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Sample records for preliminary upper limits

  1. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  2. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  3. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  4. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  5. Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-12-01

    A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)

  6. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  7. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity......The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...

  8. Upper limits from counting experiments with multiple pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    In counting experiments, one can set an upper limit on the rate of a Poisson process based on a count of the number of events observed due to the process. In some experiments, one makes several counts of the number of events, using different instruments, different event detection algorithms or observations over multiple time intervals. We demonstrate how to generalize the classical frequentist upper limit calculation to the case where multiple counts of events are made over one or more time intervals using several (not necessarily independent) procedures. We show how different choices of the rank ordering of possible outcomes in the space of counts correspond to applying different levels of significance to the various measurements. We propose an ordering that is matched to the sensitivity of the different measurement procedures and show that in typical cases it gives stronger upper limits than other choices. As an example, we show how this method can be applied to searches for gravitational-wave bursts, where multiple burst-detection algorithms analyse the same data set, and demonstrate how a single combined upper limit can be set on the gravitational-wave burst rate.

  9. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertanties in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (author) [pt

  10. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertainties both in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (orig.)

  11. Upper limit for J/psi→γ+ axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.; Partridge, R.; Peck, C.; Porter, F.C.; Antreasyan, D.; Gu, Y.F.; Kollmann, W.; Richardson, M.; Strauch, K.; Weinstein, A.; Aschman, D.; Burnett, T.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Newman, C.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Gelphman, D.; Hofstadter, R.; Horisberger, R.; Kirkbride, I.; Kolanoski, H.; Koenigsmann, K.; Lee, R.; Liberman, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Osterheld, A.; Pollock, B.; Tompkins, J.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Chestnut, R.; Gaiser, J.; Godfrey, G.; Kiesling, C.; Lockman, W.; Oreglia, M.; Scharre, D.L.; Wacker, K.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have searched with the crystal ball detector for axionlike particles in radiative J/psi decays. An upper limit on the branching ratio B(J/psi→γ+a) -5 (90% C.L.) is obtained. This result holds for long-lived, noninteracting pseudoscalar or vector particles of mass less than 1 GeV. Thus, this experiment also places stringent limits on the existence of other possible light bosons such as those arising in supersymmetric theories

  12. New upper limits on the local metagalactic ionizing radiation density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Stuart N.; Weymann, Ray; Rauch, Michael; Hamilton, Tom

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained H-alpha observations with the Maryland-Caltech Fabry-Perot Spectrometer attached to the Cassegrain focus of the 1.5 m telescope at Palomer Observatory in order to set limits on the number of ionizing photons from the local metagalactic radiation field. We have observed the SW component of the Haynes-Giovanelli cloud H I 1225+01, an intergalactic cloud which should be optimum for measuring the metagalactic flux because it is nearly opaque to ionizing photons, it does not appear to be significantly shielded from the metagalactic radiation field, and the limits on embedded or nearby ionizing sources are unusually low. For the area of the cloud with an H I column density greater than 10(exp 19)/sq cm we set a 2 sigma limit of 1.1 x 10(exp -19) ergs/sq cm/s/sq arcsec (20 mR) for the surface brightness of diffuse H-alpha. This implies a 2 sigma upper limit on the incident one-sided ionizing flux of Phi(sub ex) is less than 3 x 10(exp 4)/sq cm/s. For a radiation field of the form J(sub nu) is approximately nu(exp -1.4), this yields a firm 2 sigma upper limit on the local metagalactic photoionization rate of Gamma is less than 2 x 10(exp -13)/s, and an upper limit for the radiation field J(sub nu) at the Lyman limit of J(sub nu0) is less than 8 x 10(exp -23) ergs/sq cm/Hz/sr. We discuss previous efforts to constrain the metagalactic ionizing flux using H-alpha surface brightness observations and also other methods, and conclude that our result places the firmest upper limit on this flux. We also observed the 7 min diameter region centered on 3C 273 in which H-alpha emission at a velocity of approximately 1700 km/s was initially reported by Williams and Schommer. In agreement with T. B. Williams (private communication) we find the initial detection was spurious. We obtain a 2 sigma upper limit of 1.8 x 10(exp -19) ergs/sq cm/s/sq arcsec (32 mR) for the mean surface brightness of diffuse H-alpha, about a factor of 6 below the published value.

  13. Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Dung T Nguyen

    Full Text Available Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour(-1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming.

  14. New upper limits for atmospheric constituents on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of Io from 0.86 to 2.7 microns with a resolution of 3.36 per cm and a signal to rms noise ratio of 120 is presented. No absorptions due to any atmospheric constituents on Io could be found in the spectrum. Upper limits of 0.12 cm-atm for NH3, 0.12 cm-atm for CH4, 0.4 cm-atm for N2O, and 24 cm-atm for H2S were determined. Laboratory spectra of ammonia frosts as a function of temperature were compared with the spectrum of Io and showed this frost not to be present at the surface of Io. A search for possible resonance lines of carbon, silicon, and sulfur, as well as the 1.08-micron line of helium, proved negative. Upper emission limits of 60, 18, 27, and 60 kilorayleighs, respectively, were established for these lines.

  15. Upper limit set for level of lightning activity on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent lightning detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for lightning-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, lightning spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan lightning of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial lightning, is inferred.

  16. Low Upper Limit to Methane Abundance on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Soler, Javier Martín; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2013-10-01

    By analogy with Earth, methane in the Martian atmosphere is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity. During the past decade, Earth-based telescopic observations reported “plumes” of methane of tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and those from Mars orbit showed localized patches, prompting speculation of sources from subsurface bacteria or nonbiological sources. From in situ measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on Curiosity using a distinctive spectral pattern specific to methane, we report no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18 ± 0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence level), which reduces the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars and limits the recent contribution from extraplanetary and geologic sources.

  17. What is the appropriate upper limit for added sugars consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Sievenpiper, John L; Lê, Kim-Anne; White, John S; Clemens, Roger; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined. While it appears prudent to avoid excessive calories from sugars, the scientific basis for restrictive guidelines is far from settled. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  19. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES IN UPPER NORTHERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Apichat; Fukruksa, Chamaiporn; Yimthin, Thatcha; Deelue, Kitsakorn; Sarai, Chutima; Polseela, Raxsina; Thanwisai, Aunchalee

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are used as biocontrol agents for insect pests. Survey of indigenous EPNs provides not only the diversity aspects but also the contribution in pest management in local areas. The objective of this study was to survey EPNs in upper northern Thailand. Nine hundred seventy soil samples were obtained from 194 sites in upper northern region of Thailand; of these 60 (6.2%) had EPNs in 2 genera: Steinernema (32 isolates) and Heterorhabditis (28 isolates). Most EPNs were isolated from loam with a soil temperature of 24-38°C, a pH of 1.5-7.0 and a soil moisture content of 0.5-6.8%. Molecular identification based on sequencing of a partial region of an internal transcribed spacer was performed for Heterorhabditis and the 28S rDNA for Steinernema. A BLASTN search of known sequence EPNs revealed 24 isolates of S. websteri and one isolate of S. scarabaei were identified; closely related to S. websteri (accession no. JF503100) and S. scarabaei (accession no. AY172023). The Heterorhabditis species identified were: H. indica (11 isolates), H. gerrardi (2 isolates) and Heterorhabditis sp (8 isolates). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 11 isolates of Heterorhabditis were related to H. indica; 2 isolates were related to Heterorhabditis gerrardi and 8 isolates were closely related to Heterorhabditis sp SGmg3. The study results show the genetic diversity of EPNs and describe a new observation of S. scarabaei and H. gerrardi in Thailand. This finding is new and provides important information for further study on using native EPNs in biological control.

  20. SUMS preliminary design and data analysis development. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.

  1. Recent surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben — Preliminary results from geodetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Thomas; Heck, Bernhard; Knöpfler, Andreas; Masson, Frédéric; Mayer, Michael; Ulrich, Patrice; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl

    2013-08-01

    Datasets of the GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network (GURN) and the national levelling networks in Germany, France and Switzerland are investigated with respect to current surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. GURN consists of about 80 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations. The terrestrial levelling network comprises 1st and 2nd order levelling lines that have been remeasured at intervals of roughly 25 years, starting in 1922. Compared to earlier studies national institutions and private companies made available raw data, allowing for consistent solutions for the URG region. We focussed on the southern and eastern parts of the investigation area. Our preliminary results show that the levelling and GNSS datasets are sensitive to resolve small surface displacement rates down to an order of magnitude of 0.2 mm/a and 0.4 mm/a, respectively. The observed horizontal velocity components for a test region south of Strasbourg, obtained from GNSS coordinate time series, vary around 0.5 mm/a. The results are in general agreement with interseismic strain built-up in a sinistral strike-slip regime. Since the accuracy of the GNSS derived vertical component is insufficient, data of precise levelling networks is used to determine vertical displacement rates. More than 75% of the vertical rates obtained from a kinematic adjustment of 1st order levelling lines in the eastern part of URG vary between - 0.2 mm/a and + 0.2 mm/a, indicating that this region behaves stable. Higher rates up to 0.5 mm/a in a limited region south of Freiburg are in general agreement with active faulting. We conclude that both networks deliver stable results that reflect real surface movements in the URG area. We note, however, that geodetically observed surface displacements generally result from a superposition of different effects, and that a separation in tectonic and non-tectonic processes needs additional information and expertise.

  2. A retrieved upper limit of CS in Neptune's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Hirota, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present our new result of CS(J=7-6), CO(J=3-2) observations of Neptune's atmosphere carried out with 10-m ASTE sub-mm waveband telescope on August 2010. As a result, while CS line was not detected with 6.4 mK 1-sigma r.m.s. noise level, CO line was detected as 282 mK with 9.7 mK noise level in antenna temperature scale. All of the observations were carried out with 512 MHz bandwidth and 500 kHz resolution, the total integration time for CS and CO were 23 m 40 s and 11 m 00 s, respectively. Abundances have been obtained from the comparison between the intensity and the synthesis spectra modeled by plane parallel 1-D radiative transfer code assuming various mixing ratio of each gas. The retrieved upper limit of CS mixing ratio was 0.03 ppb throughout tropopause to stratosphere. CO mixing ratio have been retrieved 1.0 ppm with errors +0.3 and -0.2 ppm, and the result was consistent with previous observation [1]. The origin of abundant CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been long discussed since its mixing ratio is 30 - 500 times higher than the value of other gas giants [2][3][4]. Assuming that all of CO is produced by thermochemical equilibrium process in deep interior of Neptune, required O/H value in interior is 440 times higher than the solar value [5]. For this reason, it is claimed that the external CO supply source, such as the impact of comet or asteroid, is also the possible candidates of the origin of CO along with the internal supply source [6]. In this observation, we searched the remnant gas of cometary impact in Neptune's atmosphere. Along with CO and HCN, CS could be one of the possible candidate of the remnant gas of cometary impact since CS was largely produced after the impact of comet SL/9 on Jupiter while many other major sulfur compounds have not been detected. Actually, derived L37-40. [7]Moreno et al., 2003. Planetary and Space Sciences 51, 591-611 [8]Zahnle et al.,1995. GRL 22, 1593-1596 [9]Feuchtgruber et al., 1999. Proceeding of the conference

  3. Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of rectangular hyperbolas is developed for the first time, by which a means for estimating the upper bound of the Periodic Table is established in calculating that its last element has an atom mass of 411.663243 and an atomic number (the nuclear charge of 155. The formulating law is given.

  4. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Supanitsky, A.D., E-mail: rita@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: supanitsky@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E > 10{sup 18} eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.

  5. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V.; Supanitsky, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E > 10 18 eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set

  6. Upper limits on the luminosity of the progenitor of type Ia supernova SN2014J

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed archival data of Chandra pre-explosion observations of the position of SN2014J in M82. No X-ray source at this position was detected in the data, and we calculated upper limits on the luminosities of the progenitor. These upper limits allow us to firmly rule out an unobscured supersof...

  7. Upper limit on the transition temperature for non-ideal Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for a non-ideal Bose gas there exists an upper limit on the transition temperature above which Bose-Einstein condensation cannot occur regardless of the pressure applied. Such upper limits for some realistic Bose gases are estimated

  8. Upper limit for Poisson variable incorporating systematic uncertainties by Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    To calculate the upper limit for the Poisson observable at given confidence level with inclusion of systematic uncertainties in background expectation and signal efficiency, formulations have been established along the line of Bayesian approach. A FORTRAN program, BPULE, has been developed to implement the upper limit calculation

  9. Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)

  10. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  11. Upper limits to trace constituents in Jupiter's atmosphere from an analysis of its 5 micrometer spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, R. R.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Gautier, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    A high-resolution spectrum of Jupiter at 5 micrometers recorded at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory is used to determine upper limits to the column density of 19 molecules. The upper limits to the mixing ratios of SiH4, H2S, HCN, and simple hydrocarbons are discussed with respect to current models of Jupiter's atmosphere. These upper limits are compared to expectations based upon the solar abundance of the elements. This analysis permits upper limit measurements (SiH4), or actual detections (GeH4) of molecules with mixing ratios with hydrogen as low as 10 to the minus 9th power. In future observations at 5 micrometers the sensitivity of remote spectroscopic analyses should permit the study of constituents with mixing ratios as low as 10 to the minus 10th power, which would include the hydrides of such elements as Sn and As as well as numerous organic molecules.

  12. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb in Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Beretta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injuries (ABIs can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.

  13. Rehabilitation of Upper Limb in Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Preliminary Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Elena; Cesareo, Ambra; Biffi, Emilia; Schafer, Carolyn; Galbiati, Sara; Strazzer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT) and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.

  14. Interaction between Posidonia oceanica meadows upper limit and hydrodynamics of four Mediterranean beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Ruju, Andrea; Buosi, Carla; Porta, Marco; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    retained for analysis only the most energetic sectors. Successively, we identify extreme wave conditions using a statistical approach. Delft 3D is used to propagate these wave conditions towards the shore and then reconstruct the main hydrodynamic patterns in order to study its effects on the extension of P. oceanica. Preliminary results show that in all investigated beach systems the meadow interruptions were found where intense (rip and longshore) currents occur as a result of all simulated storm directions; and the P. oceanica meadow leaves space for sand-dominated substrate. In conclusion, the new approach presented here is a useful tool to estimate the location of the P. oceanica upper limit induced by hydrodynamics and it has important consequences for coastal zone management, as P. oceanica meadow is protected by EU legislation including the Habitat Directive and the Water Framework Directive. References De Muro et al. (2016). Journal of Maps 12, 558-572. De Muro et al. (2017). Journal of Maps 13(2), 74-85. Infantes et al. (2009). Botanica Marina 52, 419-427. Vacchi et al. (2014). Marine Pollution Bulletin 83, 458-466.

  15. Herbivory and pollen limitation at the upper elevational range limit of two forest understory plants of eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Sébastien; Vellend, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Studies of species' range limits focus most often on abiotic factors, although the strength of biotic interactions might also vary along environmental gradients and have strong demographic effects. For example, pollinator abundance might decrease at range limits due to harsh environmental conditions, and reduced plant density can reduce attractiveness to pollinators and increase or decrease herbivory. We tested for variation in the strength of pollen limitation and herbivory by ungulates along a gradient leading to the upper elevational range limits of Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae) and Erythronium americanum (Liliaceae) in Mont Mégantic National Park, Québec, Canada. In T. erectum, pollen limitation was higher at the range limit, but seed set decreased only slightly with elevation and only in one of two years. In contrast, herbivory of T. erectum increased from 60% at the upper elevational range limit. In E. americanum , we found no evidence of pollen limitation despite a significant decrease in seed set with elevation, and herbivory was low across the entire gradient. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential for relatively strong negative interactions (herbivory) and weak positive interactions (pollination) at plant range edges, although this was clearly species specific. To the extent that these interactions have important demographic consequences-highly likely for herbivory on Trillium , based on previous studies-such interactions might play a role in determining plant species' range limits along putatively climatic gradients.

  16. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2015-01-01

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images

  17. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, Agustya Adi [Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Graduate Research on Earthquakes and Active Tectonics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysics Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Center for Disaster Mitigation, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Masturyono [Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.

  18. From the Chloride of Tungsten to the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the physical chemical properties and the technology of manufac- turing chemically clean hexachloride of tungsten has led to unexpected results. It was found that each element of the Periodic Table of Elements has its own hyperbola in the graph “molecular mass — content of the element”. The hyperbolas differ according to the atomic mass of the elements. Lagrange’s theorem shows that the tops of the hyper- bolas approach to an upper limit. This upper limit means the heaviest element, which is possible in the Table. According to the calculation, its atomic mass is 411.66, while its number is 155.

  19. New experimental upper limit of the electron–proton spin-flip cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellers, D.; Weidemann, C.; Lenisa, P.; Meyer, H.O.; Rathmann, F.; Trusov, S.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous publication, measurements of the depolarization of a stored proton beam by interaction with a co-propagating unpolarized electron beam at low relative energy have been presented and an upper limit of about 3 ×10 7 b for the electron–proton spin-flip cross-section was determined. A refined analysis presented in this paper reduces the previous upper limit by a factor of three by the introduction of a new procedure that also makes use of non-identified particles

  20. Acoustic observation of living organisms reveals the upper limit of the oxygen minimum zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.

  1. The preliminary studies of HL-1 plasma with pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, L.B.; Li, G.D.; Sum, S.Q.

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of the impurity and control of the density are very important task in the present tokamak research. Some experiments showed that the pump limiter is effective to improve impurity and density control. A small-scale pump limiter has been installed on HL-1 tokamak in 1990 and the experiment has been carried out firstly with hydrogen ohmic discharge. In this paper we would present the improvements of the plasma properties as the pump limiter was main limiter and the movable limiter was auxiliary limiter. (author) 3 refs., 8 figs

  2. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram

  3. Evaluation of upper limit of accident probability in a nuclear reactor in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    This work calls attention to the great probability of accident in a pessimist vision regarding optimist one. The author uses the upper limit presented in Ford Foundation report and applies it on brazilian case to an evaluation of risk of reactor accident in Brazil. (C.M.)

  4. The upper limit of the solar antineutrino flux according to the LSD array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'etta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data obtained at the LSD liquid scintillation detector is carried out with the aim of searching the possible flux of electron antineutrinos from Sun. The most strong at present upper limit for the electron antineutrino flux of solar origin is determined: ≤ 1.0 x 10 5 cm -2 x s -1 (the reliability level of 90%)

  5. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  6. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services... SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Outpatient Hospital and Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits...

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  8. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  9. BRIDGE - Behavioural reaching interfaces during daily antigravity activities through upper limb exoskeleton: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Costa, Andrea; Aquilante, Lorenzo; Gfoehler, Margit; Puchinger, Markus; Braghin, Francesco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    People with neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy experience a distributed and evolutive weakness in the whole body. Recent technological developments have changed the daily life of disabled people strongly improving the perceived quality of life, mostly concentrating on powered wheelchairs, so to assure autonomous mobility and respiratory assistance, essential for survival. The key concept of the BRIDGE project is to contrast the everyday experience of losing functions by providing them of a system able to exploit the best their own residual capabilities in arm movements so to keep them functional and autonomous as much as possible. BRIDGE is composed by a light, wearable and powered five degrees of freedom upper limb exoskeleton under the direct control of the user through a joystick or gaze control. An inverse kinematic model allows to determine joints position so to track patient desired hand position. BRIDGE prototype has been successfully tested in simulation environment, and by a small group of healthy volunteers. Preliminary results show a good tracking performance of the implemented control scheme. The interaction procedure was easy to understand, and the interaction with the system was successful.

  10. Actinide solubility in deep groundwaters - estimates for upper limits based on chemical equilibrium calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweingruber, M.

    1983-12-01

    A chemical equilibrium model is used to estimate maximum upper concentration limits for some actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) in groundwaters. Eh/pH diagrams for solubility isopleths, dominant dissolved species and limiting solids are constructed for fixed parameter sets including temperature, thermodynamic database, ionic strength and total concentrations of most important inorganic ligands (carbonate, fluoride, phosphate, sulphate, chloride). In order to assess conservative conditions, a reference water is defined with high ligand content and ionic strength, but without competing cations. In addition, actinide oxides and hydroxides are the only solid phases considered. Recommendations for 'safe' upper actinide solubility limits for deep groundwaters are derived from such diagrams, based on the predicted Eh/pH domain. The model results are validated as far as the scarce experimental data permit. (Auth.)

  11. Upper and Lower Bound Limit Loads for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Used for Aerosol Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic compensation method proposed by Mackenzie and Boyle is used to estimate the upper and lower bound limit (collapse loads for one-piece aluminium aerosol cans, which are thin-walled pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure loading. Elastic-plastic finite element predictions for yield and collapse pressures are found using axisymmetric models. However, it is shown that predictions for the elastic-plastic buckling of the vessel base require the use of a full three-dimensional model with a small unsymmetrical imperfection introduced. The finite element predictions for the internal pressure to cause complete failure via collapse fall within the upper and lower bounds. Hence the method, which involves only elastic analyses, can be used in place of complex elastic-plastic finite element analyses when upper and lower bound estimates are adequate for design purposes. Similarly, the lower bound value underpredicts the pressure at which first yield occurs.

  12. Upper critical field of complex superconducting networks in the continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, P.; Chi, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    We propose a simple method for calculating the superconducting upper critical field of complex periodic two-dimensional networks in the continuum limit. Two specific lattices with space groups P4gm and C2mm are used to demonstrate this approach. We obtain the result that the ratio of the critical field of these networks to that of a uniform film is close to but larger than 2

  13. CALET UPPER LIMITS ON X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPARTS OF GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G. [University of Florence, Via Sansone, 1, I-50019 Sesto, Fiorentino (Italy); Akaike, Y. [Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Asaoka, Y. [JEM Mission Operations and Integration Center, Human Spaceflight Technology Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, S.; Brogi, P.; Felice, V. Di [National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Piazza dei Caprettari, 70, I-00186 Rome (Italy); Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J. H. [Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Cannady, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Checchia, C.; Collazuol, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Ebisawa, K.; Fuke, H., E-mail: nakahira@crab.riken.jp, E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-20

    We present upper limits in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands at the time of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational-wave event GW151226 derived from the CALorimetric Electron Telescope ( CALET ) observation. The main instrument of CALET , CALorimeter (CAL), observes gamma-rays from ∼1 GeV up to 10 TeV with a field of view of ∼2 sr. The CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM) views ∼3 sr and ∼2 π sr of the sky in the 7 keV–1 MeV and the 40 keV–20 MeV bands, respectively, by using two different scintillator-based instruments. The CGBM covered 32.5% and 49.1% of the GW151226 sky localization probability in the 7 keV–1 MeV and 40 keV–20 MeV bands respectively. We place a 90% upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 1–100 GeV band where CAL reaches 15% of the integrated LIGO probability (∼1.1 sr). The CGBM 7 σ upper limits are 1.0 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (7–500 keV) and 1.8 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (50–1000 keV) for a 1 s exposure. Those upper limits correspond to the luminosity of 3–5 × 10{sup 49} erg s{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than typical short GRBs.

  14. New upper limit to the coronal line emission from the T Tauri star RU Lupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahm, G F [Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Lago, M T.V.T. [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Grupo de Matematica Aplicada; Penston, M V [ESTEC, European Space Agency, Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station, Madrid, (Spain)

    1981-05-01

    A high dispersion AAT spectrogram sets an upper limit on the (Fe x) emission line lambda 6374.5 A in the T Tauri star RU Lupi. The intensity of any 10/sup 6/ K corona in this star is less than 600 times that of the Sun compared to a chromosphere and transition region of 3 x 10/sup 3/ to 2 x 10/sup 5/ K gas 10/sup 6/ times stronger than the Sun's. The important theoretical implications are noted.

  15. An upper limit on the branching ratio for $\\tau$ decays into seven charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Howard, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Przysiezniak, H; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schulz, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for decays of the tau lepton into seven or more charged particles, using data collected with the OPAL detector from 1990 to 1995 in e^+e^- collisions at sqrt(s) ~ M_Z. No candidate events were found and an upper limit on the branching ratio for tau decays into seven charged particles of 1.8 x 10^-5 at the 95% confidence level was determined.

  16. Implementation of upper limit calculation for a poisson variable by bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongsheng

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of Bayesian confidence upper limit for a Poisson variable including both signal and background with and without systematic uncertainties has been formulated. A Fortran 77 routine, BPULE, has been developed to implement the calculation. The routine can account for systematic uncertainties in the background expectation and signal efficiency. The systematic uncertainties may be separately parameterized by a Gaussian, Log-Gaussian or flat probability density function (pdf). Some technical details of BPULE have been discussed. (authors)

  17. The upper spatial limit for perception of displacement is affected by preceding motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Miroslava; Mateeff, Stefan; Hohnsbein, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The upper spatial limit D(max) for perception of apparent motion of a random dot pattern may be strongly affected by another, collinear, motion that precedes it [Mateeff, S., Stefanova, M., &. Hohnsbein, J. (2007). Perceived global direction of a compound of real and apparent motion. Vision Research, 47, 1455-1463]. In the present study this phenomenon was studied with two-dimensional motion stimuli. A random dot pattern moved alternately in the vertical and oblique direction (zig-zag motion). The vertical motion was of 1.04 degrees length; it was produced by three discrete spatial steps of the dots. Thereafter the dots were displaced by a single spatial step in oblique direction. Each motion lasted for 57ms. The upper spatial limit for perception of the oblique motion was measured under two conditions: the vertical component of the oblique motion and the vertical motion were either in the same or in opposite directions. It was found that the perception of the oblique motion was strongly influenced by the relative direction of the vertical motion that preceded it; in the "same" condition the upper spatial limit was much shorter than in the "opposite" condition. Decreasing the speed of the vertical motion reversed this effect. Interpretations based on networks of motion detectors and on Gestalt theory are discussed.

  18. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II. Since the actively cooled limiter blade is the component in direct contact with the plasma edge, and thus subject to the severe plasma environment, most preliminary design efforts have concentrated on analysis of the blade. The screening process which led to the recommended preliminary design consisting of a dispersion strenghthened copper or OFHC copper cover plate over an austenitic stainless steel base plate is discussed. A 1 to 3 mm thick low atomic number coating consisting of a graded plasma-sprayed Silicon Carbide-Aluminium composite is recommended subject to further experiment and evaluation. Thermal-hydraulic and stress analyses of the limiter blade are also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II

  1. Higgs Mass Constraints on a Fourth Family: Upper and Lower Limits on CKM Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental limits on the Higgs boson mass restrict CKM mixing of a possible fourth family beyond the constraints previously obtained from precision electroweak data alone. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds on m H already significantly restrict the allowed parameter space. Zero CKM mixing is excluded and mixing of order θ Cabbibo is allowed. Upper and lower limits on 3-4 CKM mixing are exhibited as a function of m H . We use the default inputs of the Electroweak Working Group and also explore the sensitivity of both the three and four family fits to alternative inputs.

  2. An upper limit on the $\\tau$ neutrino mass from three- and five-prong tau decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Boccali, T; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1998-01-01

    A bound on the tau neutrino mass is established using the data collected from 1991 to 1995 at Ecm = M(Z) with the ALEPH detector. Two separate limits are derived by fitting the distribution of visible energy vs invariant mass in tau+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- nu and tau+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- pi- pi+ (pi0) nu decays. The two results are combined to obtain a 95 % confidence level upper limit of 18.2 MeV/c^2 on the mass of the tau neutrino.

  3. The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    geometrica ~ boundary condi- tions of the problem. (2) The energy of the load-plate system is computed for this deflection surface and is then minimized...and interpolating to find the k that makes the seriw vanish. The correct value of m is that which gives the lowest value of k. For two half waves (m=2...the square plate, the present rekdively simple upper- and lower-limit calcula- tions show that his est,imatd limit of error is correct for this case

  4. The solar-flare infrared continuum: observational techniques and upper limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory observations at 20μ and 350 μ have determined detection thresholds for solar flares in these wavelengths. In the 20μ range solar atmospheric fluctuations (the 'temperature field') set the basic limits on flare detectability at approximately 5K; at 350μ the extinction in the Earth's atmosphere provides the basic limitation of approximately 30 K. These thresholds are low enough for the successful detection of several infrared-emitting components of large flares. Limited observing time and lack of solar activity have prevented observations of large flares up to the present, but the techniques promise to be extremely useful in the future. The upper limits obtained thus far, for subflares, indicate that the thickness of the Hα flare region does not exceed approximately 10 km. This result confirms the conclusion of Suemoto and Hiei (1959) regarding the small effective thickness of the Hα-emitting regions in solar flares. (Auth.)

  5. An upper limit to the secular variation of the gravitational constant from white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Torres, Santiago [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Althaus, Leandro G. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Isern, Jordi, E-mail: garcia@fa.upc.edu, E-mail: loren@fa.upc.edu, E-mail: santi@fa.upc.edu, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: isern@ieec.cat [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    A variation of the gravitational constant over cosmological ages modifies the main sequence lifetimes and white dwarf cooling ages. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code we compute the effects of a secularly varying G on the main sequence ages and, employing white dwarf cooling ages computed taking into account the effects of a running G, we place constraints on the rate of variation of Newton's constant. This is done using the white dwarf luminosity function and the distance of the well studied open Galactic cluster NGC 6791. We derive an upper bound Ġ/G ∼ −1.8 × 10{sup −12} yr{sup −1}. This upper limit for the secular variation of the gravitational constant compares favorably with those obtained using other stellar evolutionary properties, and can be easily improved if deep images of the cluster allow to obtain an improved white dwarf luminosity function.

