained surfaces are characterized in terms of the quadrilateral cross-ratio of four surface points. In this way we prove that all surfaces associated with the discrete CP 1 sigma model are of constant mean curvature. An explicit example of such discrete surfaces is constructed

  14. 00. Prelim.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    sex relations go through difficult phases in their lives as they struggle to find acceptance and fulfilment. They have to challenge, explicitly or implicitly, the sexual hegemonies within the wider society, breaking away from either a heterosexual ...

  15. Localizing gravity on Maxwell gauged CP1 model in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yuta; Kokubu, Kento; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We shall consider a 3-brane embedded in six-dimensional space-time with a negative bulk cosmological constant. The 3-brane is constructed by a topological soliton solution living in two-dimensional axially symmetric transverse subspace. Similar to most previous works of six-dimensional soliton models, our Maxwell gauged CP 1 brane model can also achieve localizing gravity around the 3-brane. The CP 1 field is described by a scalar doublet and derived from the O(3) sigma model by projecting it onto two-dimensional complex space. In that sense, our framework is more effective than other solitonic brane models concerning gauge theory. We shall also discuss the linear stability analysis for our new model by fluctuating all fields.

  16. The implementation of CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of the CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission is presented. CP1 is a computer code used to solve the equations of punctual kinetic with Doppler feed back from the system temperature variation based on the Newton refrigeration equation (E.G.) [pt

  17. β-TrCP1 Is a Vacillatory Regulator of Wnt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marcus John; Lin, Hong-Yu; Parvez, Saba; Zhao, Yi; Poganik, Jesse Richard; Huang, Paul; Aye, Yimon

    2017-08-17

    Simultaneous hyperactivation of Wnt and antioxidant response (AR) are often observed during oncogenesis. However, it remains unclear how the β-catenin-driven Wnt and the Nrf2-driven AR mutually regulate each other. The situation is compounded because many players in these two pathways are redox sensors, rendering bolus redox signal-dosing methods uninformative. Herein we examine the ramifications of single-protein target-specific AR upregulation in various knockdown lines. Our data document that Nrf2/AR strongly inhibits β-catenin/Wnt. The magnitude and mechanism of this negative regulation are dependent on the direct interaction between β-catenin N terminus and β-TrCP1 (an antagonist of both Nrf2 and β-catenin), and independent of binding between Nrf2 and β-TrCP1. Intriguingly, β-catenin positively regulates AR. Because AR is a negative regulator of Wnt regardless of β-catenin N terminus, this switch of function is likely sufficient to establish a new Wnt/AR equilibrium during tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  19. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  20. Formation of a covalent complex between the terminal protein of pneumococcal bacteriophage Cp-1 and 5'-dAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Hermoso, J.M.; Garcia, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Lopez, R.; Salas, M.

    1986-01-01

    Incubation of extracts of Cp-1-infected Streptococcus pneumoniae with [α- 32 P]dATP produced a labeled protein with the electrophoretic mobility of the Cp-1 terminal protein. The reaction product was resistant to treatment with micrococcal nuclease and sensitive to treatment with proteinase K. Incubation of the 32 P-labeled protein with 5 M piperidine for 4 h at 50 0 C released 5'-dAMP, indicating that a covalent complex between the terminal protein and 5'-dAMP was formed in vitro. When the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates were included in the reaction mixture, a labeled complex of slower electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels than the terminal protein-dAMP complex was also found, indicating that the Cp-1 terminal protein-dAMP complex can be elongated and, therefore, that it is an initiation complex. Treatment of the 32 P-labeled terminal protein-dAMP complex with 5.8 M HCl at 110 0 C for 2 h yielded phosphothreonine. These results, together with the resistance of the terminal protein-DNA linkage to hydroxylamine, suggest that the Cp-1 terminal protein is covalently linked to the DNA through a phosphoester bond between L-threonine and 5'-dAMP, namely, a O-5'-deoxyadenylyl-L-threonine bond

  1. Formation of a covalent complex between the terminal protein of pneumococcal bacteriophage Cp-1 and 5'-dAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P.; Hermoso, J.M.; Garcia, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Lopez, R.; Salas, M.

    1986-04-01

    Incubation of extracts of Cp-1-infected Streptococcus pneumoniae with (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)dATP produced a labeled protein with the electrophoretic mobility of the Cp-1 terminal protein. The reaction product was resistant to treatment with micrococcal nuclease and sensitive to treatment with proteinase K. Incubation of the /sup 32/P-labeled protein with 5 M piperidine for 4 h at 50/sup 0/C released 5'-dAMP, indicating that a covalent complex between the terminal protein and 5'-dAMP was formed in vitro. When the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates were included in the reaction mixture, a labeled complex of slower electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels than the terminal protein-dAMP complex was also found, indicating that the Cp-1 terminal protein-dAMP complex can be elongated and, therefore, that it is an initiation complex. Treatment of the /sup 32/P-labeled terminal protein-dAMP complex with 5.8 M HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 2 h yielded phosphothreonine. These results, together with the resistance of the terminal protein-DNA linkage to hydroxylamine, suggest that the Cp-1 terminal protein is covalently linked to the DNA through a phosphoester bond between L-threonine and 5'-dAMP, namely, a O-5'-deoxyadenylyl-L-threonine bond.

  2. 900 MW CP1 nuclear steam turbine retrofit thermal effects on low pressure diaphragms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buguin, A.; Gruau, P.; Lamarque, F.; Huggett, J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam turbines of the Koeberg units 1 and 2 operated by ESKOM in South Africa have been retrofitted in order to mitigate the generic problems of stress corrosion cracking of the original shrunk-on disk rotor design. As already done in Belgium and France, the implementation of welded rotors improves the turbine reliability and availability. Moreover, the new technology implemented associated with a new steam path allows a significant performance improvement. With a wealth of experience in CP1 retrofit, ALSTOM has put in place new technical features in the steam path in order to further improve the heat rate. Among them, steam balance holes drilled in the rotor disks have exacerbated the thermal sensitivity of the LP diaphragms. During the commissioning of the Unit 1 LP turbines following the retrofit, the load increase led to unacceptable vibrations. An investigation program was launched to determine the root causes of the problem. This paper presents the findings following the turbine inspection, as well as the recommendations and modifications to allow a smooth return to service of the unit. In addition, the results of the root cause analysis of the vibration incident are explained. Based on finite element calculations and site measurements, ALSTOM has established that the diaphragm thermal behavior, intensified by the steam balance holes, has led to radial rubbing. It was also established that the phenomena had no effect on the diaphragms mechanical integrity. Design changes have been proposed to ensure a safe and reliable long term operation of the units. These modifications have been successfully implemented onto the Koeberg Unit 2 Nuclear Steam Turbine commissioned in November 2012. (authors)

  3. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  4. Activity of the rat osteocalcin basal promoter in osteoblastic cells is dependent upon homeodomain and CP1 binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, D A; Bennett, C D; Rodan, G A

    1994-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the transcriptional machinery responsible for osteoblast-specific gene expression should provide tools useful for understanding osteoblast commitment and differentiation. We have defined three cis-elements important for basal activity of the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter, located at about -200 to -180, -170 to -138, and -121 to -64 relative to the transcription initiation site. A motif (TCTGATTGTGT) present in the region between -200 and -170 that binds a multisubunit CP1/NFY/CBF-like CAAT factor complex contributes significantly to high level basal activity and presumably functions as the CAAT box for the rat OC promoter. We show that the region -121 to 32 is sufficient to confer osteoblastic cell type specificity in transient transfection assays of cultured cell lines using luciferase as a reporter. The basal promoter is active in rodent osteoblastic cell lines, but not in rodent fibroblastic or muscle cell lines. Although the rat OC box (-100 to -74) contains a CAAT motif, we could not detect CP1-like CAAT factor binding to this region. In fact, we demonstrate that a Msx-1 (Hox 7.1) homeodomain binding motif (ACTAATTG; bottom strand) in the 3'-end of the rat OC box is necessary for high level activity of the rat OC basal promoter in osteoblastic cells. A nuclear factor that recognizes this motif appears to be present in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells, which produce OC, but not in fibroblastic ROS 25/1 cells, which fail to express OC. This ROS 17/2.8 nuclear factor also recognizes the A/T-rich DNA cognates of the homeodomain-containing POU family of transcription factors. Taken together, these data suggest that a ubiquitous CP1-like CAAT factor and a cell type-restricted homeodomain containing (Msx or POU family) transcription factor interact with the proximal rat OC promoter to direct appropriate basal OC transcription in osteoblastic cells.

  5. The Verticillium dahliae SnodProt1-Like Protein VdCP1 Contributes to Virulence and Triggers the Plant Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During pathogenic infection, hundreds of proteins that play vital roles in the Verticillium dahliae-host interaction are secreted. In this study, an integrated proteomic analysis of secreted V. dahliae proteins was performed, and a conserved secretory protein, designated VdCP1, was identified as a member of the SnodProt1 phytotoxin family. An expression analysis of the vdcp1 gene revealed that the transcript is present in every condition studied and displays elevated expression throughout the infection process. To investigate the natural role of VdCP1 in V. dahliae, two vdcp1 knockout mutants and their complementation strains were generated. Bioassays of these mutants revealed no obvious phenotypic differences from the wild-type (WT in terms of mycelial growth, conidial production or mycelial/spore morphology. However, compared with the WT, the vdcp1 knockout mutants displayed attenuated pathogenicity in cotton plants. Furthermore, treating plants with purified recombinant VdCP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, expression of several defense-related genes, leakage of ion electrolytes, enhancement of defense-related enzyme activity and production of salicylic acid. Moreover, VdCP1 conferred resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco and to V. dahliae in cotton. Further research revealed that VdCP1 possesses chitin-binding properties and that the growth of vdcp1 knockout mutants was more affected by treatments with chitinase, indicating that VdCP1 could protect V. dahliae cell wall from enzymatic degradation, which suggests an effector role of VdCP1 in infecting hosts.

  6. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  7. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  8. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  9. Impaired degradation of inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκB) and β-catenin as a result of targeted disruption of the β-TrCP1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keiko; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Maruyama, Shun-ichiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Onoé, Kazunori; Good, Robert A.; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2003-01-01

    β-TrCP1 (also known as Fbw1a or FWD1) is the F-box protein component of an Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF)-type ubiquitin ligase complex. Although biochemical studies have suggested that β-TrCP1 targets inhibitory subunit of NF-κB(IκB) proteins and β-catenin for ubiquitylation, the physiological role of β-TrCP1 in mammals has remained unclear. We have now generated mice deficient in β-TrCP1 and shown that the degradation of IκBα and IκBβ is reproducibly, but not completely, impaired in the cells of these animals. The nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB as well as the ability of this transcription factor to activate a luciferase reporter gene were also inhibited in β-TrCP1–/– cells compared with those apparent in wild-type cells. The subcellular localization of β-catenin was altered markedly in β-TrCP1–/– cells. Furthermore, the rate of proliferation was reduced and both cell size and the percentage of polyploid cells were increased in embryonic fibroblasts derived from β-TrCP1–/– mice pared with the corresponding wild-type cells. These results suggest that β-TrCP1 contributes to, but is not absolutely required for, the degradation of IκB and β-catenin and the consequent regulation of the NF-κB and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively. In addition, they implicate β-TrCP1 in the maintenance of ploidy during cell-cycle progression. PMID:12843402

  10. Higgs Phase in a Gauge U(1 Non-Linear CP1-Model. Two Species of BPS Vortices and Their Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alonso-Izquierdo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, zero modes of fluctuation are dissected around the two species of BPS vortices existing in the critical Higgs phase, where the scalar and vector meson masses are equal, of a gauged U ( 1 nonlinear CP 1 -model. If 2 π n , n ∈ Z , is the quantized magnetic flux of the two species of BPS vortex solutions, 2 n linearly-independent vortex zero modes for each species are found and described. The existence of two species of moduli spaces of dimension 2 n of these stringy topological defects is thus locally shown.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the wild type and two mutants of the CP1 hydrolytic domain from Aquifex aeolicus leucyl-tRNA synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cura, Vincent; Olieric, Natacha; Guichard, Alexandre [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, UMR 7104, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Wang, En-Duo [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031 (China); Moras, Dino [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, UMR 7104, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Eriani, Gilbert [Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 15 Rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Cavarelli, Jean, E-mail: cava@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, UMR 7104, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2005-10-01

    The wild-type editing CP1 domain of A. aeolicus leucyl-tRNA synthetase and two mutant CP1 domains have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.8 Å, which has enabled determination of the structures by molecular replacement. The editing or hydrolytic CP1 domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) hydrolyses several misactivated amino acids. The CP1 domain of Aquifex aeolicus LeuRS was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.8, b = 98.4, c = 116.7 Å. Crystals diffract to beyond 1.8 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Two CP1 mutants in which a conserved threonine residue essential for the fidelity of the hydrolytic pathway is mutated to alanine or glutamic acid have also been expressed and crystallized. Crystals of the two CP1 mutants are isomorphs of the wild type and diffract to beyond 1.9 Å resolution. All structures were solved by molecular-replacement techniques.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the wild type and two mutants of the CP1 hydrolytic domain from Aquifex aeolicus leucyl-tRNA synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, Vincent; Olieric, Natacha; Guichard, Alexandre; Wang, En-Duo; Moras, Dino; Eriani, Gilbert; Cavarelli, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The wild-type editing CP1 domain of A. aeolicus leucyl-tRNA synthetase and two mutant CP1 domains have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.8 Å, which has enabled determination of the structures by molecular replacement. The editing or hydrolytic CP1 domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) hydrolyses several misactivated amino acids. The CP1 domain of Aquifex aeolicus LeuRS was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.8, b = 98.4, c = 116.7 Å. Crystals diffract to beyond 1.8 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Two CP1 mutants in which a conserved threonine residue essential for the fidelity of the hydrolytic pathway is mutated to alanine or glutamic acid have also been expressed and crystallized. Crystals of the two CP1 mutants are isomorphs of the wild type and diffract to beyond 1.9 Å resolution. All structures were solved by molecular-replacement techniques

  13. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  14. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  15. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  16. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity

  17. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.

  18. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  19. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  20. Classic-Ada(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  1. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  2. Supersymmetric classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)

  3. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  4. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  5. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  6. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  7. The CLASSIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Iselin, F Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.

  8. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  9. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  10. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  11. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  12. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  13. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  14. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  15. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  16. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  17. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  18. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  19. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  20. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  1. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F. Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  2. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  3. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  4. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  5. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  6. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  7. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  8. Classical algebraic chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance

  9. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  10. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  11. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  12. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  13. Classical dynamics on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

  14. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  15. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  16. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  17. Classical mechanics with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This textbook takes a broad yet thorough approach to mechanics, aimed at bridging the gap between classical analytic and modern differential geometric approaches to the subject. Developed by the authors from over 30 years of teaching experience, the presentation is designed to give students an overview of the many different models used through the history of the field—from Newton to Hamilton—while also painting a clear picture of the most modern developments. The text is organized into two parts. The first focuses on developing the mathematical framework of linear algebra and differential geometry necessary for the remainder of the book. Topics covered include tensor algebra, Euclidean and symplectic vector spaces, differential manifolds, and absolute differential calculus. The second part of the book applies these topics to kinematics, rigid body dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, Hamilton–Jacobi theory, completely integrable systems, statistical mechanics of equilibrium, and impulsive dyna...

  18. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  19. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  20. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  1. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  2. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  3. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  4. Classical tokamak transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Aldo

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)

  5. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  6. Quantum symmetries of classical spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2009-01-01

    We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...

  7. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  8. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  9. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  10. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  11. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  12. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  13. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  14. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  15. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  16. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  17. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  18. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  19. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  20. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  1. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...

  2. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  3. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)

  4. Mathematical methods of classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.

  5. Classicality of quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, David

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP

  6. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  7. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  8. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  9. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  10. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartp...

  11. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  12. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  13. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  14. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

  15. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  16. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  17. Doing classical theology in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Neven

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight of my argument is that classical text of Karl Barth’s theology is great intellectual text means: being addressed by this text in the context in which one lives. The basic keywords that constitute a rule for reading those texts are “equality”, “event” and “re-contextualisation”. The article contains two sections: The first section elaborates statements about the challenge of the event and the project of rereading classics by way of recontextualisation. The word “event” refers to true and innovating moments in history which one can share, or which one can betray. Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second section elaborates the position of man as central and all decisive for doing theology in context now. In this section, the author appeals for a renewal of the classical anthropology as an anthropology of hope. This anthropology contradicts postmodern concepts of otherness.

  18. Classical approach in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  19. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , settlement patterns, landscape archaeology, historiography, and urban archaeology. Additionally, essays on topics such as the early Islamic period and portraiture in the Near East serve to broaden the themes encompassed by this work, and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field......This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes...... and material groups, and highlighting them as core areas of traditional classical archaeology, despite the fact that some have hitherto been neglected. Themes presented in this volume include Greek and Roman portraiture and sculpture, iconography, epigraphy, archaeology, numismatics, the Mediterranean...

  20. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  1. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  2. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  3. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  4. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  5. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  6. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  7. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  8. Classical resonances and quantum scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderfeld, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions

  9. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  10. Classical solutions and extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.

    1980-03-01

    The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed

  11. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our primary source of information on Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni is his typed autobiography, copies of which have been available with his descendants. Because of typing errors, illegibility, and other disabilities, their use had so far been limited. Now, his great-granddaughter, Neera Burra (whose article appears elsewhere.

  12. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    gravitational acceleration, the physical properties of air and water, and so forth. ... system, I will consider aspects of the physical world and ask what organisms, ..... speed should have little or no direct effect on water loss by transpiration.

  13. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    words, the origin (0;0) of the (x; y)-plane blows-up into the line x0 = 0 of the (x0 ... This is where I entered the picture. .... Especially I remember the tasty salads made with .... vacation cottage that I must do a better job in my introduction, because.

  14. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would say various things to make me give up insisting upon my request. But as I was .... I then asked him not to leave the observatory till further orders, ... I have yet to mention another incident when under very strange circumstances, luck.

  15. Matricial theory in classical photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.

    1980-01-01

    The matrix calculus in classical photoelasticity is used. Transfer functions for different polariscope arrangements are calculated. Linear polariscopes, circular polariscopes, double-exposure method to obtain isochromatics and Tardy and Senarmont method of measuring fractional relative retardations are analysed using coherency matrix formalism. (author)

  16. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  17. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  18. Doing classical theology in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    It is a critical concept, because it involves a break with ... question of the sense in which our context and culture have been interrupted by acts of ... challenge of reading a classical text is not only intellectual but also moral or existential. ..... and an opponent of pragmatic and relativistic conceptions8 I want to stress the.

  19. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  20. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  1. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  2. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Cré peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum

  3. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...

  4. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  5. From classical to quantum plasmonics: Classical emitter and SPASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykin, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The key advantage of plasmonics is in pushing our control of light down to the nanoscale. It is possible to envision lithographically fabricated plasmonic devices for future quantum information processing or cryptography at the nanoscale in two dimensions. A first step in this direction is a demonstration of a highly efficient nanoscale light source. Here we demonstrate two types of nanoscale sources of optical fields: 1) the classical metallic nanostructure emitter and 2) the plasmonic nanolaser - SPASER.