  6. Variability of Jovian ion winds: an upper limit for enhanced Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lystrup

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that short-timescale fluctuations about the mean electric field can significantly increase the upper atmospheric energy inputs at Jupiter, which may help to explain the high observed thermospheric temperatures. We present data from the first attempt to detect such variations in the Jovian ionosphere. Line-of-sight ionospheric velocity profiles in the Southern Jovian auroral/polar region are shown, derived from the Doppler shifting of H3+ infrared emission spectra. These data were recently obtained from the high-resolution CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We find that there is no variability within this data set on timescales of the order of one minute and spatial scales of 640 km, putting upper limits on the timescales of fluctuations that would be needed to enhance Joule heating.

  7. Upper limits on gravitational wave bursts in LIGO's second science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors, using a method based on a wavelet time-frequency decomposition. This search is sensitive to bursts of duration much less than a second and with frequency content in the 100-1100 Hz range. It features significant improvements in the instrument sensitivity and in the analysis pipeline with respect to the burst search previously reported by LIGO. Improvements in the search method allow exploring weaker signals, relative to the detector noise floor, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, O(0.1) μHz. The sensitivity in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude lies in the range of h rss ∼10 -20 -10 -19 Hz -1/2 . No gravitational wave signals were detected in 9.98 days of analyzed data. We interpret the search result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 0.26 events per day at 90% confidence level. We combine this limit with measurements of the detection efficiency for selected waveform morphologies in order to yield rate versus strength exclusion curves as well as to establish order-of-magnitude distance sensitivity to certain modeled astrophysical sources. Both the rate upper limit and its applicability to signal strengths improve our previously reported limits and reflect the most sensitive broad-band search for untriggered and unmodeled gravitational wave bursts to date

  8. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  9. Upper limit on NUT charge from the observed terrestrial Sagnac effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbakova, A.; Karimov, R. Kh; Izmailov, R. N.; Nandi, K. K.

    2018-06-01

    The exact Sagnac delay in the Kerr–Taub–NUT (Newman–Unti–Tamburino) spacetime is derived in the equatorial plane for non-geodesic as well as geodesic circular orbits. The resulting formula, being exact, can be directly applied to motion in the vicinity of any spinning object including black holes but here we are considering only the terrestrial case since observational data are available. The formula reveals that, in the limit of spin , the delay does not vanish. This fact is similar to the non-vanishing of Lense–Thirring precession under even though the two effects originate from different premises. Assuming a reasonable input that the Kerr–Taub–NUT corrections are subsumed in the average residual uncertainty in the measured Sagnac delay, we compute upper limits on the NUT charge n. It is found that the upper limits on n are far larger than the Earth’s gravitational mass, which has not been detected in observations, implying that the Sagnac effect cannot constrain n to smaller values near zero. We find a curious difference between the delays for non-geodesic and geodesic clock orbits and point out its implication for the well known ‘twin paradox’ of special relativity.

  10. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view...... in the 75 keV-2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW ... of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission....

  11. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Natalucci, L.

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view of the INTEGRAL...... MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW gravitational wave...

  12. Experimental upper limits for hadronic and axion decays of the T(1S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niczyporuk, B.; Jakubowski, Z.; Zeludziewicz, T.; Folger, G.; Lurz, B.; Vogel, H.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H.; Coles, M.; Engler, A.; Kraemer, R.W.; Marlow, D.; Messing, F.; Rippich, C.; Youssef, S.; Fridman, A.; Alexander, G.; Av-Shalom, A.; Bella, G.; Grunhaus, J.; Langguth, W.; Scheer, M.; Bienlein, J.K.; Graumann, R.; Trost, H.J.; Schmitz, M.

    1982-10-01

    A search for the decays Y->rhoπ, Y->J/psiX and Y->γa (where X is undetermined and a is an axion) has been completed using the LENA detector at the DORIS storage ring. No evidence for any of these processes was found. For these decay modes we set branching fraction upper limits (90% C.L.) of 2.1 x 10 -3 , 2.0 x 10 -2 and 9.1 x 10 -4 , respectively. (orig.)

  13. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Φ--(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Zhao, Z. W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niculescu, G.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-01-01

    We searched for the Φ--(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ-π--decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ-π- system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ--(1860) with a consecutive decay into Ξ-π- in the photon-energy range 4.5GeV

  14. Upper limits on the branching ratios $\\tau$ --> $\\mu\\gamma$ and $\\tau$ --> e$\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Marvik, K; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has searched for lepton flavour violating decays \\tau \\rightarrow \\mu \\gamma and \\tau \\rightarrow e \\gamma using a data sample of about 70~pb^{-1} of integrated luminosity corresponding to 81 000 produced \\tau^+ \\tau^- events. No candidates were found for either of the two modes. This yields branching ratio upper limits of \\rm{B}( \\tau \\rightarrow e \\gamma ) < 1.1 \\times 10^{-4} and \\rm{B} ( \\tau \\rightarrow \\mu \\gamma) < 6.2 \\times 10^{-5} at 90\\% confidence level.

  15. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  16. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  17. Global robust stability of delayed neural networks: Estimating upper limit of norm of delayed connection weight matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    The question of estimating the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 , which is a key step in some recently reported global robust stability criteria for delayed neural networks, is revisited ( B denotes the delayed connection weight matrix). Recently, Cao, Huang, and Qu have given an estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 . In the present paper, an alternative estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 is highlighted. It is shown that the alternative estimate may yield some new global robust stability results

  18. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  19. Determination of the upper mass limit for stars producing white-dwarf remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Angel, J.R.P.

    1980-01-01

    We have searched ultraviolet and red plates of four open clusters (NGC 2168, 2287, 2422, and 6633) for faint blue objects which might be white dwarf members of the clusters. The most massive stars in these clusters range from 3 to 6 M/sub sun/. We find a definite concentration of faint blue objects in the clusters. This fact, plus initial photoelectric photometry, provides strong support for the identification of many of these objects as cluster white dwarfs. By modeling the expected number of possible white dwarfs in each cluster, we are able to put some limits on m/sub w/, the upper stellar mass limit for formation of white dwarfs. Our data require that some stars of at least 5 M/sub sun/ have evolved into white dwarfs and give a most probable value of 7 M/sub sun/ for m/sub w/

  20. A size upper limit and position for the HCN maser in CIT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, J.E.; Welch, W.J.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Lis, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A size upper limit and position for the HCN maser in CIT 6 were determined from interferometric observations with the Hat Creek millimeter array. The maser is located at alpha(1950) = 10 h 13 m 10.942 + or - 0.012 s and delta(1950) = + 30 deg 49 arcmin 16.75 arcsec + or - 0.15, coincident with the optical image taken from the Palomar plates, within the 3 arcsec uncertainty of the latter. The size of the maser emission region is less than 0.45 arcsec, approximately 180 AU at the distance estimated for CIT 6. The small size and strong emission (40 Jy) set a lower limit to the brightness temperature of 44,000 K, further strengthening the maser interpretation. 14 refs

  1. Heterogeneous upper-bound finite element limit analysis of masonry walls out-of-plane loaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Zuccarello, F. A.; Olivito, R. S.; Tralli, A.

    2007-11-01

    A heterogeneous approach for FE upper bound limit analyses of out-of-plane loaded masonry panels is presented. Under the assumption of associated plasticity for the constituent materials, mortar joints are reduced to interfaces with a Mohr Coulomb failure criterion with tension cut-off and cap in compression, whereas for bricks both limited and unlimited strength are taken into account. At each interface, plastic dissipation can occur as a combination of out-of-plane shear, bending and torsion. In order to test the reliability of the model proposed, several examples of dry-joint panels out-of-plane loaded tested at the University of Calabria (Italy) are discussed. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for three different series of walls at different values of the in-plane compressive vertical loads applied. The comparisons show that reliable predictions of both collapse loads and failure mechanisms can be obtained by means of the numerical procedure employed.

  2. Upper limits on beauty meson production in π- collisions at 280 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badier, J.; Bourotte, J.; Mine, P.; Vanderhaghen, R.; Weisz, S.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Decamp, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lefrancois, J.; Crozon, M.; Delpierre, P.; Leray, T.; Maillard, J.; Tilquin, A.; Valentin, J.

    1983-01-01

    From events with two like-sign muons, or with three or four muons, observed in the NA3 spectrometer with 280 GeV/c incoming π - beam, we deduce upper limits on the production of beauty meson pairs Banti B. We use the leptonic branching ratios of B meson measured at CESR storage rings, and assume that no nuclear effects occur in the platinum target. We find sigma(Banti B) < 2 nb/nucleon for centrally produced Banti B pairs, and sigma(Banti B) < 10 nb/nucleon for a diffractive production. These values are one order of magnitude lower than previously published limits. As a consequence, the psipsi events observed in our experiment cannot come from Banti B decays. (orig.)

  3. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  4. Preliminary data on rheological limits for grouts in the Transportable Grout Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes a method for establishing rheological limits for grouts that can be pumped in the Hanford Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). This method is based on two models that require determining two key parameters - gel strength and density. This work also presents rheological data on grouts prepared with simulated customer phosphate wastes (CPW) and double shell slurry (DSS) from the Hanford complex. These data can be used to make preliminary estimates of operating rheological limits of the TFG grouts. The suggested design limits will include safety factors that will increase these limits significantly. 4 refs

  5. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ze Zhu

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  6. Upper limits for absorption by water vapor in the near-UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Eoin M.; Wenger, John C.; Venables, Dean S.

    2016-01-01

    There are few experimental measurements of absorption by water vapor in the near-UV. Here we report the results of spectral measurements of water vapor absorption at ambient temperature and pressure from 325 nm to 420 nm, covering most tropospherically relevant short wavelengths. Spectra were recorded using a broadband optical cavity in the chemically controlled environment of an atmospheric simulation chamber. No absorption attributable to the water monomer (or the dimer) was observed at the 0.5 nm resolution of our system. Our results are consistent with calculated spectra and recent DOAS field observations, but contradict a report of significant water absorption in the near-UV. Based on the detection limit of our instrument, we report upper limits for the water absorption cross section of less than 5×10 −26 cm 2 molecule −1 at our instrument resolution. For a typical, indicative slant column density of 4×10 23 cm 2 , we calculate a maximum optical depth of 0.02 arising from absorption of water vapor in the atmosphere at wavelengths between 340 nm and 420 nm, with slightly higher maximum optical depths below 340 nm. The results of this work, together with recent atmospheric observations and computational results, suggest that water vapor absorption across most of the near-UV is small compared to visible and infrared wavelengths. - Highlights: • The absorption cross section of water vapor was studied from 325 to 420 nm. • The upper limit was 5×10 −26 cm 2 molecule −1 above 340 nm at 0.5 nm resolution. • Our result contradicts a recent report of appreciable absorption by water vapor.

  7. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed.

  8. Method for calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms with application of plutonium-239 in plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms is presented. The mean alpha energies per disintegration of radionuclides of interest are listed to be used in standard methodologies to calculate dose to aquatic biota. As an application, the upper limits for the alpha dose rates from 239 Pu to the total body of plankton are estimated based on data available in open literature [pt

  9. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  10. Upper limit on the ultrahigh-energy photon flux from AGASA and Yakutsk data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsov, G.I.; Dedenko, L.G.; Fedorova, G.F.; Fedunin, E.Yu.; Roganova, T.M.; Glushkov, A.V.; Makarov, I.T.; Pravdin, M.I.; Sleptsov, I.E.; Gorbunov, D.S.; Troitsky, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present the interpretation of the muon and scintillation signals of ultrahigh-energy air showers observed by AGASA and Yakutsk extensive air shower array experiments. We consider case-by-case ten highest-energy events with known muon content and conclude that at the 95% confidence level none of them was induced by a primary photon. Taking into account statistical fluctuations and differences in the energy estimation of proton and photon primaries, we derive an upper limit of 36% at a 95% confidence level on the fraction of primary photons in the cosmic-ray flux above 10 20 eV. This result disfavors the Z-burst and superheavy dark-matter solutions to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin-cutoff problem

  11. Upper limits on gravitational-wave bursts radiated from stellar-core collapses in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki; Akutsu, Tomomi; Akutsu, Tomotada

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of observations with the TAMA300 gravitational-wave detector, targeting burst signals from stellar-core collapse events. We used an excess-power filter to extract gravitational-wave candidates, and developed two methods to reduce fake events caused by non-stationary noises of the detector. These analysis methods were applied to real data from the TAMA300 interferometric gravitational wave detector. We compared the data-processed results with those of a Monte Carlo simulation with an assumed galactic-event distribution model and with burst waveforms expected from numerical simulations of stellar-core collapses, in order to interpret the event candidates from an astronomical viewpoint. We set an upper limit of 5.0 x 10 3 events s -1 on the burst gravitational-wave event rate in our galaxy with a confidence level of 90%

  12. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  13. An Upper Limit on the Functional Fraction of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Dan

    2017-07-01

    For the human population to maintain a constant size from generation to generation, an increase in fertility must compensate for the reduction in the mean fitness of the population caused, among others, by deleterious mutations. The required increase in fertility due to this mutational load depends on the number of sites in the genome that are functional, the mutation rate, and the fraction of deleterious mutations among all mutations in functional regions. These dependencies and the fact that there exists a maximum tolerable replacement level fertility can be used to put an upper limit on the fraction of the human genome that can be functional. Mutational load considerations lead to the conclusion that the functional fraction within the human genome cannot exceed 25%, and is probably considerably lower. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. New Horizons Upper Limits on O{sub 2} in Pluto’s Present Day Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, J. A.; Gladstone, G. R. [Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Stern, S. A.; Young, L. A.; Steffl, A. J.; Olkin, C. B. [Southwest Research Institute Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Weaver, H. A. [Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Ennico, K., E-mail: jkammer@swri.edu [NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Collaboration: New Horizons Atmospheres and Alice UV Spectrograph Teams

    2017-08-01

    The surprising discovery by the Rosetta spacecraft of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko challenged our understanding of the inventory of this volatile species on and inside bodies from the Kuiper Belt. That discovery motivated our search for oxygen in the atmosphere of Kuiper Belt planet Pluto, because O{sub 2} is volatile even at Pluto’s surface temperatures. During the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015 July, the spacecraft probed the composition of Pluto’s atmosphere using a variety of observations, including an ultraviolet solar occultation observed by the Alice UV spectrograph. As described in these reports, absorption by molecular species in Pluto’s atmosphere yielded detections of N{sub 2}, as well as hydrocarbon species such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Our work here further examines this data to search for UV absorption from molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}), which has a significant cross-section in the Alice spectrograph bandpass. We find no evidence for O{sub 2} absorption and place an upper limit on the total amount of O{sub 2} in Pluto’s atmosphere as a function of tangent height up to 700 km. In most of the atmosphere, this upper limit in line-of-sight abundance units is ∼3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, which, depending on tangent height, corresponds to a mixing ratio of 10{sup −6} to 10{sup −4}, far lower than in comet 67P/CG.

  15. Fermi-LAT upper limits on gamma-ray emission from colliding wind binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Michael; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are thought to give rise to a plethora of physical processes including acceleration and interaction of relativistic particles. Observation of synchrotron radiation in the radio band confirms there is a relativistic electron population in CWBs. Accordingly, CWBs have been suspected sources of high-energy γ-ray emission since the COS-B era. Theoretical models exist that characterize the underlying physical processes leading to particle acceleration and quantitatively predict the non-thermal energy emission observable at Earth. Furthermore, we strive to find evidence of γ-ray emission from a sample of seven CWB systems: WR 11, WR 70, WR 125, WR 137, WR 140, WR 146, and WR 147. Theoretical modelling identified these systems as the most favourable candidates for emitting γ-rays. We make a comparison with existing γ-ray flux predictions and investigate possible constraints. We used 24 months of data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope to perform a dedicated likelihood analysis of CWBs in the LAT energy range. As a result, we find no evidence of γ-ray emission from any of the studied CWB systems and determine corresponding flux upper limits. For some CWBs the interplay of orbital and stellar parameters renders the Fermi-LAT data not sensitive enough to constrain the parameter space of the emission models. In the cases of WR140 and WR147, the Fermi-LAT upper limits appear to rule out some model predictions entirely and constrain theoretical models over a significant parameter space. A comparison of our findings to the CWB η Car is made.

  16. An upper limit on the sulphur abundance in HE 1327-2326

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Venn, K. A.; Lambert, D. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Star HE 1327-2326 is a unique object, with the lowest measured iron abundance ([Fe/H] ~ -6) and a peculiar chemical composition that includes large overabundances of C, N, and O with respect to iron. One important question is whether the chemical abundances in this star reflect the chemical composition of the gas cloud from which it was formed or if they have been severely affected by other processes, such as dust-gas winnowing. Aims: We measure or provide an upper limit to the abundance of the volatile element sulphur, which can help to discriminate between the two scenarios. Methods: We observed HE 1327-2326 with the high resolution infra-red spectrograph CRIRES at the VLT to observe the S i lines of Multiplet 3 at 1045 nm. Results: We do not detect the S i line. A 3σ upper limit on the equivalent width (EW) of any line in our spectrum is EW winnowing, and the evidence coming from other elements (e.g., Na and Ti) is also inconclusive or contradictory. The formation of dust in the atmosphere versus an origin of the metals in a metal-poor supernova with extensive "fall-back" are not mutually exclusive. It is possible that dust formation distorts the peculiar abundance pattern created by a supernova with fall-back, thus the abundance ratios in HE 1327-2326 may be used to constrain the properties of the supernova(e) that produced its metals, but with some caution. Based on spectra obtained with CRIRES at the 8.2 m Antu ESO telescope, programme 386.D-0095.

  17. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-05-04

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable.

  18. Preliminary identification of the bioremediation limiting factors of a clay bearing soil contaminated with crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Andréa C. L.; Cunha, Claudia D. da; Santos, Ronaldo L. C.; Santos, Renata M.; Magalhães, Hugo M.; Leite, Selma G. F.; Soriano, Adriana U.

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive alternative to treat soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the effectiveness of biodegradation process can be limited by both contaminant characteristics and its bioavailability in soil. This work aims at establishing a preliminary procedure to identify the main factor (hydrocarbon recalcitrance or its bioavailability) that impairs the biodegradation, possibly resulting in low remediation efficiencies. Tests in soil microcosms were carried ou...

  19. Immediate effects of plantar inputs on the upper half muscles and upright posture: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffolo, Fabio; Ferritto, Anna L; Muratore, Filippo; Tecco, Simona; Testa, Mauro; D'Attilio, Michele; Festa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of plantar inputs on both the upper half muscle activity (anterior temporal, masseter, digastric, sternocleidomastoid, upper and lower trapezius, cervical) and the body posture, by means of electromyography (EMG) and vertical force platform, respectively. Twenty four (24) healthy adults, between the ages of 24 and 31 years (25.3 +/- 1.9), with no history of craniomandibular disorder or systemic musculoskeletal dysfunction, were randomly divided into two groups: test group (fourteen subjects) and control group (ten subjects). A first recording session (TO) measured the baseline EMG and postural patterns of both groups. After this session, the test group wore test shoes with insoles that stimulated the plantar surfaces, while the control group wore placebo shoes. After one hour, a second set of measurements (T1) were performed. Significant differences between the groups at baseline were observed in the left anterior temporal, left cervical, and left upper trapezius, as well as at T1 in the left anterior temporal and right upper trapezius (p postural blindness in the test group compared to the control group was observed. Further studies are warranted to investigate the short and long-term effects of this type of insole, in patients with both craniomandibular-cervical and lower extremity disorders.

  20. Comparing the effectiveness of myofascial techniques with massage in persons with upper crossed syndrome (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasik Edyta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Upper crossed syndrome is a postural syndrome, with myofascial and functional imbalance within the shoulder girdle and the cervical spine. The therapy usually includes myofascial techniques or massage. The aim of this work was to indicate which of these forms of therapy is more effective in terms of myofascial release.

  1. Upper Limits on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization Power Spectrum from One Night with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A. H.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Asad, K. M. B.; Hatef, M.; Jelić, V.; Mevius, M.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Vedantham, H.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brouw, W. N.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Kakiichi, K.; Majumdar, S.; Mellema, G.; Silva, M. B.; Schaye, J.; Vrbanec, D.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first limits on the Epoch of Reionization 21 cm H I power spectra, in the redshift range z = 7.9-10.6, using the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) High-Band Antenna (HBA). In total, 13.0 hr of data were used from observations centered on the North Celestial Pole. After subtraction of the sky model and the noise bias, we detect a non-zero {{{Δ }}}{{I}}2={(56+/- 13{mK})}2 (1-σ) excess variance and a best 2-σ upper limit of {{{Δ }}}212< {(79.6{mK})}2 at k = 0.053 h cMpc-1 in the range z = 9.6-10.6. The excess variance decreases when optimizing the smoothness of the direction- and frequency-dependent gain calibration, and with increasing the completeness of the sky model. It is likely caused by (I) residual side-lobe noise on calibration baselines, (II) leverage due to nonlinear effects, (III) noise and ionosphere-induced gain errors, or a combination thereof. Further analyses of the excess variance will be discussed in forthcoming publications.

  2. Definition of the upper reference limit of glycated albumin in blood donors from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Chiara; Zaninotto, Martina; Cosma, Chiara; Agnello, Luisa; Lo Sasso, Bruna; Bivona, Giulia; Plebani, Mario; Ciaccio, Marcello

    2017-11-27

    Glycated Albumin (GA) has been proposed as a short-term indicator of glycemic homeostasis. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of GA in a large sample of blood donors from Italy to evaluate whether demographic features, namely age and sex, could influence GA levels and define specific reference limits. The study included 1334 Italian blood donors. GA was measured using an enzymatic method (quantILab Glycated Albumin, IL Werfen, Germany). The upper reference limit (URL) was calculated using the non-parametric percentile method. A modest, although significant, increase of GA was observed in relation to age (psex (12% [11.3-12.8] in males; 12.2% [11.4-13.1] in females; p=0.01). After excluding individuals with fasting plasma glucose ≥7 mmol/L, the calculated GA URL was 14.5% (95% CI: 14.3-14.7). Subjects with GA>14.5% presented a mean age of 48.4±12.2 years, 66.7% were males and the mean glucose was 6.88±2.5 mmol/L. GA in Caucasians shows a similar increasing trend at older ages documented in other ethnicities. The definition of the URL in this population could be useful for both clinical studies, which will clarify the role of GA for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, and will encourage the introduction of GA in clinical practice.

  3. A Revised Experimental Upper Limit on the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J  M; Ayres, N J; Baker, C A; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Burghoff, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Griffith, W C; van der Grinten, M; Grujic, Z D; Harris, P G; Helaine, V; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemiere, Y; May, D J R; Musgrave, M; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Richardson, J D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schnabel, A; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Shiers, D; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Winston, O  J; Wursten, E; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the experimental results that set the current world sensitivity limit on the magnitude of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. We have extended and enhanced our earlier analysis to include recent developments in the understanding of the effects of gravity in depolarizing ultracold neutrons (UCN); an improved calculation of the spectrum of the neutrons; and conservative estimates of other possible systematic errors, which are also shown to be consistent with more recent measurements undertaken with the apparatus. We obtain a net result of $d_\\mathrm{n} = -0.21 \\pm 1.82 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm, which may be interpreted as a slightly revised upper limit on the magnitude of the EDM of $3.0 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (90% CL) or $ 3.6 \\times10^{-26}$ $e$cm (95% CL). This paper is dedicated by the remaining authors to the memory of Prof. J. Michael Pendlebury.

  4. Upper limit on a stochastic background of gravitational waves from seismic measurements in the range 0.05-1 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-03-14

    In this Letter, we present an upper limit of ΩGW<1.2×108 on an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background integrated over a year in the frequency range 0.05-1 Hz, which improves current upper limits from high-precision laboratory experiments by about 9 orders of magnitude. The limit is obtained using the response of Earth itself to GWs via a free-surface effect described more than 40 years ago by Dyson. The response was measured by a global network of broadband seismometers selected to maximize the sensitivity.

  5. Upper bound limit analysis of spherical pressure vessels with protruding nozzles and associated defects at the intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1981-08-01

    The limit analysis of a circumferential partial penetration defect around the intersection of a sphere and a cylinder has been investigated. An upper bound to the limit pressure has been determined by considering four independent mechanisms, and compared to an existing lower bound solution. (author)

  6. Living with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency : Limitations experienced by young adults during their transition to adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, Ilse M. F.; Baars, Erwin C. T.; van Wijk, Iris; Janssen, Wim G. M.; Poelma, Margriet J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. Purpose: To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in

  7. The upper limits of the SNR in radiography and CT with polyenergetic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the upper limits of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in radiography and computed tomography (CT) with polyenergetic x-ray sources. In x-ray imaging, monoenergetic x-rays provide a higher SNR compared to polyenergetic x-rays. However, the SNR in polyenergetic x-ray imaging can be increased when a photon-counting detector is used and x-rays are optimally weighted according to their energies. For a particular contrast/background combination and at a fixed x-ray entrance skin exposure, the SNR in energy-weighting x-ray imaging depends on tube voltage and can be maximized by selecting the optimal tube voltage. The SNR in energy-weighted x-ray images acquired at this optimal tube voltage is the highest SNR that can be achieved with polyenergetic x-ray sources. The optimal tube voltages and the highest SNR were calculated and compared to the SNR of monoenergetic x-ray imaging. Monoenergetic, energy-weighting polyenergetic and energy-integrating polyenergetic x-ray imagings were simulated at a fixed entrance skin exposure of 20 mR. The tube voltages varied in the range of 30-140 kVp with 10 kV steps. Contrast elements of CaCO 3 , iodine, adipose and tumor with thicknesses of 280 mg cm -2 , 15 mg cm -2 , 1 g cm -2 and 1 g cm -2 , respectively, inserted in a soft tissue background with 10 cm and 20 cm thicknesses, were used. The energy weighting also improves the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT when monoenergetic CT projections are optimally weighted prior to CT reconstruction (projection-based weighting). Alternatively, monoenergetic CT images are reconstructed, optimally weighted and composed to yield a final CT image (image-based weighting). Both projection-based and image-based weighting methods improve the CNR in CT. An analytical approach was used to determine which of these two weighting methods provides the upper limit of the CNR in CT. The energy-weighting method was generalized and expanded as a weighting method applicable in

  8. Increased seedling establishment via enemy release at the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urli, Morgane; Brown, Carissa D; Narváez Perez, Rosela; Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Vellend, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution. A growth chamber experiment manipulating soil origin and temperature indicated that this so-called "happy edge" was not likely caused by temperature (i.e., the possibility that climate warming has made high elevation temperatures optimal for sugar maple) or by abiotic soil factors that vary along the elevational gradient. Finally, an insect-herbivore-exclusion experiment showed that insect herbivory was a major cause of seedling mortality in the core of sugar maple's distribution, whereas seedlings transplanted at or beyond the range edge experienced minimal herbivory (i.e., enemy release). Insect herbivory did not completely explain the high levels of seedling mortality in the core of the species' distribution, suggesting that seedlings at or beyond the range edge may also experience release from pathogens. In sum, while some effects of enemies are magnified beyond range edges (e.g., seed predation), others are dampened at and beyond the range edge (e.g., insect herbivory), such that understanding the net outcome of different biotic interactions within, at and beyond the edge of distribution is critical to predicting species' responses to global change. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO 2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO 2 ) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO 2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO 2 and minimum SaO 2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO 2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO 2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO 2 profiles showed transient TcCO 2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO 2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO 2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  11. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  12. UPPER LIMITS FROM FIVE YEARS OF BLAZAR OBSERVATIONS WITH THE VERITAS CHERENKOV TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H., E-mail: wystan.benbow@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matteo.cerruti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: caajohns@ucsc.edu [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS collaboration; and others

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ -ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi -LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4 σ excess.

  13. Changing storm track diffusivity and the upper limit to poleward latent heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, R.

    2010-12-01

    Poleward atmospheric energy transport plays a key role in the climate system by helping set the mean equator-pole temperature gradient. The mechanisms controlling the response of poleward heat flux to climate change are still poorly understood. Recent work shows that midlatitude poleward latent heat flux in atmospheric GCMs generally increases as the climate warms but reaches an upper limit at sufficiently high temperature and decreases with further warming. The reasons for this non-monotonic behavior have remained unclear. Simple arguments suggests that the latent heat flux Fl should scale as Fl ˜ vref qs, where vref is a typical meridional velocity in the baroclinic zone and qs is saturation humidity. While vref decreases with temperature, qs increases much more rapidly, so this scaling implies monotonically increasing moisture flux. We study this problem using a series of simulations employing NCAR’s CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean aquaplanet and spanning a wide range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that a modified scaling, Fl ˜ vref2 qs, describes the changes in moisture flux much more accurately. Using Lagrangian trajectory analysis, we explain the success of this scaling in terms of changes in the mixing length, which contracts proportionally to vref.