  6. Classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.N.; Raff, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions includes classical dynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics, classical scattering cross sections and rate coefficients, statistical averaging, the selection of initial states, integration of equations of motion, analysis of final states, consecutive collisions, and the prognosis for classical molecular scattering calculations. 61 references

  7. From classical to quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavsky, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis is done for the quantum properties of systems that possess dynamical chaos in classical limit. Two main topics are considered: (i) the problem of quantum macroscopical description of the system and the Ehrenfest-Einstein problem of the validity of the classical approximation; and (ii) the problem of levels spacing distribution for the nonintegrable case. For the first topic the method of projecting on the coherent states base is considered and the ln 1/(h/2π) time for the quasiclassical approximation breaking is described. For the second topic the discussion of GOE and non-GOE distributions is done and estimations and simulations for the non-GOE case are reviewed. (author). 44 refs, 2 figs

  8. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  9. Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Muscalu, Camil

    2013-01-01

    This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...

  10. Quantum Models of Classical World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájíček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of our recent work on three notorious problems of non-relativistic quantum mechanics: realist interpretation, quantum theory of classical properties, and the problem of quantum measurement. A considerable progress has been achieved, based on four distinct new ideas. First, objective properties are associated with states rather than with values of observables. Second, all classical properties are selected properties of certain high entropy quantum states of macroscopic systems. Third, registration of a quantum system is strongly disturbed by systems of the same type in the environment. Fourth, detectors must be distinguished from ancillas and the states of registered systems are partially dissipated and lost in the detectors. The paper has two aims: a clear explanation of all new results and a coherent and contradiction-free account of the whole quantum mechanics including all necessary changes of its current textbook version.

  11. THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Дама Ибрагима

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major concl...

  12. Classical music and the teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth.

  13. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  14. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  15. Quantum Mechanics as Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sebens, CT

    2015-01-01

    Here I explore a novel no-collapse interpretation of quantum mechanics which combines aspects of two familiar and well-developed alternatives, Bohmian mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. Despite reproducing the empirical predictions of quantum mechanics, the theory looks surprisingly classical. All there is at the fundamental level are particles interacting via Newtonian forces. There is no wave function. However, there are many worlds.

  16. Classical counterexamples to Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that a classical system containing a conventional yes/no decision-making component can behave like a quantum system of spin measurements in many ways (although it lacks a wave function) when, in principle, there are no deterministic decision procedures to govern the decision making, and when probabilistic decision procedures consistent with the system are introduced. Most notably, the system violates Bell's inequalities. Moreover, since the system is simple and macroscopic, its similarities to quantum systems arguably provide an insight into quantum mechanics and, in particular, EPR experiments. Thus, from the qualitative correspondences, decisions↔quantum measurements and the impossibility of deterministic decision procedures↔quantum noncommutativity, we conclude that the violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum mechanics does not require the existence of an unknown nonclassical nonlocality. It can merely be a result of local noncommutativity combined with nonlocalities of the classical type. The proposed classical decision-making system is a nonquantum theoretical construct possessing complementarity features in Bohr's sense

  17. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  18. Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L

    2004-01-01

    In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira-Leggett equation, without

  19. Intuitionism vs. classicism a mathematical attack on classical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer launched a powerful attack on the prevailing mathematical methods and theories. He developed a new kind of constructive mathematics, called intuitionism, which seems to allow for a rigorous refutation of widely accepted mathematical assumptions including fundamental principles of classical logic. Following an intense mathematical debate esp. in the 1920s, Brouwer's revolutionary criticism became a central philosophical concern in the 1970s, when Michael Dummett tried to substantiate it with meaning-theoretic considerations.

  20. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.

  1. Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)

  2. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  3. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  4. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  5. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, J.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  6. Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...

  7. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  8. Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, D.

    1977-01-01

    A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)

  9. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  10. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1981-08-01

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  11. Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O

    1984-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low.

  12. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  13. Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a Wi-Fi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.

  14. Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.

  15. Origin of classical structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Claus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Lohmar, Ingo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Polarski, David [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, UMR 5207 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Starobinsky, Alexei A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina St. 2, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    We address the quantum-to-classical transition for primordial fluctuations, that is, the emergence of classical stochastic properties for these fluctuations. We discuss in particular the entanglement entropy for these fluctuations, the decoherence time, and the question of the classical basis (pointer basis) for them. The decoherence time for modes outside the Hubble scale is set by the Hubble parameter. The classical states are narrow Gaussians in the field amplitude.

  16. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  17. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  18. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  19. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  20. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  1. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  2. A course in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bettini, Alessandro

    This first volume covers the mechanics of point particles, gravitation, extended systems (starting from the two-body system), the basic concepts of relativistic mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies and fluids. The four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light, is designed to reflect the typical syllabus during the first two years of a calculus-based university physics program. Throughout all four volumes, particular attention is paid to in-depth clarification of conceptual aspects, and to this end the historical roots of the principal concepts are traced. Writings by the founders of classical mechanics, G. Galilei and I. Newton, are reproduced, encouraging students to consult them. Emphasis is also consistently placed on the experimental basis of the concepts, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. Whenever feasible at the elementary level, concepts relevant to more advanced courses in modern physics are included. Each chapter b...

  3. Classical imaging with undetected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A. C.; Berruezo, L. P.; Ávila, D. F.; Lemos, G. B.; Pimenta, W. M.; Monken, C. H.; Saldanha, P. L.; Pádua, S.

    2018-03-01

    We obtained the phase and intensity images of an object by detecting classical light which never interacted with it. With a double passage of a pump and a signal laser beams through a nonlinear crystal, we observe interference between the two idler beams produced by stimulated parametric down conversion. The object is placed in the amplified signal beam after its first passage through the crystal and the image is observed in the interference of the generated idler beams. High contrast images can be obtained even for objects with small transmittance coefficient due to the geometry of the interferometer and to the stimulated parametric emission. Like its quantum counterpart, this three-color imaging concept can be useful when the object must be probed with light at a wavelength for which detectors are not available.

  4. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  5. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  6. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  7. Quantum and classical gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Terashima, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The use of the mass term of the gauge field as a gauge fixing term, which was discussed by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio in a large mass limit, is related to the non-linear gauge by Dirac and Nambu. We have recently shown that this use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term is in fact identical to the conventional local Faddeev-Popov formula without taking a large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, could be re-interpreted as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added in suitably quantized theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. We comment on several implications of this observation. (author)

  8. From classical to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...

  9. Classical and quantum thermal physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, R

    2016-01-01

    Covering essential areas of thermal physics, this book includes kinetic theory, classical thermodynamics, and quantum thermodynamics. The text begins by explaining fundamental concepts of the kinetic theory of gases, viscosity, conductivity, diffusion, and the laws of thermodynamics and their applications. It then goes on to discuss applications of thermodynamics to problems of physics and engineering. These applications are explained with the help of P-V and P-S-H diagrams where necessary and are followed by a large number of solved examples and unsolved exercises. The book includes a dedicated chapter on the applications of thermodynamics to chemical reactions. Each application is explained by taking the example of an appropriate chemical reaction, where all technical terms are explained and complete mathematical derivations are worked out in steps starting from the first principle.

  10. State-dependent classical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, M.

    2001-01-01

    As alternative treatment to the potential operators of standard quantum mechanics is presented. The method is derived from Bohm's mechanics. The operator scalar (V) and vector (A) potential functions are replaced by a quantum potential. It is argued that the classical potential is a special limiting case of a more general quantum potential. The theory is illustrated by deriving an equivalent single-particle equation for the i-th particle of an n-body Bohmian system. The resulting effective state-dependent potential holds the interaction between the single-particle self-wave ψ s and the environment wave ψ e of the n - 1 remaining particles. The effective state-dependent potential is offered as a resolution to the Aharonov-Bohm effect where the phase difference is shown to result from the presence of ψ e . Finally, the interaction between ψ s and ψ e is illustrated graphically

  11. On causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The differential-difference (DD) motion equations of the causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics developed by the author in 1975 are shown to possess only nonrunaway, causal solutions with no discontinuities in particle velocity or position. As an example, the DD equation solution for the problem of an electromagnetic shock incident on an initially stationary charged particle is contrasted with the standard Abraham-Lorentz equation solution. The general Cauchy problem for these DD motion equations is discussed. In general, in order to uniquely determine a solution, the initial data must be more detailed than the standard Cauchy data of initial position and velocity. Conditions are given under which the standard Cauchy data will determine the DD equation solutions to sufficient practical accuracy

  12. Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivetti, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  13. Quantum classical correspondence in nonrelativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.; Weatherford, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A form of classical electrodynamic field exists which gives exact agreement with the operator field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the Lamb shift of a harmonically bound point electron. Here it is pointed out that this form of classical theory, with its physically acceptable interpretation, is the result of an unconventional resolution of a mathematically ambiguous term in classical field theory. Finally, a quantum classical correspondence principle is shown to exist in the sense that the classical field and expectation value of the QED operator field are identical, if retardation is neglected in the latter

  14. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  15. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  16. Classical foundations of quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garola, C.

    1991-01-01

    The author constructs a language L for a classical first-order predicate calculus with monadic predicates only, extended by means of a family of statistical quantifiers. Then, a formal semantic model M is put forward for L which is compatible with a physical interpretation and embodies a truth theory which provides the statistical quantifiers with properties that fit their interpretation; in this framework, the truth mode of physical laws is suitably characterized and a probability-frequency correlation principle is established. By making use of L and M, a set of basic physical laws is stated that hold both in classical physics (CP) and in quantum physics (QP), which allow the selection of suitable subsets of primitive predicates of L and the introduction on these subsets of binary relations. Two languages L E x and L E S are constructed that can be mapped into L; the mapping induces on them mathematical structures, some kind of truth function, an interpretation. The formulas of L E S can be endowed with two different interpretations as statements about the frequency of some physical property in some class (state) of physical objects; consequently, a two-valued truth function and a multivalued fuzzy-truth function are defined on L E S . In all cases the algebras of propositions of these 'logics' are complete ortho-complemented lattices isomorphic to (E E , prec). These results hold both in CP and in QP; further physical assumptions endow the lattice (E E , prec), hence L E x and L E s , with further properties, such as distributivity in CP and weak modularity and covering law in QP. In the latter case, L E x and L E s , together with their interpretations, can be considered different models of the same basic mathematical structure, and can be identified with standard (elementary) quantum logics

  17. Zwitters: Particles between quantum and classical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe both quantum particles and classical particles in terms of a classical statistical ensemble, with a probability distribution in phase space. By use of a wave function in phase space both can be treated in the same quantum formalism. Quantum particles are characterized by a specific choice of observables and time evolution of the probability density. Then interference and tunneling are found within classical statistics. Zwitters are (effective) one-particle states for which the time evolution interpolates between quantum and classical particles. Experimental bounds on a small parameter can test quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: ► Quantum particles can be described within classical statistics. ► Classical particles are formulated in quantum formalism. ► Zwitters interpolate between classical and quantum particles. ► Zwitters allow for quantitative tests of quantum mechanics. ► Zwitters could be effective one-particle descriptions of droplets.

  18. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, A.M.; Plastino, A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  19. Quantum remnants in the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-16

    We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.

  20. Ordering in classical Coulombic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity Λ (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than approximately175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4

  1. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  2. THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дама Ибрагима

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major conclusions in the article include the following: administering the state apparatus consists in the organization of government on the basis of regulated rights, mandatory procedures that are invoked to ensure balance in the interest of man and society; bad effectiveness of government, infringement of the rights and freedoms of the individual is the result of dysfunction in the state apparatus; the struggle against it can be carried out with the help of administrative, economical and legal methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-45

  3. Classical randomness in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Presti, Paoloplacido Lo; Perinotti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Similarly to quantum states, also quantum measurements can be 'mixed', corresponding to a random choice within an ensemble of measuring apparatuses. Such mixing is equivalent to a sort of hidden variable, which produces a noise of purely classical nature. It is then natural to ask which apparatuses are indecomposable, i.e. do not correspond to any random choice of apparatuses. This problem is interesting not only for foundations, but also for applications, since most optimization strategies give optimal apparatuses that are indecomposable. Mathematically the problem is posed describing each measuring apparatus by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which gives the statistics of the outcomes for any input state. The POVMs form a convex set, and in this language the indecomposable apparatuses are represented by extremal points-the analogous of 'pure states' in the convex set of states. Differently from the case of states, however, indecomposable POVMs are not necessarily rank-one, e.g. von Neumann measurements. In this paper we give a complete classification of indecomposable apparatuses (for discrete spectrum), by providing different necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality of POVMs, along with a simple general algorithm for the decomposition of a POVM into extremals. As an interesting application, 'informationally complete' measurements are analysed in this respect. The convex set of POVMs is fully characterized by determining its border in terms of simple algebraic properties of the corresponding POVMs

  4. Classical region of a trapped Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakie, P Blair [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Davis, Matthew J [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2007-06-14

    The classical region of a Bose gas consists of all single particle modes that have a high average occupation and are well described by a classical field. Highly occupied modes only occur in massive Bose gases at ultra-cold temperatures, in contrast to the photon case where there are highly occupied modes at all temperatures. For the Bose gas the number of these modes is dependent on the temperature, the total number of particles and their interaction strength. In this paper, we characterize the classical region of a harmonically trapped Bose gas over a wide parameter regime. We use a Hartree-Fock approach to account for the effects of interactions, which we observe to significantly change the classical region as compared to the idealized case. We compare our results to full classical field calculations and show that the Hartree-Fock approach provides a qualitatively accurate description of a classical region for the interacting gas.

  5. The relation between classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Peter.

    1984-01-01

    The thesis examines the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Arguments are presented in favour of 'conjectural realism' in scientific theories, distinguished by explicit contextual structure and empirical testability. The formulations of classical and quantum mechanics, based on a general theory of mechanics is investigated, as well as the mathematical treatments of these subjects. Finally the thesis questions the validity of 'classical limits' and 'quantisations' in intertheoretic reduction. (UK)

  6. Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2007-01-01

    All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics

  7. Classical logic and logicism in human thought

    OpenAIRE

    Elqayam, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...

  8. Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Bodard, Gabriel; Romanello, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    This volume, edited by the organizers of the “Digital Classicist” seminars series, presents research in classical studies, digital classics and digital humanities, bringing together scholarship that addresses the impact of the study of classical antiquity through computational methods on audiences such as scientists, heritage professionals, students and the general public. Within this context, chapters tackle particular aspects, from epigraphy, papyrology and manuscripts, via Greek language, ...

  9. Connections between classical and parametric network entropies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper explores relationships between classical and parametric measures of graph (or network complexity. Classical measures are based on vertex decompositions induced by equivalence relations. Parametric measures, on the other hand, are constructed by using information functions to assign probabilities to the vertices. The inequalities established in this paper relating classical and parametric measures lay a foundation for systematic classification of entropy-based measures of graph complexity.

  10. Locking classical correlations in quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenzo, David P; Horodecki, Michał; Leung, Debbie W; Smolin, John A; Terhal, Barbara M

    2004-02-13

    We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain a large locked classical correlation that is unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are (2n+1)-qubit states for which a one-bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from n/2 bits to n bits. This phenomenon is impossible classically. However, states exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.

  11. Seven steps towards the classical world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allori, Valia; Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Shelly; Zanghi, Nino

    2002-01-01

    Classical physics is about real objects, like apples falling from trees, whose motion is governed by Newtonian laws. In standard quantum mechanics only the wavefunctions or the results of measurements exist, and to answer the question of how the classical world can be part of the quantum world is a rather formidable task. However, this is not the case for Bohmian mechanics which, like classical mechanics, is a theory about real objects. In Bohmian terms, the problem of the classical limit becomes very simple: when do the Bohmian trajectories look Newtonian?

  12. Classical An-W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    By analyzing the extrinsic geometry of two dimensional surfaces chirally embedded in C P n (the C P n W-surface), we give exact treatments in various aspects of the classical W-geometry in the conformal gauge: First, the basis of tangent and normal vectors are defined at regular points of the surface, such that their infinitesimal displacements are given by connections which coincide with the vector potentials of the (conformal) A n -Toda Lax pair. Since the latter is known to be intrinsically related with the W symmetries, this gives the geometrical meaning of the A n W-Algebra. Second, W-surfaces are put in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the conformally-reduced WZNW model, which is such that the Toda fields give the Cartan part in the Gauss decomposition of its solutions. Third, the additional variables of the Toda hierarchy are used as coordinates of C P n . This allows us to show that W-transformations may be extended as particular diffeomorphisms of this target-space. Higher-dimensional generalizations of the WZNW equations are derived and related with the Zakharov-Shabat equations of the Toda hierarchy. Fourth, singular points are studied from a global viewpoint, using our earlier observation that W-surfaces may be regarded as instantons. The global indices of the W-geometry, which are written in terms of the Toda fields, are shown to be the instanton numbers for associated mappings of W-surfaces into the Grassmannians. The relation with the singularities of W-surface is derived by combining the Toda equations with the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. (orig.)

  13. Quantum experiments without classical counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present a generalized and exhaustive method of finding the directions of the quantization axes of the measured eigenstates within experiments which have no classical counterparts. The method relies on a constructive and exhaustive definition of sets of such directions (which we call Kochen-Specker vectors) in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. Kochen-Specker vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in n-dim Hilbert space, Hn, n > 2 to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such Kochen-Specker vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic to 0-1 states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all 4-dim KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all 3-dim vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found. (author)

  14. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H 2 C 2 → HC 2 H, HNC → HCN, and H 2 CO → H 2 + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I → Na + + I - is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features

  15. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  16. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  17. The Dirac equation in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The Dirac equation, usually obtained by 'quantizing' a classical stochastic model is here obtained directly within classical statistical mechanics. The special underlying space-time geometry of the random walk replaces the missing analytic continuation, making the model 'self-quantizing'. This provides a new context for the Dirac equation, distinct from its usual context in relativistic quantum mechanics

  18. Converting Projects from STK Classic to STK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucar, James G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The version of STK (Sierra ToolKit) that has long been provided with Trilinos is no longer supported by the core develop- ment team. With the introduction of a the new STK library into Trilinos, the old STK has been renamed to stk classic. This document contains a rough guide of how to port a stk classic code to STK.

  19. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.

  20. Dispersions in Semi-Classical Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska-Pfabe, M.; Gregoire, C.

    1987-01-01

    Dispersions around mean values of one-body observables are obtained by restoring classical many-body correlations in Vlasov and Landau-Vlasov dynamics. The method is applied to the calculation of fluctuations in mass, charge and linear momentum in heavy-ion collisions. Results are compared to those obtained by the Balian-Veneroni variational principle in semi-classical approximation

  1. Linguistic Investigations into Ellipsis in Classical Sanskrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Brendan S.

    Ellipsis is a common phenomenon of Classical Sanskrit prose. No inventory of the forms of ellipsis in Classical Sanskrit has been made. This paper presents an inventory, based both on a systematic investigation of one text and on examples based on sundry reading.

  2. Quantum Statistical Operator and Classically Chaotic Hamiltonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantum Statistical Operator and Classically Chaotic Hamiltonian System. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... In a Hamiltonian system von Neumann Statistical Operator is used to tease out the quantum consequence of (classical) chaos engendered by the nonlinear coupling of system to its ...

  3. Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…

  4. Modular sequent calculi for classical modal logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, David; Maffezioli, Paolo

    This paper develops sequent calculi for several classical modal logics. Utilizing a polymodal translation of the standard modal language, we are able to establish a base system for the minimal classical modal logic E from which we generate extensions (to include M, C, and N) in a modular manner. Our

  5. The Zoology of the classical islamic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe; Aarab, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article brings a survey of research on the science of zoology in the Classical Arabic/Islamic Culture as revealed in texts on this subject written in Classical Arabic from the second half of the 8th century to the 15th century A.D. In the light of recent research and by use of examples from...

  6. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  7. Overgroups of root groups in classical groups

    CERN Document Server

    Aschbacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author extends results of McLaughlin and Kantor on overgroups of long root subgroups and long root elements in finite classical groups. In particular he determines the maximal subgroups of this form. He also determines the maximal overgroups of short root subgroups in finite classical groups and the maximal overgroups in finite orthogonal groups of c-root subgroups.

  8. Mimicking anti-correlations with classical interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S; Seifert, B; Wallentowitz, S

    2013-01-01

    It is shown how classical laser light impinging on a beam splitter with internal reflections may mimic anti-correlations of the detected outputs, similar to those observed for anti-bunched light. The experimentally observed anti-correlation may be interpreted as a classical Hong–Ou–Mandel dip. (paper)

  9. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  10. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  11. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  12. Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.

  13. Interaction between classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1977-10-01

    An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work

  14. Citation Classics from Industrial Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    , system sellers and systems integrator, third-party logistics providers, and value). Finally, each of the 30 citation classics is introduced, and the classics' theoretical implications to business-to-business marketing management and fields related to (e.g., supply chain management, strategic management......This article proposes a categorization of what constitutes a citation classic. General observations reveal, with regard to the top 30 citation classics from Industrial Marketing Management, the number of authors per article, country of origin of the lead author, and type of article (literature...... review, qualitative methodology, or quantitative methodology). In addition, these citation classics can be classified by topic (firm performance, goods-dominant and service-dominant logics, Internet and high-technology markets, product innovation, relationships and business networks, supply chains...

  15. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  16. Driven topological systems in the classical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Callum W.; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Periodically driven quantum systems can exhibit topologically nontrivial behavior, even when their quasienergy bands have zero Chern numbers. Much work has been conducted on noninteracting quantum-mechanical models where this kind of behavior is present. However, the inclusion of interactions in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems can prove to be quite challenging. On the other hand, the classical counterpart of hard-core interactions can be simulated efficiently via constrained random walks. The noninteracting model, proposed by Rudner et al. [Phys. Rev. X 3, 031005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.031005], has a special point for which the system is equivalent to a classical random walk. We consider the classical counterpart of this model, which is exact at a special point even when hard-core interactions are present, and show how these quantitatively affect the edge currents in a strip geometry. We find that the interacting classical system is well described by a mean-field theory. Using this we simulate the dynamics of the classical system, which show that the interactions play the role of Markovian, or time-dependent disorder. By comparing the evolution of classical and quantum edge currents in small lattices, we find regimes where the classical limit considered gives good insight into the quantum problem.

  17. Emergence of quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual setting of quantum mechanics is subject to an ongoing debate from its beginnings until now. The consequences of the apparent differences between quantum statistics and classical statistics range from the philosophical interpretations to practical issues as quantum computing. In this note we demonstrate how quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistical systems. We discuss conditions and circumstances for this to happen. Quantum systems describe isolated subsystems of classical statistical systems with infinitely many states. While infinitely many classical observables 'measure' properties of the subsystem and its environment, the state of the subsystem can be characterized by the expectation values of only a few probabilistic observables. They define a density matrix, and all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem.

  18. Classical and anaplastic seminoma: Difference in survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobba, V.S.; Mittal, B.B.; Hoover, S.V.; Kepka, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors undertook a retrospective study of seminoma patients treated with radiation therapy between 1961 and 1985. The classical group consisted of 66 patients, of whom 47 were stage I and 19 were stage II. The anaplastic group consisted of 21 patients, of whom 11 were stage I, nine were stage II, and one was stage III. The median follow-up was 66 months. The five-year crude survival rate for the entire group was 92%, for classical 96%, and for anaplastic 78% (P<.005). Similarly, there was a significant difference (P<.005) in actuarial relapse-free survival at 5 years between classical and anaplastic seminoma. For classical stage I, the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 96; for classical stage II, 84%. For anaplastic stage I the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 82%, and for stage II 75%. Six patients in the classical group (9%) failed treatment. In the anaplastic group, five patients or 24 failed treatment. Therefore, the authors' data suggest a difference in survival and failure rate between classical and anaplastic seminoma. Extratesticular seminoma with anaplastic histology has an even worse prognosis

  19. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  20. A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to Galois theory and focuses on one central theme - the solvability of polynomials by radicals. Both classical and modern approaches to the subject are described in turn in order to have the former (which is relatively concrete and computational) provide motivation for the latter (which can be quite abstract). The theme of the book is historically the reason that Galois theory was created, and it continues to provide a platform for exploring both classical and modern concepts. This book examines a number of problems arising in the area of classical mathematic

  1. Classical realizability in the CPS target language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....

  2. A classical model for the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of classical and semi-classical models for the electron has had a long and distinguished history. Such models are useful more for what they teach us about field theory than what they teach us about the electron. In this Letter I exhibit a classical model of the electron consisting of ordinary electromagnetism coupled with a self-interacting version of Newtonian gravity. The gravitational binding energy of the system balances the electrostatic energy in such a manner that the total rest mass of the electron is finite. (orig.)

  3. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter

    2010-09-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations of the sequence of wave functions under consideration. The obtained results are consequently compared to those derived via semi-classical Wigner measures. To this end, we shall also give a connection to the theory of Young measures and prove several new results on Wigner measures themselves. Our analysis gives new insight on oscillation and concentration effects in the semi-classical regime. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  4. On the quantization of classically chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    Some propeties of a quantization in terms of observables of a classically chaotic system, which exhibits a strange are studied. It is shown in particular that convenient expected values of some observables have the correct classical limit and that in these cases the limits ℎ → O and t → ∞ (t=time) rigorously comute. This model was alternatively quantized by R.Graham in terms of Wigner function. The Graham's analysis is completed a few points, in particular, we find out a remarkable analogy with general results about the semi-classical limit of Wigner function. Finally the expected values obtained by both methods of quantization were compared. (author) [pt

  5. Classical dynamics of particles and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Jerry B

    1965-01-01

    Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems presents a modern and reasonably complete account of the classical mechanics of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies for physics students at the advanced undergraduate level. The book aims to present a modern treatment of classical mechanical systems in such a way that the transition to the quantum theory of physics can be made with the least possible difficulty; to acquaint the student with new mathematical techniques and provide sufficient practice in solving problems; and to impart to the student some degree of sophistication in handl

  6. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Paul, Thierry; Sparber, Christof

    2010-01-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations

  7. Quantum manifestations of classical resonance zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, N.; Davis, M.J.; Heller, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    We examine the concept of nodal breakup of wave functions as a criterion for quantum mechanical ergodicity. We find that complex nodal structure of wave functions is not sufficient to determine quantum mechanical ergodicity. The influence of classical resonances [which manifest themselves as classical resonance zones (CRZ)] may also be responsible for the seeming complexity of nodal structure. We quantify this by reexamining one of the two systems studied by Stratt, Handy, and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3311 (1974)] from both a quantum mechanical and classical point of view. We conclude that quasiperiodic classical motion can account for highly distorted quantum eigenstates. One should always keep this in mind when addressing questions regarding quantum mechanical ergodicity

  8. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Piaţek, Marcin

    2005-09-01

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.

  9. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Piatek, Marcin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: piatek@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2005-09-26

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.

  10. Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Piatek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere

  11. Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

  12. Classical limit for semirelativistic Hartree systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.; Markowich, Peter A.; Sparber, Christof

    2008-01-01

    Wigner transformation techniques that its classical limit yields the well known relativistic Vlasov-Poisson system. The result holds for the case of attractive and repulsive mean-field interactions, with an additional size constraint in the attractive

  13. Classical algebra its nature, origins, and uses

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger L

    2008-01-01

    This insightful book combines the history, pedagogy, and popularization of algebra to present a unified discussion of the subject. Classical Algebra provides a complete and contemporary perspective on classical polynomial algebra through the exploration of how it was developed and how it exists today. With a focus on prominent areas such as the numerical solutions of equations, the systematic study of equations, and Galois theory, this book facilitates a thorough understanding of algebra and illustrates how the concepts of modern algebra originally developed from classical algebraic precursors. This book successfully ties together the disconnect between classical and modern algebraand provides readers with answers to many fascinating questions that typically go unexamined, including: What is algebra about? How did it arise? What uses does it have? How did it develop? What problems and issues have occurred in its history? How were these problems and issues resolved? The author answers these questions and more,...

  14. Persistent entanglement in the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, M J [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Clark, T D [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Stiffell, P B [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Ralph, J F [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Liverpool University, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Bulsara, A R [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 2363, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Harland, C J [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The apparent difficulty in recovering classical nonlinear dynamics and chaos from standard quantum mechanics has been the subject of a great deal of interest over the last 20 years. For open quantum systems-those coupled to a dissipative environment and/or a measurement device-it has been demonstrated that chaotic-like behaviour can be recovered in the appropriate classical limit. In this paper, we investigate the entanglement generated between two nonlinear oscillators, coupled to each other and to their environment. Entanglement-the inability to factorize coupled quantum systems into their constituent parts-is one of the defining features of quantum mechanics. Indeed, it underpins many of the recent developments in quantum technologies. Here, we show that the entanglement characteristics of two 'classical' states (chaotic and periodic solutions) differ significantly in the classical limit. In particular, we show that significant levels of entanglement are preserved only in the chaotic-like solutions.

  15. Classic Phenylketonuria: Diagnosis Through Heterozygote Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert F.; Elsas, Louis J.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the identification of the asymptomatic carrier of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) 59 male and female normal control Ss were differentiated from 18 males and females heterozgous for PKU. (DB)

  16. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Rocchetto, Andrea; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed.

  17. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for quantum ... Entanglement; teleportation; secret sharing; information splitting. ... Ahmedabad 380 009, India; Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India ...

  18. The classical limit of W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Ramos, E.

    1992-01-01

    We define and compute explicitly the classical limit of the realizations of W n appearing as hamiltonian structures of generalized KdV hierarchies. The classical limit is obtained by taking the commutative limit of the ring of pseudodifferential operators. These algebras - denoted w n - have free field realizations in which the generators are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials in the free fields. We compute the algebras explicitly and we show that they are all reductions of a new algebra w KP , which is proposed as the universal classical W-algebra for the w n series. As a deformation of this algebra we also obtain w 1+∞ , the classical limit of W 1+∞ . (orig.)

  19. Quantum vertex model for reversible classical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, C; Mucciolo, E R; Ruckenstein, A E; Yang, Z-C

    2017-05-12

    Mappings of classical computation onto statistical mechanics models have led to remarkable successes in addressing some complex computational problems. However, such mappings display thermodynamic phase transitions that may prevent reaching solution even for easy problems known to be solvable in polynomial time. Here we map universal reversible classical computations onto a planar vertex model that exhibits no bulk classical thermodynamic phase transition, independent of the computational circuit. Within our approach the solution of the computation is encoded in the ground state of the vertex model and its complexity is reflected in the dynamics of the relaxation of the system to its ground state. We use thermal annealing with and without 'learning' to explore typical computational problems. We also construct a mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating an approach to reversible classical computation based on state-of-the-art implementations of quantum annealing.

  20. Semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, U.

    1992-02-01

    The semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards will be developed using scattering theory approach. This will be used to introduce and explain the inherent difficulties in the semi-classical quantization of chaos, and to show some of the modern tools which were developed recently to overcome these difficulties. To this end, we shall first obtain a semi-classical secular equation which is based on a finite number of classical periodic orbits. We shall use it to derive some spectral properties, and in particular to investigate the relationship between spectral statistics of quantum chaotic systems and the predictions of random-matrix theory. We shall finally discuss an important family of chaotic billiard, whose statistics does not follow any of the canonical ensembles, (GOE,GUE,...) but rather, corresponds to a new universality class. (author)

  1. Can classical noise enhance quantum transmission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    A modified quantum teleportation protocol broadens the scope of the classical forbidden-interval theorems for stochastic resonance. The fidelity measures performance of quantum communication. The sender encodes the two classical bits for quantum teleportation as weak bipolar subthreshold signals and sends them over a noisy classical channel. Two forbidden-interval theorems provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of the nonmonotone stochastic resonance effect in the fidelity of quantum teleportation. The condition is that the noise mean must fall outside a forbidden interval related to the detection threshold and signal value. An optimal amount of classical noise benefits quantum communication when the sender transmits weak signals, the receiver detects with a high threshold and the noise mean lies outside the forbidden interval. Theorems and simulations demonstrate that both finite-variance and infinite-variance noise benefit the fidelity of quantum teleportation.

  2. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  3. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Rocchetto, Andrea; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed.

  4. Classical Music Clustering Based on Acoustic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindi; Haque, Syed Arefinul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we cluster 330 classical music pieces collected from MusicNet database based on their musical note sequence. We use shingling and chord trajectory matrices to create signature for each music piece and performed spectral clustering to find the clusters. Based on different resolution, the output clusters distinctively indicate composition from different classical music era and different composing style of the musicians.

  5. Factorizations of one-dimensional classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuru, Senguel; Negro, Javier

    2008-01-01

    A class of one-dimensional classical systems is characterized from an algebraic point of view. The Hamiltonians of these systems are factorized in terms of two functions that together with the Hamiltonian itself close a Poisson algebra. These two functions lead directly to two time-dependent integrals of motion from which the phase motions are derived algebraically. The systems so obtained constitute the classical analogues of the well known factorizable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems

  6. On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Marcelo; Reis, Poliana

    2013-01-01

    In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that det...

  7. The classical notion of competition revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Neri; Signorino, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to fill a lacuna within Classical economics concerning the process of market price determination in a short-period equilibrium. To this aim, first we distinguish the Classical notion of free competition from the Walrasian notion of perfect competition and we argue that the latter is beset by some theoretical difficulties alien to the former. Second, we reconstruct in some detail Smith and Marx’s views concerning market price determination and we show that Marx’s extensive use ...

  8. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  9. New mechanism for bubble nucleation: Classical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T. Jr; Hui Lam; Lim, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    Given a scalar field with metastable minima, bubbles nucleate quantum mechanically. When bubbles collide, energy stored in the bubble walls is converted into kinetic energy of the field. This kinetic energy can facilitate the classical nucleation of new bubbles in minima that lie below those of the 'parent' bubbles. This process is efficient and classical, and changes the dynamics and statistics of bubble formation in models with multiple vacua, relative to that derived from quantum tunneling.

  10. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  11. Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, Farhan

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits ...

  12. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...

  13. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  14. On obtaining classical mechanics from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2007-01-01

    Constructing a classical mechanical system associated with a given quantum-mechanical one entails construction of a classical phase space and a corresponding Hamiltonian function from the available quantum structures and a notion of coarser observations. The Hilbert space of any quantum-mechanical system naturally has the structure of an infinite-dimensional symplectic manifold ('quantum phase space'). There is also a systematic, quotienting procedure which imparts a bundle structure to the quantum phase space and extracts a classical phase space as the base space. This works straightforwardly when the Hilbert space carries weakly continuous representation of the Heisenberg group and one recovers the linear classical phase space R 2N . We report on how the procedure also allows extraction of nonlinear classical phase spaces and illustrate it for Hilbert spaces being finite dimensional (spin-j systems), infinite dimensional but separable (particle on a circle) and infinite dimensional but non-separable (polymer quantization). To construct a corresponding classical dynamics, one needs to choose a suitable section and identify an effective Hamiltonian. The effective dynamics mirrors the quantum dynamics provided the section satisfies conditions of semiclassicality and tangentiality

  15. Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkin, A

    2009-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantum-to-classical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly non-classical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs non-spreading and non-interfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation - in particular the existence of point-like particles pursuing well-defined trajectories - would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.

  16. Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájícek, P

    2012-01-01

    Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's 'first kind of dynamics', and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.

  17. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)

  19. A Case of Classic Raymond Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas George Zaorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Raymond syndrome consists of ipsilateral abducens impairment, contralateral central facial paresis, and contralateral hemiparesis. However, subsequent clinical observations argued on the presentation of facial involvement. To validate this entity, we present a case of classic Raymond syndrome with contralateral facial paresis. A 50 year-old man experienced acute onset of horizontal diplopia, left mouth drooling and left-sided weakness. Neurological examination showed he had right abducens nerve palsy, left-sided paresis of the lower part of the face and limbs, and left hyperreflexia. A brain MRI showed a subacute infarct in the right mid-pons. The findings were consistent with those of classic Raymond syndrome. To date, only a few cases of Raymond syndrome, commonly without facial involvement, have been reported. Our case is a validation of classic Raymond syndrome with contralateral facial paresis. We propose the concept of two types of Raymond syndrome: (1 the classic type, which may be produced by a lesion in the mid-pons involving the ipsilateral abducens fascicle and undecussated corticofacial and corticospinal fibers; and (2 the common type, which may be produced by a lesion involving the ipsilateral abducens fascicle and undecussated corticospinal fibers but sparing the corticofacial fibers.

  20. The Segal chronogeometric redshift - a classical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, E.E. Jr.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo.