  14. Estimation of the upper limit of aerosol nanoparticles penetration through inhomogeneous fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorski, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The fully segregated flow model (FSFM) was formulated to describe filtration of aerosol nanoparticles in polydisperse fibrous filters made of fibers with different diameters. The model is capable of predicting significantly higher penetration of nanoparticles through polydisperse filters than it may be expected from the classical theory applied to a mean fiber diameter. The model was solved numerically in the case of the log-normal fiber size distribution, and a simple correlation between the actual penetration through a polydisperse filter and the one calculated for the geometric mean fiber diameter was proposed. Equivalent fiber diameter for deposition due to Brownian diffusion was determined and it was found to be dependent on particle size and filter's polydispersity degree, being significantly greater than any mean fiber diameter. It was noted that it is impossible to select any one universal mean fiber diameter to describe penetration of nanoparticles with different sizes. It was also shown that in the case of a polydisperse fibrous filter the apparent exponent of the Peclet number based on the mean fiber diameter is greater than the expected value of -2/3 for diffusional deposition in a monodisperse filter. This prediction is in agreement with the available experimental data. The FSFM is expected to give the estimation of the upper limit of nanoparticles penetration in polydisperse fibrous filters.

  15. GeV GAMMA-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS FROM CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Blasi, P.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intracluster medium (ICM). Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the ICM, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with the decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 2008 August to 2010 February. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100 GeV toward a sample of observed clusters (typical values (1-5) x10 -9 photon cm -2 s -1 ) considering both point-like and spatially resolved models for the high-energy emission and discuss how these results constrain the characteristics of energetic leptons and hadrons, and magnetic fields in the ICM. The volume-averaged relativistic-hadron-to-thermal energy density ratio is found to be <5%-10% in several clusters.

  16. UPPER LIMITS FROM FIVE YEARS OF BLAZAR OBSERVATIONS WITH THE VERITAS CHERENKOV TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ -ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi -LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4 σ excess.

  17. Upper limits from the LIGO and TAMA detectors on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D. A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the first joint search for gravitational waves by the TAMA and LIGO collaborations. We looked for millisecond-duration unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in 473 hr of coincident data collected during early 2003. No candidate signals were found. We set an upper limit of 0.12 events per day on the rate of detectable gravitational-wave bursts, at 90% confidence level. From software simulations, we estimate that our detector network was sensitive to bursts with root-sum-square strain amplitude above approximately 1-3x10 -19 Hz -1/2 in the frequency band 700-2000 Hz. We describe the details of this collaborative search, with particular emphasis on its advantages and disadvantages compared to searches by LIGO and TAMA separately using the same data. Benefits include a lower background and longer observation time, at some cost in sensitivity and bandwidth. We also demonstrate techniques for performing coincidence searches with a heterogeneous network of detectors with different noise spectra and orientations. These techniques include using coordinated software signal injections to estimate the network sensitivity, and tuning the analysis to maximize the sensitivity and the livetime, subject to constraints on the background

  18. Plutonium Critical Mass Curve Comparison to Mass at Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) Using Whisper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the MCNP ® Monte Carlo radiation transport package. Standard approaches to validation rely on the selection of benchmarks based upon expert judgment. Whisper uses sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods to select relevant benchmarks to a particular application or set of applications being analyzed. Using these benchmarks, Whisper computes a calculational margin. Whisper attempts to quantify the margin of subcriticality (MOS) from errors in software and uncertainties in nuclear data. The combination of the Whisper-derived calculational margin and MOS comprise the baseline upper subcritical limit (USL), to which an additional margin may be applied by the nuclear criticality safety analyst as appropriate to ensure subcriticality. A series of critical mass curves for plutonium, similar to those found in Figure 31 of LA-10860-MS, have been generated using MCNP6.1.1 and the iterative parameter study software, WORM S olver. The baseline USL for each of the data points of the curves was then computed using Whisper 1.1. The USL was then used to determine the equivalent mass for plutonium metal-water system. ANSI/ANS-8.1 states that it is acceptable to use handbook data, such as the data directly from the LA-10860-MS, as it is already considered validated (Section 4.3 4) ''Use of subcritical limit data provided in ANSI/ANS standards or accepted reference publications does not require further validation.''). This paper attempts to take a novel approach to visualize traditional critical mass curves and allows comparison with the amount of mass for which the k eff is equal to the USL (calculational margin + margin of subcriticality). However, the intent is to plot the critical mass data along with USL, not to suggest that already accepted handbook data should have new and more rigorous requirements for validation.

  19. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require additional time with...

  20. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agakishiev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, LabCAF. F. Fisica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J. [Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Froehlich, I.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rehnisch, L.; Rustamov, A.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gumberidze, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Iori, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V. [Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kuc, H. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Mousa, J.; Tsertos, H. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stroth, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x 10{sup -3} on the 3 {sigma} level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed {Lambda} hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio N{sub 3{sub {Lambda}H}}/N{sub {Lambda}}, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations. (orig.)

  1. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A.; Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Weber, M.; Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B.; Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J.; Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S.; Froehlich, I.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rehnisch, L.; Rustamov, A.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Iori, I.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V.; Kuc, H.; Mousa, J.; Tsertos, H.; Stroth, J.

    2013-01-01

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x 10 -3 on the 3 σ level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed Λ hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio N 3 Λ H /N Λ , which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations. (orig.)

  2. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector. The transmitter is under the direct control of experimenters, and in a radio-quiet area isolated from other radio frequency (RF) sources. The power and radiation pattern are known at all times. Forward power up to 40 kW and gain exceeding 20 dB maximize energy density in the radar field. Continuous wave (CW) transmission gives 100% duty cycle, as opposed to pulsed radar. TARA utilizes a high sample rate DAQ (250 MS/s). TARA is colocated with a large state-of-the-art conventional CR observatory, allowing the radar data stream to be sampled at the arrival times of known cosmic ray events. Each of these attributes of the TARA detector has been discussed in detail in the literature [8]. A map

  3. Upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 from quasar absorption line spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of x_{H I} chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of Δ2(k) limit dependent on the sampled k mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at z = 5.9 in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  4. D-shaped configurations in FTU for testing liquid lithium limiter: Preliminary studies and experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramogida

    2017-08-01

    A possible alternative connection of the poloidal field coils in FTU is here proposed, with the aim of achieving a true X-point configuration with a magnetic single null well inside the plasma chamber and strike points on the lithium limiter. A preliminary assessment of this design allowed estimating the required power supply upgrade and showed its compatibility with the existing mechanical structure and cooling system, at least for plasmas with current up to 300 kA and flat-top duration up to 4s.

  5. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  6. Estimate of the upper limit of amplitude of Solar Cycle No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergleit, V. M; Larocca, P. A [Departamento de Fisica, UBA (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    AA* indices of values greater than 60 10{sup -9} Tesla are considered in order to characterize geomagnetic storms since the available series of these indices comprise the years from 1868 to 1998 (The longest existing interval of geomagnetic activity). By applying the precursor technique we have performed an analysis of the storm periods and the solar activity, obtaining a good correlation between the number of storms ({alpha})(characterized by the AA* indices) and the amplitudes of each solar cycle ({zeta}) and those of the next ({mu}). Using the multiple regression method applied to {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, the constants are calculated and the values found are: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. The present statistical method indicates that the current solar cycle (number 23) would have an upper limit of 202{+-}57 monthy mean sunspots. This value indicates that the solar activity would be high causing important effects on the Earth's environment. [Spanish] Se consideran los valores de los indices AA* de valor mayor que 60 10{sup -9} Tesla para caracterizar tormentas geomagneticas ya que las series disponibles de estos indices van desde 1868 hasta 1998 (el mas largo intervalo de la actividad geomagnetica existente). Aplicando la tecnica del precursor hemos realizado un analisis de los periodos de tormentas y la actividad solar obteniendo una buena correlacion entre el numero de tormentas ({alpha}) (caracterizado por los indices AA*) y las amplitudes de los ciclos solares corriente ({zeta}) y el proximo ({mu}). Usando el metodo de regresion multiple aplicado a {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, las consonantes resultaron: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. El metodo estadistico presentado indica que el ciclo actual (numero 23) tendria un pico de 202{+-} 57 manchas mensuales promedio. Este valor indica que la actividad solar seria alta produciendo importantes efectos en el medio ambiente terrestre.

  7. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  8. Physiological responses to short-term thermal stress in mayfly (Neocloeon triangulifer) larvae in relation to upper thermal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sun; Chou, Hsuan; Funk, David H; Jackson, John K; Sweeney, Bernard W; Buchwalter, David B

    2017-07-15

    Understanding species' thermal limits and their physiological determinants is critical in light of climate change and other human activities that warm freshwater ecosystems. Here, we ask whether oxygen limitation determines the chronic upper thermal limits in larvae of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer , an emerging model for ecological and physiological studies. Our experiments are based on a robust understanding of the upper acute (∼40°C) and chronic thermal limits of this species (>28°C, ≤30°C) derived from full life cycle rearing experiments across temperatures. We tested two related predictions derived from the hypothesis that oxygen limitation sets the chronic upper thermal limits: (1) aerobic scope declines in mayfly larvae as they approach and exceed temperatures that are chronically lethal to larvae; and (2) genes indicative of hypoxia challenge are also responsive in larvae exposed to ecologically relevant thermal limits. Neither prediction held true. We estimated aerobic scope by subtracting measurements of standard oxygen consumption rates from measurements of maximum oxygen consumption rates, the latter of which was obtained by treating with the metabolic uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) pheylhydrazone (FCCP). Aerobic scope was similar in larvae held below and above chronic thermal limits. Genes indicative of oxygen limitation (LDH, EGL-9) were only upregulated under hypoxia or during exposure to temperatures beyond the chronic (and more ecologically relevant) thermal limits of this species (LDH). Our results suggest that the chronic thermal limits of this species are likely not driven by oxygen limitation, but rather are determined by other factors, e.g. bioenergetics costs. We caution against the use of short-term thermal ramping approaches to estimate critical thermal limits (CT max ) in aquatic insects because those temperatures are typically higher than those that occur in nature. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  10. Upper Limits of the Fission Cross-Sections of Lead and Bismuth for Li-D Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1945-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in April 1945 and is about the upper limits of the fission cross sections of lead and bismuth for Li-D neutrons. This report includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  11. A new upper limit for the branching ratio for the decay eta→π0e+e-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.R.; Grannis, P.; Jones, B.D.; Lipman, N.H.; Owen, D.P.; Peterson, V.Z.; Toner, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    A search has been made for the decay eta→π 0 e + e - in an optical spark chamber experiment at the Rutherford Laboratory. The observations are consistent with no events being seen and give an upper limit. Rate (eta→π 0 e + e - )/Rate (eta→ALL) -5 (90%C.L.). (author)

  12. An Upper Limit for $Br(Z^0 \\rightarrow ggg)$ from Symmetric 3-jet $Z^0$ Hadronic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    An upper limit for $BR(Z^0\\ rightarrow 3g)$ is obtained from a correlation method, which distinguishes statistically between quark and gluon jets by using the difference in their charged particle multiplicity distributions. From the sam020AU LW

  13. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is 2 -sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of 2 -sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of {sup 40}K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.

  15. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  16. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  17. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a wide parameter-space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semicoherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-400 Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational-wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is 4.43x10 -23

  18. Upper limits of a cosmic infrared background flux as determined by X- and gamma-ray observations on M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Cambridge Univ.; Harwit, M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1982-01-01

    Upper limits on the energy density of infrared photons in the radio lobe regions of M87 are derived using measurements of the X-ray and gamma-ray emission. The calculations are based on an inverse Compton scattering model initiated by radio-flux producing electrons. It is shown that the energy density of infrared photons in the radio lobe regions is similar than 2 eV cm -3 . (orig.)

  19. Applying Adjacent Hyperbolas to Calculation of the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements, with Use of Rhodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier study (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table — Ele- ment No. 155. 2nd ed., Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010 the author showed how Rhodium can be applied to the hyperbolic law of the Periodic Table of Elements in or- der to calculate, with high precision, all other elements conceivable in the Table. Here we obtain the same result, with use of fraction linear functions (adjacent hyperbolas.

  20. Applying Adjacent Hyperbolas to Calculation of the Upper Limit of the Periodic Table of Elements, with Use of Rhodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier study (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155. 2nd ed., Svenska fysikarkivet, Stockholm, 2010 the author showed how Rhodium can be applied to the hyperbolic law of the Periodic Table of Elements in order to calculate, with high precision, all other elements conceivable in the Table. Here we obtain the same result, with use of fraction linear functions (adjacent hyperbolas.

  1. Using Hashimoto thyroiditis as gold standard to determine the upper limit value of thyroid stimulating hormone in a Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Chen, Dong-Ning; Cui, Jing; Xin, Zhong; Yang, Guang-Ran; Niu, Ming-Jia; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-11-06

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly caused by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This disorder is defined as merely having elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. However, the upper limit of reference range for TSH is debated recently. This study was to determine the cutoff value for the upper normal limit of TSH in a cohort using the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis as "gold" calibration standard. The research population was medical staff of 2856 individuals who took part in health examination annually. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and other biochemistry parameters were tested. Meanwhile, thyroid ultrasound examination was performed. The diagnosis of HT was based on presence of thyroid antibodies (TPAb and TGAb) and abnormalities of thyroid ultrasound examination. We used two different methods to estimate the cutoff point of TSH based on the prevalence of HT. Joinpoint regression showed the prevalence of HT increased significantly at the ninth decile of TSH value corresponding to 2.9 mU/L. ROC curve showed a TSH cutoff value of 2.6 mU/L with the maximized sensitivity and specificity in identifying HT. Using the newly defined cutoff value of TSH can detect patients with hyperlipidemia more efficiently, which may indicate our approach to define the upper limit of TSH can make more sense from the clinical point of view. A significant increase in the prevalence of HT occurred among individuals with a TSH of 2.6-2.9 mU/L made it possible to determine the cutoff value of normal upper limit of TSH.

  2. X-ray Bursts in Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries from USA Data: Detections and Upper Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournear, Derek M

    2003-02-18

    Narayan and Heyl (2002) have developed a theoretical framework to convert suitable upper limits on type I X-ray bursts from accreting black hole candidates (BHCs) into evidence for an event horizon. However, no appropriate observational limit exists in the literature. In this paper we survey 2101.2 ks of data from the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) X-ray timing experiment and 5142 ks of data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) experiment to obtain a formal constraint of this type. 1122 ks of neutron star data yield a population averaged mean burst rate of 1.69 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1} while 6081 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 4.9 x 10{sup -7} bursts s{sup -1}. This is the first published limit of this type for Black Hole Candidates. Applying the theoretical framework of Narayan and Heyl (2002) we calculate regions of unstable luminosity where the neutron stars are expected to burst and the BHCs would be expected to burst if they had a surface. In this unstable luminosity region 464 ks of neutron star data yield an averaged mean burst rate of 4.1 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1} and 1512 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 2.0 x 10{sup 6} bursts s{sup -1}, and a limit of > 10 {sigma} that BHCs do not burst with a rate similar to the rate of neutron stars in these unstable regions. This gives further evidence that BHCs do not have surfaces unless there is some new physics occurring on their surface.

  3. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  4. A haptic-robotic platform for upper-limb reaching stroke therapy: Preliminary design and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Paul; Hebert, Debbie; Boger, Jennifer; Lacheray, Hervé; Gardner, Don; Apkarian, Jacob; Mihailidis, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been shown that intense training can significantly improve post-stroke upper-limb functionality. However, opportunities for stroke survivors to practice rehabilitation exercises can be limited because of the finite availability of therapists and equipment. This paper presents a haptic-enabled exercise platform intended to assist therapists and moderate-level stroke survivors perform upper-limb reaching motion therapy. This work extends on existing knowledge by presenting: 1) an anthropometrically-inspired design that maximizes elbow and shoulder range of motions during exercise; 2) an unobtrusive upper body postural sensing system; and 3) a vibratory elbow stimulation device to encourage muscle movement. Methods A multi-disciplinary team of professionals were involved in identifying the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors incorporating these into a prototype device. The prototype system consisted of an exercise device, postural sensors, and a elbow stimulation to encourage the reaching movement. Eight experienced physical and occupational therapists participated in a pilot study exploring the usability of the prototype. Each therapist attended two sessions of one hour each to test and evaluate the proposed system. Feedback about the device was obtained through an administered questionnaire and combined with quantitative data. Results Seven of the nine questions regarding the haptic exercise device scored higher than 3.0 (somewhat good) out of 4.0 (good). The postural sensors detected 93 of 96 (97%) therapist-simulated abnormal postures and correctly ignored 90 of 96 (94%) of normal postures. The elbow stimulation device had a score lower than 2.5 (neutral) for all aspects that were surveyed, however the therapists felt the rehabilitation system was sufficient for use without the elbow stimulation device. Conclusion All eight therapists felt the exercise platform could be a good tool to use in upper-limb rehabilitation as the prototype was

  5. A haptic-robotic platform for upper-limb reaching stroke therapy: Preliminary design and evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boger Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that intense training can significantly improve post-stroke upper-limb functionality. However, opportunities for stroke survivors to practice rehabilitation exercises can be limited because of the finite availability of therapists and equipment. This paper presents a haptic-enabled exercise platform intended to assist therapists and moderate-level stroke survivors perform upper-limb reaching motion therapy. This work extends on existing knowledge by presenting: 1 an anthropometrically-inspired design that maximizes elbow and shoulder range of motions during exercise; 2 an unobtrusive upper body postural sensing system; and 3 a vibratory elbow stimulation device to encourage muscle movement. Methods A multi-disciplinary team of professionals were involved in identifying the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors incorporating these into a prototype device. The prototype system consisted of an exercise device, postural sensors, and a elbow stimulation to encourage the reaching movement. Eight experienced physical and occupational therapists participated in a pilot study exploring the usability of the prototype. Each therapist attended two sessions of one hour each to test and evaluate the proposed system. Feedback about the device was obtained through an administered questionnaire and combined with quantitative data. Results Seven of the nine questions regarding the haptic exercise device scored higher than 3.0 (somewhat good out of 4.0 (good. The postural sensors detected 93 of 96 (97% therapist-simulated abnormal postures and correctly ignored 90 of 96 (94% of normal postures. The elbow stimulation device had a score lower than 2.5 (neutral for all aspects that were surveyed, however the therapists felt the rehabilitation system was sufficient for use without the elbow stimulation device. Conclusion All eight therapists felt the exercise platform could be a good tool to use in upper-limb rehabilitation as

  6. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  7. Living with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency: limitations experienced by young adults during their transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankhorst, Ilse M F; Baars, Erwin C T; Wijk, Iris van; Janssen, Wim G M; Poelma, Margriet J; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2017-08-01

    During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in various domains of participation during transition to adulthood and how they dealt with these limitations. Fifteen participants (mean age 21.4 years) with tULRD. A qualitative study was performed using a semi-structured interview based on the Rotterdam Transition Profile to identify the limitations experienced in participation domains. Almost all the participants reported difficulties in finding a suitable study or job. Most young adults were convinced they were suitable for almost any study or job, but their teachers and potential employers were more reserved. Few difficulties were reported on the domains leisure activities, intimate relationships/sexuality, housing/housekeeping and transportation. Participants preferred to develop their own strategies for dealing with limitations. Various aids, adaptations and prostheses were used to overcome limitations. Rehabilitation teams were infrequently consulted for advice in solving transitional problems. Young adults with tULRD experience limitations mainly in choosing and finding a suitable study or job. Rehabilitation teams may play a more extensive role in supporting individuals with transitional problems. Implications for rehabilitation Most young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) experience limitations in study and job selection during transition to adulthood, but they do not consult the rehabilitation team. Assessment of abilities in relation to job interests and practicing job specific bimanual activities may be helpful for young adults with a tULRD. How the rehabilitation teams can meet the needs of young adults with tULRD during transitional phases, when autonomy is of growing importance, should be investigated

  8. High-MgO Vitric Ash in Upper Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i: A Preliminary Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, T. R.; Fiske, R. S.; Swanson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Small, well-formed Pele's tears containing anomalously high values of MgO were recently discovered in outcrops of the upper Kulanaokuaiki Tephra at and near the base of Uwekahuna Bluff, the western wall of Kilauea Caldera. Electron microprobe analyses of more than 60 high-MgO tears, which are 1-3 mm in diameter, show that most contain 11 to 12 wt. % MgO with a few approaching 13 % MgO. Separate microprobe analyses for sulfur and chlorine of 20 grains revealed no appreciable amounts of either, indicating the magma was largely degassed. Polished-section studies employing an analytical scanning electron microscope show most tears are composed of pure microvesicular glass with scattered skeletal olivine crystals and rare chromite. The abundance of skeletal olivine appears to increase with decreasing MgO content of the glass. These tears contain among the highest known MgO values of any material erupted subaerially from Kilauea. The high-MgO tears occur in a 1-6 cm thick layer of medium-coarse lithic-crystal-vitric ash. The top of this layer consists of 2-3 mm of very fine lithic-crystal ash. The lithics and many of the olivine crystals in this layer are highly oxidized. This deposit is at the top of a sequence of several lithic beds that are interspersed with thinner vitric units totaling about 75 cm in thickness. It is overlain by 9-13 cm of medium pumice lapilli and coarse vitric ash at the top of the "Bluff base" and "mid-Bluff" tephra sections described by Fiske et al. (2009). This high-MgO glass layer has been found thus far in only one other locality, a 2 m-deep soils study pit within Kipuka Puaulu, 3.5 km northwest of the caldera. Based upon stratigraphic relationships and preliminary microprobe data, a few other likely exposures of the high-MgO deposit have been identified north and west of the caldera. The high-MgO vitric ash in the upper Kulanaokuaiki Tephra has a primitive composition that suggests little if any shallow level storage of magma. Instead, the

  9. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  10. Improved upper limits on B(KL0 → μe) and B(KL0 → ee) and a new value for B(KL0 → μμ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzon, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The author gives recent results from E791 at BNL with improved upper limits on the branching fractions B(K L 0 → μe) and B(K L 0 → ee) of 8.5 x 10 -11 and 11.6 x 10 -11 at 90% C.L. He also gives a preliminary result of a new measurement B(K L 0 → μμ) = 7.6 ± 0.5(stat) ± 0.4(syst) x 10 -9

  11. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  12. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's...

  13. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... Commerce (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from...

  14. 75 FR 4044 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil for the period February 1, 2008, through... Steel Bar From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  15. 75 FR 65449 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India...

  16. 76 FR 62761 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India, covering the period February 1...

  17. 77 FR 17410 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea...

  18. 76 FR 17380 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period July...

  19. 77 FR 11065 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  20. 77 FR 15718 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... notice of initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from...

  1. 77 FR 12008 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... notice of initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from...

  2. 77 FR 11485 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  3. 76 FR 6604 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering...

  4. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  5. 75 FR 69917 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  6. 75 FR 78968 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-819] Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation for the period...

  7. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  8. Setting an Upper Limit on Gas Exchange Through Sea-Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, P.; Monahan, E. C.; Andreas, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Air-sea gas exchange parameterization is critical to understanding both climate forcing and feedbacks and is key in biogeochemistry cycles. Models based on wind speed have provided empirical estimates of gas exchange that are useful though it is likely that at high wind speeds of over 10 m/s there are important gas exchange parameters including bubbles and sea spray that have not been well constrained. Here we address the sea-spray component of gas exchange at these high wind speeds to set sn upper boundary condition for the gas exchange of the six model gases including; nobel gases helium, neon and argon, diatomic gases nitrogen and oxygen and finally, the more complex gas carbon dioxide. Estimates are based on the spray generation function of Andreas and Monahan and the gases are tested under three scenarios including 100 percent saturation and complete droplet evaporation, 100 percent saturation and a more realistic scenario in which a fraction of droplets evaporate completely, a fraction evaporate to some degree and a fraction returns to the water side without significant evaporation. Finally the latter scenario is applied to representative under saturated concentrations of the gases.

  9. Implications from the upper limit of radio afterglow emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A $\\gamma$-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. The $\\gamma$-ray energy output is estimated as $E_\\gamma \\approx 5\\times 10^{51}$\\,erg at the nominal $z\\approx 0.55$ redshift implied by the dispersion measure of FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observations only place an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we make a detailed constraint on the afterglow paramet...

  10. Upper limits for the circular dichroism for the C 1s and O 1s core excitation of methyl oxirane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemper, G; Lischke, T; Fukuzawa, H; Reinkoester, A; Ueda, K

    2007-01-01

    The circular dichroism (CD) in the total and partial ion yields of methyl-oxirane C 3 H 6 O was measured at the C 1s and O 1s edges. The difference of the response of the chiral molecule to circularly polarized light with opposite handedness was found to be less than 0.2% for the total ion yield and less than 0.5% for the partial ion yield. Additionally we tried to find a dipole allowed molecular orientation CD effect by analysing the fragmentation in the forward and backward direction. For this effect we found an upper limit of 1-2% for all abundant ionic fragments

  11. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuzhang Xue; Yinkun Li; Feng Li; Fang Zhang; Wenzhong Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P), water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experi...

  12. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic pigm...... investigated scenarios, with upper limits of 10 mg/m2 or 1600 particles/mL. This is the first holistic confirmation that pigment nanomaterials remain strongly contained in a plastic that has low diffusion and high persistence such as the polyolefin High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)....

  13. An experimental assessment of the upper elevational limit of flowering plants in the western Himalaya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Leoš; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2010), s. 590-596 ISSN 0906-7590 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050802; GA ČR GA206/03/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : species richness * vascular plants * species limits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.417, year: 2010

  14. Upper packing dimension of a measure and the limit distribution of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .com. MS received 17 March 2009; revised 9 April 2009. Abstract. This article gives sufficient conditions for the limit distribution of products of i.i.d. 2 × 2 stochastic matrices to be continuous singular, when the support of the distribution of the ...

  15. An upper limit on the anomalous magnetic moment of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    Using radiative Z^0 -> \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma events collected with the OPAL detector at LEP at \\sqrt{s}=M_Z during 1990-95, a direct study of the electromagnetic current at the \\tau\\gamma vertex has been performed in terms of the anomalous magnetic form factor F_2 of the \\tau lepton. The analysis is based on a data sample of 1429 e^+ e^- -> \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma events which are examined for a deviation from the expectation with F_2 = 0. From the non-observation of anomalous \\tau^+ \\tau^- \\gamma production a limit of -0.068 < F_2 < 0.065 is obtained. This can also be interpreted as a limit on the electric dipole form factor F_3 as -3.8 x 10^-16 e-cm < eF_3 < 3.6 x 10^-16 e-cm. The above ranges are valid at the 95% confidence level.

  16. An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Acernese, F; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Alshourbagy, M; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Arun, K G; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bigotta, S; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Boccara, C; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brand, J F J van den; Brau, J E; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Van Den Broeck, C; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Carbognani, F; Cardenas, L; Caride, S; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Corda, C; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Coward, D; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; De Rosa, R; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Dueck, J; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J G; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Franzen, A; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gobler, S; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Granata, V; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Guidi, G; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D R; Isogai, T; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; La Penna, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Laval, M; Lazzarini, A; Lei, H; Lei, M; Leindecker, N; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Longo, M; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mackowski, J-M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D J A; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Menzinger, F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreau, J; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Morioka, T; Mors, K; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mühlen, H Zur; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pagliaroli, G; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pardi, S; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Punken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Putten, S van der; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raics, Z; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Roberts, P; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Salemi, F; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Satterthwaite, M; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; van der Sluys, M V; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, A; Stein, L C; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szokoly, G P; Talukder, D; Tang, L; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Terenzi, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Trummer, J; Ugolini, D; Ulmen, J; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; van Veggel, A A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2009-08-20

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100 Hz.

  17. Upper limit for the branching ratio of KS→e+e- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Sakeliou, L.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Ealet, A.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hubert, E.; Le Gac, R.; Montanet, F.; Touchard, F.; Backenstoss, G.; Leimgruber, F.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Schietinger, T.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Bargassa, P.

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the branching ratio for K S →e + e - decay was performed with the CPLEAR detector at LEAR. Full event reconstruction together with calorimeter e/π separation allowed for powerful background rejection and high signal acceptance. The analysis on the complete set of data yields the result: BR(K S →e + e - ) -7 (90% CL), an improvement on the current experimental limit by a factor of 20

  18. Penelitian Pendahuluan Angkutan Sedimen Melayang Sub-Das Citarik Hulu = (Suspended Sediment Transport in the Upper Citarik Sub-River Basin: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno .

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its function as a soil cover, forest also plays a positive role in preserving water and sediment in a river basin. Rain water which is abundant in the rainy season is caught and stored underground, so that the erosion and flood hazard can be eliminated. In the dry season groundwater becomes reservation to minimize and even eliminate the risk of water shortage. This preliminary study is to monitor suspended sediment transport with respect to the forest area of upper Citarum River Basin at upper Citarih Sub - River Basin. On the basis of the preliminary study results, it can be said that for a river basin where percentage of the forest area is smaller (i the suspended sediment concentration is higher and (ii the total sediment per area unit is greater. These indications were found during the study period, from September 1987 to February 1988. The preliminary study was conducted in a sub-river basin where the soil type is a mixture of andosol and brown regosol, and the terrain is undulating, hilly to mountainous with slope more than 15 percent.