    1977-01-01

    An error is shown to exist in the Segal chronogeometric redshift theory. The redshift distance relation of z=tan 2 (d/2R) derived by Segal using quantum theory violates the classical correspondence limit. The corrected result derived using simple classical arguments is z=tan 2 (d/R). This result gives the same predictions for small redshift objects but differs for large redshift objects such as quasars. The difference is shown to be caused by inconsistencies in the quantum derivation. Correcting these makes the quantum result equal to the classical result as one would expect from the correspondence principle. The impact of the correction on the predictions of the theory is discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. The chronicle of the classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalo, J.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    In this Chronicle of the classical electrodynamics it is shown how this important branch of classical physics was developed since the mathematical formulation of the electromagnetism empiric laws carried by Maxwell, mainly the laws of Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Biot-Savart, Faraday, Henry and Lenz, up to the settlement of the radiation theory, scientific background for the technological development of the wireless telegraphy. Through this chronicle, it is also seen how Maxwell got one of the main results of the past century classical physics - the electromagnetic theory of light -, and how the experimental production of an electromagnetic wave by Hertz, unchained a collection of theoretical papers which explained many experimental results such as dispersion of light, thermical radiation, X-rays and its scattering through the matter. At last, it is still seen that the study of electrodynamics of moving bodies led to the relativity theory, presented by Einstein's famous paper about such subject. (Author) [pt

  2. Quantum and classical optics–emerging links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J H; Qian, Xiao-Feng; Qasimi, Asma Al; Ali, Hazrat; Alonso, M A; Gutiérrez-Cuevas, R; Little, Bethany J; Howell, John C; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A N

    2016-01-01

    Quantum optics and classical optics are linked in ways that are becoming apparent as a result of numerous recent detailed examinations of the relationships that elementary notions of optics have with each other. These elementary notions include interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement. All of them are present in both quantum and classical optics. They have historic origins, and at least partly for this reason not all of them have quantitative definitions that are universally accepted. This makes further investigation into their engagement in optics very desirable. We pay particular attention to effects that arise from the mere co-existence of separately identifiable and readily available vector spaces. Exploitation of these vector-space relationships are shown to have unfamiliar theoretical implications and new options for observation. It is our goal to bring emerging quantum–classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work will promote discussion and lead to unified understanding. (invited comment)

  3. Classical- and quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, W.

    1987-01-01

    Because in textbooks the quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering is either ignored or treated unsatisfactory, the present work attempts to present a physically plausible, mathematically correct but elementary treatment in a way that it can be used in textbooks and lectures on quantum mechanics. Coulomb scattering is derived as a limiting case of a screened Coulomb potential (finite range) within a time dependent quantum scattering theory. The difference in the asymptotic conditions for potentials of finite versus infinite range leads back to the classical Coulomb scattering. In the classical framework many concepts of the quantum theory can be introduced and are useful in an intuitive understanding of the quantum theory. The differences between classical and quantum scattering theory are likewise useful for didactic purposes. (qui)

  4. Quantum dynamics of classical stochastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casati, G

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that one hand Quantum Mechanics introduces limitations to the manifestations of chaotic motion resulting, for the case of the periodically kicked rotator, in the limitation of energy growth; also, as it is confirmed by numerical experiments, phenomena like the exponential instability of orbits, inherent to strongly chaotic systems, are absent here and therefore Quantum Mechanics appear to be more stable and predictable than Classical Mechanics. On the other hand, we have seen that nonrecurrent behavior may arise in Quantum Systems and it is connected to the presence of singular continuous spectrum. We conjecture that the classical chaotic behavior is reflected, at least partially, in the nature of the spectrum and the singular-continuity of the latter may possess a self-similar structure typical of classical chaos.

  5. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  6. Comparison of Classical and Quantum Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; Uskov, D.B.; Korol, A.V.; Obolensky, O.I.

    2003-01-01

    Classical features persist in bremsstrahlung at surprisingly high energies, while quantum features are present at low energies. For Coulomb bremsstrahlung this is related to the similar properties of Coulomb scattering. For bremsstrahlung in a screened potential, the low energy spectrum and angular distribution exhibit structures. In quantum mechanics these structures are associated with zeroes of particular angular-momentum transfer matrix elements at particular energies, a continuation of the Cooper minima in atomic photoeffect. They lead to transparency windows in free-free absorption. The trajectories of these zeroes in the plane of initial and final transition energies (bound and continuum) has been explored. Corresponding features have now been seen in classical bremsstrahlung, resulting from reduced contributions from particular impact parameters at particular energies. This has suggested the possibility of a more unified treatment of classical and quantum bremsstrahlung, based on the singularities of the scattering amplitude in angular momentum

  7. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kodrat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain syndrome with a distinct symptom mainly excruciating facial pain that tends to come and go unpredictably in sudden shock-like attacks. Medical management remains the primary treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia. When medical therapy failed, surgery with microvascular decompression can be performed. Radiosurgery can be offered for classical trigeminal neuralgia patients who are not surgical candidate or surgery refusal and they should not in acute pain condition. Radiosurgery is widely used because of good therapeutic result and low complication rate. Weakness of this technique is a latency period, which is time required for pain relief. It usually ranges from 1 to 2 months. This review enlightens the important role of radiosurgery in the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia.

  8. Classical dynamics and its quantum analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.

    1979-01-01

    In this book the author establishes mathematical connections between classical and quantum mechanics, between ray optics and wave optics. The approach is to consider classical mechanics as a limiting case of quantum mechanics, and ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics. The conceptual background is discussed where necessary, so the reader should be already fairly familiar with it. The main goal of this approach is the revelation that classical and quantum theory are not so different conceptually as one thinks at first exposure. The first chapters recall the basic facts about light waves and light rays and demonstrate the construction of Newtonian orbits from Schroedinger waves. In the following the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of few-body system is developed showing as often as possible the relations to the corresponding quantum systems. To illustrate the theory planetary motion using perturbation theory is treated in some detail and several calculations in general relativity such as the deflection and retardation of light by the sun and the precession of planetary perikelia are included. The final parts deal with the motions of systems of many particles. The quantum mechanics of rigid bodies is presented in analogy with the classical theory and contrasts are noted. There is also a discussion of the roles of spinors in the two theories. The book is intended as a text in classical mechanics for readers which have already some knowledge in classical and quantum mechanics. It may help to deepen their understanding of the relation between the old and new theory and show something of the ways in which new discoveries are made. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 BRE

  9. Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Federico

    2010-12-01

    In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive Learning-Based Realizability". Our realizers are self-correcting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a one-to-one correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1-Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully detailed constructive analysis of learning as it arises in learning based realizability for HA+EM1, Avigad's update procedures and epsilon substitution method for Peano Arithmetic PA. We present new constructive techniques to bound the length of learning processes and we apply them to reprove - by means of our theory - the classic result of Godel that provably total functions of PA can be represented in Godel's system T. Last, we give an axiomatization of the kind of learning that is needed to computationally interpret Predicative classical second order Arithmetic. Our work is an extension of Avigad's and generalizes the concept of update procedure to the transfinite case. Transfinite update procedures have to learn values of transfinite sequences of non computable functions in order to extract witnesses from classical proofs.

  10. Beam structures classical and advanced theories

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc.  Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be

  11. Hidden invariance of the free classical particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group G is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semi-invariance under G leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by U(1) leads to quantum mechanics

  12. Classical dissipation and transport in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the subject of classical and neoclassical transport. The paper is organized into four main parts, dealing with plasma kinetic theory, classical transport, neoclassical transport, and the present state of the subject. The results of the neoclassical theory of transport are still being used to give the lower limit on the transport rates in tokamaks, which would apply if instabilities and turbulence could be suppressed. So far, only the ion thermal conductivity and the current density have been found experimentally to agree with this theory, and only under special conditions. The electron thermal conductivity has been found experimentally to be much larger than the neoclassical prediction

  13. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, C; Langlois, J

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems. (review)

  14. Classical and quantum chaos in atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, Farhan

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of an atom with an electro-magnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electro-magnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits dynamical localization and quantum recurrences

  15. Mathematical optics classical, quantum, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2012-01-01

    Going beyond standard introductory texts, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods brings together many new mathematical techniques from optical science and engineering research. Profusely illustrated, the book makes the material accessible to students and newcomers to the field. Divided into six parts, the text presents state-of-the-art mathematical methods and applications in classical optics, quantum optics, and image processing. Part I describes the use of phase space concepts to characterize optical beams and the application of dynamic programming in optical wave

  16. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: A.Doikou@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot–Watt University, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, Patras GR-26500 (Greece)

    2014-07-15

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl{sub N}) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution.

  17. The classical behavior of measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper constructs a quantum mechanical model of a counter monitoring the decay of an unstable microsystem. In spite of its quantum mechanical nature, the counter may be assumed to behave classically during the measurement. The relevance of this result for a particular interpretation of quantum mechanics is discussed. The quantum mechanical nature of the model counter could be easily detected in measurements of counter observables which do not commute with the observable P/sub +/. The statistical predictions for such measurements will be definitely incompatible with classical concepts

  18. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way

  19. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Z. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Menas, F. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’ingéniorat, Laboratoire de physique, RN 5 Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Bérard, A. [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, H., E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.

  20. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  1. On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Chiara

    In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...

  2. Classical impurities associated to high rank algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Classical integrable impurities associated with high rank (gl N ) algebras are investigated. A particular prototype, i.e. the vector non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) model, is chosen as an example. A systematic construction of local integrals of motion as well as the time components of the corresponding Lax pairs is presented based on the underlying classical algebra. Suitable gluing conditions compatible with integrability are also extracted. The defect contribution is also examined in the case where non-trivial integrable conditions are implemented. It turns out that the integrable boundaries may drastically alter the bulk behavior, and in particular the defect contribution

  3. Classical and semi-classical solutions of the Yang--Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Nohl, C.; Rebbi, C.

    1977-12-01

    This review summarizes what is known at present about classical solutions to Yang-Mills theory both in Euclidean and Minkowski space. The quantal meaning of these solutions is also discussed. Solutions in Euclidean space expose multiple vacua and tunnelling of the quantum theory. Those in Minkowski space-time provide a semi-classical spectrum for a conformal generator

  4. Random electrodynamics: the theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and distinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory. (U.S.)

  5. Why aortic elasticity differs among classical and non-classical mitral valve prolapsed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat; Demirkol, Sait; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Balta, Sevket; Dogan, Umuttan; Kilicarslan, Baris; Ozeke, Ozcan; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular heart disease and characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are two types of MVP, broadly classified as classic (thickness ≥5 mm) and non-classic (thickness elastic properties of the aorta in young male patients with classical and non-classical MVP. In the present study, 63 young adult males (mean age: 22.7 ± 4.2) were included. Patients were divided into classic MVP (n = 27) and non-classic MVP (n = 36) groups. Aortic strain, aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated by using aortic diameters obtained by echocardiography and blood pressures measured by sphygmomanometer. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, left ventricular mass and ejection fraction. When comparing the MVP group it was found that aortic strain and aortic distensibility were increased (p = 0.0027, p = 0.016, respectively) whereas the aortic stiffness index was decreased (p = 0.06) in the classical MVP group. We concluded that the elastic properties of the aorta is increased in patients with classic MVP. Further large scale studies should be performed to understand of morphological and physiological properties of the aorta in patients with MVP.

  6. PRELIM DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, ST. TAMMANY PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. Functional integral approach to classical statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.

    1980-04-01

    A functional integral method is developed for the statistical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations which arise in classical dynamics. The functional integral approach provides a very natural and elegant derivation of the statistical dynamical equations that have been derived using the operator formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose

  8. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  9. Peaceful Coexistence between Pop and the Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    The 1967 MENC symposium at Tanglewood advocated the inclusion of popular music, along with the classics, in the general music curriculum. The author looks briefly at how well this recommendation is being implemented and discusses the benefits of using popular works in music instruction. (SJL)

  10. Integrable models in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.

    1991-01-01

    Integrable systems are investigated, especially the rational and trigonometric Gaudin models. The Gaudin models are diagonalized for the case of classical Lie algebras. Their relation to the other integrable models and to the quantum inverse scattering method is investigated. Applications in quantum optics and plasma physics are discussed. (author). 94 refs

  11. Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257

  12. Classical probabilities for Majorana and Weyl spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Map of classical statistical Ising model to fermionic quantum field theory. → Lattice-regularized real Grassmann functional integral for single Weyl spinor. → Emerging complex structure characteristic for quantum physics. → A classical statistical ensemble describes a quantum theory. - Abstract: We construct a map between the quantum field theory of free Weyl or Majorana fermions and the probability distribution of a classical statistical ensemble for Ising spins or discrete bits. More precisely, a Grassmann functional integral based on a real Grassmann algebra specifies the time evolution of the real wave function q τ (t) for the Ising states τ. The time dependent probability distribution of a generalized Ising model obtains as p τ (t)=q τ 2 (t). The functional integral employs a lattice regularization for single Weyl or Majorana spinors. We further introduce the complex structure characteristic for quantum mechanics. Probability distributions of the Ising model which correspond to one or many propagating fermions are discussed explicitly. Expectation values of observables can be computed equivalently in the classical statistical Ising model or in the quantum field theory for fermions.

  13. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renna, L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated

  14. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-06-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  15. Quantum scattering from classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.M.; Poppitz, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes between initial wave packet states and certain coherent final states can be computed in a systematic weak coupling expansion about classical solutions satisfying initial-value conditions. The initial-value conditions are such as to make the solution of the classical field equations amenable to numerical methods. We propose a practical procedure for computing classical solutions which contribute to high energy two-particle scattering amplitudes. We consider in this regard the implications of a recent numerical simulation in classical SU(2) Yang-Mills theory for multiparticle scattering in quantum gauge theories and speculate on its generalization to electroweak theory. We also generalize our results to the case of complex trajectories and discuss the prospects for finding a solution to the resulting complex boundary value problem, which would allow the application of our method to any wave packet to coherent state transition. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results to the issues of baryon number violation and multiparticle scattering at high energies. ((orig.))

  16. Classical Etymologies of Select Gynaecological and Ophthalmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In early times, many terms were traced to the treatises of early Greek and Roman physicians such as Hippocrates, Galen and Celsus, who were famous doctors in antiquity. This paper attempts to identify, through the philological and semantic methods, the Classical stories and linguistic history that surround the etymology of ...

  17. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  18. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-04-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  19. Classical diagnostic radiological features of Von Recklinghausen's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and appropriately guiding management decisions. The patient presented is a 29- year old female who had presented with right orbital and periorbital masses, lisch nodules, multiple scalp and body nodules, cranial bony defect and complex kyphoscoliosis. She had three of the seven classical diagnostic features of NF-1 ...

  20. Ethnicity and Classicism: A Beautiful Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Arthur

    1984-01-01

    The founder of the Dance Theater of Harlem describes his own professional development and discusses how Martin Luther King's assassination led him to make a commitment to the people of Harlem, to the untapped talents of Black artists, and to breaking the traditional barrier against Black dancers in classical ballet. (CMG)

  1. Language Skills in Classical Chinese Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2018-01-01

    This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the role of lower- and higher-level language skills in classical Chinese (CC) text comprehension. A CC word and sentence translation test, text comprehension test, and questionnaire were administered to 393 Secondary Four students; and 12 of these were randomly selected to…

  2. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 6. Cyril Stanley Smith's Translations of Metallurgical Classics. Martha Goodway. General Article Volume 11 Issue 6 June 2006 pp 63-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hilbert space; Koopman–von Neumann theory; classical electrodynamics. PACS No. 03.50. ... The paper is divided into four sections. Section 2 .... construction of Sudarshan is to be contrasted with that of Koopman and von Neumann. ..... ture from KvN and [16] in this formulation is to define new momentum and coordinate.

  4. Classical solutions in lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrjushkin, V.K.

    1996-08-01

    The solutions of the classical equations of motion on a periodic lattice are found which correspond to abelian single and double Dirac sheets. These solutions exist also in non-abelian theories. Possible applications of these solutions to the calculation of gauge dependent and gauge invariant observables are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Quantum machine learning: a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberto, Carlo; Herbster, Mark; Ialongo, Alessandro Davide; Pontil, Massimiliano; Severini, Simone; Wossnig, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms. Here we review the literature in quantum ML and discuss perspectives for a mixed readership of classical ML and quantum computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain computationally hard problems in ML are identified as promising directions for the field. Practical questions, such as how to upload classical data into quantum form, will also be addressed. PMID:29434508

  6. Summary of classical general relativity workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the classical general relativity workshop, ten lectures were presented on various topics. The topics included aspects of black-hole physics, gravitational collapse and the formation of black holes, specific stellar models like a superdense star, method of extracting solutions by exploiting Noether symmetry, brane world and.

  7. On normal modes in classical Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Normal modes of Hamittonian systems that are even and of classical type are characterized as the critical points of a normalized kinetic energy functional on level sets of the potential energy functional. With the aid of this constrained variational formulation the existence of at least one family

  8. Nanotribology investigations with classical molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of nanotribological problems investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, within the context of the applicability of continuum mechanics contact theories at the atomic scale. Along these lines, three different themes can be recognized herein:

  9. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations--essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics--we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the…

  10. Classical Pragmatism on Mind and Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    One of the major changes in twentieth century philosophy was the so-called linguistic turn, in which natural and formal languages became central subjects of study. This meant that theories of meaning became mostly about linguistic meaning, thinking was now analyzed in terms of symbol manipulation, and rules of classical logic formed the nucleus of…

  11. Classical quantum theory of wobbling modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki

    1986-01-01

    Wobbling modes are studied extensively in terms of time-dependent variational theory. Quantum states and their energies are determined by the Bohr-Sommerfeld rule of classical quantization. Numerical calculations are performed for states of 166 Er with vertical strokejvertical stroke=30-40 (h/2π). (orig.)

  12. Mathematics of classical and quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Byron, Frederick W

    Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics. Topics include theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, Green's function method of solving differential and partial differential equations, theory of groups, more. Many problems, suggestions for further reading.

  13. "Scars" connect classical and quantum theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Monteiro, T

    1990-01-01

    Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).

  14. Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mohsen

    2011-10-01

    A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  15. Classical solutions of the p-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    An appropriate subsidiary condition is introduced in the classical actions of the p-branes (p arbitrary). A general class of exact solutions of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion are obtained which yield a broad class of characteristics for the original covariant equations of the p-branes. (author). 11 refs

  16. Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.

  17. The classical theory of fields electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2012-01-01

    The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...

  18. Some recent progress in classical general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2000-06-01

    In this short survey paper, we shall discuss certain recent results in classical gravity. Our main attention will be restricted to two topics in which we have been involved; the positive mass conjecture and its extensions to the case with horizons, including the Penrose conjecture (Part I), and the interaction of gravity with other force fields and quantum-mechanical particles (Part II).

  19. Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T

    2008-05-28

    Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.

  20. Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…

  1. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  2. Conduction bands in classical periodic potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The energy of a quantum particle cannot be determined exactly unless there is an infinite amount of time to perform the measurement. This paper considers the possibility that , the uncertainty in the energy, may be complex. To understand the effect of a particle having a complex energy, the behaviour of a classical ...

  3. Conduction bands in classical periodic potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is an infinite amount of time to perform the measurement. This paper ... the observation that when the energy is real, the classical trajectories in the com- plex plane are .... Figure 4 shows that the particle can travel smoothly from one well to the ...

  4. Selected topics from classical bacterial genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Current cloning technology exploits many facts learned from classical bacterial genetics. This unit covers those that are critical to understanding the techniques described in this book. Topics include antibiotics, the LAC operon, the F factor, nonsense suppressors, genetic markers, genotype and phenotype, DNA restriction, modification and methylation and recombination.

  5. Data Structures in Classical and Quantum Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Fillinger (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis survey summarizes several results about quantum computing related to (mostly static) data structures. First, we describe classical data structures for the set membership and the predecessor search problems: Perfect Hash tables for set membership by Fredman, Koml\\'{o}s and

  6. Classical Photogrammetry and Uav - Selected Ascpects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikrut, S.

    2016-06-01

    The UAV technology seems to be highly future-oriented due to its low costs as compared to traditional aerial images taken from classical photogrammetry aircrafts. The AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow - Department of Geoinformation, Photogrammetry and Environmental Remote Sensing focuses mainly on geometry and radiometry of recorded images. Various scientific research centres all over the world have been conducting the relevant research for years. The paper presents selected aspects of processing digital images made with the UAV technology. It provides on a practical example a comparison between a digital image taken from an airborne (classical) height, and the one made from an UAV level. In his research the author of the paper is trying to find an answer to the question: to what extent does the UAV technology diverge today from classical photogrammetry, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods? The flight plan was made over the Tokarnia Village Museum (more than 0.5 km2) for two separate flights: the first was made by an UAV - System FT-03A built by FlyTech Solution Ltd. The second was made with the use of a classical photogrammetric Cesna aircraft furnished with an airborne photogrammetric camera (Ultra Cam Eagle). Both sets of photographs were taken with pixel size of about 3 cm, in order to have reliable data allowing for both systems to be compared. The project has made aerotriangulation independently for the two flights. The DTM was generated automatically, and the last step was the generation of an orthophoto. The geometry of images was checked under the process of aerotriangulation. To compare the accuracy of these two flights, control and check points were used. RMSE were calculated. The radiometry was checked by a visual method and using the author's own algorithm for feature extraction (to define edges with subpixel accuracy). After initial pre-processing of data, the images were put together, and shown side by side

  7. Quantum flesh on classical bones: Semiclassical bridges across the quantum-classical divide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokulich, Alisa [Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally quantum mechanics is viewed as having made a sharp break from classical mechanics, and the concepts and methods of these two theories are viewed as incommensurable with one another. A closer examination of the history of quantum mechanics, however, reveals that there is a strong sense in which quantum mechanics was built on the backbone of classical mechanics. As a result, there is a considerable structural continuity between these two theories, despite their important differences. These structural continuities provide a ground for semiclassical methods in which classical structures, such as trajectories, are used to investigate and model quantum phenomena. After briefly tracing the history of semiclassical approaches, I show how current research in semiclassical mechanics is revealing new bridges across the quantum-classical divide.

  8. Classical collisions of protons with hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.; Hughes, P.E.; Percival, I.C.; Barnes, K.S.; Valentine, N.A.; Wilson, Mc.B.

    1977-01-01

    The program solves the equations of motion for the interaction of 3 charged particles, obtaining final states in terms of initial states, and energy transfers, angles of ejection, and final cartesian co-ordinates of relative motion. Using a Monte Carlo method on many orbits total ionization and charge transfer cross sections, integral energy transfer cross sections and moments of energy transfers are estimated. Facilities are provided for obtaining angular distributions, momentum transfer cross sections and for comparison with various approximate classical theories. The equations of motion are solved using stepwise fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration with automatic steplength change. Selection of initial conditions is determined by the user, usually as a statistical distribution determined by a pseudorandom number subroutine. Classical representation theory and transformation methods are extensively used. (Auth.)

  9. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  10. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge

  11. On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana M. Reis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that determines the run distribution of SAT solvers and discover a varying landscape of distributions, following the known existence of a transition of easy-hard-easy cases of propositional formulas. We find clear distributions for the easy areas and the transitions easy-hard and hard-easy. The hard cases are shown to be hard also for the detection of statistical distributions, indicating that several independent processes may be at play in those cases.

  12. Classical trajectories and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Salerno

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix and the Wigner function formalism requires the doubling of the degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). The doubled degrees of freedom play the role of the thermal bath or environment degrees of freedom and are entangled with the system degrees of freedom. They also account for quantum noise in the fluctuating random forces in the system-environment coupling. The algebraic structure of QFT turns out to be the one of the deformed Hopf algebra. In such a frame, the trajectories in the space of the unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations turn out to be classical trajectories and, under convenient conditions, they may exhibit properties typical of classical chaotic trajectories in nonlinear dynamics. The quantum Brownian motion and the two-slit experiment in QM are discussed in connection with the doubling of the degrees of freedom. (author)

  13. Classical wave experiments on chaotic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H-J; Weaver, R

    2005-01-01

    We review recent research on the transport properties of classical waves through chaotic systems with special emphasis on microwaves and sound waves. Inasmuch as these experiments use antennas or transducers to couple waves into or out of the systems, scattering theory has to be applied for a quantitative interpretation of the measurements. Most experiments concentrate on tests of predictions from random matrix theory and the random plane wave approximation. In all studied examples a quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is achieved. To this end it is necessary, however, to take absorption and imperfect coupling into account, concepts that were ignored in most previous theoretical investigations. Classical phase space signatures of scattering are being examined in a small number of experiments

  14. Gravitation in the 'quasi-classical' theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.; Zangari, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 'quasi-classical' picture of particles as extendend periodic disturbances in a classical nonlinear field, previously shown to imply all the equations of Maxwell electrodynamics with very little formal input, is here applied to the other known long-range force, gravitation. It is shown that the picture's absolute interpretation of inertial mass and four-potential as measures of the local spacing between equal-phase hypersurfaces, together with the empirically established proportionality of gravitational 'charge' to inertial mass, leads naturally to the gravitational red-shift formula, and it thus provides a physical basis for the spacetime curvature that is the central idea of Einstein's general theory of relativity. 16 refs., 1 fig

  15. Sugawara operators for classical Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Molev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The celebrated Schur-Weyl duality gives rise to effective ways of constructing invariant polynomials on the classical Lie algebras. The emergence of the theory of quantum groups in the 1980s brought up special matrix techniques which allowed one to extend these constructions beyond polynomial invariants and produce new families of Casimir elements for finite-dimensional Lie algebras. Sugawara operators are analogs of Casimir elements for the affine Kac-Moody algebras. The goal of this book is to describe algebraic structures associated with the affine Lie algebras, including affine vertex algebras, Yangians, and classical \\mathcal{W}-algebras, which have numerous ties with many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, including modular forms, conformal field theory, and soliton equations. An affine version of the matrix technique is developed and used to explain the elegant constructions of Sugawara operators, which appeared in the last decade. An affine analogue of the Harish-Chandra isomorphism connec...

  16. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  17. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version...... to above. Our proof that Stokes' theorem follows from Gauss' divergence theorem goes via a well known and often used exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together...

  18. Classical mechanics and electromagnetism in accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2018-01-01

    This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagne...

  19. Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Carinena, J.F.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h 2 ) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems

  20. Quantum secret sharing with classical Bobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvzhou; Qiu Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Boyer et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 140501) proposed a novel idea of semi-quantum key distribution, where a key can be securely distributed between Alice, who can perform any quantum operation, and Bob, who is classical. Extending the ‘semi-quantum’ idea to other tasks of quantum information processing is of interest and worth considering. In this paper, we consider the issue of semi-quantum secret sharing, where a quantum participant Alice can share a secret key with two classical participants, Bobs. After analyzing the existing protocol, we propose a new protocol of semi-quantum secret sharing. Our protocol is more realistic, since it utilizes product states instead of entangled states. We prove that any attempt of an adversary to obtain information necessarily induces some errors that the legitimate users could notice. (paper)

  1. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  2. Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory

  3. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  4. Model predictive control classical, robust and stochastic

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaritakis, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a textbook that brings together classical predictive control with treatment of up-to-date robust and stochastic techniques. Model Predictive Control describes the development of tractable algorithms for uncertain, stochastic, constrained systems. The starting point is classical predictive control and the appropriate formulation of performance objectives and constraints to provide guarantees of closed-loop stability and performance. Moving on to robust predictive control, the text explains how similar guarantees may be obtained for cases in which the model describing the system dynamics is subject to additive disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Open- and closed-loop optimization are considered and the state of the art in computationally tractable methods based on uncertainty tubes presented for systems with additive model uncertainty. Finally, the tube framework is also applied to model predictive control problems involving hard or probabilistic constraints for the cases of multiplic...

  5. Green’s functions in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rother, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the Green’s function formalism in a basic way and demonstrates its usefulness for applications to several well-known problems in classical physics which are usually solved not by this formalism but other approaches. The book bridges the gap between applications of the Green’s function formalism in quantum physics and classical physics. This book is written as an introduction for graduate students and researchers who want to become more familiar with the Green’s function formalism. In 1828 George Green has published an essay that was unfortunately sunken into oblivion shortly after its publication. It was rediscovered only after several years by the later Lord Kelvin. But since this time, using Green’s functions for solving partial differential equations in physics has become an important mathematical tool. While the conceptual and epistemological importance of these functions were essentially discovered and discussed in modern physics - especially in quantum field theory and quantum...

  6. Classics in the Cloud : A discussion of the problems of classical music and streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Tone Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Music Management MU501 - University of Agder 2017 Streaming services have become the main method of music consumption the last couple of years, and the classical audience have moved to the cloud as well. This paper aims to uncover some of the issues that classical consumers encounter while using streaming services, what the reasons may be that there are problems, and discussing possible solution to benefit either the connoisseur or the novice listener. It brings...

  7. Classical and new ideas of a university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    The chapter examines what has happened to ideas of the university in the light of current reforms and the implementation of performance management. Taking a retrospective view of the most central ideas of a university, focus will be on why even a modernized and corporatized university apparently...... cannot survive without reference to ideas and idealistic justifications, including a number of classical ideas, as well as on which new ideas may be delineated on the basis of the old....

  8. Continuum emission from classical nova winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The emergent continuum of a slow classical nova during outburst is considered in the quasi-steady optically thick, transonic wind model. Models are presented for various steady mass loss rates and are related to the evolution of slow novae during decline and early post-maximum. The continuum emission is found to depart radically from a blackbody spectrum and to exhibit features common to highly extended stellar atmospheres. (author)

  9. Can quantum imaging be classically simulated?

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Milena; Shih, Yanhua

    2003-01-01

    Quantum imaging has been demonstrated since 1995 by using entangled photon pairs. The physics community named these experiments "ghost image", "quantum crypto-FAX", "ghost interference", etc. Recently, Bennink et al. simulated the "ghost" imaging experiment by two co-rotating k-vector correlated lasers. Did the classical simulation simulate the quantum aspect of the "ghost" image? We wish to provide an answer. In fact, the simulation is very similar to a historical model of local realism. The...

  10. New variables for classical and quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    1986-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity based on certain spinorial variables is introduced. These variables simplify the constraints of general relativity considerably and enable one to imbed the constraint surface in the phase space of Einstein's theory into that of Yang-Mills theory. The imbedding suggests new ways of attacking a number of problems in both classical and quantum gravity. Some illustrative applications are discussed.

  11. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  12. Envy and jealousy in Classical Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Emotions differ between cultures, especially in their eliciting conditions, social acceptability, forms of expression, and co-extent of terminology. This thesis examines the psychological sensation and social expression of envy and jealousy in Classical Athens. Previous scholarship on envy and jealousy (Walcot 1978, Konstan and Rutter 2003) has primarily taken a lexical approach, focusing on usage of the Greek words phthonos (envy, begrudging spite, possessive jealousy) and zêl...

  13. Citation classics in pediatrics: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhapola, Viswas; Tiwari, Soumya; Deepthi, Bobbity; Kanwal, Sandeep Kumar

    2018-03-06

    Citation analysis provides insights into the history and developmental trajectory of scientific fields. Our objective was to perform an analysis of citation classics in the journals of pediatric specialty and to examine their characteristics. Initially, all the journals listed under the category of pediatrics (n = 120) were identified using Journal Citation Reports. Web of science database was then searched (1950-2016) to select the top-100 cited articles in the above identified pediatric journals. The top-100 cited article were categorized according the study design, sub-specialty, country, institutional affiliation, and language. The top-100 articles were published in 18 different journals, with Pediatrics having the highest numbers (n = 40), followed by The Journal of Pediatrics (n = 17). The majority (n = 62) of classics were published after 1990. The most cited article had citation count of 3516 and the least cited had a citation count of 593. The USA (n = 71) was the most commonly represented country, and 60 institutions contributed to 100 articles. Fifteen authors contributed to more than one classic as first or second author. Observational study (n = 55) was the commonest study design across all decades, followed by reviews (n = 12), scale development studies (n = 11), and guidelines (n = 11). Among the pediatric sub-specialties, growth and development articles were highly cited (n = 24), followed by pediatric psychiatry and behavior (n = 21), endocrinology (n = 15), and neonatology (n = 12). The top-100 cited articles in pediatrics identify the impactful authors, journals, institutes, and countries. Observational study design was predominant-implying that inclusion among citation classics is not related to soundness of study design.

  14. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  15. Special relativity and classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman are back. This time, they introduce readers to Einstein's special relativity and Maxwell's classical field theory. Using their typical brand of real math, enlightening drawings, and humor, Susskind and Friedman walk us through the complexities of waves, forces, and particles by exploring special relativity and electromagnetism. It's a must-read for both devotees of the series and any armchair physicist who wants to improve their knowledge of physics' deepest truths.

  16. Classical Electron Model with QED Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this article we build a metric for a classical general relativistic electron model with QED corrections. We calculate the stress-energy tensor for the radiative corrections to the Coulomb potential in both the near-field and far-field approximations. We solve the three field equations in both cases by using a perturbative expansion to first order in alpha (the fine-structure constant) while insisting that the usual (+, +, -, -) structure of the stress-energy tensor is maintained. The resul...

  17. Some connections between classical and quantum anholonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavarini, G.; Rohrlich, D.; Thacker, W.D.

    1988-08-01

    In this paper we study the interplay between the classical and quantum anholonomy effects (Hannay's angle and Berry's phase). When a finite-dimensional quantum system has a Berry phase, it has a nonzero Hannay angle. We show how infinite-dimensional systems can evade this correspondence, and find some necessary conditions for a system with a Berry phase to have no Hannay angle. (orig.)

  18. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Raya, Alfredo; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics

  19. Classical diffusion: theory and simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, H.; Hu, P.N.

    1978-03-01

    A survey is given of the development of classical diffusion theory which arose from the observation of Grad and Hogan that the Pfirsch-Schluter and Neoclassical theories are very special and frequently inapplicable because they require that plasma mass flow be treated as transport rather than as a state variable of the plasma. The subsequent theory, efficient numerical algorithms, and results of various operating codes are described

  20. Unitary representations of basic classical Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, M.D.; Zhang, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We have obtained all the finite-dimensional unitary irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) and C(n), which also exhaust such irreps of all the basic classical Lie superalgebras. The lowest weights of such irreps are worked out explicitly. It is also shown that the contravariant and covariant tensor irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) are unitary irreps of type (1) and type (2) respectively, explaining the applicability of the Young diagram method to these two types of tensor irreps. (orig.)

  1. Classical conditioning in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, R

    2000-11-01

    It has been argued that the placebo effect represents a learned response. Research is suggested to address the utility of applying principles derived from classical (Pavlovian) conditioning to the design of drug treatment protocols. In the present instance, it is hypothesized that, by capitalizing on conditioned pharmacotherapeutic responses, it may be possible to reduce the cumulative amount of corticosteroid medication used in the treatment of psoriasis.

  2. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  3. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  5. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  6. Quantum and classical ripples in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hašík, Juraj; Tosatti, Erio; MartoÅák, Roman

    2018-04-01

    Thermal ripples of graphene are well understood at room temperature, but their quantum counterparts at low temperatures are in need of a realistic quantitative description. Here we present atomistic path-integral Monte Carlo simulations of freestanding graphene, which show upon cooling a striking classical-quantum evolution of height and angular fluctuations. The crossover takes place at ever-decreasing temperatures for ever-increasing wavelengths so that a completely quantum regime is never attained. Zero-temperature quantum graphene is flatter and smoother than classical graphene at large scales yet rougher at short scales. The angular fluctuation distribution of the normals can be quantitatively described by coexistence of two Gaussians, one classical strongly T -dependent and one quantum about 2° wide, of zero-point character. The quantum evolution of ripple-induced height and angular spread should be observable in electron diffraction in graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2, bilayer graphene, boron nitride, etc.

  7. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-02-01

    For "static memory materials" the bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such materials can be realized by classical statistical systems which admit no unique equilibrium state. We describe the propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk by classical wave functions. The dependence of wave functions on the location of hypersurfaces in the bulk is governed by a linear evolution equation that can be viewed as a generalized Schrödinger equation. Classical wave functions obey the superposition principle, with local probabilities realized as bilinears of wave functions. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model on a Euclidean two-dimensional lattice represents the time evolution of free relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  8. Beyond the borders of classical optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, H.; Khoury, G.; Fonseca, E.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text: The limits of optical measurements are the subject to many recent works. It has been shown how by using non-classical photonic states, spatial resolution can exceed the diffraction limit [1]. The same states also improve interference measurements beyond the shot noise and up to the quantum Heisenberg limit [2]. On the other hand, a few methods have been suggested that improve the optical resolution by exploiting classical optical nonlinearities [3]. First, we will present a scheme that exploits the non-local quantum correlations of a second order entangled state produced by optical parametric down-conversion [4]. The scheme results with a non-classical state that can be used in quantum limited interferometry. It is also simply extendable to states of any photon number. Another method will be presented, where nonlinear measurements are induced by projecting the state of light onto the Fock space [5]. This process simulated optical nonlinearities up to the 7th order. We used those measurements to characterize the output of a standard polarization interferometer. Improved resolution was demonstrated, but a detailed analysis reveals the differences to the previous nonclassical approach

  9. A Walk Through an American Classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Gage

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The music of Walt Disney’s classic films was written by a number of hand-picked composers who, working with Disney, ingeniously crafted the music to fit animation and bring musical inspiration to the homes of viewers leaving America and the world with a beloved legacy. Though Walt Disney was a cartoonist and not a musician, music was given a distinct, almost central, role in the creation of his cartoons. Special techniques such as Mickey-mousing or the click track were developed by composers and used to synchronize this music and animation. These processes really began with Disney and have formed the basis for all music synchronized to cartoon animation. From the very beginning with Mickey Mouse, to The Silly Symphonies, to the beloved classic Disney movies music has been an ever-present and developing center. Walt Disney, though not a composer himself, hired a number of key composers from which we have many cherished melodies. Unlike most other cartoons Disney’s were focused on using music of the classical style rather than the popular style. The music from a number of classical composers was used or drawn upon as a model. Disney had a special purpose for the music in his animated films. Most of his films contained a story other than the music, but his movie Fantasia really seeks to find the purpose music itself has with visual interpretation. College students have done research on these ideas of simply listening to music or listening while seeing an image. All of Disney’s animated films would not be the classics they are without the music that holds them together. Disney music has become recognized as its own individual art form. It has inspired America to dream and to think more deeply than realized. Walt Disney’s indirect effect on music history may be considered a stretch, but there is no doubt that the music developed through Disney Bros. has left an inspiration on the hearts of Americans.