  19. Upper Limits on a Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background Using LIGO and Virgo Interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of omega(sub GW)(f) = omega(sub 3) (f/900Hz)3, of omega(sub 3) < 0.33, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h(sub 100) = 0.72. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  20. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  1. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  2. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of upper cretaceous, paleocene, and lower eocene rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.L.; Dunagan, J.F. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural basin of Laramide age. Previous work dealing with the Bighorn Basin was reviewed, and field investigations were carried out in the spring and summer of 1976. Subsurface data were collected and results of surface and subsurface investigations were evaluated with respect to uranium favorability. Precambrian plutonic and metamorphic rocks and Tertiary tuffaceous rocks in the Bighorn Basin and bordering uplifts are considered insignificant as source rocks, although the Wiggins Formation (White River equivalent) cannot be evaluated as a possible source because of a lack of data. Potential host rocks locally show only limited favorability. Lithology of strata exposed along the western and southern basin margins is more favorable than that of rocks in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but there is little organic material, pyrite, or other reducing agents in these rocks. Strata of the Lance, Polecat Bench, and Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin are considered generally unfavorable for sandstone uranium deposits

  3. Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Donatelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.

  4. Design and modeling of an SJ infrared solar cell approaching upper limit of theoretical efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    Recent trends of photovoltaics account for the conversion efficiency limit making them more cost effective. To achieve this we have to leave the golden era of silicon cell and make a path towards III-V compound semiconductor groups to take advantages like bandgap engineering by alloying these compounds. In this work we have used a low bandgap GaSb material and designed a single junction (SJ) cell with a conversion efficiency of 32.98%. SILVACO ATLAS TCAD simulator has been used to simulate the proposed model using both Ray Tracing and Transfer Matrix Method (under 1 sun and 1000 sun of AM1.5G spectrum). A detailed analyses of photogeneration rate, spectral response, potential developed, external quantum efficiency (EQE), internal quantum efficiency (IQE), short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (η) are discussed. The obtained results are compared with previously reported SJ solar cell reports.

  5. Upper limit for context-based crop classification in robotic weeding applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Åstrand, Björn; Jørgensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the precise position of crop plants is a prerequisite for effective mechanical weed control in robotic weeding application such as in crops like sugar beets which are sensitive to mechanical stress. Visual detection and recognition of crop plants based on their shapes has been...... described many times in the literature. In this paper the potential of using knowledge about the crop seed pattern is investigated based on simulated output from a perception system. The reliability of position–based crop plant detection is shown to depend on the weed density (ρ, measured in weed plants per...... square metre) and the crop plant pattern position uncertainty (σx and σy, measured in metres along and perpendicular to the crop row, respectively). The recognition reliability can be described with the positive predictive value (PPV), which is limited by the seeding pattern uncertainty and the weed...

  6. Additional Explanations to "Upper Limit in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table - Element No.155". A Story How the Problem was Resolved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a survey for the methods how a possible upper limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table can be found. It is show, only the method of hyperbolas leads to exact answering this question.

  7. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  8. Preliminary study of crust-upper mantle structure of the Tibetan Plateau by using broadband teleseismic body waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lu-Pei; Zeng, Rong-Sheng; Wu, Francis T.; Owens, Thomas J.; Randall, George E.

    1993-05-01

    As part of a joint Sino-U.S. research project to study the deep structure of the Tibetan Plateau, 11 broadband digital seismic recorders were deployed on the Plateau for one year of passive seismic recording. In this report we use teleseimic P waveforms to study the seismic velocity structure of crust and upper mantle under three stations by receiver function inversion. The receiver function is obtained by first rotating two horizontal components of seismic records into radial and tangential components and then deconvolving the vertical component from them. The receiver function depends only on the structure near the station because the source and path effects have been removed by the deconvolution. To suppress noise, receiver functions calculated from events clustered in a small range of back-azimuths and epicentral distances are stacked. Using a matrix formalism describing the propagation of elastic waves in laterally homogeneous stratified medium, a synthetic receiver function and differential receiver functions for the parameters in each layer can be calculated to establish a linearized inversion for one-dimensional velocity structure. Preliminary results of three stations, Wen-quan, Golmud and Xigatze (Coded as WNDO, TUNL and XIGA), located in central, northern and southern Plateau are given in this paper. The receiver functions of all three stations show clear P-S converted phases. The time delays of these converted phases relative to direct P arrivals are: WNDO 7.9s (for NE direction) and 8.3s (for SE direction), TUNL 8.2s, XIGA 9.0s. Such long time delays indicate the great thickness of crust under the Plateau. The differences between receiver function of these three station shows the tectonic difference between southern and north-central Plateau. The waveforms of the receiver functions for WNDO and TUNL are very simple, while the receiver function of XIGA has an additional midcrustal converted phase. The S wave velocity structures at these three stations

  9. Game-Based Virtual Reality Canoe Paddling Training to Improve Postural Balance and Upper Extremity Function: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study of 30 Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Song, Chang Ho

    2018-04-27

    BACKGROUND Virtual reality (VR) training with motion-controlled console games can be incorporated into stroke rehabilitation programs. The use of a variety of gaming software can provide the patient with an opportunity to perform activities that are exciting, entertaining, and that may not be feasible in clinical environments. The aim of this preliminary randomized controlled study was to investigate the effects of game-based VR canoe paddling training, when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs, on postural balance and upper extremity function in 30 patients with subacute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients, who were within six months following the diagnosis of stroke, were randomly allocated to either the experimental group (n=15) or the control group (n=15). All participants participated in a conventional rehabilitation program. Also, the experimental group (n=15) performed the VR canoe paddling training for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for five weeks. After five weeks, outcomes of changes in postural balance and upper extremity function were evaluated and compared between the two groups. RESULTS At five weeks, postural balance and upper extremity function showed significant improvements in both patients groups when compared with the baseline measurements (pGame-based VR canoe paddling training is an effective rehabilitation therapy that enhances postural balance and upper extremity function in patients with subacute stroke when combined with conventional physical rehabilitation programs.

  10. Calculation of Upper Subcritical Limits for Nuclear Criticality in a Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Pegram

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the methodology to be used for development of the Subcritical Limit (SL) for post closure conditions for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SL is a value based on a set of benchmark criticality multiplier, k eff results that are outputs of the MCNP calculation method. This SL accounts for calculational biases and associated uncertainties resulting from the use of MCNP as the method of assessing k eff . The context for an SL estimate include the range of applicability (based on the set of MCNP results) and the type of SL required for the application at hand. This document will include illustrative calculations for each of three approaches. The data sets used for the example calculations are identified in Section 5.1. These represent three waste categories, and SLs for each of these sets of experiments will be computed in this document. Future MCNP data sets will be analyzed using the methods discussed here. The treatment of the biases evaluated on sets of k eff results via MCNP is statistical in nature. This document does not address additional non-statistical contributions to the bias margin, acknowledging that regulatory requirements may impose additional administrative penalties. Potentially, there are other biases or margins that should be accounted for when assessing criticality (k eff ). Only aspects of the bias as determined using the stated assumptions and benchmark critical data sets will be included in the methods and sample calculations in this document. The set of benchmark experiments used in the validation of the computational system should be representative of the composition, configuration, and nuclear characteristics for the application at hand. In this work, a range of critical experiments will be the basis of establishing the SL for three categories of waste types that will be in the repository. The ultimate purpose of this document is to present methods that will effectively characterize the MCNP

  11. Electric Mars: The first direct measurement of an upper limit for the Martian "polar wind" electric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn; Mitchell, David; Glocer, Alex; Grebowsky, Joseph; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, Jack; Andersson, Laila; Espley, Jared; Mazelle, Christian; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Fedorov, Andrei; Ma, Yingjuan; Bougher, Steven; Lillis, Robert; Ergun, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    An important mechanism in the generation of polar wind outflow is the ambipolar electric potential which assists ions in overcoming gravity and is a key mechanism for Terrestrial ionospheric escape. At Mars, open field lines are not confined to the poles, and outflow of ionospheric electrons is observed far into the tail. It has thus been hypothesized that a similar electric potential may be present at Mars, contributing to global ionospheric loss. However, no direct measurements of this potential have been made. In this pilot study, we examine photoelectron spectra measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars Scout to put an initial upper bound on the total potential drop in the ionosphere of Mars of Φ♂ ≾⊥ 2V , with the possibility of a further ≾4.5 V potential drop above this in the magnetotail. If the total potential drop was close to the upper limit, then strong outflows of major ionospheric species (H+, O+, and O2+) would be expected. However, if most of the potential drop is confined below the spacecraft, as expected by current theory, then such a potential would not be sufficient on its own to accelerate O2+ to escape velocities, but would be sufficient for lighter ions. However, any potential would contribute to atmospheric loss through the enhancement of Jeans escape.

  12. Upper Limits on the Presence of Central Massive Black Holes in Two Ultra-compact Dwarf Galaxies in Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggel, Karina T.; Seth, Anil C.; Neumayer, Nadine; Mieske, Steffen; Chilingarian, Igor; Ahn, Christopher; Baumgardt, Holger; Hilker, Michael; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay

    2018-05-01

    The recent discovery of massive black holes (BHs) in the centers of high-mass ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) suggests that at least some are the stripped nuclear star clusters of dwarf galaxies. We present the first study that investigates whether such massive BHs, and therefore stripped nuclei, also exist in low-mass (M < 107 M ⊙) UCDs. We constrain the BH masses of two UCDs located in Centaurus A (UCD 320 and UCD 330) using Jeans modeling of the resolved stellar kinematics from adaptive optics data obtained with the SINFONI integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT/SINFONI). No massive BHs are found in either UCD. We find a 3σ upper limit on the central BH mass in UCD 330 of M • < 1.0 × 105 M ⊙, which corresponds to 1.7% of the total mass. This excludes a high-mass fraction BH and would only allow low-mass BHs similar to those claimed to be detected in Local Group globular clusters. For UCD 320, poorer data quality results in a less constraining 3σ upper limit of M • < 1 × 106 M ⊙, which is equal to 37.7% of the total mass. The dynamical mass-to-light ratios of UCD 320 and UCD 330 are not inflated compared to predictions from stellar population models. The non-detection of BHs in these low-mass UCDs is consistent with the idea that elevated dynamical mass-to-light ratios do indicate the presence of a substantial BH. Although no massive BHs are detected, these systems could still be stripped nuclei. The strong rotation (v/σ of 0.3–0.4) in both UCDs and the two-component light profile in UCD 330 support the idea that these UCDs may be stripped nuclei of low-mass galaxies whose BH occupation fraction is not yet known.

  13. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Upper Extremity Injured Workers Stratified by Current Work Status: An Examination of Health Characteristics, Work Limitations and Work Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Pichora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper extremity injured workers are an under-studied population. A descriptive comparison of workers with shoulder, elbow and hand injuries reporting to a Canadian Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB clinic was undertaken. Objective: To determine if differences existed between injury groups stratified by current work status. Methods: All WSIB claimants reporting to our upper extremity clinic between 2003 and 2008 were approached to participate in this descriptive study. 314 working and 146 non-working WSIB claimants completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH; Short Form health survey (SF36; Worker’s Limitations Questionnaire and the Work Instability Scale. Various parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to assess significant differences between groups on demographic, work and health related variables. Results: Hand, followed by the shoulder and elbow were the most common site of injury. Most non-workers listed their current injury as the reason for being off work, and attempted to return to work once since their injury occurrence. Non-workers and a subset of workers at high risk for work loss showed significantly worse mental functioning. Workers identified physical demands as the most frequent injury-related on the job limitation. 60% of current workers were listed as low risk for work loss on the Work Instability Scale. Conclusions: Poorer mental functioning, being female and sustaining a shoulder injury were risk factors for work instability. Our cohort of injured non-workers were unable to return to work due to their current injury, reinforcing the need to advocate for modified duties, shorter hours and a work environment where stress and injury recurrence is reduced. Future studies examining pre-injury depression as a risk factor for prolonged work absences are warranted.

  15. Paramagnetic limiting of the upper critical field of the layered organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(SCN)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, F.; Brooks, J.S.; McKenzie, R.H.; Schlueter, J.A.; Williams, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report detailed measurements of the interlayer magnetoresistance of the layered organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SCN) 2 for temperatures down to 0.5 K and fields up to 30 T. The upper critical field is determined from the resistive transition for a wide range of temperatures and field directions. For magnetic fields parallel to the layers, the upper critical field increases approximately linearly with decreasing temperature. The upper critical field at low temperatures is compared to the Pauli paramagnetic limit, at which singlet superconductivity should be destroyed by the Zeeman splitting of the electron spins. The measured value is comparable to a value for the paramagnetic limit calculated from thermodynamic quantities but exceeds the limit calculated from BCS theory. The angular dependence of the upper critical field shows a cusplike feature for fields close to the layers, consistent with decoupled layers.

  16. Development of subliminal persuasion system to improve the upper limb posture in laparoscopic training: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Cosentino, Sarah; Magistro, Daniele; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Zecca, Massimiliano; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-11-01

    Current training for laparoscopy focuses only on the enhancement of manual skill and does not give advice on improving trainees' posture. However, a poor posture can result in increased static muscle loading, faster fatigue, and impaired psychomotor task performance. In this paper, the authors propose a method, named subliminal persuasion, which gives the trainee real-time advice for correcting the upper limb posture during laparoscopic training like the expert but leads to a lower increment in the workload. A 9-axis inertial measurement unit was used to compute the upper limb posture, and a Detection Reaction Time device was developed and used to measure the workload. A monitor displayed not only images from laparoscope, but also a visual stimulus, a transparent red cross superimposed to the laparoscopic images, when the trainee had incorrect upper limb posture. One group was exposed, when their posture was not correct during training, to a short (about 33 ms) subliminal visual stimulus. The control group instead was exposed to longer (about 660 ms) supraliminal visual stimuli. We found that subliminal visual stimulation is a valid method to improve trainees' upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Moreover, the additional workload required for subconscious processing of subliminal visual stimuli is less than the one required for supraliminal visual stimuli, which is processed instead at the conscious level. We propose subliminal persuasion as a method to give subconscious real-time stimuli to improve upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Its effectiveness and efficiency were confirmed against supraliminal stimuli transmitted at the conscious level: Subliminal persuasion improved upper limb posture of trainees, with a smaller increase on the overall workload.

  17. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  18. Spinal fusion limits upper body range of motion during gait without inducing compensatory mechanisms in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; de Kleuver, M; Schimmel, J J P; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show a limited alteration of gait at normal walking speed after spinal fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), despite the presumed essential role of spinal mobility during gait. This study analyses how spinal fusion affects gait at more challenging walking speeds. More specifically, we investigated whether thoracic-pelvic rotations are reduced to a larger extent at higher gait speeds and whether compensatory mechanisms above and below the stiffened spine are present. 18 AIS patients underwent gait analysis at increasing walking speeds (0.45 to 2.22m/s) before and after spinal fusion. The range of motion (ROM) of the upper (thorax, thoracic-pelvic and pelvis) and lower body (hip, knee and ankle) was determined in all three planes. Spatiotemporal parameters of interest were stride length and cadence. Spinal fusion diminished transverse plane thoracic-pelvic ROM and this difference was more explicit at higher walking speeds. Transversal pelvis ROM was also decreased but this effect was not affected by speed. Lower body ROM, step length and cadence remained unaffected. Despite the reduction of upper body ROM after spine surgery during high speed gait, no altered spatiotemporal parameters or increased compensatory ROM above or below the fusion (i.e. in the shoulder girdle or lower extremities) was identified. Thus, it remains unclear how patients can cope so well with such major surgery. Future studies should focus on analyzing the kinematics of individual spinal levels above and below the fusion during gait to investigate possible compensatory mechanisms within the spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  20. A preliminary riparian/wetland vegetation community classification of the Upper and Middle Rio Grande watersheds in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Durkin; Esteban Muldavin; Mike Bradley; Stacey E. Carr

    1996-01-01

    The riparian wetland vegetation communities of the upper and middle Rio Grande watersheds in New Mexico were surveyed in 1992 through 1994. The communities are hierarchically classified in terms of species composition and vegetation structure. The resulting Community Types are related to soil conditions, hydrological regime, and temporal dynamics. The classification is...

  1. Upper limit for the D2H+ ortho-to-para ratio in the prestellar core 16293E (CHESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastel, C.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Lis, D. C.; Caux, E.; Codella, C.; Beckwith, J. A.; Ridley, T.

    2012-11-01

    The H_3^+ ion plays a key role in the chemistry of dense interstellar gas clouds where stars and planets are forming. The low temperatures and high extinctions of such clouds make direct observations of H_3^+ impossible, but lead to large abundances of H2D+ and D2H+, which are very useful probes of the early stages of star and planet formation. The ground-state rotational ortho-D2H+ 11,1-00,0 transition at 1476.6 GHz in the prestellar core 16293E has been searched for with the Herschel HIFI instrument, within the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) Key Program. The line has not been detected at the 21 mK km s-1 level (3σ integrated line intensity). We used the ortho-H2D+ 11,0-11,1 transition and para-D2H+ 11,0-10,1 transition detected in this source to determine an upper limit on the ortho-to-para D2H+ ratio as well as the para-D2H+/ortho-H2D+ ratio from a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. The comparison between our chemical modeling and the observations suggests that the CO depletion must be high (larger than 100), with a density between 5 × 105 and 106 cm-3. Also the upper limit on the ortho-D2H+ line is consistent with a low gas temperature (~11 K) with a ortho-to-para ratio of 6 to 9, i.e. 2 to 3 times higher than the value estimated from the chemical modeling, making it impossible to detect this high frequency transition with the present state of the art receivers. The chemical network is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A33Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. Continuous theta-burst stimulation combined with occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Sageshima, Masashi; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p hemiparesis after stroke.

  3. Reinforced Feedback in Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation of Upper Extremity Dysfunction after Stroke: Preliminary Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kiper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study whether the reinforced feedback in virtual environment (RFVE is more effective than traditional rehabilitation (TR for the treatment of upper limb motor function after stroke, regardless of stroke etiology (i.e., ischemic, hemorrhagic. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Participants. Forty-four patients affected by stroke. Intervention. The patients were randomized into two groups: RFVE (N=23 and TR (N=21, and stratified according to stroke etiology. The RFVE treatment consisted of multidirectional exercises providing augmented feedback provided by virtual reality, while in the TR treatment the same exercises were provided without augmented feedbacks. Outcome Measures. Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale (F-M UE, Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM, and kinematics parameters (speed, time, and peak. Results. The F-M UE (P=0.030, FIM (P=0.021, time (P=0.008, and peak (P=0.018, were significantly higher in the RFVE group after treatment, but not speed (P=0.140. The patients affected by hemorrhagic stroke significantly improved FIM (P=0.031, time (P=0.011, and peak (P=0.020 after treatment, whereas the patients affected by ischemic stroke improved significantly only speed (P=0.005 when treated by RFVE. Conclusion. These results indicated that some poststroke patients may benefit from RFVE program for the recovery of upper limb motor function. This trial is registered with NCT01955291.

  4. Preliminary results after upper cervical chiropractic care in patients with chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandolesi, Sandro; Marceca, Giuseppe; Moser, Jon; Niglio, Tarcisio; d'Alessandro, Aldo; Ciccone, Matteo Marco; Zito, Annapaola; Mandolesi, Dimitri; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Fedele, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical and X-ray results of the Upper Cervical Chiropractic care through the specific adjustments (corrections) of C1-C2 on patients with chronic venous cerebral-spinal insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied a sample of 77 patients before and after the Upper Cervical Chiropractic care, and we analyzed: A) The change of the X-ray parameters; B) The clinical results using a new set of questions. The protocol of the C1- C2 upper Cervical Chiropractic treatment, specific for these patients, lasts four months. From a haemodynamic point of view we divided the patients in 3 types: Type 1 - purely vascular with intravenous alterations; Type 2 - "mechanical" with of external venous compressions; Type 3 - mixed. We found an improvement in all kinds of subluxations after the treatment with respect to the pre-treatment X-ray evaluation, with a significant statistical difference. The differences between the clinical symptoms before and after the specific treatment of C1-C2 are statistically significant with pcerebro-spinal fluid.

  5. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Urinary Epithelial Cancer with Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Matsuzaki, K.; Kubo, H.; Nishitani, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Various malignant tumors of the body show high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). In the genitourinary region, DWI is expected to have a role in detecting urinary epithelial cancer noninvasively. Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of DWI for the diagnosis of urinary epithelial cancer with upper urinary tract obstruction. Material and Methods: Twenty upper urinary tract cancers in 16 patients were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800s/mm2). The signal intensity was visually evaluated, and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All urinary epithelial cancers showed high signal intensity on DWI. The ADC in cancerous lesions was 1.31±0.27 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, which was significantly lower than that of the lumens of the ureter or renal pelvis (3.32±0.44 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; P<0.001). Maximum intensity projection images of DWI in combination with static-fluid MR urography provided three-dimensional entire urinary tract imaging with the extension of tumors. Conclusion: DWI is useful in the tumor detection and in evaluating the tumor extension of urinary epithelial cancer in patients with upper urinary tract obstruction

  6. Implications from the Upper Limit of Radio Afterglow Emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A γ-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observation only placed an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we perform a detailed constraint on the afterglow parameters for the FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 system. We find that for the commonly used microphysics shock parameters (e.g., {ɛ }e=0.1, {ɛ }B=0.01, and p = 2.3), if the fast radio burst (FRB) is indeed cosmological as inferred from its measured dispersion measure (DM), the ambient medium number density should be ≤slant {10}-3 {{cm}}-3, which is the typical value for a compact binary merger environment but disfavors a massive star origin. Assuming a typical ISM density, one would require that the redshift of the FRB be much smaller than the value inferred from DM (z\\ll 0.1), implying a non-cosmological origin of DM. The constraints are much looser if one adopts smaller {ɛ }B and {ɛ }e values, as observed in some gamma-ray burst afterglows. The FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 association remains plausible. We critically discuss possible progenitor models for the system.

  7. Upper limits to the detection of ammonia from protoplanetary disks around HL Tauri and L1551-IRS 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose F.; Torrelles, Jose M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    We present NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) observations of the young stellar sources HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5 using the VLA in its B-configuration, which provides an angular resolution of about 0.4 arcsec (about 50 AU at 140 pc) at 1.3 cm wavelength. Our goal was to detect and resolve circumstellar molecular disks with radius of the order of 100 AU around these two sources. No ammonia emission was detected toward either of them. The 3-sigma levels were 2.7 mJy/beam and 3.9 mJy/beam for HL Tau and L1551-IRS 5, respectively, with a velocity resolution of about 5 km/s. With this nondetection, we estimate upper limits to the mass of the proposed protoplanetary molecular disks (within a radius of 10 AU from the central stars) on the order of 0.02/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for HL Tau and 0.1/(X(NH3)/10 exp -8) solar mass for L1551-IRS 5.

  8. Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C-H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Le Roux, A; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; Ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-12-05

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Ω_{GW}(f)=Ω_{α}(f/f_{ref})^{α}, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Ω_{GW}(f)waves.

  9. Study of the decay /sup 184/Hg. -->. /sup 184/Au (Tsub(1/2)=30s). [Lifetime, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettles, W G; Beraud, R; Cole, J D; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V; Kawakami, H [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics; Sastry, K S.R. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA); Spejewski, E H

    1978-04-01

    The radioactive decay of /sup 184/Hg to /sup 184/Au was studied on line with the UNISOR isotope separator. The 184 mass chain was entered at /sup 184/Tl and /sup 184/Hg by bombarding an isotopically-enriched target of /sup 180/W with /sup 14/N ions of 177 MeV. Multiscale singles and ..gamma..-..gamma..-time coincidence studies were carried out. No previous levels have been assigned to /sup 184/Au. From the coincidence data eight levels at 156.2, 159.1, 247.7, 282.8, 295.1, 392.4, 418.0 and 412.4 keV are assigned and two tentative levels at 534.0 and 551.6 keV are proposed. By using the delayed coincidence technique, a half-life of 36+-6 nanoseconds was measured for the 156.2 keV first-excited level and upper limits of 2 nanoseconds were determined for the half-lives of levels at 159.1, 247.7, 295.1 and 392.4 keV.

  10. The upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies is method-dependent: A collaborative study with biomedical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Metus, Paolo; Caruso, Beatrice; Perosa, Anna Rosa; Sirianni, Francesca; Stenner, Elisabetta; Steffan, Agostino; Villalta, Danilo

    2016-01-15

    The determination of the upper reference limit (URL) for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOAbs) is a contentious issue, because of the difficulty in defining the reference population. The aim of this study was to establish the URL (eURL) for TPOAbs, according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to compare them with those obtained in a female counterpart, by the use of six commercial automated platforms. 120 healthy males and 120 healthy females with NACB-required characteristics (Lumipulse G1200, Fujirebio. Within each method, TPOAbs values had a high degree of dispersion and the eURLs were lower than those stated by the manufacturer. A statistically significant difference (p0.05). Despite the analytical harmonization, the wide dispersion of the results and the differences of the eURLs between methods suggest the need of further studies focusing on TPO antigen preparations as the possible source of variability between different assays. In addition, the lack of clinical significant difference between males and females, in terms of TPOAb eURLs, confirms the suitability of the NACB recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a low-cost, virtual-reality based, upper-limb stroke rehabilitation device: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Alyson; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Ryan, Jennifer; Nowicky, Alexander; Griscti, Josephine; Levings, Hannah; Kilbride, Cherry

    2018-04-12

    To establish feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted version of a commercially available, virtual-reality gaming system (the Personalised Stroke Therapy system) for upper-limb rehabilitation with community dwelling stroke-survivors. Twelve stroke-survivors (nine females, mean age 58 years, [standard deviation 7.1], median stroke chronicity 42 months [interquartile range 34.7], Motricity index 14-25 for shoulder and elbow) were asked to complete nine, 40-min intervention sessions using two activities on the system over 3 weeks. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through a semi-structured interview, recording of adverse effects, adherence, enjoyment (using an 11-point Likert scale), and perceived exertion (using the BORG scale). Assessments of impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper extremity), activity (ABILHAND, Action Research Arm Test, Motor Activity Log-28), and participation (Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome) were completed at baseline, following intervention, and at 4-week follow-up. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis of interview and intervention field-notes and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks. Side-by-side displays were used to integrate findings. Participants received between 175 and 336 min of intervention. Thirteen non-serious adverse effects were reported by five participants. Participants reported a high level of enjoyment (8.1 and 6.8 out of 10) and rated exertion between 11.6 and 12.9 out of 20. Themes of improvements in impairments and increased spontaneous use in functional activities were identified and supported by improvements in all outcome measures between baseline and post-intervention (p technologies for use in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation should be personalised, dependent on individual need. Through the use of hands-free systems and personalisation, stroke survivors with moderate and moderately-severe levels of upper-limb impairment following stroke are able to use gaming technologies

  12. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation.

  13. Brachiopods and rugose corals in an upper Serpukhovian (Mississippian) biostrome: preliminary results from the Djebel Arhlal (Bechar Basin, Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, K. F. T.; Aretz, M.; Legrand-Biain, M.; Bouzidi, A.; Aimouche, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Djebel Arhlal is the southernmost outcrop of upper Serpukhovian strata in the Bechar Basin. Here the Djenien member of the Djenien Formation is three-folded and it contains a 10 m-thick coral biostrome in its middle unit formed by Siphonodendron, Diphyphyllum and Lithostrotion. Distances between in situ colonies are in the order of several decimetres and the space between them is filled with bioclastic limestone containing coral rubble. Few brachiopods and solitary corals are found as dwellers within the biostrome, but these groups are much more common in the strata below and above the coral biostrome. This is especially true for the brachiopods, which reach diversities of more than a dozen species in specific horizons. They mainly belong to the orders Productida, Spiriferida and Athyridida. Agitated open-marine platform interior or platform margin settings are the general facies encountered in the Djenien member at the Djebel Arhlal. The field data, including brachiopod coquinas and many fragmented brachiopods and corals, are confirmed by microfacies analysis. However, the coral biostrome records a quieter setting at the interface of middle and outer ramp settings, as seen in the co-existence of in situ coral growth, input of reworked material, deposition of carbonate mud, and sparitic textures. This autoparabiostrome at Djebel Arhlal is compared to other rather thick and of exceptional horizontal extension upper Serpukhovian biostromes (few kilometres). (Author)

  14. Alteration of Inflammatory Mediators in the Upper and Lower Airways under Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia: Preliminary Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jung Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We hypothesized that CIH may affect the upper airway immune system and aimed to verify whether CIH can induce airway inflammation in a murine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA model. Methods. C57BL6 male mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (CIH group; 5 ~ 21% FiO2, 120 sec cycles, 12 h/d, n=6 or room air (Sham group, n=6 for up to 4 weeks in identical chambers. Nasal and lung tissues and lavage fluid were collected and analyzed by multiplex assay. Lung lavage fluid was also utilized for FACS analysis to determine eosinophil count. Results. We determined the protein level of 24 different cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators. Among various cytokines, levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 were significantly elevated in nose or lung tissue from the CIH group. In addition, MCP-1 and periostin were elevated in nose and lung tissue and lavage fluid from the CIH group. Conclusions. CIH for 4 weeks altered the levels of inflammatory mediators in both the nose and lungs of mouse model. We suggest that the airway immune system may be deteriorated by CIH and allergic inflammation in the upper or lower airway could be worsened by sleep apnea.