  10. Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs

  11. Dynamics of quantum-classical differences for chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballentine, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    The differences between quantum and classical dynamics can be studied through the moments and correlations of the position and momentum variables in corresponding quantum and classical statistical states. In chaotic states the quantum-classical differences grow exponentially with an exponent that exceeds the classical Lyapunov exponent. It is shown analytically that the quantum-classical differences scale as (ℎ/2π) 2 , and that the exponent for the growth of these differences is independent of (ℎ/2π). The quantum-classical difference exponent is studied for two quartic potential models, and the results are compared with previous work on the Henon-Heiles model

  12. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  13. Integration of classical and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, L.

    1989-01-01

    The perennial aspect of the Newtonian foundation of mathematical physics is that the concept of ''motion,'' that is, ''kinematics,'' is to serve as the interface between mathematics and physics. Kinematics subdivides into the theory of orbital translation and that of undulation and spinning. Newtonian mechanics is based on giving to translational kinematics a priority over the other modes, since planetary revolution can be represented as translation modified by gravitation. The so-called breakdown of classical physics stems from giving the translational priority a canonical status and extending it to the constituents of matter. We claim that in this case the priority is to be reversed. The main content of this paper is to establish the algebraic model for an indivisible, undulating entity that we call a ''wave simplex.'' It is used as the point of departure for a non-Newtonian quantum dynamics in which physical and algebraic concepts are in close correspondence. The postulates of the classical phenomenological theories and those of the canonical theories based on translational priority are established as theorems under the proper limiting conditions, and forces are constructed rather than postulated. While the formal structure of two-level quantum mechanics is established as well, exception is taken to treating spin as a property of a point particle. It is considered self-evident that a spinning object is orientable, a property accounted for in terms of a unitary triplet. This is the point of departure for an intrinsic particle dynamics. A main result is the integration of classical and quantum physics, thus closing the gap created by the heuristic method of canonical quantization

  14. RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S

    2017-02-02

    In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at www.beta.vit.ac.in/raacfdb/index.html) hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  16. The classical version of Stokes' Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together with a 'fattening' technique for surfaces and the inverse function theorem....

  17. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance.

  18. Classical Music, liveness and digital technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    . This article uses the suggestion of Philip Auslander to rethink the relationship between the mediatized and live format in order to use digital technologies to enrich and develop the live performance as a starting position. On the background of an ongoing EU funded interregional project, a series...... of interrelated design experiments are presented which all share the ambition of integration digital technologies in life performances of classical music. A particular focus is put on the ongoing development of a design concept where interactive audio and visual experiences in an underground metro station shall...

  19. Chemometrics in spectroscopy. Part 1. Classical chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geladi, Paul

    2003-01-01

    An overview is given of chemometrics as it can be applied to spectroscopic and other multivariate data. Major chemometrics and data analysis techniques are described. An important aspect is the focus on soft modeling for situations that are too complicated for the traditional hard models to work. Also measurement noise is given due attention. A small example is used to illustrate some ways of working, mainly by using graphics. Selected literature references are given. Part 1 deals with classical chemometrics. Part 2 presents some newer developments and includes some more elaborated examples

  20. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  1. Ensemble simulations with discrete classical dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2013-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics (MD) obtained by the "Verlet" algorithm (VA) with the time increment $h$ there exist a shadow Hamiltonian $\\tilde{H}$ with energy $\\tilde{E}(h)$, for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for $\\tilde{H}$. $\\tilde......{E}(h)$ is employed to determine the relation with the corresponding energy, $E$ for the analytic dynamics with $h=0$ and the zero-order estimate $E_0(h)$ of the energy for discrete dynamics, appearing in the literature for MD with VA. We derive a corresponding time reversible VA algorithm for canonical dynamics...

  2. Damping in accelerators due to classical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, F.E.

    1962-01-01

    The rates of change of the magnitudes of the adiabatic invariants is calculated in the case of a Hamiltonian system subjected to generalized non conservative forces. These results are applied to the case of the classical radiation of electrons in an accelerator or storage ring. The resulting expressions for the damping rates of three independent oscillation modes suggest structures which are damping in all three modes, while at the same time allowing 'strong focussing' and the attendant strong momentum compaction. (author)

  3. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yooyoung; Han, Sung Joon; Rhee, Youn Ju; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Na, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance. PMID:27734006

  4. Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

  5. Imaging learning and memory: classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    2001-12-15

    The search for the biological basis of learning and memory has, until recently, been constrained by the limits of technology to classic anatomic and electrophysiologic studies. With the advent of functional imaging, we have begun to delve into what, for many, was a "black box." We review several different types of imaging experiments, including steady state animal experiments that image the functional labeling of fixed tissues, and dynamic human studies based on functional imaging of the intact brain during learning. The data suggest that learning and memory involve a surprising conservation of mechanisms and the integrated networking of a number of structures and processes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A classical density functional investigation of nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Study of nucleation and growth phenomena in condensation is of prime importance in various applications such as crystal growth, nanoparticle synthesis, pattern formation etc. The knowledge of nucleation barrier in condensation is necessary to control the nucleation kinetics, size of the nanoparticles etc. Classical nucleation theory (CNT) assumes the density of the drop as bulk density irrespective of the size of the drop and overestimates the nucleation barrier. Here we are interested in solving the problem analytically using density functional theory (DFT) with square gradient approximation along the lines of Cahn and Hilliard. Nucleation barrier and density profile obtained in this work are consistent with other works based on nonclassical theory. (author)

  7. Irreducible geometric subgroups of classical algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Burness, Timothy C; Testerman, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p \\ge 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a non-trivial irreducible tensor-indecomposable p-restricted rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where H is a disconnected maximal positive-dimensional closed subgroup of G preserving a natural geometric structure on W.

  8. The simplest classical models of topological transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that simplest classical models of topologigal transitions possess scalar singularity of curvature with a point carrier being a source of space-time incompleteness. It is also shown that the condition of energy dominance is broken near the topological transition, asymptotic behaviour of the curvature tensor (growth of curvature at approximation to the topological transition) and energy-momentum tensor of (breaking the condition of energy dominance) being a common property of the considered models and being completely determined by the type of topological transition

  9. Classical limit for semirelativistic Hartree systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the three-dimensional semirelativistic Hartree model for fast quantum mechanical particles moving in a self-consistent field. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial density matrix as a (fully) mixed quantum state we prove by using Wigner transformation techniques that its classical limit yields the well known relativistic Vlasov-Poisson system. The result holds for the case of attractive and repulsive mean-field interactions, with an additional size constraint in the attractive case. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  10. On the Galilean covariance of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1991-08-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single interacting particle is described. In this scheme constitutive relations defining forces are rejected and acting forces are determined by some fundamental differential equations. It is shown that total energy of the interacting particle transforms under Galilean transformations differently from the kinetic energy. The statement is illustrated on the exactly solvable examples of the harmonic oscillator and the case of constant forces and also, in the suitable version of the perturbation theory, for the anharmonic oscillator. (author)

  11. Revisiting the Classics in Childbirth Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Teri; Bingham, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    In celebration of Lamaze International's 50th anniversary, reviewers share their thoughts on some classic Lamaze resource materials and how their content relates to today's viewpoints on birth and childbirth education. Although some of the material may be outdated, all of the resources offer timeless insights as well as a unique view on the history of childbirth education. The following topics are addressed: past cultural views of birth; advocacy for change in birth practices; Lamaze method; pioneers in childbirth; importance of childbirth education; and birth advocacy. PMID:21629386

  12. Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G.R.; Rafelski, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study the classical limit of the equal-time relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarse-graining function. Only then does the singularity at ℎ→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit ℎ→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magnetic-moment density

  13. Mathematical intelligence developed in math learning with classical backsound music of the classical era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlimah

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the application of classical music backsound in mathematics learning. The method used is quasi experimental design nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group in elementary school students in Tasikmalaya city, Indonesia. The results showed that classical music contributed significantly to the mathematical intelligence of elementary school students. The mathematical intelligence shown is in the cognitive ability ranging from the level of knowledge to evaluation. High level mathematical intelligence is shown by students in reading and writing integers with words and numbers. The low level of mathematical intelligence exists in projecting the story into a mathematical problem. The implication of this research is the use of classical music backsound on learning mathematics should pay attention to the level of difficulty of mathematics material being studied.

  14. Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Palash B.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.

  15. Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedile, E.

    1982-01-01

    The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Continuous quantum measurement and the quantum to classical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    While ultimately they are described by quantum mechanics, macroscopic mechanical systems are nevertheless observed to follow the trajectories predicted by classical mechanics. Hence, in the regime defining macroscopic physics, the trajectories of the correct classical motion must emerge from quantum mechanics, a process referred to as the quantum to classical transition. Extending previous work [Bhattacharya, Habib, and Jacobs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4852 (2000)], here we elucidate this transition in some detail, showing that once the measurement processes that affect all macroscopic systems are taken into account, quantum mechanics indeed predicts the emergence of classical motion. We derive inequalities that describe the parameter regime in which classical motion is obtained, and provide numerical examples. We also demonstrate two further important properties of the classical limit: first, that multiple observers all agree on the motion of an object, and second, that classical statistical inference may be used to correctly track the classical motion

  17. Neo-classical economics, institutional economics and improved fisheries management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Tsjalle

    2000-01-01

    According to neo-classical economists, taxes and individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are the most efficient measures for dealing with the problem of overfishing. Institutional economists, however, criticise neo-classical economists for neglecting political problems, enforcement problems and

  18. Will the digital computer transform classical mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Brian

    2003-08-15

    Mathematics and machines have influenced each other for millennia. The advent of the digital computer introduced a powerfully new element that promises to transform the relation between them. This paper outlines the thesis that the effect of the digital computer on mathematics, already widespread, is likely to be radical and far-reaching. To articulate this claim, an abstract model of doing mathematics is introduced based on a triad of actors of which one, the 'agent', corresponds to the function performed by the computer. The model is used to frame two sorts of transformation. The first is pragmatic and involves the alterations and progressive colonization of the content and methods of enquiry of various mathematical fields brought about by digital methods. The second is conceptual and concerns a fundamental antagonism between the infinity enshrined in classical mathematics and physics (continuity, real numbers, asymptotic definitions) and the inherently real and material limit of processes associated with digital computation. An example which lies in the intersection of classical mathematics and computer science, the P=NP problem, is analysed in the light of this latter issue.

  19. A survey on classical minimal surface theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meeks, William H

    2012-01-01

    Meeks and Pérez present a survey of recent spectacular successes in classical minimal surface theory. The classification of minimal planar domains in three-dimensional Euclidean space provides the focus of the account. The proof of the classification depends on the work of many currently active leading mathematicians, thus making contact with much of the most important results in the field. Through the telling of the story of the classification of minimal planar domains, the general mathematician may catch a glimpse of the intrinsic beauty of this theory and the authors' perspective of what is happening at this historical moment in a very classical subject. This book includes an updated tour through some of the recent advances in the theory, such as Colding-Minicozzi theory, minimal laminations, the ordering theorem for the space of ends, conformal structure of minimal surfaces, minimal annular ends with infinite total curvature, the embedded Calabi-Yau problem, local pictures on the scale of curvature and t...

  20. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. Quantum Vertex Model for Reversible Classical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Ruckenstein, Andrei; Yang, Zhicheng

    We present a planar vertex model that encodes the result of a universal reversible classical computation in its ground state. The approach involves Boolean variables (spins) placed on links of a two-dimensional lattice, with vertices representing logic gates. Large short-ranged interactions between at most two spins implement the operation of each gate. The lattice is anisotropic with one direction corresponding to computational time, and with transverse boundaries storing the computation's input and output. The model displays no finite temperature phase transitions, including no glass transitions, independent of circuit. The computational complexity is encoded in the scaling of the relaxation rate into the ground state with the system size. We use thermal annealing and a novel and more efficient heuristic \\x9Dannealing with learning to study various computational problems. To explore faster relaxation routes, we construct an explicit mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating a novel approach to reversible classical computation based on quantum annealing.

  2. The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William White

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.

  3. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classical type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jessica M; Sobey, Glenda J; Burrows, Nigel P; Colombi, Marina; Lavallee, Mark E; Malfait, Fransiska; Francomano, Clair A

    2017-03-01

    Classical EDS is a heritable disorder of connective tissue. Patients are affected with joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibilty, and skin fragility leading to atrophic scarring and significant bruising. These clinical features suggest consideration of the diagnosis which then needs to be confirmed, preferably by genetic testing. The most recent criteria for the diagnosis of EDS were devised in Villefranche in 1997. [Beighton et al. (1998); Am J Med Genet 77:31-37]. The aims set out in the Villefranche Criteria were: to enable diagnostic uniformity for clinical and research purposes, to understand the natural history of each subtype of EDS, to inform management and genetic counselling, and to identify potential areas of research. The authors recognized that the criteria would need updating, but viewed the Villefranche nosology as a good starting point. Since 1997, there have been major advances in the molecular understanding of classical EDS. Previous question marks over genetic heterogeneity have been largely surpassed by evidence that abnormalities in type V collagen are the cause. Advances in molecular testing have made it possible to identify the causative mutation in the majority of patients. This has aided the further clarification of this diagnosis. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the current knowledge and highlight areas for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Classical particle dynamics in the quantum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineykhan, M.; Namsrai, Kh.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that if space-time is quantized at small distances then even at the classical level the particle motion in whole space is complicated and described by a nonlinear equation. In the quantum space the Lagrangian function or energy of the particle consists of two parts: usual kinetic and rotation term determined by the square of the inner angular momentum-torsion torque origin of which is caused by quantum nature of space. Rotation energy and rotation motion of the particle disappear in the limit l→0, l is the value of the fundamental length. In the free particle case, in addition to the rectilinear motion the particle undergoes rotation given by the inner angular momentum. Different possible types of the particle motion are discussed. Thus, the scheme may shed light on the essence of the appearance of rotation or twisting, stochastic and turbulent types of motion in classical physics and, perhaps, on the notion of spin in quantum physics within the framework of quantum character of space-time at small distances

  5. Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartumeus, F; Catalan, J

    2009-01-01

    Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.

  6. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  7. Classical and nonclassical randomness in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farenick, Douglas; Plosker, Sarah; Smith, Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The space POVM H (X) of positive operator-valued probability measures on the Borel sets of a compact (or even locally compact) Hausdorff space X with values in B(H), the algebra of linear operators acting on a d-dimensional Hilbert space H, is studied from the perspectives of classical and nonclassical convexity through a transform Γ that associates any positive operator-valued measure ν with a certain completely positive linear map Γ(ν) of the homogeneous C*-algebra C(X) x B(H) into B(H). This association is achieved by using an operator-valued integral in which nonclassical random variables (that is, operator-valued functions) are integrated with respect to positive operator-valued measures and which has the feature that the integral of a random quantum effect is itself a quantum effect. A left inverse Ω for Γ yields an integral representation, along the lines of the classical Riesz representation theorem for linear functionals on C(X), of certain (but not all) unital completely positive linear maps φ:C(X) x B(H)→B(H). The extremal and C*-extremal points of POVM H (X) are determined.

  8. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  9. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  10. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Alexander G; Bender, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = −cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy. (paper)

  11. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander G.; Bender, Carl M.

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = -cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy.

  12. Dynamical chaos: systems of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskutov, A Yu

    2007-01-01

    This article is a methodological manual for those who are interested in chaotic dynamics. An exposition is given on the foundations of the theory of deterministic chaos that originates in classical mechanics systems. Fundamental results obtained in this area are presented, such as elements of the theory of nonlinear resonance and the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser theory, the Poincare-Birkhoff fixed-point theorem, and the Mel'nikov method. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the phenomena underlying the self-similarity and nature of chaos: splitting of separatrices and homoclinic and heteroclinic tangles. Important properties of chaotic systems - unpredictability, irreversibility, and decay of temporal correlations - are described. Models of classical statistical mechanics with chaotic properties, which have become popular in recent years - billiards with oscillating boundaries - are considered. It is shown that if a billiard has the property of well-developed chaos, then perturbations of its boundaries result in Fermi acceleration. But in nearly-integrable billiard systems, excitations of the boundaries lead to a new phenomenon in the ensemble of particles, separation of particles in accordance their velocities. If the initial velocity of the particles exceeds a certain critical value characteristic of the given billiard geometry, the particles accelerate; otherwise, they decelerate. (methodological notes)

  13. X-ray Modeling of Classical Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It has been observed and theoretically supported in the last decade that the peak of the spectral energy distribution of classical novae gradually shifts to higher energies at constant bolometric luminosity after a nova event. For this reason, comprehensive evolutionary studies require spectral analysis in multiple spectral bands. After a nova explosion, the white dwarf can maintain stable surface hydrogen burning, the duration of which strongly correlates with the white dwarf mass. During this stage the peak of the luminosity is in the soft X-ray band (15 - 60 Angstroms). By extending the modeling range of TLUSTY/SYNSPEC, I analyse the luminosity and abundance evolution of classical novae. Model atoms required for this work were built using atomic data from NIST/ASD and TOPBASE. The accurate but incomplete set of energy levels and radiative transitions in NIST were completed with calculated data from TOPBASE. Synthetic spectra were then compared to observed data to derive stellar parameters. I show the capabilities and validity of this project on the example of V4743 Sgr. This nova was observed with both Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories and has already been modeled by several scientific groups (PHOENIX, TMAP).

  14. Introduction to Classical and Quantum Harmonic Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latal, H

    1997-01-01

    As the title aptly states, this book deals with harmonic oscillators of various kinds, from classical mechanical and electrical oscillations up to quantum oscillations. It is written in a lively language, and occasional interspersed anecdotes make the reading of an otherwise mathematically oriented text quite a pleasure. Although the author claims to have written an 'elementary introduction', it is certainly necessary to have a good deal of previous knowledge in physics (mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum theory), electrical engineering and, of course, mathematics in order to follow the general line of his arguments. The book begins with a thorough treatment of classical oscillators (free, damped, forced) that is followed by an elaboration on Fourier analysis. Lagrange and Hamilton formalisms are then introduced before the problem of coupled oscillations is attacked. A chapter on statistical perspectives leads over to the final discussion of quantum oscillations. With the book comes a diskette containing a number of worksheets (Microsoft Excel) that can be used by the reader for instant visualization to get a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of the material. To the reviewer it seems difficult to pinpoint exactly the range of prospective readership of the book. It can certainly not be intended as a textbook for students, but rather as a reference book for teachers of physics or researchers, who want to look up one or other aspect of harmonic oscillations, for which purpose the diskette represents a very valuable tool. (book review)

  15. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  16. Classical Affine W-Algebras and the Associated Integrable Hamiltonian Hierarchies for Classical Lie Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.; Valeri, Daniele

    2018-06-01

    We prove that any classical affine W-algebra W (g, f), where g is a classical Lie algebra and f is an arbitrary nilpotent element of g, carries an integrable Hamiltonian hierarchy of Lax type equations. This is based on the theories of generalized Adler type operators and of generalized quasideterminants, which we develop in the paper. Moreover, we show that under certain conditions, the product of two generalized Adler type operators is a Lax type operator. We use this fact to construct a large number of integrable Hamiltonian systems, recovering, as a special case, all KdV type hierarchies constructed by Drinfeld and Sokolov.

  17. Quantum locking of classical correlations and quantum discord of classical-quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    BOIXO, S.; AOLITA, L.; CAVALCANTI, D.; MODI, K.; WINTER, A.

    2011-01-01

    A locking protocol between two parties is as follows: Alice gives an encrypted classical message to Bob which she does not want Bob to be able to read until she gives him the key. If Alice is using classical resources, and she wants to approach unconditional security, then the key and the message must have comparable sizes. But if Alice prepares a quantum state, the size of the key can be comparatively negligible. This effect is called quantum locking. Entanglement does not play a role in thi...

  18. Classical and post-classical stages of development of ideas on global conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Pilipenko

    2016-06-01

    Thus, in the history of the development of ideas about the nature of the conflict, it is possible to allocate three stages. The first stage is a classic, it representatives of which are O. Conte, K. Marx, G. Zimmel. The second stage is post-classical, represented by such scholars as P. Sztompka, G. lutsishin, N. Luhmann, M. Zelenkov, V. Zavalniuk. The third stage is multi-paradigmal, not formed yet, but actively developed by modern sociologists as I. Bekeshkina, Ye. Golovakha, A. Ruchka and other.

  19. Reinventing classics: the hidden design strategies of renowned chefs

    OpenAIRE

    Agogué , Marine; Hatchuel , Armand

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Reinventing classics is a well-used yet complex design pattern. Indeed, a reinterpreted classic needs to relate to the original object while simultaneously challenging the initial model and providing a new and fresh look to the well established classic. However, this design strategy remains understudied, and we aimed to contribute to the literature by addressing the lack of theoretical models for reinventing classics. Reinterpreting tradition is a key process for chefs...

  20. New derivation of quantum equations from classical stochastic arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, H.

    2003-01-01

    In a previous article [H. Bergeron, J. Math. Phys. 42, 3983 (2001)], we presented a method to obtain a continuous transition from classical to quantum mechanics starting from the usual phase space formulation of classical mechanics. This procedure was based on a Koopman-von Neumann approach where classical equations are reformulated into a quantumlike form. In this article, we develop a different derivation of quantum equations, based on purely classical stochastic arguments, taking some elem...

  1. Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics – a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.

  2. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew E-mail: jask@ift.uniwroc.pl

    2004-08-30

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  3. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  4. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory

  5. Concept of indistinguishable particles in classical and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, A.

    1988-01-01

    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable

  6. Bertrand's theorem and virial theorem in fractional classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Yan; Wang, Towe

    2017-09-01

    Fractional classical mechanics is the classical counterpart of fractional quantum mechanics. The central force problem in this theory is investigated. Bertrand's theorem is generalized, and virial theorem is revisited, both in three spatial dimensions. In order to produce stable, closed, non-circular orbits, the inverse-square law and the Hooke's law should be modified in fractional classical mechanics.

  7. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  8. Observational study of differences in head position for high notes in famous classical and non-classical male singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Švec, Jan G

    2016-07-01

    Differences in classical and non-classical singing are due primarily to aesthetic style requirements. The head position can affect the sound quality. This study aimed at comparing the head position for famous classical and non-classical male singers performing high notes. Images of 39 Western classical and 34 non-classical male singers during live performances were obtained from YouTube. Ten raters evaluated the frontal rotational head position (depression versus elevation) and transverse head position (retraction versus protraction) visually using a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant difference for frontal rotational head position. Most non-classical singers in the sample elevated their heads for high notes while the classical singers were observed to keep it around the neutral position. This difference may be attributed to different singing techniques and phonatory system adjustments utilized by each group.

  9. Simulation of molecular transitions using classical trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, A.; Martens, C. C. [University of California, California (United States)

    2001-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the implementation of a semiclassical method to study physical-chemical processes in molecular systems where electronic state transitions and quantum coherence play a dominant role. The method is based on classical trajectory propagation on the underlying coupled electronic surfaces and is derived from the semiclassical limit of the quantum Liouville equation. Unlike previous classical trajectory-based methods, quantum electronic coherence are treated naturally within this approach as complex weighted trajectory ensembles propagating on the average electronic surfaces. The method is tested on a model problem consisting of one-dimensional motion on two crossing electronic surfaces. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to the exact results obtained by wave packet propagation. The method is applied to model quantum wave packet interferometry, where two wave packets, differing only in a relative phase, collide in the region where the two electronic surfaces cross. The dependence of the resulting population transfer on the initial relative phase of the wave packets is perfectly captured by our classical trajectory method. Comparison with an alternative method, surface hopping, shows that our approach is appropriate for modelling quantum interference phenomena. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la implementacion de un metodo semiclasico para estudiar procesos fisicos-quimicos en sistemas moleculares donde las transiciones entre estados electronicos y las coherencias cuanticas juegan un papel predominante. El metodo se basa en la propagacion de trayectorias clasicas sobre las correspondientes superficies electronicas acopladas y se deriva a partir del limite semiclasico de la ecuacion cuantica de Liouville. A diferencia de metodos previos basados en trayectoria clasica, dentro de este esquema, las coherencias electronicas cuanticas son tratadas de manera natural como ensamble de trayectorias con pesos complejos, moviendose en

  10. Investigating Musical Performance: Commonality and Diversity among Classical and Non-Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…

  11. Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.

  12. Gauge bridges in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, S.

    2009-03-01

    In this thesis Poisson structures of two classical gauge field theories (Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system) are constructed using the parametrix construction of Green's functions. Parametrices for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system are constructed in Minkowski space and this construction is later generalized to curved space times for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon-system. With these Green's functions Poisson brackets will be defined as Peierls brackets. Finally non-local, gauge invariant observables, the so-called ''gauge bridges''are constructed. Gauge bridges are the matrix elements of holonomy operators. It is shown, that these emerge from Poisson brackets of local, gauge invariant observables. (orig.)

  13. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S; Johnson, R E

    2006-01-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength Γ and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the Γ-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for Γ greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones

  14. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Johnson, R E [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2006-04-28

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength {gamma} and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the {gamma}-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for {gamma} greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones.

  15. Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, N; Joachim, C

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, α = {α 1 , ..., α N }, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H 0 (α). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.

  16. Classical orbits in power-law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λr α has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and bar α, where (α+2)(bar α+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Faure, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given

  17. Two simple models of classical heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rahul; Jayannavar, A M; Dhar, Abhishek

    2007-03-01

    Motivated by recent studies of models of particle and heat quantum pumps, we study similar simple classical models and examine the possibility of heat pumping. Unlike many of the usual ratchet models of molecular engines, the models we study do not have particle transport. We consider a two-spin system and a coupled oscillator system which exchange heat with multiple heat reservoirs and which are acted upon by periodic forces. The simplicity of our models allows accurate numerical and exact solutions and unambiguous interpretation of results. We demonstrate that while both our models seem to be built on similar principles, one is able to function as a heat pump (or engine) while the other is not.

  18. Geometry from dynamics, classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Cariñena, José F; Marmo, Giuseppe; Morandi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This book describes, by using elementary techniques, how some geometrical structures widely used today in many areas of physics, like symplectic, Poisson, Lagrangian, Hermitian, etc., emerge from dynamics. It is assumed that what can be accessed in actual experiences when studying a given system is just its dynamical behavior that is described by using a family of variables ("observables" of the system).   The book departs from the principle that ''dynamics is first'', and then tries to answer in what sense the sole dynamics determines the geometrical structures that have proved so useful to describe the dynamics in so many important instances. In this vein it is shown that most of the geometrical structures that are used in the standard presentations of classical dynamics (Jacobi, Poisson, symplectic, Hamiltonian, Lagrangian) are determined, though in general not uniquely, by the dynamics alone. The same program is accomplished for the geometrical structures relevant to describe quantum dynamics.  Finall...

  19. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source

  20. In-Depth Development of Classical Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keilman Y. N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is hope that a properly developed Classical Electrodynamics (CED will be able to play a role in a unified field theory explaining electromagnetism, quantum phenomena, and gravitation. There is much work that has to be done in this direction. In this article we propose a move towards this aim by refining the basic principles of an improved CED. Attention is focused on the reinterpretation of the E-M potential. We use these basic principles to obtain solutions that explain the interactions between a constant electromagnetic field and a thin layer of material continuum; between a constant electromagnetic field and a spherical configuration of material continuum (for a charged elementary particle; between a transverse electromagnetic wave and a material continuum; between a longitudinal aether wave (dummy wave and a material continuum.

  1. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  2. Classical eyeblink conditioning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, I; Schugens, M M; Breitenstein, C; Topka, H; Spieker, S

    1996-11-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairments of a range of motor learning tasks, including tracking or serial reaction time task learning. Our study investigated whether such deficits would also be seen on a simple type of motor learning, classic conditioning of the eyeblink response. Medicated and unmediated patients with PD showed intact unconditioned eyeblink responses and significant learning across acquisition; the learning rates did not differ from those of healthy control subjects. The overall frequency of conditioned responses was significantly higher in the medicated patients with PD relative to control subjects, and there was also some evidence of facilitation in the unmedicated patients with PD. Conditioning of electrodermal and electrocortical responses was comparable in all groups. The findings are discussed in terms of enhanced excitability of brainstem pathways in PD and of the involvement of different neuronal circuits in different types of motor learning.

  3. Quantum cosmology of classically constrained gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Shang Yanwen

    2006-01-01

    In [G. Gabadadze, Y. Shang, hep-th/0506040] we discussed a classically constrained model of gravity. This theory contains known solutions of General Relativity (GR), and admits solutions that are absent in GR. Here we study cosmological implications of some of these new solutions. We show that a spatially-flat de Sitter universe can be created from 'nothing'. This universe has boundaries, and its total energy equals to zero. Although the probability to create such a universe is exponentially suppressed, it favors initial conditions suitable for inflation. Then we discuss a finite-energy solution with a nonzero cosmological constant and zero space-time curvature. There is no tunneling suppression to fluctuate into this state. We show that for a positive cosmological constant this state is unstable-it can rapidly transition to a de Sitter universe providing a new unsuppressed channel for inflation. For a negative cosmological constant the space-time flat solutions is stable.

  4. People's Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Karpoff, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    People's judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people's judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people's judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.

  5. Topology of classical vacuum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2007-04-01

    We present a topological classification of classical vacuum space-time. Assuming the 3-dimensional space allows a global chart, we show that the static vacuum space-time of Einstein's theory can be classified by the knot topology π 3 (S 3 ) = π 3 (S 2 ). Viewing Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group and identifying the gravitational connection as the gauge potential of Lorentz group, we construct all possible vacuum gravitational connections which give a vanishing curvature tensor. With this we show that the vacuum connection has the knot topology, the same topology which describes the multiple vacua of SU(2) gauge theory. We discuss the physical implications of our result in quantum gravity. (author)

  6. Classical and special relativity in four steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The most fundamental and pedagogically useful path to the space-time transformations of both classical and special relativity is to postulate the principle of relativity, derive the generalised or Ignatowsky transformation which contains both, then apply two different second postulates that give either the Galilean or Lorentz transformation. What is new here is (a) a simple two-step derivation of the Ignatowsky transformation, (b) a second postulate of universal time which yields the Galilean transformation, and (c) a different second postulate of finite universal lightspeed to give the Lorentz transformation using a simple Ignatowsky transformation of a light wave. This method demonstrates that the fundamental difference between Galilean and Lorentz transformations is not that lightspeed is universal (which is true for both) but whether the model requires lightspeed to be infinite or finite (as once mentioned by Einstein).

  7. Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C

    2010-09-10

    We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave.

  8. Experiments and video analysis in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    de Jesus, Vitor L B

    2017-01-01

    This book is an experimental physics textbook on classical mechanics focusing on the development of experimental skills by means of discussion of different aspects of the experimental setup and the assessment of common issues such as accuracy and graphical representation. The most important topics of an experimental physics course on mechanics are covered and the main concepts are explored in detail. Each chapter didactically connects the experiment and the theoretical models available to explain it. Real data from the proposed experiments are presented and a clear discussion over the theoretical models is given. Special attention is also dedicated to the experimental uncertainty of measurements and graphical representation of the results. In many of the experiments, the application of video analysis is proposed and compared with traditional methods.

  9. Mathematical omnibus thirty lectures on classic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Dmitry; Fuchs, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    The book consists of thirty lectures on diverse topics, covering much of the mathematical landscape rather than focusing on one area. The reader will learn numerous results that often belong to neither the standard undergraduate nor graduate curriculum and will discover connections between classical and contemporary ideas in algebra, combinatorics, geometry, and topology. The reader's effort will be rewarded in seeing the harmony of each subject. The common thread in the selected subjects is their illustration of the unity and beauty of mathematics. Most lectures contain exercises, and solutions or answers are given to selected exercises. A special feature of the book is an abundance of drawings (more than four hundred), artwork by an accomplished artist, and about a hundred portraits of mathematicians. Almost every lecture contains surprises for even the seasoned researcher.

  10. Concise expression of a classical radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a concise expression of the classical electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a moving charge. It is shown to be equivalent to the often used and much more complicated form derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials when the observation distance R satisfies the condition R much-gt γλ. The expression reveals a relationship between the radiation spectrum and the motion of the radiation source. It also forms the basis of an efficient computing approach, which is of practical value in numerical calculations of the spectral output of accelerated charges. The advantages of this approach for analytical and numerical applications are discussed and the bending-magnet synchrotron radiation spectrum is calculated according to the approach

  11. Hemophagocytic syndrome in classic dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old previously healthy girl presented with persistent fever, headache, and jaundice. Rapid-test anti-dengue virus IgM antibody was positive but anti-dengue IgG was nonreactive, which is suggestive of primary dengue infection. There was clinical deterioration during empiric antibiotic and symptomatic therapy. Bone marrow examination demonstrated the presence of hemophagocytosis. Diagnosis of dengue fever with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was made according to the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. The patient recovered with corticosteroid therapy. A review of literature revealed only a handful of case reports that showed the evidence that this syndrome is caused by dengue virus. Our patient is an interesting case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with classic dengue fever and contributes an additional case to the existing literature on this topic. This case highlights the need for increased awareness even in infections not typically associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

  12. Particle swarm optimisation classical and quantum perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionOptimisation Problems and Optimisation MethodsRandom Search TechniquesMetaheuristic MethodsSwarm IntelligenceParticle Swarm OptimisationOverviewMotivationsPSO Algorithm: Basic Concepts and the ProcedureParadigm: How to Use PSO to Solve Optimisation ProblemsSome Harder Examples Some Variants of Particle Swarm Optimisation Why Does the PSO Algorithm Need to Be Improved? Inertia and Constriction-Acceleration Techniques for PSOLocal Best ModelProbabilistic AlgorithmsOther Variants of PSO Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimisation OverviewMotivation: From Classical Dynamics to Quantum MechanicsQuantum Model: Fundamentals of QPSOQPSO AlgorithmSome Essential ApplicationsSome Variants of QPSOSummary Advanced Topics Behaviour Analysis of Individual ParticlesConvergence Analysis of the AlgorithmTime Complexity and Rate of ConvergenceParameter Selection and PerformanceSummaryIndustrial Applications Inverse Problems for Partial Differential EquationsInverse Problems for Non-Linear Dynamical SystemsOptimal De...

  13. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  14. [Taxonomic theory for non-classical systematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2012-01-01

    Outlined briefly are basic principles of construing general taxonomic theory for biological systematics considered in the context of non-classical scientific paradigm. The necessity of such kind of theory is substantiated, and some key points of its elaboration are exposed: its interpretation as a framework concept for the partial taxonomic theories in various schools of systematics; elaboration of idea of cognitive situation including three interrelated components, namely subject, object, and epistemic ones; its construing as a content-wisely interpreted quasi-axiomatics, with strong structuring of its conceptual space including demarcation between axioms and inferring rules; its construing as a "conceptual pyramid" of concepts of various levels of generality; inclusion of a basic model into definition of the taxonomic system (classification) regulating its content. Two problems are indicated as fundamental: definition of taxonomic diversity as a subject domain for the systematics as a whole; definition of onto-epistemological status of taxonomic system (classification) in general and of taxa in particular.

  15. Classical Cepheid luminosities from binary companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.R.

    1991-01-01

    Luminosities for the classical Cepheids Eta Aql, W Sgr, and SU Cas are determined from IUE spectra of their binary companions. Spectral types of the companions are determined from the spectra by comparison with the spectra of standard stars. The absolute magnitude inferred from these spectral types is used to determine the absolute magnitude of the Cepheid, either directly or from the magnitude difference between the two stars. For the temperature range of the companions (A0 V), distinctions of a quarter of a spectral subclass can be made in the comparison between the companions and standard stars. The absolute magnitudes for Eta Aql and W Sgr agree well with the period-luminosity-color relation of Feast and Walker (1987). Random errors are estimated to be 0.3 mag. SU Cas, however, is overluminous for pulsation in the fundamental mode, implying that it is pulsating in an overtone. 58 refs

  16. A Comparative Study of Quantum and Classical Deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yao; Hao Liang; Long Guilu

    2010-01-01

    Here in this letter, we study the difference between quantum and classical deletion. We point out that the linear mapping deletion operation used in the impossibility proof for quantum systems applies also to classical system. The general classical deletion operation is a combined operation of measurement and transformation, i.e., first read the state and then transfer the state to the standard blank state. Though both quantum information and classical information can be deleted in an open system, quantum information cannot be recovered while classical information can be recovered. (general)

  17. On the paramagnetism of spin in the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogreve, H.

    1985-12-01

    We consider particles with spin 1/2 in external electromagnetic fields. Although in many quantum mechanical situations they show a paramagnetic behaviour, within non-relativistic quantum theory a universal paramagnetic influence of spin fails to be true in general. Here we investigate the paramagnetism of spin in the framework of a classical theory. Applying previous results for the classical limit slash-h→O we obtain a classical expression corresponding to the quantum partition function of Hamiltonians with spin variables. For this classical partition function simple estimates lead to a paramagnetic inequality which demonstrates that indeed in the classical limit the spin shows a general paramagnetic behaviour. (author)

  18. Biophysical mechanisms complementing "classical" cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W

    2018-01-01

    This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration. Here, coupling into classical biochemical signaling and reactions can be shown by modern microscopy, electronics and bioinformatics. Further, one can follow the triggered reactions seamlessly via molecular biology till into genetics. Direct observation of intracellular electric processes is very difficult because of e.g. shielding through the cell membrane and damping by other structures. Therefore, we have to rely on photonic and photon - phonon coupling phenomena like molecular vibrations, which are addressed within the second part. Molecules normally possess different charge moieties and thus small electromagnetic (EMF) patterns arise during molecular vibration. These patterns can now be measured best within the optical part of the spectrum - much less in the lower terahertz till kHz and lower Hz part (third part of this review). Finally, EMFs facilitate quantum informative processes in coherent domains of molecular, charge and electron spin motion. This helps to coordinate such manifold and intertwined processes going on within cells, tissues and organs (part 4). Because the phenomena described in part 3 and 4 of the review still await really hard proofs we need concerted efforts and a combination of biophysics, molecular biology and informatics to unravel the described mysteries in "physics of life".