  15. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana; Gondikas, Andreas; Mackevica, Aiga; Borschneck, Daniel; Chaurand, Perrine; Vidal, Vladimir; Rose, Jerome; von der Kammer, Frank; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2017-10-17

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic pigments. Additionally, primary leaching in food contact and secondary leaching from nanocomposite fragments with an increased surface into environmental media was examined. Standardized protocols/methods for release sampling, detection, and characterization of release rate and form were applied: Transformation of the bulk material was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray-tomography and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); releases were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), single-particle-ICP-MS (sp-ICP-MS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Analytical Ultracentrifugation (AUC), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. In all scenarios, the detectable particulate releases were attributed primarily to contaminations from handling and machining of the plastics, and were not identified with the pigments, although the contamination of 4 mg/kg (Fe) was dwarfed by the intentional content of 5800 mg/kg (Fe as Fe 2 O 3 pigment). We observed modulations (which were at least partially preventable by UV stabilizers) when comparing as-produced and aged nanocomposites, but no significant increase of releases. Release of pigments was negligible within the experimental error for all investigated scenarios, with upper limits of 10 mg/m 2 or 1600 particles/mL. This is the first holistic confirmation that pigment nanomaterials remain strongly contained in a plastic that has low diffusion and high persistence such as the polyolefin High Density Polyethylene (HDPE).

  16. The upper limit of the cardiorespiratory training zone (40-84%HRR) is overestimated for postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Florbela; Moreira, Maria Helena; Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Abrantes, Catarina Gavião

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate reserve (HRR) at first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT's) in postmenopausal women and compare it with optimal intensity range recommended by the ACSM (40-84%HRR). An additional aim was to evaluate whether a higher aerobic power level corresponded to a higher HRR at VT's. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women participated in this study (aged 48-69). A graded 25 Wmin(-2) cycle ergometer (Monark E839) exercise protocol was performed in order to assess aerobic power. The heart rate and gas-exchange variables were measured continuously using a portable gas analyzer system (Cosmed K4b). The first (VT1) and the second (VT2) VT's were determined by the time course curves of ventilation and O2 and CO2 ventilatory equivalents. A K-means clustering analysis was used in order to identify VO2max groups (cut-off of 30.5 mlkg(-1)min(-1)) and differences were evaluated by an independent sample t-test. Bland-Altman plots were performed to illustrate the agreement between methods. The women's HRR values at VT1 were similar to 40% HRR in both VO2max groups. At VT2 both VO2max groups exhibited negative differences (Plower VO2max group and -16.32% in the higher VO2max group). An upper limit of 84% overestimates the %HRR value for the second ventilatory threshold, suggesting that the cardiorespiratory target zone for this population should be lower and narrower (40-70%HRR). Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare Earth element (REE) incorporation in natural calcite. Upper limits for actinide uptake in a secondary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipp, S.L.S.; Christensen, J.T.; Waight, T.E.; Lakshtanov, L.Z.; Baker, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Secondary minerals have the potential to sequester escaped actinides in the event of a radioactive waste repository failure, but currently, data to define their maximum uptake capacity are generally lacking. To estimate a maximum limit for solid solution in calcite, we took advantage of the behavioural similarities of the 4f-orbital lanthanides with some of the 5f-orbital actinides and used rare Earth element (REE) concentration as an analogue. A suite of 65 calcite samples, mostly pure single crystals, was assembled from a range of geological settings, ages and locations and analysed by isotope dilution MC-ICP-MS (multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). All samples were shown to contain significant lanthanide concentrations. The highest were in calcite formed from hydrothermal solutions and from carbonatite magma. Maximum total mole fraction of REE was 4.72 x 10 -4 , which represents one substituted atom for about 2000 Ca sites. In comparison, synthetic calcite, precipitated at growth rates slow enough to insure solid solution formation, incorporated 7.5 x 10 -4 mole fraction Eu(III). For performance assessment, we propose that 7.5 mmole substitution/kg calcite should be considered the upper limit for actinide incorporation in secondary calcite. The largest source of uncertainty in this estimate results from extrapolating lanthanide data to actinides. However, the data offer confidence that for waters in the hydrothermal temperature range, such as in the near-field, or at groundwater temperatures, such as in the far-field, if calcite formation is favoured and actinides are present, those with behaviour like the trivalent lanthanides, especially Am 3+ and Cm 3+ , will be incorporated. REE are abundant and widely distributed, and they have remained in calcite for millions of years. Thus, one can be certain that incorporated actinides will also remain immobilised in calcite formed in fractures and pore spaces, as long as solution conditions

  18. Assistive-as-needed strategy for upper-limb robotic systems: A preliminary evaluation of the impedance control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, I. M.; Sidek, S. N.; Yusof, H. Md; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Puzi, A. Ahmad; Mat Rosly, H.

    2018-04-01

    Rehabilitation is a necessary restoration process of recovering impaired joint motion and muscle strength. Recent trends of rehabilitation have also moved towards providing more participation of the patient in therapy rather than simple passive treatments as it has been demonstrated to be non-trivial in promoting neural plasticity meant to promote motor recovery process. This paper presents an assistive control strategy based on impedance control technique. Dynamic modelling of upper arm is obtained by utilising the Euler-Lagrange formulation. The proportional-derivative (PD), computed torque control (CTC) impedance based framework is applied to examine its effectiveness in performing joint-space control with objectives specified in rehabilitating the elbow joint along the sagittal plane. A feasibility study through simulation was carried out to investigate the efficacy of the proposed controller on acceleration-based impedance model. The results show that impedance controller is more suitable as it allows the cooperative effort of the patient.

  19. Does Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection with Low-Dose Lidocaine Cause Objective Upper Extremity Weakness? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Nelson, Ariana; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J; Nagpal, Geeta; Walega, David R

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose local anesthetic is often used in cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CIESI), yet its effect on upper extremity strength has not been studied. The presence of consequent weakness has potential implications for postprocedure safety. This study aimed to determine whether low-dose lidocaine in a C7-T1 CIESI causes objective weakness. Prospective case series. Academic pain center. Adults, cervical radicular pain. Participants underwent CIESI with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine (3 mL total injectate). Elbow flexion (EF), wrist extension (WE), elbow extension (EE), and handgrip strength were measured by dynamometry at baseline, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes postinjection. Changes in strength from baseline and the proportion of participants with a minimum perceptible change in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength (≥20%) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty-seven participants were included. At 15 and 30 minutes postinjection, there was no within-participant difference in EF, WE, EE, and handgrip strength from baseline overall. Nonetheless, five (19%, 95% CI = 4-33) of the participants demonstrated a 20% or greater strength decrease in at least one myotomal distribution. A 20% or greater decrease in strength was present in left EF 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), right EF 7% (95% CI = 0-17%), left WE 4% (95% CI = 0-11%), and right WE 7% (95% CI = 0-17%). The present data suggest that CIESI with an injectate volume of 3 mL that includes 1 mL of 1% lidocaine may result in objective upper extremity weakness that is above the minimum threshold of perception in a subset of patients. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  1. Preliminary Study of Ideal Operational MHD Beta Limit in HL-2A Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yong; Dong Jiaqi; He Hongda; Turnbull, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) n = 1 kink mode with n the toroidal mode number is studied and the operational beta limit, constrained by the mode, is calculated for the equilibrium of HL-2A by using the GATO code. Approximately the same beta limit is obtained for configurations with a value of the axial safety factor q 0 both larger and less than 1. Without the stabilization of the conducting wall, the beta limit is found to be 0.821% corresponding to a normalized beta value of β c N = 2.56 for a typical HL-2A discharge with a plasma current I p = 0.245 MA, and the scaling of β c N ∼constant is confirmed. (magnetically confined plasma)

  2. Electric-dipole-moment enhancement factor for the thallium atom, and a new upper limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, P.G.H.; Sternheimer, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Some time ago, an accurate upper limit on a possible permanent electric dipole moment of the thallium atom in the 6 2 P 1 / 2 ground state was obtained by Gould. The result was D/sub Tl/ = [(1.3 +- 2.4) x 10 -21 cm]e. In connection with this value, a calculation of the electric dipole enhancement factor R/sub Tl/, which is defined as the ratio D/sub Tl//D/sub e/, where D/sub e/is the corresponding upper limit on a possible electric dipole moment of the (valence) electron was carried out. A value R/subTl/ = 700 was obtained, which leads to an upper limit D/sub e/ = [(1.9 +- 3.4) x 10 -24 cm]e. This result is comparable with the value D/sub e/ -24 cm)e previously obtained by Weisskopf et al. from measurements on the cesium atom, and with the result of Player and Sandars of [(0.7 +- 2.2) x 10 -24 cm]e obtained from the search for an electric dipole moment in the 3 P 2 metastable state of xenon. All three results set a stringent upper limit on the amount of a possible violation of T and P invariance in electromagnetic interactions. (U.S.)

  3. A preliminary study comparing the use of cervical/upper thoracic mobilization and manipulation for individuals with mechanical neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, David; Learman, Ken; O'Halloran, Bryan; Cleland, Josh

    2015-05-01

    Neck pain is routinely managed using manual therapy (MT) to the cervical and thoracic spines. While both mobilizations and manipulations to these areas have been shown to reduce neck pain, increase cervical range of motion, and reduce disability, the most effective option remains elusive. The purpose of this preliminary trial was to compare the pragmatic use of cervical and thoracic mobilizations vs. manipulation for mechanical neck pain. This trial included 20 patients with mechanical neck pain. Each patient was randomized to receive either mobilization or manipulation to both the cervical and thoracic spines during their plan of care. Within-group analyses were made with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and between-group analyses were made with Mann-Whitney U. There were no between-group differences for any of the dependent variables including cervical active range of motion (CAROM) (P = 0.18), deep cervical flexion (DCF) endurance (P = 0.06), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) (P = 0.26), the neck disability index (NDI, P = 0.33), patient-specific functional scale (PSFS, P = 0.20), or the global rating of change (GROC) scale (P = 0.94). Within-group results were significant for all outcome variables (Ppain.

  4. Detection Limit of Smectite by Chemin IV Laboratory Instrument: Preliminary Implications for Chemin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilles, Cherie; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is an miniature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of detecting the mineralogical and elemental compositions of rocks, outcrops and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus-source Co X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CRISM and OMEGA have identified the presence of phyllosilicates at several locations on Mars including the four candidate MSL landing sites. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary studies to determine the CheMin detection limit of smectite in a smectite/olivine mixed mineral system.

  5. Intra-Annual Xylem Growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii at Its Upper and Lower Distribution Limits on the Luyashan Mountain in North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Altitude-related climatic factors, especially temperature, are important factors that affect tree growth in mountain forest ecosystems. The aims of this study were to estimate the intra-annual radial growth differences of Larix principis-rupprechtii (L. principis-rupprechtii between its upper and lower distribution limits, at 2740 and 2040 m a.s.l, respectively. Dynamics of xylem growth were observed by collecting microcore samples weekly during the 2011 growth season. The result indicated that different strategies were adopted at the two selected sites. Trees at the upper distribution limit adopted an “intensive strategy” with higher maximum growth rates (0.69 cell·day−1 within a shorter duration of 95 days, producing 21 new tracheids. By contrast, trees at the lower distribution limit exhibited an “extensive strategy” with lower maximum growth rates (0.53 cell·day−1 over a longer duration of 135 days, producing 50 tracheids. The soil temperature was probably the main factor limiting the onset of cambial activity for L. principis-rupprechtii, its daily mean thresholds for onset were 0 °C and 1.4 °C at the upper and lower distribution limits, respectively. These results indicate that L. principis-rupprechtii is able to adjust its xylem growth according to environmental conditions.

  6. Injuries to the upper extremities in polytrauma: limited effect on outcome more than ten years after injury - a cohort study in 629 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, C; Winkelmann, M; Mommsen, P; Probst, C; Zelle, B; Krettek, C; Zeckey, C

    2017-02-01

    To analyse the influence of upper extremity trauma on the long-term outcome of polytraumatised patients. A total of 629 multiply injured patients were included in a follow-up study at least ten years after injury (mean age 26.5 years, standard deviation 12.4). The extent of the patients' injury was classified using the Injury Severity Score. Outcome was measured using the Hannover Score for Polytrauma Outcome (HASPOC), Short Form (SF)-12, rehabilitation duration, and employment status. Outcomes for patients with and without a fracture of the upper extremity were compared and analysed with regard to specific fracture regions and any additional brachial plexus lesion. In all, 307 multiply-injured patients with and 322 without upper extremity injuries were included in the study. The groups with and without upper limb injuries were similar with respect to demographic data and injury pattern, except for midface trauma. There were no significant differences in the long-term outcome. In patients with brachial plexus lesions there were significantly more who were unemployed, required greater retraining and a worse HASPOC. Injuries to the upper extremities seem to have limited effect on long-term outcome in patients with polytrauma, as long as no injury was caused to the brachial plexus. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:255-60. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. A new evaluation of the upper esophageal sphincter using the functional lumen imaging probe: a preliminary report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2012-03-06

    Objective and reliable evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening during swallowing based on videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal manometry challenges dysphagia clinicians. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a portable tool based on impedance planimetry originally designed to measure esophogastric junction compliance. It is hypothesized that FLIP can evaluate UES distensibility, and can provide UES diameter and pressure measurements at rest, during swallowing, and during voluntary maneuvers. Eleven healthy adult subjects consented to FLIP evaluation. The probe was inserted transorally, and the balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed. Changes in UES diameter and intraballoon pressure were measured during dry and 5-mL liquid swallows, and during voluntary swallow postures and maneuvers employed in clinical practice. The protocol was completed by 10 of 11 healthy subjects. Mean intraballoon pressure increased throughout 5-mL (5.8 mmHg; -4.5-18.6 mmHg), 10-mL (8.7 mmHg; 2.3-28.5 mmHg), 15-mL (17.3 mmHg; 9.5-34.8 mmHg), and 20-mL (31.2 mmHg; 16-46.3 mmHg) balloon volumes. Mean resting UES diameter (4.9 mm) increased during dry swallows (9.2 mm) and 5-mL liquid swallows (7.7 mm). Mean UES diameter increased during 5-mL liquid swallows with head turn to right (8.1 mm) and left (8.3 mm), chin tuck (8.4 mm), effortful swallow (8.5 mm), Mendelsohn maneuver (8.1 mm), and supraglottic swallow (7.8 mm). FLIP was safely inserted and distended in the UES, and provided useful quantitative data regarding UES distensibility and UES diameter changes during swallowing maneuvers. Further research is being conducted to explore the role of FLIP in UES evaluation.

  8. UPPER LIMITS ON THE MASSES OF 105 SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beifiori, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Bonta, E. Dalla; Pizzella, A.; Coccato, L.; Bertola, F.; Sarzi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the modeling of the central emission-line width measured over subarcsecond apertures with the Hubble Space Telescope, we present stringent upper bounds on the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M . , for a sample of 105 nearby galaxies (D c (58-419 km s -1 ). For the vast majority of the objects, the derived M . upper limits run parallel and above the well-known M . -σ c relation independently of the galaxy distance, suggesting that our nebular line-width measurements trace rather well the nuclear gravitational potential. For values of σ c between 90 and 220 km s -1 , 68% of our upper limits falls immediately above the M . -σ c relation without exceeding the expected M . values by more than a factor 4.1. No systematic trends or offsets are observed in this σ c range as a function of the galaxy Hubble type or with respect to the presence of a bar. For 6 of our 12 M . upper limits with σ c -1 , our line-width measurements are more sensitive to the stellar contribution to the gravitational potential, either due to the presence of a nuclear stellar cluster or because of a greater distance compared to the other galaxies at the low-σ c end of the M . -σ c relation. Conversely, our M . upper bounds appear to lie closer to the expected M . in the most massive elliptical galaxies with values of σ c above 220 km s -1 . Such a flattening of the M . -σ c relation at its high-σ c end would appear consistent with a coevolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies driven by dry mergers, although better and more consistent measurements for σ c and K-band luminosity are needed for these kinds of objects before systematic effects can be ruled out.

  9. On the Necessity of Using Element No.155 in the Chemical Physical Calculations: Again on the Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how the properties of different elements of the Periodic System of Elements can be obtained using the properties of the theoretically predicted heaviest element No.155 (it draws the upper principal limit of the Table, behind which stable elements cannot exist. It is suggested how the properties of element No.155 can be used in the synthesis of superheavy elements. An analysis of nuclear reactions is also produced on the same basis.

  10. New high (> or =6M/sub sun/) upper mass limit for planetary nebula formation, and a new high lower mass bound for carbon detonation supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, Y.; Sack, N.; Barkat, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Envelope ejection leading to a planetary nebula has been recently shown to occur as the terminal point of the Mira stage. The ejection is due to a diverging pulsational instability, not to a dynamical one. It is found that in this case (and for Population I, mixing length=1 pressure scale height) the upper mass limit for formation of planetary nebulae is at least 6 M/sub sun/. It thus follows that the lower mass limit for realization of carbon detonation model configurations is also at last 6 M/sub sun/

  11. Good news for conservation: mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data detect limited genetic signatures of inter-basin fish transfer in Thymallus thymallus (Salmonidae from the Upper Drava River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraner A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous populations of European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, have been suffering from stocking-induced genetic admixture of foreign strains into wild populations. Concordantly, genetic introgression was also reportedfor grayling stocks inhabiting the Upper Drava River, but all published genetic data based on specimens caught at least a decade ago, when stocking load was strong. Here, we applied mitochondrial control region sequencing and nuclear microsatellite genotyping to Upper Drava grayling fry collections and reference samples to update patterns and extent of human-mediated introgression. In contrast to previous data, we highlighted an almost genetic integrity of Drava grayling, evidencing limited genetic signatures of trans-basin stocking for grayling of Northern Alpine Danubian origin. Recent hybridisation was detected only twice among sixty-nine samples, while several cases of later-generation hybrids were disclosed by linking mitochondrial sequence to nuclear genetic data. The observed past, but very limited recent genetic introgression in grayling from Upper Drava seems to reflect shifting stocking trends, changing from massive introduction of trans-basin fish to more conservation-oriented strategies during the last 27 years. In a conservation context, we encourage pursuing the use of local wild grayling for supportive- and captive-breeding, but underline the need for genetic approaches in brood-stock selection programs. Finally, our integrated results from sibship reconstruction validate our strictly fry-based sampling scheme, thus offering a reasonable alternative also for other rheophilic fish species with similar life-history characteristics.

  12. New age- and sex-specific criteria for QT prolongation based on rate correction formulas that minimize bias at the upper normal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Mason, Jay W; Akiyama, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Existing formulas for rate-corrected QT (QTc) commonly fail to properly adjust the upper normal limits which are more critical than the mean QTc for evaluation of prolonged QT. Age- and sex-related differences in QTc are also often overlooked. Our goal was to establish criteria for prolonged QTc using formulas that minimize QTc bias at the upper normal limits. Strict criteria were used in selecting a study group of 57,595 persons aged 5 to 89 years (54% women) and to exclude electrocardiograms (ECG) with possible disease-associated changes. Two QT rate adjustment formulas were identified which both minimized rate-dependency in the 98 th percentile limits: QTcmod, based on an electrophysiological model (QTcMod = QTx(120 + HR)/180)), and QTcLogLin, a power function of the RR interval with exponents 0.37 for men and 0.38 for women. QTc shortened in men during adolescence and QTcMod became 13 ms shorter than in women at age 20-29 years. The sex difference was maintained through adulthood although decreasing with age. The criteria established for prolonged QTc were: Age < 40 years, men 430 ms, women 440 ms; Age 40 to 69, men 440 ms, women 450 ms; Age ≥ 70 years, men 455 ms, and women 460 ms. Sex difference in QTc originates from shortened QT in adolescent males. Upper normal limits for QTc vary substantially by age and sex, and it is essential to use age- and sex-specific criteria for evaluation of QT prolongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimentally reducing clutch size reveals a fixed upper limit to egg size in snakes, evidence from the king ratsnake, Elaphe carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Du, Wei-Guo; Li, Hong; Lin, Long-Hui

    2006-08-01

    Snakes are free of the pelvic girdle's constraint on maximum offspring size, and therefore present an opportunity to investigate the upper limit to offspring size without the limit imposed by the pelvic girdle dimension. We used the king ratsnake (Elaphe carinata) as a model animal to examine whether follicle ablation may result in enlargement of egg size in snakes and, if so, whether there is a fixed upper limit to egg size. Females with small sized yolking follicles were assigned to three manipulated, one sham-manipulated and one control treatments in mid-May, and two, four or six yolking follicles in the manipulated females were then ablated. Females undergoing follicle ablation produced fewer, but larger as well as more elongated, eggs than control females primarily by increasing egg length. This finding suggests that follicle ablation may result in enlargement of egg size in E. carinata. Mean values for egg width remained almost unchanged across the five treatments, suggesting that egg width is more likely to be shaped by the morphological feature of the oviduct. Clutch mass dropped dramatically in four- and six-follicle ablated females. The function describing the relationship between size and number of eggs reveals that egg size increases with decreasing clutch size at an ever-decreasing rate, with the tangent slope of the function for the six-follicle ablation treatment being -0.04. According to the function describing instantaneous variation in tangent slope, the maximum value of tangent slope should converge towards zero. This result provides evidence that there is a fixed upper limit to egg size in E. carinata.

  14. Nearly half of the adolescents in an Italian school-based study exceeded the recommended upper limits for daily caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Barbara; Lapolla, Rosa; Rutigliano, Irene; Pettoello Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo

    2018-06-01

    No data are available on caffeine consumption among Italian adolescents. We investigated caffeine intake from coffee, soft drinks and energy drinks in a sample of Italian adolescents and determined if they exceeded the recommended limits. The study comprised 1213 adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range 12-19) from four schools in Foggia, southern Italy. Caffeine intake was assessed using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire during the 2013/2014 school year. We calculated the percentage of daily caffeine consumers, their mean intake of caffeine from beverages and the contribution of each beverage category to the total caffeine intake. Approximately 76% of the sample consumed caffeine every day, amounting to 125.5 ± 69.2 mg/day and 2.1 ± 1.2 mg/kg/day. When we applied the reference values from the Academy of Pediatrics, we found that 46% of the adolescents exceeded the recommended upper limits. Coffee was the most frequently consumed caffeinated drink and the main contributor to daily caffeine intake. More than three quarters (76%) of the Italian adolescents in our study drank coffee on a daily basis and nearly half (46%) exceeded the recommended upper limits. Strategies are needed to reduce caffeine consumption by adolescents. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  16. A Search for Rarely Seen Ultraviolet Coma Emissions and New Species Upper Limits at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Using the Rosetta-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, J.; Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. W.; Keeney, B. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Feldman, P.; Steffl, A.; Feaga, L. M.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Alice far/extreme-UV spectrograph aboard Rosetta is one of three US instruments provided by NASA; it is the first UV spectrograph to reach any comet. Numerous scientific results have been obtained regarding 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by this instrument. Here we summarize two new sets of results from a search for rarely appearing atomic and molecular spectral emission features and a grand sum spectrum allowing us to place new atomic and molecular neutral and ionized species upper limits in the comet's coma.

  17. Upper limit of the muon-neutrino mass and charged-pion mass from the momentum analysis of a surface muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettle, P R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Using a surface muon beam and a magnetic spectrometer equipped with a position-sensitive detector, we have measured the muon momentum from pion decay at rest {pi}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{nu}{sub {mu}}, to be p{sub {mu}{sup +}}=(29.79200{+-}0.00011)MeV/c. This value together with the muon mass and the favoured pion mass leads to an upper limit of 0.17 MeV (90%CL) for the muon-neutrino mass. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs.

  18. High Performance Redox Flow Batteries: An Analysis of the Upper Performance Limits of Flow Batteries Using Non-aqueous Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-N.; Mench, M.M.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) are a promising technology for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage. In this work, we use a recently achieved high-performance flow battery performance curve as a basis to assess the maximum achievable performance of a RFB employing non-aqueous solutions as active materials. First we show high performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), specifically a limiting situation in which the cell losses are ohmic in nature and derive from electrolyte conductance. Based on that case, we analyze the analogous limiting behavior of non-aqueous (NA) systems using a series of calculations assuming similar ohmic losses, scaled by the relative electrolyte resistances, with a higher voltage redox couple assumed for the NA battery. The results indicate that the NA battery performance is limited by the low electrolyte conductivity to a fraction of the performance of the VRFB. Given the narrow window in which the NARFB offers advantages, even for the most generous limiting assumptions related to performance while ignoring the numerous other disadvantageous aspects of these systems, we conclude that this technology is unlikely under present circumstances to provide practical large-scale energy storage solutions.

  19. Energy Limits in Second Generation High-pitch Dual Source CT - Comparison in an Upper Abdominal Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to find out how much energy is applicable in second-generation dual source high-pitch computed tomography (CT in imaging of the abdomen. Materials and Methods: We examined an upper abdominal phantom using a Somatom Definition Flash CT-Scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany. The study protocol consisted of a scan-series at 100 kV and 120 kV. In each scan series we started with a pitch of 3.2 and reduced it in steps of 0.2, until a pitch of 1.6 was reached. The current was adjusted to the maximum the scanner could achieve. Energy values, image noise, image quality, and radiation exposure were evaluated. Results: For a pitch of 3.2 the maximum applicable current was 142 mAs at 120 kV and in 100 kV the maximum applicable current was 114 mAs. For conventional abdominal imaging, current levels of 200 to 260 mAs are generally used. To achieve similar current levels, we had to decrease the pitch to 1.8 at 100 kV - at this pitch we could perform our imaging at 204 mAs. At a pitch of 2.2 in 120 kV we could apply a current of 206 mAs. Conclusion: We conclude our study by stating that if there is a need for a higher current, we have to reduce the pitch. In a high-pitch dual source CT, we always have to remember where our main focus is, so we can adjust the pitch to the energy we need in the area of the body that has to be imaged, to find answers to the clinical question being raised.

  20. The Use of Limited Fluid Resuscitation and Blood Pressure-Controlling Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Concomitant with Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Li, Mao-Qin; Li, Jia-Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the limited fluid resuscitation regimen combined with blood pressure-controlling drugs in treating acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage concomitant with hemorrhagic shock. A total of 51 patients were enrolled and divided into a group that received traditional fluid resuscitation group (conventional group, 24 patients) and a limited fluid resuscitation group (study group, 27 patients). Before and after resuscitation, the blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin values, as well as the volume of fluid resuscitation and resuscitation time were examined. Compared with conventional group, study group had significantly better values of blood lactate, base excess, and hemoglobin (all p controlling drugs effectivelyxxx maintains blood perfusion of vital organs, improves whole body perfusion indicators, reduces the volume of fluid resuscitation, and achieves better bleeding control and resuscitation effectiveness.

  1. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Dissolved Fe in the Deep and Upper Arctic Ocean With a Focus on Fe Limitation in the Nansen Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha J. A. Rijkenberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming resulting from the release of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is rapidly changing the Arctic Ocean. Over the last decade sea ice declined in extent and thickness. As a result, improved light availability has increased Arctic net primary production, including in under-ice phytoplankton blooms. During the GEOTRACES cruise PS94 in the summer of 2015 we measured dissolved iron (DFe, nitrate and phosphate throughout the central part of the Eurasian Arctic. In the deeper waters concentrations of DFe were higher, which we relate to resuspension on the continental slope in the Nansen Basin and hydrothermal activity at the Gakkel Ridge. The main source of DFe in the surface was the Trans Polar Drift (TPD, resulting in concentrations up to 4.42 nM. Nevertheless, using nutrient ratios we show that a large under-ice bloom in the Nansen basin was limited by Fe. Fe limitation potentially prevented up to 54% of the available nitrate and nitrite from being used for primary production. In the Barents Sea, Fe is expected to be the first nutrient to be depleted as well. Changes in the Arctic biogeochemical cycle of Fe due to retreating ice may therefore have large consequences for primary production, the Arctic ecosystem and the subsequent drawdown of carbon dioxide.

  3. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  4. An upper limit to interstellar Pu-224 abundance as deduced from radiochemical search in deep-sea sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, M.; Valenta, A.; Ahman, I.

    2005-01-01

    Short-lived radionuclides with halflives of a few 10 7 years, now-extinct in the solar system, are expected to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM) as freshly synthesized matter in supermovae. Grains of ISM origin recently discovered in the inner solar system and at Earth orbit may accrete onto Earth after ablation in the atmosphere. As pointed out by one of the authors (K.S.) in 1974, a favorable matrix of detection of such extraterrestrial material is deep-sea sediments with very low sedimentation rates of ∼1 mm.ky -1 . We report here a search for the 'live' Pu-244 in a 1 kg-deep-sea dry sediment collected in 1992 in the North Pacific. After a 546 day a-counting of a Pu fraction chemically separated from the alkaline-fused sediment sample at Kanazawa Univ. AMS analysis was performed at Hebrew Univ. and Weizmann Institute. Only one count of Pu-244 with no background ions was detected, indicating no excess over the expected stratospheric man-made fallout. A limit of 0.2 Pu-244 atoms cm -2 .y -1 for extra terrestrial deposition was set under reasonable assumptions and it was then concluded from this result and the available data on ISM that the abundance of Pu-244 in the ISM is less than 2 X 10 -11 g-Pu-244 (g ISM) -1 . Implications of the present result will be discussed.

  5. On the Upper Limit (Heaviest Element in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the Periodic Table of Anti-Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the method involving equilateral hyperbolas developed by us with ref- erence to the Periodic Table, its Top Limit has been established. It is the last element with atomic mass 411.66 and serial number 155. The great value, according to our calculation, has adjacent hyperbolas whose center is the point (0; 1. With the method, it has been possible to find just one element in the Periodic Table — Rhodium, which does not demand additional calculations involving the definition of the valid axes. Cal- culations towards updating the charge of a nucleus and the quantity of neutrons in end N-Z part of the diagram by means of the serial number 155 are herein executed. The variant of the Periodic Table of Elements with the eighth period is recommended. On the basis of symmetry, with the application of the Hyperbolic Law in the Periodic Table of Elements, the existence of Anti-Substances is herein indirectly proved.

  6. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-08-11

    Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof

  7. 76 FR 67146 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-828] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld... antidumping duty order on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy in the Federal Register. See... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because it needs to obtain additional...

  8. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-008] Circular Welded Carbon Steel... Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative... complete the preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require...

  9. Potentially inappropriate liver transplantation in the era of the "sickest first" policy - A search for the upper limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linecker, Michael; Krones, Tanja; Berg, Thomas; Niemann, Claus U; Steadman, Randolph H; Dutkowski, Philipp; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Busuttil, Ronald W; Truog, Robert D; Petrowsky, Henrik

    2017-11-11

    Liver transplantation has emerged as a highly efficient treatment for a variety of acute and chronic liver diseases. However, organ shortage is becoming an increasing problem globally, limiting the applicability of liver transplantation. In addition, potential recipients are becoming sicker, thereby increasing the risk of losing the graft during transplantation or in the initial postoperative period after liver transplantation (three months). This trend is challenging the model for end-stage liver disease allocation system, where the sickest candidates are prioritised and no delisting criteria are given. The weighting of the deontological demand for "equity", trying to save every patient, regardless of the overall utility; and "efficiency", rooted in utilitarianism, trying to save as many patients as possible and increase the overall quality of life of patients facing the same problem, has to be reconsidered. In this article we are aiming to overcome the widespread concept of futility in liver transplantation, providing a definition of potentially inappropriate liver transplantation and giving guidance on situations where it is best not to proceed with liver transplantation, to decrease the mortality rate in the first three months after transplantation. We propose "absolute" and "relative" conditions, where early post-transplant mortality is highly probable, which are not usually captured in risk scores predicting post-transplant survival. Withholding liver transplantation for listed patients in cases where liver transplant is not deemed clearly futile, but is potentially inappropriate, is a far-reaching decision. Until now, this decision had to be discussed extensively on an individual basis, applying explicit communication and conflict resolution processes, since the model for end-stage liver disease score and most international allocation systems do not include explicit delisting criteria to support a fair delisting process. More work is needed to better

  10. Upper limit for the effect of elastic bending stress on the saturation magnetization of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Q.

    2018-01-31

    Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the influence of elastic bending stress on the magnetization depth profile of a La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSMO) epitaxial film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. The elastic bending strain of +/- 0.03% has no obvious effect on the magnetization depth profile at saturation. This result is in stark contrast to that of (La1-xPrx)(1-y),Ca-y,MnO3 (LPCMO) films for which strain of +/- 0.01% produced dramatic changes in the magnetization profile and Curie temperature. We attribute the difference between the influence of strain on the saturation magnetization in LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to a difference in the ability of LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to phase separate. Our observation provides an upper limit of tuning LSMO saturation magnetization via elastic strain effect.

  11. Efficiency and limitations of the upper airway mucosa as an air conditioner evaluated from the mechanisms of bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, A; Terada, N; Okamoto, Y; Togawa, K

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate a limit to the efficiency of the upper airway mucosa as an air conditioner, the temperatures of the inspiratory air and mucosa were measured in the cervical trachea. Both of them were affected only minimally by change of atmospheric air temperature during resting nose breathing, but were affected greatly by change of mode of breathing. During hyperventilation through the mouth, when the atmospheric air temperature was 1 degree C, a temperature difference of 9 degrees C was noted between inspiratory air in the cervical trachea and body temperature, together with a mucosal temperature fall by 1.86 +/- 0.61 degree C. Wearing of a mask caused a rise of 3 degrees C in the inspiratory air temperature in the cervical trachea.

  12. An upper limit for slow-earthquake zones: self-oscillatory behavior through the Hopf bifurcation mechanism from a spring-block model under lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Rodríguez, Valentina; Campos-Cantón, Eric; Barboza-Gudiño, Rafael; Femat, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    The complex oscillatory behavior of a spring-block model is analyzed via the Hopf bifurcation mechanism. The mathematical spring-block model includes Dieterich-Ruina's friction law and Stribeck's effect. The existence of self-sustained oscillations in the transition zone - where slow earthquakes are generated within the frictionally unstable region - is determined. An upper limit for this region is proposed as a function of seismic parameters and frictional coefficients which are concerned with presence of fluids in the system. The importance of the characteristic length scale L, the implications of fluids, and the effects of external perturbations in the complex dynamic oscillatory behavior, as well as in the stationary solution, are take into consideration.

  13. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  14. Upper limit for the effect of elastic bending stress on the saturation magnetization of L a0.8S r0.2Mn O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, A. P.; Guo, E. J.; Roldan, M. A.; Jia, Q. X.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the influence of elastic bending stress on the magnetization depth profile of a L a0.8S r0.2Mn O3 (LSMO) epitaxial film grown on a SrTi O3 substrate. The elastic bending strain of ±0.03 % has no obvious effect on the magnetization depth profile at saturation. This result is in stark contrast to that of (L a1 -xP rx)1 -y C ayMn O3 (LPCMO) films for which strain of ±0.01 % produced dramatic changes in the magnetization profile and Curie temperature. We attribute the difference between the influence of strain on the saturation magnetization in LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to a difference in the ability of LSMO (weak or none) and LPCMO (strong) to phase separate. Our observation provides an upper limit of tuning LSMO saturation magnetization via elastic strain effect.

  15. Preliminary minimum detectable limit measurements in 208-L drums for selected actinide isotopes in mock-waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Martz, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary minimum detectable levels (MDLS) of selected actinide isotopes have been determined in full-scale, 55-gallon drums filled with a range of mock-waste materials from combustibles (0.14 g/CM 3 ) to sand (1.7 g/CM 3 ). Measurements were recorded from 100 to 10,000 seconds with selected actinide sources located in these drums at an edge position, on the center axis of a drum and midway between these two positions. Measurements were also made with a 166 Ho source to evaluate the attenuation of these mock-matrix materials as a function of energy. By knowing where the source activity is located within a drum, our preliminary results show that a simply collimated 90% HPGE detector can differentiate between TRU (>100 nCi/g) and LLW amounts of 239 Pu in only 100s of measurement time and with sufficient accuracy in both low and medium density, low Z materials. Other actinides measured so far include 235 U, 241 Am, and 244 Cm. These measurements begin to establish the probable MDLs achievable in the nondestructive assays of real waste drums when using active and passive CT. How future measurements may differ from these preliminary measurements is also discussed

  16. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  17. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >De Koter, A.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉ .

  18. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hußmann, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ⊙ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ⊙ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ⊙ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ⊙.

  19. Studies towards the data acquisition of the PANDA experiment and measurement of a new upper limit of the production cross section of p anti p→hc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Milan Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be one of the main future FAIR experiments located at Darmstadt, Germany. It has a challenging concept of a new type of Data Acquisition (DAQ) including the full online reconstruction and filtering as well as a high precision synchronization mechanism. The new concept is needed due to a high data rate of 200 GB/s, which has to be reduced by three orders of magnitude before storing. In this thesis the prototype trigger-less DAQ, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based system is presented. As a scalable system, it includes first parts of the final DAQ. Thus it is the first system allowing studies of the full DAQ-chain, including the synchronization mechanism. Furthermore, the functionalities during an in-beam environment test of the prototype of the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated. This test showed that the PTDAQ can be used as a DAQ in prototype tests. In addition to hardware and firmware development, simulations of benchmark channels are crucial to extract filtering possibilities. Therefore the knowledge of the production cross section is necessary. In the framework of this thesis a new upper limit of the production cross section σ(p anti p→h c ) was extracted. h c is one of the most unknown charmonium states, and it is not possible to produce pure h c in one of the other ''charm factories'' directly. For this purpose, the branching ratio of the decay B(h c →p anti p)<5.6.10 -5 rate at 90% C.L. was determined. For this, data from the BES III experiment located at the BEPCII accelerator in Beijing, China was used. h c was produced in the decay of the ψ(2S) charmonium resonance, which itself was produced in e + e - collisions. A data set of (447.9±2.8).10 6 ψ(2S)-events was used for this analysis. The new upper limit of the cross section σ(p anti p→h c )<32 nb rate at 90% C.L. was calculated by using the method of detailed balance. Furthermore, the lower limit of the integrated

  20. Establishment of the upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies according to the guidelines proposed by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: comparison of five different automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Federica; Metus, Paolo; Polizzi Anselmo, Annalisa; Villalta, Danilo; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Giani, Graziella; Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly define the reference population. In addition, the URL of TPOAbs is method-dependent and often arbitrarily established in current laboratory practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference limits of TPOAbs in a male sample according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines, and to compare them with those obtained in a female group, for five third-generation commercial-automated immunoassay (IMA) platforms. 120 healthy males and 120 healthy females with NACB-required characteristics (younger than 30 years, TSH between 0.5 and 2.0 mIU/L, normal thyroid ultrasound, absence of thyroid disease and absence of other autoimmune diseases) were studied. Sera were analyzed for TPOAbs concentration using five IMA methods applied in automated analyzers: Immulite 2000 XPi (IMM); Maglumi 2000 Plus (MAG); Kryptor Compact Plus (KRY); Phadia 250 (PHA) and Liaison XL (LIA). A statistically significant difference (p reference group for a disease (such as AITD) that affects mainly females. However, in spite of the harmonization among methods provided by the use of an international standard preparation, the wide dispersion of quantitative results still observed in this study suggests the need for further efforts to better understand the cause of these discrepancies, focusing on TPO antigen preparations as the possible source of variability among different assays.

  1. Preliminary results of studies of the Valea Morilor Upper Palaeolithic site (Chisinau, Republic of Moldova) : A new camp of mammoth hunters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obada, Teodor; van der Plicht, Johannes; Markova, Anastasia; Prepelitsa, Afanasie

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the studies of a newly found Paleolithic site - Valea Morilor (Chisingu, Republic of Moldova). The excavations produced unquestionable evidence of mammoth hunting (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799). Excavations of 2009-2010 opened an area of 1264 m(2).

  2. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  3. Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Elias, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Mączyńska, Beata; Sobieszczańska, Beata Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women. We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas' pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection. In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum. The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Force Myography for Monitoring Grasping in Individuals with Stroke with Mild to Moderate Upper-Extremity Impairments: A Preliminary Investigation in a Controlled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam P. Sadarangani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research interest in technologies that can detect grasping, to encourage functional use of the hand as part of daily living, and thus promote upper-extremity motor recovery in individuals with stroke. Force myography (FMG has been shown to be effective for providing biofeedback to improve fine motor function in structured rehabilitation settings, involving isolated repetitions of a single grasp type, elicited at a predictable time, without upper-extremity movements. The use of FMG, with machine learning techniques, to detect and distinguish between grasping and no grasping, continues to be an active area of research, in healthy individuals. The feasibility of classifying FMG for grasp detection in populations with upper-extremity impairments, in the presence of upper-extremity movements, as would be expected in daily living, has yet to be established. We explore the feasibility of FMG for this application by establishing and comparing (1 FMG-based grasp detection accuracy and (2 the amount of training data necessary for accurate grasp classification, in individuals with stroke and healthy individuals. FMG data were collected using a flexible forearm band, embedded with six force-sensitive resistors (FSRs. Eight participants with stroke, with mild to moderate upper-extremity impairments, and eight healthy participants performed 20 repetitions of three tasks that involved reaching, grasping, and moving an object in different planes of movement. A validation sensor was placed on the object to label data as corresponding to a grasp or no grasp. Grasp detection performance was evaluated using linear and non-linear classifiers. The effect of training set size on classification accuracy was also determined. FMG-based grasp detection demonstrated high accuracy of 92.2% (σ = 3.5% for participants with stroke and 96.0% (σ = 1.6% for healthy volunteers using a support vector machine (SVM. The use of a training set that was 50

  5. Preliminary Study of the Effect of the Proposed Long Lake Valley Project Operation on the Transport of Larval Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to explore the effects of the operation of proposed offstream storage at Long Lake Valley on transport of larval suckers through the Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes system during May and June, when larval fish leave spawning sites in the Williamson River and springs along the eastern shoreline and become entrained in lake currents. A range in hydrologic conditions was considered, including historically high and low outflows and inflows, lake elevations, and the operation of pumps between Upper Klamath Lake and storage in Long Lake Valley. Two wind-forcing scenarios were considered: one dominated by moderate prevailing winds and another dominated by a strong reversal of winds from the prevailing direction. On the basis of 24 model simulations that used all combinations of hydrology and wind forcing, as well as With Project and No Action scenarios, it was determined that the biggest effect of project operations on larval transport was the result of alterations in project management of the elevation in Upper Klamath Lake and the outflow at the Link River and A Canal, rather than the result of pumping operations. This was because, during the spring time period of interest, the amount of water pumped between Upper Klamath Lake and Long Lake Valley was generally small. The dominant effect was that an increase in lake elevation would result in more larvae in the Williamson River delta and in Agency Lake, an effect that was enhanced under conditions of wind reversal. A decrease in lake elevation accompanied by an increase in the outflow at the Link River had the opposite effect on larval concentration and residence time.

  6. Upper limit to the deuterium abundance and a measurement of the pickering-β line in the low excitation planetary IC 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vaux, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of detecting a weak spectrum line, deuterium alpha, very near in wavelength to H/sub alpha/, assumed to be thousands of times as strong, is discussed from the point of view of optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. A spectrometer consisting of three pressure scanning Fabry-Perot etalons with low reflectivity coatings was found to be the best instrument for this experiment. While no feature attributable to deuterium was detected in the planetary nebula IC 418, an upper limit relative to hydrogen of 3.4 x 10 -5 was established at the 95% confidence level. The significance of this result is discussed in light of the role played by deuterium in cosmology. The intensity ratio of the Pickering beta line (n'' = 6, n' = 4 transition of ionized helium) relative to H/sub alpha/ was measured to be 6.5 x 10 -5 . Observations of the nebular continuum made at five wavelengths in the red and near infrared are summarized and compared with predicted intensities

  7. AN X-RAY UPPER LIMIT ON THE PRESENCE OF A NEUTRON STAR FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD SUPERNOVA REMNANT 1E0102.2-7219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Windhorst, R. A.; Schlegel, E. M.; Keohane, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archival observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219, a young oxygen-rich remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 28 ObsIDs for 324 ks of total exposure time, we present an Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio (mean S/N ≅√S∼ 6; maximum S/N > 35). We search within the remnant, using the source detection software WAVDETECT, for point sources which may indicate a compact object. Despite finding numerous detections of high significance in both broad and narrowband images of the remnant, we are unable to satisfactorily distinguish whether these detections correspond to emission from a compact object. We also present upper limits to the luminosity of an obscured compact stellar object which were derived from an analysis of spectra extracted from the high signal-to-noise image. We are able to further constrain the characteristics of a potential neutron star for this remnant with the results of the analysis presented here, though we cannot confirm the existence of such an object for this remnant.

  8. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  9. In-vitro evaluation of limitations and possibilities for the future use of intracorporeal gas exchangers placed in the upper lobe position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Erin; Höffler, Klaus; Kuehn, Christian; Slaughter, Mark; Haverich, Axel; Wiegmann, Bettina

    2018-03-01

    The lack of donor organs has led to the development of alternative "destination therapies", such as a bio-artificial lung (BA) for end-stage lung disease. Ultimately aiming at a fully implantable BA, general capabilities and limitations of different oxygenators were tested based on the model of BA positioning at the right upper lobe. Three different-sized oxygenators (neonatal, paediatric, and adult) were tested in a mock circulation loop regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation capacities for three respiratory pathologies. Blood flows were imitated by a roller pump, and respiration was imitated by a mechanical ventilator with different FiO 2 applications. Pressure drops across the oxygenators and the integrity of the gas-exchange hollow fibers were analyzed. The neonatal oxygenator proved to be insufficient regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation. Despite elevated pCO 2 levels, the paediatric and adult oxygenators delivered comparable sufficient oxygen levels, but sufficient decarboxylation across the oxygenators was ensured only at flow rates of 0.5 L min. Only the adult oxygenator indicated no significant pressure drops. For all tested conditions, gas-exchange hollow fibers remained intact. This is the first study showing the general feasibility of delivering sufficient levels of gas exchange to an intracorporeal BA via patient's breathing, without damaging gas-exchange hollow fiber membranes.

  10. Groundwater Modeling as an Alternative Approach to Limited Data in the Northeastern Part of Mt. Hermon (Syria, to Develop a Preliminary Water Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer M. Asmael

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries such as Syria, the lack of hydrological data affects groundwater resource assessment. Groundwater models provide the means to fill the gaps in the available data in order to improve the understanding of groundwater systems. The study area can be considered as the main recharge area of the eastern side of Barada and Awaj basin in the eastern part of Mt. Hermon. The withdrawal for agricultural and domestic purposes removes a considerable amount of water. The steady-state three-dimensional (3D groundwater model (FEFLOW which is an advanced finite element groundwater flow and transport modeling tool, was used to quantify groundwater budget components by using all available data of hydrological year 2009–2010. The results obtained may be considered as an essential tool for groundwater management options in the study area. The calibrated model demonstrates a good agreement between the observed and simulated hydraulic head. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the model is highly sensitive to hydraulic conductivity changes and sensitive to a lesser extent to water recharge amount. Regarding the upper aquifer horizon, the water budget under steady-state condition indicates that the lateral groundwater inflow from the Jurassic aquifer into this horizon is the most important recharge component. The major discharge component from this aquifer horizon occurs at its eastern boundary toward the outside of the model domain. The model was able to produce a satisfying estimation of the preliminary water budget of the upper aquifer horizon which indicates a positive imbalance of 4.6 Mm3·y−1.

  11. UPPER LIMITS ON PULSED RADIO EMISSION FROM THE 6.85 s X-RAY PULSAR XTE J0103-728 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Devour, Brian M.; Takacs, Brian P.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray pulsations with a 6.85 s period were recently detected in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and were subsequently identified as originating from the Be/X-ray binary system XTE J0103-728. The recent localization of the source of the X-ray emission has made a targeted search for radio pulsations from this source possible. The detection of pulsed radio emission from XTE J0103-728 would make it only the second system after PSR B1259-63 that is both a Be/X-ray binary and a radio pulsar. We observed XTE J0103-728 in 2008 February with the Parkes 64 m radio telescope soon after the identification of the source of X-ray pulsations was reported in order to search for corresponding radio pulsations. We used a continuous 6.4 hr observation with a 256 MHz bandwidth centered at 1390 MHz using the center beam of the Parkes multibeam receiver. In the subsequent data analysis, which included a folding search, a Fourier search, a fast-folding algorithm search, and a single pulse search, no pulsed signals were found for trial dispersion measures (DMs) between 0 and 800 pc cm -3 . This DM range easily encompasses the expected values for sources in the SMC. We place an upper limit of ∼45 mJy kpc 2 on the luminosity of periodic radio emission from XTE J0103-728 at the epoch of our observation, and we compare this limit to a range of luminosities measured for PSR B1259-63, the only Be/X-ray binary currently known to emit radio pulses. We also compare our limit to the radio luminosities of neutron stars having similarly long spin periods to XTE J0103-728. Since the radio pulses from PSR B1259-63 are eclipsed and undetectable during the portion of the orbit near periastron, repeated additional radio search observations of XTE J0103-728 may be valuable if it is undergoing similar eclipsing and if such observations are able to sample the orbital phase of this system well.

  12. INTOR rescaling for non-intended plasma shape applying preliminary scalings for energy confinement and density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1986-11-01

    On the basis of a simplified rescaling procedure with INTOR, as of Phase IIA Part 1, serving as reference case, alternative design points are discussed that take into account more recent findings on β-limits, density limits and possible extrapolations with respect to plasma elongation. Two tentative scalings for the energy confinement time as derived from ASDEX results and by Goldston are applied to find minimum size INTOR alternatives, which, of course, could be quite different for the two scalings. Large plasma elongation is needed for getting close to the original outlay for INTOR. The density limit according to some possible scalings requires some adjustment of the plasma temperature to above 10 keV. The neutron wall load, being the important parameter with respect to the INTOR test programme, can be practically kept at the reference level. For ASDEX confinement scaling this requires that an ignition margin of about 2 be adhered to. A sensitivity study on the impact of individual modifications in input assumptions of the order of 10% shows that only a limited range of such alternatives remains acceptable. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  14. Variations of Climate-Growth Response of Major Conifers at Upper Distributional Limits in Shika Snow Mountain, Northwestern Yunnan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of climate-growth relationships of multiple species is fundamental to understanding and predicting the response of forest growth to future climate change. Forests are mainly composed of conifers in Northwestern Yunnan Plateau, but variations of growth response to climate conditions among the species are not well understood. To detect the growth response of multiple species to climate change, we developed residual chronologies of four major conifers, i.e., George’s fir (Abies georgei Orr, Likiang spruce (Picea likiangensis (Franch. E.Pritz., Gaoshan pine (Pinus densata Mast. and Chinese larch (Larix potaninii Batalin at the upper distributional limits in Shika Snow Mountain. Using the dendroclimatology method, we analyzed correlations between the residual chronologies and climate variables. The results showed that conifer radial growth was influenced by both temperature and precipitation in Shika Snow Mountain. Previous November temperature, previous July temperature, and current May precipitation were the common climatic factors that had consistent influences on radial growth of the four species. Temperature in the previous post-growing season (September–October and moisture conditions in the current growing season (June–August were the common climatic factors that had divergent impacts on the radial growth of the four species. Based on the predictions of climate models and our understanding of the growth response of four species to climate variables, we may understand the growth response to climate change at the species level. It is difficult to predict future forest growth in the study area, since future climate change might cause both increases and decreases for the four species and indirect effects of climate change on forests should be considered.

  15. Correlation of cardiac Troponin I levels (10 folds upper limit of normal) and extent of coronary artery disease in Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, F.; Khan, M.; Hanif, B.; Lakhani, S.L.; Farooq, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) 10 folds upper limit of normal (ULN) and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 230 consecutive NSTEMI patients admitted in Tabba Heart Institute, Karachi between April to December 2008. cTnI was measured using MEIA method. All patients underwent coronary angiography in the index hospitalization. Stenosis > 70% in any of the three major epicardial vessels was considered significant CAD. Extent of CAD was defined as significant single, two or three vessel CAD. Chi-square test was applied to test the association between cTnI levels and CAD extent. Results: Out of 230 patients, in 111 patients with cTnI levels 10 folds ULN, 23(19.3%) had single vessel, 37(31.1 %) had two vessel and 55(46.2%) had three vessel significant CAD. The results suggest that there was an insignificant association between the cTnI levels and single vessel, two vessel and the overall CAD extent (p= 0.35, p= 0.21 and p= 0.13 respectively), however there was a statistically significant association between the cTnI levels and three vessel CAD (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Higher cTnI levels are associated with an increased proportion of severe three vessel CAD involvement. Prompt identification and referral of this patient subset to early revascularization strategies would improve clinical outcomes. (author)

  16. Soil properties determine the elevational patterns of base cations and micronutrients in the plant-soil system up to the upper limits of trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhen; Wang, Xue; Jiang, Yong; Cerdà, Artemi; Yin, Jinfei; Liu, Heyong; Feng, Xue; Shi, Zhan; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Li, Mai-He

    2018-03-01

    To understand whether base cations and micronutrients in the plant-soil system change with elevation, we investigated the patterns of base cations and micronutrients in both soils and plant tissues along three elevational gradients in three climate zones in China. Base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in soils, trees, and shrubs growing at lower and middle elevations as well as at their upper limits on Balang (subtropical, SW China), Qilian (dry temperate, NW China), and Changbai (wet temperate, NE China) mountains. No consistent elevational patterns were found for base cation and micronutrient concentrations in both soils and plant tissues (leaves, roots, shoots, and stem sapwood). Soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total soil nitrogen (TN), the SOC to TN ratio (C : N), and soil extractable nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) determined the elevational patterns of soil exchangeable Ca and Mg and available Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, the controlling role of soil pH and SOC was not universal as revealed by their weak correlations with soil base cations under tree canopies at the wet temperate mountain and with micronutrients under both tree and shrub canopies at the dry temperate mountain. In most cases, soil base cation and micronutrient availabilities played fundamental roles in determining the base cation and micronutrient concentrations in plant tissues. An exception existed for the decoupling of leaf K and Fe with their availabilities in the soil. Our results highlight the importance of soil physicochemical properties (mainly SOC, C : N, and pH) rather than elevation (i.e., canopy cover and environmental factors, especially temperature), in determining base cation and micronutrient availabilities in soils and subsequently their concentrations in plant tissues.

  17. Upper limits to the reaction rate coefficients of C(n)(-) and C(n)H(-) (n = 2, 4, 6) with molecular hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Eric S; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Hauser, Daniel; Huber, Stefan E; Best, Thorsten; Kumar, Sunil S; Probst, Michael; Wester, Roland

    2014-08-21

    In the interstellar medium (ISM) ion–molecule reactions play a key role in forming complex molecules. Since 2006, after the radioastronomical discovery of the first of by now six interstellar anions, interest has grown in understanding the formation and destruction pathways of negative ions in the ISM. Experiments have focused on reactions and photodetachment of the identified negatively charged ions. Hints were found that the reactions of CnH(–) with H2 may proceed with a low (rate [Eichelberger, B.; et al. Astrophys. J. 2007, 667, 1283]. Because of the high abundance of molecular hydrogen in the ISM, a precise knowledge of the reaction rate is needed for a better understanding of the low-temperature chemistry in the ISM. A suitable tool to analyze rare reactions is the 22-pole radiofrequency ion trap. Here, we report on reaction rates for Cn(–) and CnH(–) (n = 2, 4, 6) with buffer gas temperatures of H2 at 12 and 300 K. Our experiments show the absence of these reactions with an upper limit to the rate coefficients between 4 × 10(–16) and 5 × 10(–15) cm(3) s(–1), except for the case of C2(–), which does react with a finite rate with H2 at low temperatures. For the cases of C2H(–) and C4H(–), the experimental results were confirmed with quantum chemical calculations. In addition, the possible influence of a residual reactivity on the abundance of C4H(–) and C6H(–) in the ISM were estimated on the basis of a gas-phase chemical model based on the KIDA database. We found that the simulated ion abundances are already unaffected if reaction rate coefficients with H2 were below 10(–14) cm(3) s(–1).

  18. Soil properties determine the elevational patterns of base cations and micronutrients in the plant–soil system up to the upper limits of trees and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether base cations and micronutrients in the plant–soil system change with elevation, we investigated the patterns of base cations and micronutrients in both soils and plant tissues along three elevational gradients in three climate zones in China. Base cations (Ca, Mg, and K and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined in soils, trees, and shrubs growing at lower and middle elevations as well as at their upper limits on Balang (subtropical, SW China, Qilian (dry temperate, NW China, and Changbai (wet temperate, NE China mountains. No consistent elevational patterns were found for base cation and micronutrient concentrations in both soils and plant tissues (leaves, roots, shoots, and stem sapwood. Soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC, total soil nitrogen (TN, the SOC to TN ratio (C : N, and soil extractable nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+ determined the elevational patterns of soil exchangeable Ca and Mg and available Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, the controlling role of soil pH and SOC was not universal as revealed by their weak correlations with soil base cations under tree canopies at the wet temperate mountain and with micronutrients under both tree and shrub canopies at the dry temperate mountain. In most cases, soil base cation and micronutrient availabilities played fundamental roles in determining the base cation and micronutrient concentrations in plant tissues. An exception existed for the decoupling of leaf K and Fe with their availabilities in the soil. Our results highlight the importance of soil physicochemical properties (mainly SOC, C : N, and pH rather than elevation (i.e., canopy cover and environmental factors, especially temperature, in determining base cation and micronutrient availabilities in soils and subsequently their concentrations in plant tissues.