  19. Eating disorders among classic ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Freitas Monteiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the prevalence of eating disorders symptoms among classical ballet dancers. Methods: This is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2009, that investigated eating disorder symptoms using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE. The body image of the study population was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. In addition, the anthropometric assessment was performed – measurement of weight, height and skin folds, calculation of body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage. Results: Of all the 139 emale adolescents assessed, 4.4% (n=6 had nutrition problems and 23% (n=23 presented abnormal values of body fat. The analysis of the EAT concluded that 12.3% (n=17 of the girls presented positive results for anorexia nervosa (AN. The BITE results showed that 13.7% (n=19 ofthe girls had unusual eating habits and 6.5% (n=9 presented subclinical bulimia nervosa (BN. As for severity, 3.6% (n=5 of the girls presented clinically significant results and 1.4% (n=2 were diagnosed with high severity. Concerning the results of the BSQ, 15.7% (n=21 of the girls were slightly concerned about body image; 5.2% (n=7 were moderately worried, and 6.7% (n=9 were severely concerned about it. Conclusion: This study did not diagnose the occurrence of eating disorders but found symptoms of AN (Anorexia Nervosa and BN (Bulimia Nervosa. Its main purpose was to alert about the prevalence of the possible development of eating disorders due to the influences of the environment where the teenagers are inserted – under a model defined by the classic ballet dance and the psychological turmoil of adolescence. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p396

  20. Classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaneck, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers was well established by Clark and coworkers in the 1970s, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymer films, was developed later. Previous to the 1970s, the first attempts to use ultraviolet light on polymer films took the form of appearance potential (valence band edge) measurements. Only some years later could the full valence band region of thin polymer films, including insulating polymers, semiconducting polymers and electrically conducting polymers. The development of what might be termed 'classical ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy' of polymer films may be loosely based upon a variety of issues, including adapting thin polymer film technology to ultra high vacuum studies, the widespread use of helium resonance lamps for studies of solid surfaces, the combined advent of practical and sufficient theoretical-computational methods. The advent of, and the use of, easily available synchrotron radiation for multi-photon spectroscopies, nominally in the area of the near UV, is not included in the term 'classical'. At the same time, electrically conducting polymers were discovered, leading to applications of the corresponding semiconducting polymers, which added technologically driven emphasis to this development of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for polymer materials. This paper traces a limited number of highlights in the evolution of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of polymers, from the 1970s through to 2008. Also, since this issue is dedicated to Prof. Kazuhiko Seki, who has been a friend and competitor for over two decades, the author relies on some of Prof. Seki's earlier research, unpublished, on who-did-what-first. Prof. Seki's own contributions to the field, however, are discussed in other articles in this issue.

  1. Exact classical scaling formalism for nonreactive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePristo, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A general nonreactive collision system is considered with internal molecular variables (p, r) and/or (I, theta) of arbitrary dimensions and relative translational variables (P, R) of three or less dimensions. We derive an exact classical scaling formalism which relates the collisional change in any function of molecular variables directly to the initial values of these variables. The collision dynamics is then described by an explicit function of the initial point in the internal molecular phase space, for a fixed point in the relative translational phase space. In other words, the systematic variation of the internal molecular properties (e.g., actions and average internal kinetic energies) is given as a function of the initial internal action-angle variables. A simple three term approximation to the exact formalism is derived, the natural variables of which are the internal action I and internal linear momenta p. For the final average internal kinetic energies T, the result is T-T/sup( 0 ) = α+βp/sup( 0 )+γI/sup( 0 ), where the superscripted ''0'' indicates the initial value. The parameters α, β, and γ in this scaling theory are directly related to the moments of the change in average internal kinetic energy. Utilizing a very limited number of input moments generated from classical trajectory calculations, the scaling can be used to predict the entire distribution of final internal variables as a function of initial internal actions and linear momenta. Initial examples for atom--collinear harmonic oscillator collision systems are presented in detail, with the scaling predictions (e.g., moments and quasiclassical histogram transition probabilities) being generally very good to excellent quantitatively

  2. On the criticism to the classical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gontijo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the most common criticisms on the "surplus approach''. It shows that the classical method avoids the excess of abstraction of neoclassical general equilibrium theory, which produces models that have no empirical content, and the lack of abstraction of the post-Keynesian school which does not accept equilibrium. Taking reality as a chain of accidental events connected in a dynamic logical process, the neoclassical school conceives market prices as empirical phenomena that nevertheless gravitate around moving equilibrium prices thanks to the adjustment mechanisms. Though this gravitation process should be conceived as an axiom of logic, it can be modeled in such a way as to produce stable results under quite reasonable assumptions. Finally, it shows that the classical concept of competition can be used for explaining profit rate differentials, which are the bases of the theory of oligopoly pricing.Este artigo analisa as principais críticas à "abordagem do excedente econômico''. Ele mostra que o método clássico evita o excesso de abstração da teoria neoclássica do equilíbrio geral, que produz modelos sem conteúdo empírico, e a falta de abstração da escola pós-keynesiana, que não aceita o conceito de equilíbrio. Considerando a realidade como uma cadeia de eventos acidentais conectados num processo dinâmico, a escola clássica concebe os preços de mercado como fenômenos empíricos que gravitam em torno dos preços de equilíbrio graças aos mecanismos de ajustamento. Ainda que o processo de gravitação deva ser concebido como um axioma lógico, ele pode ser modelado de forma a produzir resultados estáveis sob hipóteses bastante razoáveis. Finalmente, o artigo mostra que o conceito clássico de concorrência pode ser utilizado para explicar os diferenciais de taxa de lucro que representam a base da teoria de preços em regime de oligopólio.

  3. Critical properties of the classical XY and classical Heisenberg models: A renormalization group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, J. Ricardo; de Albuquerque, Douglas F.

    1997-02-01

    By using two approaches of renormalization group (RG), mean field RG (MFRG) and effective field RG (EFRG), we study the critical properties of the simple cubic lattice classical XY and classical Heisenberg models. The methods are illustrated by employing its simplest approximation version in which small clusters with one ( N‧ = 1) and two ( N = 2) spins are used. The thermal and magnetic critical exponents, Yt and Yh, and the critical parameter Kc are numerically obtained and are compared with more accurate methods (Monte Carlo, series expansion and ε-expansion). The results presented in this work are in excellent agreement with these sophisticated methods. We have also shown that the exponent Yh does not depend on the symmetry n of the Hamiltonian, hence the criteria of universality for this exponent is only a function of the dimension d.

  4. Investigating β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy through computational approach: classical and non-classical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimeybodi, Ali; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2018-07-01

    The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy. The proposed computational model provides insights into the effects of β-adrenergic classical and non-classical pathways on the activity of hypertrophic transcription factors CREB and GATA4. The results illustrate that the model captures the dynamics of the main signaling mediators and reproduces the experimental observations well. The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. The model results illustrate that GSK3β deactivation after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation has a major influence on CREB and GATA4 activation and consequent cardiac hypertrophy. Also, it is found through sensitivity analysis that PKB (Akt) activation has both pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic effects in β-adrenergic signaling.

  5. Quantum theory of the classical: quantum jumps, Born's Rule and objective classical reality via quantum Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2018-07-13

    The emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate of our Universe is a long-standing conundrum. In this paper, I describe three insights into the transition from quantum to classical that are based on the recognition of the role of the environment. I begin with the derivation of preferred sets of states that help to define what exists-our everyday classical reality. They emerge as a result of the breaking of the unitary symmetry of the Hilbert space which happens when the unitarity of quantum evolutions encounters nonlinearities inherent in the process of amplification-of replicating information. This derivation is accomplished without the usual tools of decoherence, and accounts for the appearance of quantum jumps and the emergence of preferred pointer states consistent with those obtained via environment-induced superselection, or einselection The pointer states obtained in this way determine what can happen-define events-without appealing to Born's Rule for probabilities. Therefore, p k =| ψ k | 2 can now be deduced from the entanglement-assisted invariance, or envariance -a symmetry of entangled quantum states. With probabilities at hand, one also gains new insights into the foundations of quantum statistical physics. Moreover, one can now analyse the information flows responsible for decoherence. These information flows explain how the perception of objective classical reality arises from the quantum substrate: the effective amplification that they represent accounts for the objective existence of the einselected states of macroscopic quantum systems through the redundancy of pointer state records in their environment-through quantum Darwinism This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Classical and semi-classical treatments of Li3+, Ne10++H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J

    2004-01-01

    We perform molecular close-coupling and impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations of total and partial cross sections for capture and ionization in collisions of highly charged ions on H(1s). We first consider Li 3+ +H(1s) as a benchmark to ascertain the complementarity of the methods, and then Ne 10+ +H(1s), which has been scarcely studied up to now, and has recently become of interest for fusion plasma research

  7. Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.

  9. A classical view on nonclassical nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul J M; Finney, Aaron R; Habraken, Wouter J E M; Nudelman, Fabio; Friedrich, Heiner; Laven, Jozua; De Yoreo, James J; Rodger, P Mark; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2017-09-19

    Understanding and controlling nucleation is important for many crystallization applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) is often used as a model system to investigate nucleation mechanisms. Despite its great importance in geology, biology, and many industrial applications, CaCO 3 nucleation is still a topic of intense discussion, with new pathways for its growth from ions in solution proposed in recent years. These new pathways include the so-called nonclassical nucleation mechanism via the assembly of thermodynamically stable prenucleation clusters, as well as the formation of a dense liquid precursor phase via liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we present results from a combined experimental and computational investigation on the precipitation of CaCO 3 in dilute aqueous solutions. We propose that a dense liquid phase (containing 4-7 H 2 O per CaCO 3 unit) forms in supersaturated solutions through the association of ions and ion pairs without significant participation of larger ion clusters. This liquid acts as the precursor for the formation of solid CaCO 3 in the form of vaterite, which grows via a net transfer of ions from solution according to z Ca 2+ + z CO 3 2- → z CaCO 3 The results show that all steps in this process can be explained according to classical concepts of crystal nucleation and growth, and that long-standing physical concepts of nucleation can describe multistep, multiphase growth mechanisms.

  10. Dielectric susceptibility of classical Coulomb systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquard, Ph.; Piller, B.; Rentsch, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the shape dependence of the dielectric susceptibility (equivalently defined, in a canonical ensemble, by the mean square fluctuation of the electric polarization or by the second moment of the charge-charge correlation function) of classical Coulomb systems. The concept of partial second moment is introduced with the aim of analyzing the contributions to the total susceptibility of pairs of particles of increasing separation. For a disk-shaped one-component plasma with coupling parameter γ=2 it is shown, numerically and algebraically for small and large systems, that (1) the correlation function of two particles close to the edge of the disk decays as the inverse of the square of their distance, and (2) the susceptibility is made up of a bulk contribution, which saturates rapidly toward the Stillinger-Lovett value, and of surface contribution, which varies on the scale of the disk diameter and is described by a new law called the arc sine law. It is also shown that electrostatics and statistical mechanics with shape-dependent thermodynamic limits are consistent for the same model in a strip geometry, whereas the Stillinger-Lovett sum rule is verified for a boundary-free geometry such as the surface of a sphere. Some results of extensive computer simulations of one- and two-component plasmas in circular and elliptic geometries are shown. Anisotropy effects on the susceptibilities are clearly demonstrated and the arc sine law for a circular plasma is well confirmed

  11. Tensor network method for reversible classical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Cheng; Kourtis, Stefanos; Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.

    2018-03-01

    We develop a tensor network technique that can solve universal reversible classical computational problems, formulated as vertex models on a square lattice [Nat. Commun. 8, 15303 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15303]. By encoding the truth table of each vertex constraint in a tensor, the total number of solutions compatible with partial inputs and outputs at the boundary can be represented as the full contraction of a tensor network. We introduce an iterative compression-decimation (ICD) scheme that performs this contraction efficiently. The ICD algorithm first propagates local constraints to longer ranges via repeated contraction-decomposition sweeps over all lattice bonds, thus achieving compression on a given length scale. It then decimates the lattice via coarse-graining tensor contractions. Repeated iterations of these two steps gradually collapse the tensor network and ultimately yield the exact tensor trace for large systems, without the need for manual control of tensor dimensions. Our protocol allows us to obtain the exact number of solutions for computations where a naive enumeration would take astronomically long times.

  12. A critical review of classical bouncing cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana, E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, D-37077 (Germany); Peter, Patrick, E-mail: peter@iap.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-04-01

    Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The PLANCK data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

  13. Analysis of a classical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, H.

    1985-01-01

    The author studies a classical chiral bag model with a Mexican hat-type potential for the self-coupling of the pion fields. He assumes a static spherical bag of radius R, the hedgehog ansatz for the chiral fields and that the quarks are all in the lowest lying s state. The author has considered three classes of models, the cloudy or pantopionic bags, the little or exopionic bags and the endopionic bags, where the pions are allowed all through space, only outside the bag and only inside the bag respectively. In all cases, the quarks are confined in the interior. He calculates the bag radius R, the bag constant B and the total ground state energy R for wide ranges of the two free parameters of the theory, namely the coupling constant λ and the quark frequency omega. The author focuses the study on the endopionic bags, the least known class, and compares the results with the familiar ones of other classes

  14. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  15. Imaging the Ejecta in Classical Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin

    2016-10-01

    A nova outburst results when sufficient mass accretes from a companion star onto the surface of a white dwarf, triggering a thermonuclear explosion. In classical novae the bulk of the emission comes from the warm, expanding ejecta. The prevailing theories assume that the explosion occurs as a single, spherically symmetric ejection event and predict a simple relationship between the white dwarf mass, the accretion rate, and the mass loss and energetics of the explosion. However, observations with modern instruments indicate that nova eruptions are far from simple. There is now evidence for multiple ejection events, common envelopes, non-spherical geometry, and even jet-like structures in the ejecta. Our ENova collaboration combines radio, mm, optical, and X-ray observations and detailed theoretical modelling to study the most common major explosions in the universe. Among our results so far are the direct demonstration of the importance of shocks in novae, including the detection of gamma-ray producing shocks in several sources, and the realization that multiple, long-lived outflows are much more common than previously assumed. Here we propose to continue these highly successful observations with coordinated detailed VLA radio interferometry and HST optical imaging and spectroscropy of several recent novae with substantial VLA monitoring already in progress.

  16. The Moon In The Classic Maya World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giuliano

    During the Classic Period of the Maya civilization (250-900 A.D.) we have many documents in which it is possible to see the interest of this people on the principal lunar phenomena as the phases and the eclipses in particular. On a number of stelae, lintels and many other inscriptions (in Copan, Quirigua, Tikal, etc.), we can see that in correspondence of the dedication date of the monument, the Maya point out the phase of the Moon and its position in a period of six months corresponding to half year of eclipse. In some parts of the Dresda Codex (one of the four original codices of the Maya) we can see some pages in which were indicated the days of the Tzolkin calendar (the religious calendar of 260 days) in which it is possible to observe a lunar or solar eclipse. The periods of 177 or 148 days are allotted in a sequence that corresponds to the exact interval between the eclipses. The accuracy in the observations and in the calculations of the phases of the Moon, also in very old epochs, is an interesting evidence of the fundamental importance of the Moon in the Maya civilisation.

  17. Introduction to classical and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Tai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    This is the first introductory textbook on quantum field theory to be written from the point of view of condensed matter physics. As such, it presents the basic concepts and techniques of statistical field theory, clearly explaining how and why they are integrated into modern quantum (and classical) field theory, and includes the latest developments. Written by an expert in the field, with a broad experience in teaching and training, it manages to present such substantial topics as phases and phase transitions or solitons and instantons in an accessible and concise way. Divided into three parts, the first part covers fundamental physics and the mathematics background needed by students in order to enter the field, while the second part introduces more advanced concepts and techniques. Part III discusses applications of quantum field theory to a few basic problems. The emphasis here lies on how modern concepts of quantum field theory are embedded in these approaches, and also on the limitations of standard quantum field theory techniques in facing, 'real' physics problems. Throughout there are numerous end-of-chapter problems, and a free solutions manual is available for lecturers. (orig.)

  18. De Sitter hunting in a classical landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, U.H.; Van Riet, T.; Haque, S.S.; Koerber, P.; Shiu, G.; Wrase, T.

    2011-01-01

    We elaborate on the construction of de Sitter solutions from IIA orientifolds of SU(3)-structure manifolds that solve the 10-dimensional equations of motion at tree-level in the approximation of smeared sources. First we classify geometries that are orbifolds of a group manifold covering space which, upon the proper inclusion of O6 planes, can be described within the framework of N = 1 supergravity in 4D. Then we scan systematically for de Sitter solutions, obtained as critical points of an effective 4D potential. Apart from finding many new solutions we emphasize the challenges in constructing explicit classical de Sitter vacua, which have sofar not been met. These challenges are interesting avenues for further research and include finding solutions that are perturbatively stable, satisfy charge and flux quantization, and have genuine localized (versus smeared) orientifold sources. This paper intends to be self-contained and pedagogical, and thus can serve as a guide to the necessary technical tools required for this line of research. In an appendix we explain how to study flux and charge quantization in the presence of a non-trivial H-field using twisted homology. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Classical molecular dynamics simulation of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Krack, M.; Bertolus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation using forces calculated from empirical potentials, commonly called classical molecular dynamics, is well suited to study primary damage production by irradiation, defect interactions with fission gas atoms, gas bubble nucleation, grain boundary effects on defect and gas bubble evolution in nuclear fuel, and the resulting changes in thermomechanical properties. This enables one to obtain insights into fundamental mechanisms governing the behaviour of nuclear fuel, as well as parameters that can be used as inputs for mesoscale models. The interaction potentials used for the force calculations are generated by fitting properties of interest to experimental data and electronic structure calculations (see Chapter 12). We present here the different types of potentials currently available for UO 2 and illustrations of applications to the description of the behaviour of this material under irradiation. The results obtained from the present generation of potentials for UO 2 are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different. There is a need to refine these existing potentials to provide a better representation of the performance of polycrystalline fuel under a variety of operating conditions, develop models that are equipped to handle deviations from stoichiometry, and validate the models and assumptions used. (authors)

  20. Relativistic and separable classical hamiltonian particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1981-01-01

    We show within the Hamiltonian formalism the existence of classical relativistic mechanics of N scalar particles interacting at a distance which satisfies the requirements of Poincare invariance, separability, world-line invariance and Einstein causality. The line of approach which is adopted here uses the methods of the theory of systems with constraints applied to manifestly covariant systems of particles. The study is limited to the case of scalar interactions remaining weak in the whole phase space and vanishing at large space-like separation distances of the particles. Poincare invariance requires the inclusion of many-body, up to N-body, potentials. Separability requires the use of individual or two-body variables and the construction of the total interaction from basic two-body interactions. Position variables of the particles are constructed in terms of the canonical variables of the theory according to the world-line invariance condition and the subsidiary conditions of the non-relativistic limit and separability. Positivity constraints on the interaction masses squared of the particles ensure that the velocities of the latter remain always smaller than the velocity of light