  19. MRI-guided procedures in various regions of the body using a robotic assistance system in a closed-bore scanner: preliminary clinical experience and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Zajonz, Dirk; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2010-04-01

    To present the clinical setup and workflow of a robotic assistance system for image-guided interventions in a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment and to report our preliminary clinical experience with percutaneous biopsies in various body regions. The MR-compatible, servo-pneumatically driven, robotic device (Innomotion) fits into the 60-cm bore of a standard MR scanner. The needle placement (n = 25) accuracy was estimated by measuring the 3D deviation between needle tip and prescribed target point in a phantom. Percutaneous biopsies in six patients and different body regions were planned by graphically selecting entry and target points on intraoperatively acquired roadmap MR data. For insertion depths between 29 and 95 mm, the average 3D needle deviation was 2.2 +/- 0.7 mm (range 0.9-3.8 mm). Patients with a body mass index of up to approximately 30 kg/m(2) fitted into the bore with the device. Clinical work steps and limitations are reported for the various applications. All biopsies were diagnostic and could be completed without any major complications. Median planning and intervention times were 25 (range 20-36) and 44 (36-68) minutes, respectively. Preliminary clinical results in a standard MRI environment suggest that the presented robotic device provides accurate guidance for percutaneous procedures in various body regions. Shorter procedure times may be achievable by optimizing technical and workflow aspects. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Probing the limits of delay intolerance: preliminary young adult data from the Delay Frustration Task (DeFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Antrop, Inge; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2006-02-15

    Delay intolerance/aversion is one amongst a number of candidate neuropsychological endophenotypes for ADHD. Pilot data suggest that, because of potential ceiling effects, simple choice measures of delay tolerance used for children are probably not appropriate for adolescents and adults. The Delay Frustration Task (DeFT) is a new measure of delay intolerance, designed to be used in a similar form with adolescents and adults as well as children. In it delay frustration is indexed as the number and duration of responses made on a response key during a series of unpredictable and unsignalled delay periods, which interrupt the completion of a simple computer-based tests. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the applicability of the task in a sample of young adults. The DeFT was administered to 49 male and female undergraduate students selected from a normal population-base. Their mean age was 23.14 (S.D.=1.54). Three measures of delay frustration were recorded across time intervals during the response window; the number of responses, their duration and their combined product (total time button was pressed) was calculated for each second interval bin during the post-response delay period. The AARS and HADS were used as screening questionnaires for ADHD and anxiety behaviour, respectively. The results indicated that young adults with high-ADHD symptoms scores pressed the button more than those with low ADHD scores during the post-response delay condition. While both groups increased responding across time within intervals this was significantly more marked in the high-ADHD symptom group. These effects became more pronounced when anxiety was controlled. Young adults with high-ADHD symptoms appear to be more sensitive to the imposition of unscheduled and unsignalled delay during a simple maths test. DeFT may provide a useful index of delay tolerance in young adults with ADHD. Future research needs to examine DeFT performance in different age groups and

  1. The Place of Extensive Surgery in Locoregional Recurrence and Limited Metastatic Disease of Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berlière

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were first to clearly define two different entities: locoregional recurrences and limited metastatic disease and secondly to evaluate the place of extensive surgery in these two types of recurrence. Material and Methods. Twenty-four patients were followed from June 2004 until May 2014. All patients underwent surgery but for 1 patient this surgery was stopped because the tumour was unresectable. Results. The median interval between surgery for the primary tumour and the locoregional recurrence or metastatic evolution was 129 months. Eight patients had pure nodal recurrences, 4 had nodal and muscular recurrences, 5 had muscular + skin recurrences, and 8 had metastatic evolution. Currently, all patients are still alive but 2 have liver metastases. Disease free survival was measured at 2 years and extrapolated at 5 years and was 92% at these two time points. No difference was observed for young or older women; limited metastatic evolution and locoregional recurrence exhibited the same disease free survival. Conclusion. Extensive surgery has a place in locoregional and limited metastatic breast cancer recurrences but this option must absolutely be integrated in the multidisciplinary strategy of therapeutic options and needs to be planned with a curative intent.

  2. Detections and Sensitive Upper Limits for Methane and Related Trace Gases on Mars during 2003-2014, and planned extensions in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Novak, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    Five groups report methane detections on Mars; all results suggest local release and high temporal variability [1-7]. Our team searched for CH4 on many dates and seasons and detected it on several dates [1, 9, 10]. TLS (Curiosity rover) reported methane upper limits [6], and then detections [7] that were consistent in size with earlier reports and that also showed rapid modulation of CH4 abundance.[8] argued that absorption features assigned to Mars 12CH4 by [1] might instead be weak lines of terrestrial 13CH4. If not properly removed, terrestrial 13CH4 signatures would appear on the blue wing of terrestrial 12CH4 even when Mars is red-shifted - but they do not (Fig. S6 of [1]), demonstrating that terrestrial signatures were correctly removed. [9] demonstrated that including the dependence of δ13CH4 with altitude did not affect the residual features, nor did taking δ13CH4 as zero. Were δ13CH4 important, its omission would have overemphasized the depth of 13CH4 terrestrial absorption, introducing emission features in the residual spectra [1]. However, the residual features are seen in absorption, establishing their origin as non-terrestrial - [8] now agrees with this view.We later reported results for multiple organic gases (CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6, C2H2, C2H4), hydroperoxyl (HO2), three nitriles (N2O, NH3, HCN) and two chlorinated species (HCl, CH3Cl) [9]. Most of these species cannot be detected with current space assets, owing to instrumental limitations (e.g., spectral resolving power). However, the high resolution infrared spectrometers (NOMAD, ACS) on ExoMars 2016 (Trace Gas Orbiter) will begin measurements in late 2016. In solar occultation, TGO sensitivities will far exceed prior capabilities.We published detailed hemispheric maps of H2O and HDO on Mars, inferring the size of a lost early ocean [10]. In 2016, we plan to acquire 3-D spatial maps of HDO and H2O with ALMA, and improved maps of organics with iSHELL/NASA-IRTF.References: [1] Mumma et al. Sci09

  3. Definition of the upper reference limit for thyroglobulin antibodies according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines: comparison of eleven different automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, F; Metus, P; Ferrari, A; Caruso, B; Castello, R; Villalta, D; Steffan, A; Gaspardo, K; Pesente, F; Bizzaro, N; Tonutti, E; Valverde, S; Cosma, C; Plebani, M; Tozzoli, R

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) measurement has progressively switched from marker of thyroid autoimmunity to test associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) to verify the presence or absence of TgAb interference in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Of note, TgAb measurement is cumbersome: despite standardization against the International Reference Preparation MRC 65/93, several studies demonstrated high inter-method variability and wide variation in limits of detection and in reference intervals. Taking into account the above considerations, the main aim of the present study was the determination of TgAb upper reference limit (URL), according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines, through the comparison of eleven commercial automated immunoassay platforms. The sera of 120 healthy males, selected from a population survey in the province of Verona, Italy, were tested for TgAb concentration using eleven IMA applied on as many automated analyzers: AIA-2000 (AIA) and AIA-CL2400 (CL2), Tosoh Bioscience; Architect (ARC), Abbott Diagnostics; Advia Centaur XP (CEN) and Immulite 2000 XPi (IMM), Siemens Healthineers; Cobas 6000 (COB), Roche Diagnostics; Kryptor (KRY), Thermo Fisher Scientific BRAHMS, Liaison XL (LIA), Diasorin; Lumipulse G (LUM), Fujirebio; Maglumi 2000 Plus (MAG), Snibe and Phadia 250 (PHA), Phadia AB, Thermo Fisher Scientific. All assays were performed according to manufacturers' instructions in six different laboratories in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Veneto regions of Italy [Lab 1 (AIA), Lab 2 (CL2), Lab 3 (ARC, COB and LUM), Lab 4 (CEN, IMM, KRY and MAG), Lab 5 (LIA) and Lab 6 (PHA)]. Since TgAb values were not normally distributed, the experimental URL (e-URL) was established at 97.5 percentile according to the non-parametric method. TgAb e-URLs showed a significant inter-method variability. Considering the same method, e-URL was much lower than that suggested by manufacturers (m

  4. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity

  5. Simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients with an alanine aminotransferase level lower than 2 times upper limit of normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the simple serum markers for significant liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT level of <2 times upper limit of normal (ULN. MethodsThe clinical data of 278 CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN (ULN=40 U/L were analyzed retrospectively. Significant liver inflammation was defined as a liver inflammatory activity grade (G ≥2. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for non-normally distributed continuous data; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT <2×ULN. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum markers in significant liver inflammation. ResultsOf the 278 CHB patients enrolled, 175 (62.9% had no significant liver inflammation (G0-1 group and 103 (37.1% had significant liver inflammation (G2-4 group. There were significant differences in ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, albumin, globulin, prothrombin time (PT, platelet, absolute neutrophil count, hyaluronic acid (HA, glycocholic acid, precollagen Ⅲ, and collagen type Ⅳ(ⅣC between the two groups (all P<0.05. The multivariate regression analysis showed that GGT, PT, ⅣC, and HA were independent predictors for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients with ALT<2×ULN (OR=1.015, 1.600, 1.151, and 1.014, P=0.008, 0.021, 0.003, and 0.018. The areas under the ROC curve for GGT, PT, IVC, and HA to diagnose significant liver inflammation were 0.804, 0.722, 0.707, and 0.632, respectively. The cut-off value of 48.5 U/L for GGT to predict significant liver inflammation had a specificity of 90.3% and a negative

  6. SU-G-201-11: Exploring the Upper Limits of Dose Sculpting Capacity of the Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D; Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore and quantify the upper limits in dose sculpting capacity of the novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator compared with conventional tandem design for "1"9"2Ir-based HDR planning. Methods: The proposed DMBT tandem applicator is designed for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), especially MRI, of cervical cancer. It has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm width, grooved along a 5.4-mm diameter nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cc, capable of generating directional dose profiles – leading to enhanced dose sculpting capacity through inverse planning. The external dimensions are identical to that of conventional tandem design to ensure clinical compatibility. To explore the expansive dose sculpting capacity, we constructed a hypothetical circular target with 20-mm radius and positioned the DMBT and conventional tandems at the center. We then incrementally shifted the positions laterally away from the center of up to 15 mm, at 1-mm steps. The in-house coded gradient projection-based inverse planning system was then used to generate inverse optimized plans ensuring identical V100=100% coverage. Conformity index (CI) was calculated for all plans. Results: Overall, the DMBT tandem generates more conformal dose distributions than conventional tandem for all lateral positional shifts of 0-15 mm (CI=0.91–0.52 and 0.99–0.34, respectively), with an exception at the central position due to the ideal circular dose distribution, generated by the "1"9"2Ir, fitting tightly around the circular target (CI = 0.91 and 0.99, respectively). The DMBT tandem is able to generate dose conformity of CI>0.8 at up to 6-mm positional shift while the conventional tandem violates this past 2-mm shift. Also, the CI ratio (=DMBT/conv.) increases rapidly until about 8 mm and then stabilizes beyond. Conclusion: A substantial enhancement in the dose sculpting capacity has been demonstrated for the novel DMBT tandem applicator. While

  7. SU-G-201-11: Exploring the Upper Limits of Dose Sculpting Capacity of the Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Song, W [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore and quantify the upper limits in dose sculpting capacity of the novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator compared with conventional tandem design for {sup 192}Ir-based HDR planning. Methods: The proposed DMBT tandem applicator is designed for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), especially MRI, of cervical cancer. It has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm width, grooved along a 5.4-mm diameter nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cc, capable of generating directional dose profiles – leading to enhanced dose sculpting capacity through inverse planning. The external dimensions are identical to that of conventional tandem design to ensure clinical compatibility. To explore the expansive dose sculpting capacity, we constructed a hypothetical circular target with 20-mm radius and positioned the DMBT and conventional tandems at the center. We then incrementally shifted the positions laterally away from the center of up to 15 mm, at 1-mm steps. The in-house coded gradient projection-based inverse planning system was then used to generate inverse optimized plans ensuring identical V100=100% coverage. Conformity index (CI) was calculated for all plans. Results: Overall, the DMBT tandem generates more conformal dose distributions than conventional tandem for all lateral positional shifts of 0-15 mm (CI=0.91–0.52 and 0.99–0.34, respectively), with an exception at the central position due to the ideal circular dose distribution, generated by the {sup 192}Ir, fitting tightly around the circular target (CI = 0.91 and 0.99, respectively). The DMBT tandem is able to generate dose conformity of CI>0.8 at up to 6-mm positional shift while the conventional tandem violates this past 2-mm shift. Also, the CI ratio (=DMBT/conv.) increases rapidly until about 8 mm and then stabilizes beyond. Conclusion: A substantial enhancement in the dose sculpting capacity has been demonstrated for the novel DMBT tandem applicator. While

  8. Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal related with the Limitation of Cs-137 release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Shin, Tae Young [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the New Safety Goal, it is clearly stated that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be performed with the proper technical appropriateness, the detail, and the scope in accordance with the integrated risk assessment against the accident for the nuclear power plants. This requirement is known to be come from the provision for preventing the long term ground contamination due to the release of radioactive material. However, there were so many concerns that this goal is so severe that the current design, even in the case of the constructing nuclear power plants, cannot meet this criterion. Especially for the operating nuclear power plants, since there were no mitigation facilities against the severe accident at the design stages, the application of this new goal is known to be much severe that the constructing nuclear power plants and it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to strengthen the safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to review the new safety goal from the view point of severe accident analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and to find the appropriate methods in order to meet that goal for the operating nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen the safety for domestic nuclear power plants, all of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years. Also, this Accident Management Plan should meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs- 137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. Since the operating nuclear power plants was not designed against the severe accident and they have the limited exclusive mitigation facilities, it is not easy to meet the New Safety Goal. So, it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to meet the New Safety Goal. In this study, the amount of Cs-137 released to the

  9. Preliminary Study for Application of the New Safety Goal related with the Limitation of Cs-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Shin, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    In the New Safety Goal, it is clearly stated that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be performed with the proper technical appropriateness, the detail, and the scope in accordance with the integrated risk assessment against the accident for the nuclear power plants. This requirement is known to be come from the provision for preventing the long term ground contamination due to the release of radioactive material. However, there were so many concerns that this goal is so severe that the current design, even in the case of the constructing nuclear power plants, cannot meet this criterion. Especially for the operating nuclear power plants, since there were no mitigation facilities against the severe accident at the design stages, the application of this new goal is known to be much severe that the constructing nuclear power plants and it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to strengthen the safety of the operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to review the new safety goal from the view point of severe accident analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and to find the appropriate methods in order to meet that goal for the operating nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen the safety for domestic nuclear power plants, all of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years. Also, this Accident Management Plan should meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs- 137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. Since the operating nuclear power plants was not designed against the severe accident and they have the limited exclusive mitigation facilities, it is not easy to meet the New Safety Goal. So, it is necessary to develop the alternative methods to meet the New Safety Goal. In this study, the amount of Cs-137 released to the

  10. Site study plan for Upper Aquifer Hydrology Clusters, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas, 15 wells at 5 locations will be completed in the Ogallala Formation and Dockum Group. The purposes of the wells, which are called Upper Aquifer (2) establish background hydrologic and water quality conditions, (3) provide analysis, (4) monitor responses of the shallow hydrologic system to site activities and nearby pumpage for irrigation, (5) collect water samples from both saturated and unsaturated materials to help define recharge rates and ground-water flow patterns, (6) monitor variations on water quality, and (7) define ground-water resources near the site. The test wells will be installed during a 14-month period starting about 1-1/2 years after site characterization activities begin. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 44 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs

  11. The upper limit of maturity of natural gas generation and its implication for the Yacheng formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long; Zheng, Jianjing; Chen, Guojun; Zhang, Gongcheng; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Yongchang

    2012-08-01

    Vitrinite reflectance (VR, Ro%) measurements from residual kerogen of pyrolysis experiments were performed on immature Maoming Oil Shale substituted the samples for the gas-prone source rocks of Yacheng formation of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the South China Sea. The work was focused on determination an upper limit of maturity for gas generation (ULMGG) or "the deadline of natural gas generation". Ro values at given temperatures increase with increasing temperature and prolonged heating time, but ΔRo-value, given a definition of the difference of all values for VR related to higher temperature and adjacent lower temperature in open-system non-isothermal experiment at the heating rate of 20 °C/min, is better than VR. And representative examples are presented in this paper. It indicates that the range of natural gas generation for Ro in the main gas generation period is from 0.96% to 2.74%, in which ΔRo is in concordance with the stage for the onset and end of the main gas generation period corresponding to 0.02% up to 0.30% and from 0.30% up to 0.80%, respectively. After the main gas generation period of 0.96-2.74%, the evolution of VR approach to the ULMGG of the whole rock for type II kerogen. It is equal to 4.38% of VR, where the gas generation rates change little with the increase of maturation, ΔRo is the maximum of 0.83% corresponding to VR of 4.38%Ro, and the source rock does not nearly occur in the end process of hydrocarbon gas generation while Ro is over 4.38%. It shows that it is the same the ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen as the method with both comparison and kinetics. By comparing to both the conclusions of pyrolysis experiments and the data of VR from the source rock of Yacheng formation on a series of selected eight wells in the shallow-water continental shelf area, it indicate that the most hydrocarbon source rock is still far from reaching ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen. The source rock of Yacheng formation in the

  12. Surface Transient Binding-Based Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (STB-FCS), a Simple and Easy-to-Implement Method to Extend the Upper Limit of the Time Window to Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sijia; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Chunlai

    2018-05-10

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a powerful single-molecule tool that is able to capture kinetic processes occurring at the nanosecond time scale. However, the upper limit of its time window is restricted by the dwell time of the molecule of interest in the confocal detection volume, which is usually around submilliseconds for a freely diffusing biomolecule. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement method, named surface transient binding-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STB-FCS), which extends the upper limit of the time window to seconds. We further demonstrated that STB-FCS enables capture of both intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic processes whose time scales cross several orders of magnitude.

  13. Preliminary limits on deviation from the inverse-square law of gravity in the solar system: a power-law parameterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meng-Yao; Zhong Ze-Hao; Han Yi-Chen; Wang Xiao-Yu; Yang Zong-Shui; Xie Yi

    2014-01-01

    New physics beyond the standard model of particles might cause a deviation from the inverse-square law of gravity. In some theories, it is parameterized by a power-law correction to the Newtonian gravitational force, which might originate from the simultaneous exchange of particles or modified and extended theories of gravity. Using the supplementary advances of the perihelia provided by INPOP10a (IMCCE, France) and EPM2011 (IAA RAS, Russia) ephemerides, we obtain preliminary limits on this correction. In our estimation, we take the Lense-Thirring effect due to the Sun's angular momentum into account. The parameters of the power-law correction and the uncertainty of the Sun's quadrupole moment are simultaneously estimated with the method of minimizing χ 2 . From INPOP10a, we find N = 0.605 for the exponent of the power-law correction. However, from EPM2011, we find that, although it yields N = 3.001, the estimated uncertainty in the Sun's quadrupole moment is much larger than the value given by current observations. This might be caused by the intrinsic nonlinearity in the power-law correction, which makes the estimation very sensitive to the supplementary advances of the perihelia. (research papers)

  14. Process of care and preliminary outcome in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the 1995-1997 patterns of care study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Sumi, Minako; Sawa, Yoshihide M.S.; Teshima, Teruki; Hara, Ryusuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the practice process using the national average (Na); to compare differences in the process of care by age group; and to provide a preliminary outcome data for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: The Patterns of Care Study conducted a nationwide survey of the care process for Stage I-III small-cell lung cancer in Japan. Patients were divided into three age groups: <65 years (younger group, n = 73); between 65 and 74 years (intermediate group, n = 81); and ≥75 years (elderly group, n = 20). Results: The NA for the total dose was 49.0 Gy, and for use of photon energy ≥6 MV, chemotherapy, and prophylactic cranial irradiation was 77.3%, 93.2%, and 1.69%, respectively. Age stratification had no impact on the variables of radiotherapy (RT) such as total dose and field size. Only 37% of patients received chemotherapy and thoracic RT concurrently. The proportion of patients who received chemotherapy and RT concurrently was 44%, 27%, and 25% of the younger, intermediate, and elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.029). Etoposide and cisplatin were less frequently used in the elderly group (≥75 years old). Overall survival at 3 years for the entire group was 26%. The 3-year survival rate was 30% in the younger group, 28% in the intermediate group, and 9% in the elderly group. Variables found to have a significant impact on survival by multivariate analysis were the use of chemotherapy (p = 0.030), age (p 0.032), and T stage (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Calculated NAs showed that the results of clinical study had favorably penetrated into the practice process in Japan. The results demonstrated that patient age significantly influenced the process of chemotherapy such as the use of etoposide and cisplatin for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan. More concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic RT and the application of prophylactic cranial irradiation for complete responders need to be investigated in the future

  15. Preliminary study on evaluation of the pancreatic tail observable limit of transabdominal ultrasonography using a position sensor and CT-fusion image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Hajime; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ohno, Eizaburo [Department of Endoscopy, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Daijuro; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Morishima, Tomomasa; Kawai, Manabu; Furukawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Funasaka, Kohei [Department of Endoscopy, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Katano, Yoshiaki [Department of Gastroenterology, Second Teaching Hospital, Fujita Health University (Japan); Ishigami, Masatoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ohmiya, Naoki [Department of Gastroenterology, Second Teaching Hospital, Fujita Health University (Japan); Goto, Hidemi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Endoscopy, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background and aim: Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) is commonly used for the initial screening of bilio-pancreatic diseases in Asian countries due to its widespread availability, the non-invasiveness and the cost-effectiveness. However, it is considered that US has limits to observe the area, namely the blind area. The observation of the pancreatic tail is particularly difficult. The goal of this study was to examine the pancreatic tail region that cannot be visualized on transverse scanning of the upper abdomen using US with spatial positional information and factors related to visualization, and observation of the tail from the splenic hilum. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with pancreatic/biliary tract disease underwent CT and US with GPS-like technology and fusion imaging for measurement of the real pancreatic length and the predicted/real unobservable (PU and RU) length of the pancreatic tail. RU from US on transverse scanning and the real pancreatic length were used to determine the unobservable area (UA: RU/the real pancreatic length). Relationships of RU with physical and hematological variables that might influence visualization of the pancreatic tail were investigated. Results: The real pancreatic length was 160.9 ± 16.4 mm, RU was 41.0 ± 17.8 mm, and UA was 25.3 ± 10.4%. RU was correlated with BMI (R = 0.446, P = 0.004) and waist circumferences (R = 0.354, P = 0.027), and strongly correlated with PU (R = 0.788, P < 0.001). The pancreatic tail was visible from the splenic hilum in 22 (56%) subjects and was completely identified in 13 (33%) subjects. Conclusions: Combined GPS-like technology with fusion imaging was useful for the objective estimation of the pancreatic blind area.

  16. Preliminary study on evaluation of the pancreatic tail observable limit of transabdominal ultrasonography using a position sensor and CT-fusion image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Hajime; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Daijuro; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Morishima, Tomomasa; Kawai, Manabu; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Funasaka, Kohei; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Katano, Yoshiaki; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ohmiya, Naoki; Goto, Hidemi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) is commonly used for the initial screening of bilio-pancreatic diseases in Asian countries due to its widespread availability, the non-invasiveness and the cost-effectiveness. However, it is considered that US has limits to observe the area, namely the blind area. The observation of the pancreatic tail is particularly difficult. The goal of this study was to examine the pancreatic tail region that cannot be visualized on transverse scanning of the upper abdomen using US with spatial positional information and factors related to visualization, and observation of the tail from the splenic hilum. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with pancreatic/biliary tract disease underwent CT and US with GPS-like technology and fusion imaging for measurement of the real pancreatic length and the predicted/real unobservable (PU and RU) length of the pancreatic tail. RU from US on transverse scanning and the real pancreatic length were used to determine the unobservable area (UA: RU/the real pancreatic length). Relationships of RU with physical and hematological variables that might influence visualization of the pancreatic tail were investigated. Results: The real pancreatic length was 160.9 ± 16.4 mm, RU was 41.0 ± 17.8 mm, and UA was 25.3 ± 10.4%. RU was correlated with BMI (R = 0.446, P = 0.004) and waist circumferences (R = 0.354, P = 0.027), and strongly correlated with PU (R = 0.788, P < 0.001). The pancreatic tail was visible from the splenic hilum in 22 (56%) subjects and was completely identified in 13 (33%) subjects. Conclusions: Combined GPS-like technology with fusion imaging was useful for the objective estimation of the pancreatic blind area

  17. Photoelectron reflection and scattering at Venus: an upper limit on the "polar wind" ambipolar electric field, and a new source of top-side ionospheric heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn; Glocer, Alex; Grebowsky, Joe; Peterson, William; Frahm, Rudy; Moore, Thomas; Gilbert, Lin; Coates, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    An important mechanism in the generation of Earth's polar wind is the ambipolar potential generated by the outflow along open field lines of superthermal electrons. This ≈20V electric potential assists ions in overcoming the gravitational potential, and is a key mechanism for Terrestrial ionospheric escape. At Venus, except in rare circumstances, every field line is open, and a similar outflow of ionospheric electrons is observed. It is thus hypothesized that a similar electric potential may be present at Venus, contributing to global ionospheric loss. However, a very sensitive electric field instrument would be required to directly measure this potential, and no such instrument has yet been flown to Venus. In this pilot study, we examine photoelectron spectra measured by the ASPERA-ELS instrument on the Venus Express to put an initial upper bound on the total potential drop above 350km of Φ current understanding, a "polar wind" like ambipolar electric field may not be as important a mechanism for atmospheric escape as previously suspected. Additionally, we find our spectra are consistent with the scattering of photoelectrons, the heating from which which we hypothesize may act as a source of top-side ionospheric heating, and may play a role in influencing the scale height of the ionosphere.

  18. Verification of an immunoturbidimetric assay for heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) on a clinical chemistry platform and establishment of the upper reference limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Molin, Simona; Cappellini, Fabrizio; Falbo, Rosanna; Signorini, Stefano; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is an early biomarker of cardiac injury. Randox Laboratories developed an immunoturbidimetric H-FABP assay for non-proprietary automated clinical chemistry analysers that could be useful in the emergency department. We verified the analytical performances claimed by Randox Laboratories on Roche Cobas 6000 clinical chemistry platform in use in our laboratory, and we defined our own 99th percentile upper reference limit for H-FABP. For the verification of method performances, we used pools of spared patient samples from routine and two levels of quality control material, while samples for the reference value study were collected from 545 blood donors. Following CLSI guidelines we verified limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), repeatability and within-laboratory precision, trueness, linearity, and the stability of H-FABP in EDTA over 24h. The LOQ (3.19 μg/L) was verified with a CV% of 10.4. The precision was verified for the low (mean 5.88 μg/L, CV=6.7%), the medium (mean 45.28 μg/L, CV=3.0%), and the high concentration (mean 88.81 μg/L, CV=4.0%). The trueness was verified as well as the linearity over the indicated measurement interval of 0.747-120 μg/L. The H-FABP in EDTA samples is stable throughout 24h both at room temperature and at 4 °C. The H-FABP 99th percentile upper reference limit for all subjects (3.60 μg/L, 95% CI 3.51-3.77) is more appropriate than gender-specific ones that are not statistically different. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Taxonomic identification using geometric morphometric approach and limited data: an example using the upper molars of two sympatric species of Calomys (Cricetidae: Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Lima Boroni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomic identification of micromammals might be complicated when the study material is fragmented, as it is the case with pellets and fossil material. On the other hand, tooth morphology generally provides accurate information for species identification. Teeth preserve notably well, retaining their original morphology, unlike skulls and mandibles, which can get crushed or have missing parts. Here, we explored a geometric morphometrics approach (GM to identify fragmented specimens of two sympatric Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species - Calomys tener (Winge, 1888 and Calomys expulsus (Lund, 1841 - using the morphology of intact molars as the basis for identification. Furthermore, we included some specimens of uncertain taxonomic identification to test their affinities and the utility of the shape of the molar to identify incomplete specimens. We evaluated the variations in the shape of the first upper molar (M1 among 46 owl pellets specimens of Calomys, including C. expulsus (n = 15, C. tener (n = 15, and unidentified specimens treated as Calomys sp. (n = 16 through GM analysis using 17 landmarks. The data was explored using PCA, PERMANOVA, and Discriminant analyses over the Procrustes residuals matrix were applied to evaluate inter- and intraspecific shape differences. Also, we evaluated whether allometric shape differences could impact the data, but found no evidence of a correlation between size and shape. Our results support that shape differences in the M1 are effective for discriminating between C. tener and C. expulsus. Moreover, the unidentified specimens do not represent a third shape but could be identified with confidence either as C. tener or C. expulsus. Our results show that even with fragmentary materials, GM is a feasible and useful tool for exploring inter-specific shape differences and assisting in taxonomic identification as a complement to traditional qualitative description of diagnostic features in poorly preserved

  20. Towards a new upper limit for the η-decay η→π{sup 0} + e{sup +} + e{sup -} with WASA-at-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Florian; Demmich, Kay; Huesken, Nils; Sitterberg, Karsten; Khoukaz, Alfons [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A major part of the WASA-at-COSY experimental program is dedicated to investigations on symmetries and symmetry breaking to get a better understanding of the physics within the standard model. An elegant way to search for violation of conservation laws, which are directly connected to symmetry breaking effects, is the study of rare meson decays. Here the η-meson is of particular interest. High statistics of η-meson production are required to obtain new limits on the C, P and T symmetry breaking or combinations thereof. The study of rare meson decays also allows to search for physics beyond the standard model like the dark photon. In this contribution we present and discuss investigations of the C-violating η-decay η→π{sup 0} + e{sup +} + e{sup -} using the high statistics p+d→{sup 3}He+η data obtained with WASA-at-COSY. The dominant C-conserving contribution to this decay via a π{sup 0}+γ*+γ* intermediate state has an expected branching ratio of less than 10{sup -8} in the standard model. An observation of a significantly higher branching ratio would indicate the presence of a C-violating process.

  1. Evidence of Facilitation Cascade Processes as Drivers of Successional Patterns of Ecosystem Engineers at the Upper Altitudinal Limit of the Dry Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Piermarteri, Karina; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers. Focusing on the altitudinal limit of Peruvian Dry Puna vegetation, we hypothesized that positive interactions structure plant communities by facilitation cascades involving different ecosystem engineers, determining the evolution of the microhabitat patches in terms of abiotic resources and beneficiary species hosted. To analyze successional mechanisms, we used a "space-for-time" substitution to account for changes over time, and analyzed data on soil texture, composition, and temperature, facilitated species and their interaction with nurse species, and surface area of engineered patches by means of chemical analyses, indicator species analysis, and rarefaction curves. A successional process, resulting from the dynamic interaction of different ecosystem engineers, which determined a progressive amelioration of soil conditions (e.g. nitrogen and organic matter content, and temperature), was the main driver of species assemblage at the community scale, enhancing species richness. Cushion plants act as pioneers, by starting the successional processes that continue with shrubs and tussocks. Tussock grasses have sometimes been found to be capable of creating microhabitat patches independently. The dynamics of species assemblage seem to follow the nested assemblage mechanism, in which the first foundation species to colonize a habitat provides a novel substrate for colonization by other

  2. Evidence of Facilitation Cascade Processes as Drivers of Successional Patterns of Ecosystem Engineers at the Upper Altitudinal Limit of the Dry Puna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Malatesta

    Full Text Available Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers. Focusing on the altitudinal limit of Peruvian Dry Puna vegetation, we hypothesized that positive interactions structure plant communities by facilitation cascades involving different ecosystem engineers, determining the evolution of the microhabitat patches in terms of abiotic resources and beneficiary species hosted. To analyze successional mechanisms, we used a "space-for-time" substitution to account for changes over time, and analyzed data on soil texture, composition, and temperature, facilitated species and their interaction with nurse species, and surface area of engineered patches by means of chemical analyses, indicator species analysis, and rarefaction curves. A successional process, resulting from the dynamic interaction of different ecosystem engineers, which determined a progressive amelioration of soil conditions (e.g. nitrogen and organic matter content, and temperature, was the main driver of species assemblage at the community scale, enhancing species richness. Cushion plants act as pioneers, by starting the successional processes that continue with shrubs and tussocks. Tussock grasses have sometimes been found to be capable of creating microhabitat patches independently. The dynamics of species assemblage seem to follow the nested assemblage mechanism, in which the first foundation species to colonize a habitat provides a novel substrate for

  3. INTEGRAL serendipitous upper limits on FRB180301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Panessa, F.; Ferrigno, C.; Keane, E.; Bazzano, A.; Burgay, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Petroff, E.; Ubertini, P.; Diehl, R.

    2018-03-01

    On March 1 at T0 = 07:34:19.76 (UTC), a Fast Radio Burst (FRB180301) was detected during Breakthrough Listen observations with the 21-cm multibeam receiver of the CSIRO Parkes radio telescope (see ATel #11376).

  4. Preliminary Results of the Determination of Inlet-Pressure Distortion Effects on Compressor Stall and Altitude Operating Limits of the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, L. E.; Lubick, R. J.; Chelko, L. J.

    1955-01-01

    During an investigation of the J57-P-1 turbojet engine in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel, effects of inlet-flow distortion on engine stall characteristics and operating limits were determined. In addition to a uniform inlet-flow profile, the inlet-pressure distortions imposed included two radial, two circumferential, and one combined radial-circumferential profile. Data were obtained over a range of compressor speeds at an altitude of 50,000 and a flight Mach number of 0.8; in addition, the high- and low-speed engine operating limits were investigated up to the maximum operable altitude. The effect of changing the compressor bleed position on the stall and operating limits was determined for one of the inlet distortions. The circumferential distortions lowered the compressor stall pressure ratios; this resulted in less fuel-flow margin between steady-state operation and compressor stall. Consequently, the altitude operating Limits with circumferential distortions were reduced compared with the uniform inlet profile. Radial inlet-pressure distortions increased the pressure ratio required for compressor stall over that obtained with uniform inlet flow; this resulted in higher altitude operating limits. Likewise, the stall-limit fuel flows required with the radial inlet-pressure distortions were considerably higher than those obtained with the uniform inlet-pressure profile. A combined radial-circumferential inlet distortion had effects on the engine similar to the circumferential distortion. Bleeding air between the two compressors eliminated the low-speed stall limit and thus permitted higher altitude operation than was possible without compressor bleed.

  5. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  6. Expression, limited proteolysis and preliminary crystallographic analysis of IpaD, a component of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Steven [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Roversi, Pietro [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Espina, Marianela [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Deane, Janet E. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Birket, Susan; Picking, William D. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Blocker, Ariel [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Picking, Wendy L. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas (United States); Lea, Susan M., E-mail: susan.lea@path.ox.ac.uk [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the S. flexneri type III secretion system, has been crystallized in a variety of crystal forms using in-drop proteolysis. Native and selenomethionine-labelled data collection and preliminary analyses are reported. IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system, has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of the native protein in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.9, b = 100.7, c = 112.0 Å, and data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Analysis of the native Patterson map revealed a peak at 50% of the origin on the Harker section v = 0.5, suggesting twofold non-crystallographic symmetry parallel to the b crystallographic axis. As attempts to derivatize or grow selenomethionine-labelled protein crystals failed, in-drop proteolysis was used to produce new crystal forms. A trace amount of subtilisin Carlsberg was added to IpaD before sparse-matrix screening, resulting in the production of several new crystal forms. This approach produced SeMet-labelled crystals and diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. The SeMet crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 139.4, b = 45.0, c = 99.5 Å, β = 107.9°. An anomalous difference Patterson map revealed peaks on the Harker section v = 0, while the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold noncrystallographic symmetry axis, which is consistent with two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  7. Expression, limited proteolysis and preliminary crystallographic analysis of IpaD, a component of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Espina, Marianela; Deane, Janet E.; Birket, Susan; Picking, William D.; Blocker, Ariel; Picking, Wendy L.; Lea, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the S. flexneri type III secretion system, has been crystallized in a variety of crystal forms using in-drop proteolysis. Native and selenomethionine-labelled data collection and preliminary analyses are reported. IpaD, the putative needle-tip protein of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system, has been overexpressed and purified. Crystals were grown of the native protein in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 55.9, b = 100.7, c = 112.0 Å, and data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Analysis of the native Patterson map revealed a peak at 50% of the origin on the Harker section v = 0.5, suggesting twofold non-crystallographic symmetry parallel to the b crystallographic axis. As attempts to derivatize or grow selenomethionine-labelled protein crystals failed, in-drop proteolysis was used to produce new crystal forms. A trace amount of subtilisin Carlsberg was added to IpaD before sparse-matrix screening, resulting in the production of several new crystal forms. This approach produced SeMet-labelled crystals and diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. The SeMet crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 139.4, b = 45.0, c = 99.5 Å, β = 107.9°. An anomalous difference Patterson map revealed peaks on the Harker section v = 0, while the self-rotation function indicates the presence of a twofold noncrystallographic symmetry axis, which is consistent with two molecules per asymmetric unit

  8. The emissions gap report. Are the Copenhagen accord pledges sufficient to limit global warming to 2 deg. C or 1.5 deg. C?. A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This report addresses many of the key issues raised by the Copenhagen Accord. For example, the emission pathways consistent with temperature limits and the expected emissions in 2020 based on current pledges. Furthermore, it examines whether there is a gap between emission levels consistent with temperature limits and expected emissions, and furthermore, the increases in temperature consistent with such a gap in emissions. Outside the scope of the report are issues related to the comparability and equity of pledges. Chapter 2 focuses on the likelihood of various emission pathways staying within temperature limits. For these pathways we identify the period in which emissions peak, the level of emissions in 2020, and the corresponding emission reduction rates after 2020. Results include emission pathways from integrated assessment models (IAM) and carbon cycle and climate models. Also discussed are current views about the feasibility of emission reductions and negative emissions, as well as factors determining long-term temperature, including cumulative emissions. Chapter 3 reviews estimates of global emission levels in 2020 based on country emission pledges. Among the factors influencing these estimates are whether pledges are independent of, or conditional on, other countries' actions, financing or technological support. For industrialized countries, key factors include: the accounting procedures for emissions or uptake of carbon from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); the potential for international climate finance, as agreed in the Copenhagen Accord to enable further emission reductions; the carry-over of emission reduction units from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012); and the potential double counting of offsets with emission reductions from non-Annex I countries' actions. Emission estimates are also influenced by the uncertainty of base year emissions and by assumptions needed for filling in sectoral or other

  9. Feasibility and preliminary results of intensive chemotherapy and extensive irradiation in selected patients with limited small-cell lung carcinoma--results of three consecutive phase II programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourani, J.M.; Jaillon-Abraham, C.; Coscas, Y.; Dabouis, G.; Andrieu, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of three consecutive programs combining initial intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The objective was to test the feasibility and the effect of high-dose chemotherapy and three thoracic irradiation programs on survival and patterns of relapse. Forty-two patients with limited SCLC were enrolled. All patients received high-dose chemotherapy (vindesine, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide). In the SC 84 program, chest and brain radiotherapy was delivered during each course of chemotherapy, with a complementary irradiation after chemotherapy. In the SC 86 and SC 92 programs, patients received chemotherapy followed by thoracic irradiation and prophylactic brain and spinal axis radiotherapy. At the end of treatment, 40 patients (95%) were in complete response. During chemotherapy, high levels of toxicity were noted. All patients had grade IV hematological toxicities. The extra-hematological toxicities were digestive (grade III: 21%; grade IV: 7%) and hepatic (grades III and IV: 14%). During irradiation, patients presented digestive, pulmonary and hematological toxicities. Five patients developed late toxicities and a second malignancy was observed in 4 patients. The 2- and 5-year survival rates for all patients were 51% and 27%, respectively. Despite the marked toxicity of the initial intensive chemotherapy, the treatments are tolerable and effective in the control of extra-thoracic micrometastases, whereas they are less effective for thoracic primary tumor

  10. Differences in the Limits of Stability Between Older Rolling Walker Users and Older Single-Tip-Cane Users - A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao Howe; Quiben, Myles; Holmes, Clayton; Connors, Michael; Salem, Yasser

    To identify the differences in the limits of stability (LOS) between older rolling walker and single-tip-cane users. This was a matched paired t-test design with repeated measure. Eighteen older subjects were matched based on age, gender, and functional level. The subjects were assessed using the multidirectional reach test initially and 5-month later in four directions: forward, backward, leftward, and rightward. Initially, there were no differences between cane users and rolling walker users in the LOS in all directions. However, 5-month later, the cane users who held their canes in their right hand had significantly better stability in forward and rightward reach than the walker users (p walker users demonstrated significantly decreased functional reach in forward reach (p walker users in the forward direction and in the direction toward the side holding the cane. This study may provide guide for clinicians including nurses for selecting appropriate rehabilitative interventions for older adults using walkers and canes.

  11. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  12. Fundamental energy limits of SET-based Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits. Preliminary findings from a physical-information-theoretic methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, İlke; Suyabatmaz, Enes

    2018-06-01

    The saturation in the efficiency and performance scaling of conventional electronic technologies brings about the development of novel computational paradigms. Brownian circuits are among the promising alternatives that can exploit fluctuations to increase the efficiency of information processing in nanocomputing. A Brownian cellular automaton, where signals propagate randomly and are driven by local transition rules, can be made computationally universal by embedding arbitrary asynchronous circuits on it. One of the potential realizations of such circuits is via single electron tunneling (SET) devices since SET technology enable simulation of noise and fluctuations in a fashion similar to Brownian search. In this paper, we perform a physical-information-theoretic analysis on the efficiency limitations in a Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits implemented using SET technology. The method we employed here establishes a solid ground that enables studying computational and physical features of this emerging technology on an equal footing, and yield fundamental lower bounds that provide valuable insights into how far its efficiency can be improved in principle. In order to provide a basis for comparison, we also analyze a NAND gate and half-adder circuit implemented in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology to show how the fundamental bound of the Brownian circuit compares against a conventional paradigm.

  13. [Effect of internal limiting membrane peeling on morpho-functional state of the retina in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, M M; Fayzrakhmanov, R R; Kalanov, M R

    2018-01-01

    To compare morpho-functional parameters of retina during vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The study included 55 patients (55 eyes) that had underwent vitreoretinal surgery in the setting of antivasoproliferative therapy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Patients of the 1 st group (n=27) underwent vitrectomy with silicone tamponade, 2 nd group (n=28) received similar treatment with the addition of ILM peeling. Three months after the treatment, all patients had silicone oil removed. Best Corrected Visual Acuity before treatment was 0.06±0.02 in both groups; after the treatment it improved to 0.1±0.05 (ppeeling during vitrectomy with following silicone oil tamponade eliminates the risk of ERM formation in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the follow-up period of up to 6-month and results in better morpho-functional parameters in comparison with patients who received similar treatment but without peeling.

  14. A Raman lidar at La Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E for monitoring water vapour and cirrus distributions in the subtropical upper troposphere: preliminary analyses and description of a future system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based Rayleigh lidar has provided continuous observations of tropospheric water vapour profiles and cirrus cloud using a preliminary Raman channels setup on an existing Rayleigh lidar above La Reunion over the period 2002–2005. With this instrument, we performed a first measurement campaign of 350 independent water vapour profiles. A statistical study of the distribution of water vapour profiles is presented and some investigations concerning the calibration are discussed. Analysis regarding the cirrus clouds is presented and a classification has been performed showing 3 distinct classes. Based on these results, the characteristics and the design of a future lidar system, to be implemented at the new Reunion Island altitude observatory (2200 m for long-term monitoring, is presented and numerical simulations of system performance have been realised to compare both instruments.

  15. Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.

  16. Estimating the upper limit of prehistoric peak ground acceleration using an in situ, intact and vulnerable stalagmite from Plavecká priepast cave (Detrekői-zsomboly), Little Carpathians, Slovakia—first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, K.; Kovács, K.; Mónus, P.; Bokelmann, G.; Konecny, P.; Lednická, M.; Moseley, G.; Spötl, C.; Edwards, R. L.; Bednárik, M.; Brimich, L.; Tóth, L.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquakes hit urban centres in Europe infrequently, but occasionally with disastrous effects. Obtaining an unbiased view of seismic hazard (and risk) is therefore very important. In principle, the best way to test probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs) is to compare them with observations that are entirely independent of the procedure used to produce PSHA models. Arguably, the most valuable information in this context should be information on long-term hazard, namely maximum intensities (or magnitudes) occurring over time intervals that are at least as long as a seismic cycle. The new observations can provide information of maximum intensity (or magnitude) for long timescale as an input data for PSHA studies as well. Long-term information can be gained from intact stalagmites in natural caves. These formations survived all earthquakes that have occurred over thousands of years, depending on the age of the stalagmite. Their `survival' requires that the horizontal ground acceleration (HGA) has never exceeded a certain critical value within that time period. Here, we present such a stalagmite-based case study from the Little Carpathians of Slovakia. A specially shaped, intact and vulnerable stalagmite in the Plavecká priepast cave was examined in 2013. This stalagmite is suitable for estimating the upper limit of horizontal peak ground acceleration generated by prehistoric earthquakes. The critical HGA values as a function of time going back into the past determined from the stalagmite that we investigated are presented. For example, at the time of Jókő event (1906), the critical HGA value cannot have been higher than 1 and 1.3 m/s2 at the time of the assumed Carnuntum event (˜340 AD), and 3000 years ago, it must have been lower than 1.7 m/s2. We claimed that the effect of Jókő earthquake (1906) on the location of the Plavecká priepast cave is consistent with the critical HGA value provided by the stalagmite we investigated. The approach used in

  17. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  18. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I-Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  19. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  20. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  1. Comparative analysis of triangular rigid zone models in the mechanical study of drawing processes by upper bound; Analisis compartivo de modelos de bloques rigidos triangulares en el estudio mecanico de procesos de estirado por limite superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, E. M.; Domingo, R.; Gonzalez, C.; Sanz, A.

    2004-07-01

    To study the optimised geometrical configuration to carry out mechanical drawing of plates is the main objective of this paper. To accomplish this objective, a comparative analysis of some suitable geometrical and kinematic configurations of the material located in the deformation zone has been made. Concretely, several triangular rigid zone models have been chosen, for each one, the overall energy involved in the process have been calculated and an estimation of its different components has been made. The calculation of the energy has been achieved applying the Upper Bound Theorem under plane strain and partial friction conditions. In addition, the range of use for the selected configurations has been established. (Author) 19 refs.

  2. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  3. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  4. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  5. Foregrounds in the BOOMERANG-LDB data: a preliminary rms analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B. P.; de Bernardis, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Martinis, L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the BOOMERanG LDB maps, focused on foregrounds. BOOMERanG detects dust emission at moderately low galactic latitudes ($b > -20^o$) in bands centered at 90, 150, 240, 410 GHz. At higher Galactic latitudes, we use the BOOMERanG data to set conservative upper limits on the level of contamination at 90 and 150 GHz. We find that the mean square signal correlated with the IRAS/DIRBE dust template is less than 3% of the mean square signal due to CMB anisotropy.

  6. Dyspepsia: preliminary experience with upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy in Eldoret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O; Nugent, C E

    1994-04-01

    Fibreoptic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was performed on 45 dysplastic patients suspected of having peptic ulcer (PU). Evidence of PU was found in 39.9% and no abnormality was detected in 60%. Epigastric pain alone (62.2%) and with vomiting (15.5%) were the major reasons for suspecting PU. There were no complications arising from the procedure. It is concluded that OGD is a safe procedure which should be made more available and that the pattern of PUD in Eldoret is similar to that in Nairobi.

  7. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar

  8. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  9. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding the net: The re-evaluation of the multidimensional nomogram calculating the upper limit of normal PTH (maxPTH) in the setting of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the development of the MultIdimensional Predictive hyperparaTHyroid model (Mi-PTH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhbeharrysingh, Uma; El Youssef, Joseph; Leon, Enrique; Lasarev, Michael R; Klein, Robert; Vanek, Chaim; Mattar, Samer; Berber, Eren; Siperstein, Allan; Shindo, Maisie; Milas, Mira

    2016-01-01

    The multidimensional nomogram calculating the upper limit of normal PTH (maxPTH) model identifies a personalized upper limit of normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) and successfully predicts classical primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). We aimed to assess whether maxPTH can distinguish normocalcemic PHP (NCPHP) from secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP), including subjects who underwent bariatric surgery (BrS). A total of 172 subjects with 359 complete datasets of serum calcium (Ca), 25-OH vitamin D, and intact PTH from Oregon were analyzed: 123 subjects (212 datasets) with PHP and 47 (143) with SHP, including 28 (100) with previous BrS. An improved prediction model, MultIdimensional evaluation for Primary hyperparaTHyroidism (Mi-PTH), was created with the same variables as maxPTH by the use of a combined cohort (995 subjects) including participants from previous studies. In the Oregon cohort, maxPTH's sensitivity was 100% for classical PHP and 89% for NCPHP, but only 50% for normohormonal PHP (NHPHP) and 40% specific for SHP. In comparison, although sensitivity for NCPHP was similar (89%), Mi-PTH vastly improved SHP specificity (85%). In the combined cohort, Mi-PTH had better sensitivity of 98.5% (vs 95%) and specificity 97% (vs 85%). MaxPTH was sensitive in detecting PHP; however, there was low specificity for SHP, especially in patients who underwent BrS. The creation of Mi-PTH provided improved performance measures but requires further prospective evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  12. Preliminary safety assessment study for the conceptual design of a repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.L.; Gram, H.F.; Hong, K.J.; Ng, H.S.; Pendergrass, A.M.

    1984-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of the upper bounds on postulated worst-case radiological releases resulting from possible accidents during the operating period of a prospective repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain are presented. Possible disrupting events are screened to identify the accidents of greatest potential consequence. The radiological dose commitments for the general public and repository personnel are estimated for postulated releases caused by natural phenomena, man-made events, and operational accidents. All postulated worst-case releases result in doses to the public that are lower than the 0.5-rem, whole-body dose-per-accident limit set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 60. Doses to repository personnel are within the NRC's 5.0-rem/yr occupational exposure limit set in 10 CFR 20 for normal operations. Doses are within this limit for all accidents except the transportation accident and fire in a drift. A preliminary risk assessment has also been performed. Based on this preliminary safety study, the proposed site boundaries and design criteria routinely used in constructing nuclear facilities appear to be adequate to protect the safety of the general public during the operating phase of the repository

  13. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chenchev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical template was fabricated, helping us to find intraoperatively the exact locations of implants. The preliminary analysis of the number, height and diameter of intraossal implants helped us to find the exact prosthetic solution in this clinical case. The preparation of the implant bed was done by conical osteotomy in order to expand and condense the existing bone, which allowed us to use endoossal implants with a possible maximum size in a very limited maxillary volume and the reluctance of the patient to use other methods and surgical techniques. Conical threaded and self-tapping intraossal implants were used, placed according to a classic two-stage methodology with a flap and a long-term functional loading after a period of four months.Results and Conclusion: The applied surgical and prosthetic solution allowed us to achieve a good functional and aesthetic rehabilitation in this case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, following a number of restrictions imposed on us by the reluctance of the patient to use other surgical solutions. This shows that in the case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, a good clinical result can be achieved. For this reason, the use of CT,a well-planned surgical template, sufficient preparation ,the maximum use of available bone volume and the choice of a good prosthetic solution is very important.

  14. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  15. Chemical Complexity in Local Diffuse and Translucent Clouds: Ubiquitous Linear C3H and CH3CN, a Detection of HC3N and an Upper Limit on the Abundance of CH2CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey; Gerin, Maryvonne; Beasley, Anthony; Pety, Jerome

    2018-04-01

    We present Jansky Very Large Array observations of 20–37 GHz absorption lines from nearby Galactic diffuse molecular gas seen against four cosmologically distant compact radio continuum sources. The main new observational results are that l-C3H and CH3CN are ubiqitous in the local diffuse molecular interstellar medium at {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} ≲ 1, while HC3N was seen only toward B0415 at {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} > 4 mag. The linear/cyclic ratio is much larger in C3H than in C3H2 and the ratio CH3CN/HCN is enhanced compared to TMC-1, although not as much as toward the Horsehead Nebula. More consequentially, this work completes a long-term program assessing the abundances of small hydrocarbons (CH, C2H, linear and cyclic C3H and C3 {{{H}}}2, and C4H and C4H‑) and the CN-bearing species (CN, HCN, HNC, HC3N, HC5N, and CH3CN): their systematics in diffuse molecular gas are presented in detail here. We also observed but did not strongly constrain the abundances of a few oxygen-bearing species, most prominently HNCO. We set limits on the column density of CH2CN, such that the anion CH2CN‑ is only viable as a carrier of diffuse interstellar bands if the N(CH2CN)/N(CH2CN‑) abundance ratio is much smaller in this species than in any others for which the anion has been observed. We argue that complex organic molecules (COMS) are not present in clouds meeting a reasonable definition of diffuse molecular gas, i.e., {\\text{}}{A}{{V}} ≲ 1 mag. Based on observations obtained with the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array (VLA).

  16. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  17. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  18. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  19. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  20. Upper Limits on O VI Emission from Voyager Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ., Bowyer, C. S., Korpela, E., Lampton, M., Trapero, J., Gomez, J. F., Morales, C.,. Orozco, V. 1999, American Astronomical Society Meeting, 195, 5302. Holberg, J. B., Watkins, R. 1992, Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer Guest Observer and Data.

  1. INTEGRAL gamma-ray upper limits on FRB180309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, E. Kuulkers, P.; Keane, E.

    2018-03-01

    A very high signal-to-noise fast radio burst has been detected at the Parkes Telescope on 2018-03-09 at 02:49:32.99 UTC (ATeL #11385). The INTEGRAL observatory was taking data on a field centered at RA=87.04, Dec=19.32, 130 degrees from the approximate FRB arrival direction (RA=321.2 Dec=-33.8).

  2. INTEGRAL gamma-ray upper limits on FRB180311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, E.; Kuulkers, P.; Keane, E.

    2018-03-01

    A fast radio burst has been detected at the Parkes Telescope on 2018-03-11 at 04:11:54.80 UTC (ATeL #11396). The INTEGRAL observatory was taking data on a field centered at RA=260.177, Dec=-40.105, 43.0 degrees from the approximate FRB arrival direction (RA=21:31:33.42 Dec=-57:44:26.7).

  3. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  4. Geochemical Characterization of the Upper and Middle Floridan Aquifer System, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirecki, J.; Richardson, E.; Bennett, M.; Hendel, J.

    2008-05-01

    Our study focus is to characterize the water quality and geochemical environment of the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) throughout the regional flowpath. A synoptic survey of 21 wells (n=15, upper FAS; n=6 middle FAS) was supplemented by additional samples (n=11) obtained during exploratory well development at 4 aquifer storage recovery (ASR) pilot sites. Synoptic survey samples were analyzed intensively, yielding a dataset that consists of major and trace dissolved constituents (including metals), stable isotopes (δ18O, δ13C, δD, δ34S in sulfate and sulfide), carbon species (carbonate alkalinity and organic carbon), uranium-series radionuclides, nutrients, and selected microbes and pathogens. The objectives of this study are three-fold: 1) to provide baseline water-quality and geochemical information prior to initiation of ASR activities that are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan; 2) to quantify the major controls on geochemical evolution along upper and middle FAS flowpaths using geochemical modeling methods; and 3) to identify areas where water- quality may limit the feasibility of ASR methods in the FAS. Preliminary interpretations water quality changes along the regional FAS flowpath can be summarized as follows. Concentrations of dissolved constituents increase from north to south along the flow path; generally, the upper FAS has lower total dissolved solids than the middle FAS at locations where well pairs were analyzed. The redox environment changes from oxic to strongly anoxic, very close to the recharge area. Redox measurements, dissolved iron, sulfide, and sulfur isotope data are consistent with sulfate-reducing conditions. Uranium-series isotope concentrations and activities generally are below regulatory criteria, with few exceptions in both the upper and middle FAS. Areas with greater radionuclide activity occur primarily at distal flowpath locations or at the coast.

  5. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-10-01

    In this research, we study Albuquerque's water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper

  6. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  7. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  8. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  9. Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: part I: comparison with nonscoliosis group: preliminary/limited review in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Uchiyama, Seiji; Endo, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    This preliminary study evaluates untreated Japanese patients with idiopathic scoliosis using the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-24). To determine the baseline patient outcome score using the SRS-24 for untreated Japanese scoliosis patients compared with a nonscoliosis group. The SRS instrument with 24 questions was developed to help evaluate patient-perceived outcomes of idiopathic scoliosis treatment. Evaluation of untreated Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients using the SRS instrument has not been reported. Japanese idiopathic scoliosis patients (n = 141) (mean age, 13.6 years; range, 10-17 years) with a Cobb angle of more than 20 degrees who were not treated with a brace or surgery, were evaluated in comparison with a nonscoliosis group (healthy junior high school students; n = 72) using the SRS-24. The scoliosis group was categorized as mild deformity group with a major curve Cobb angle of less than 30 degrees, moderate deformity group with 30 degrees to 49 degrees, and severe deformity group with more than 50 degrees. The patients were evaluated using section 1 (15 questions) of the SRS-24, which was divided into four domains: total pain, general self-image, general function, and activity. Reliability, as determined by internal consistency, was validated using Cronbach's alpha for these domain scales. The severe deformity group had the lowest scores compared with the other deformity groups and the nonscoliosis group in pain (P self-image (P self-image of back appearance, were significantly lower in the scoliosis group than those in the nonscoliosis group. This tendency was more significant in the patients with greater curve magnitude. Scores for questions 14 and 15, evaluation of general self-image, in the scoliosis group were, however, higher than those in the nonscoliosis group. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.57 (pain), 0.27 (general self-image), -0.08 (general function), and 0.15 (overall level of activity

  10. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  11. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  12. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  13. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  14. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  15. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  16. New Substrate-Guided Method of Predicting Slow Conducting Isthmuses of Ventricular Tachycardia: Preliminary Analysis to the Combined Use of Voltage Limit Adjustment and Fast-Fourier Transform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Kenji; Nogami, Akihiko; Igarashi, Miyako; Masuda, Keita; Kowase, Shinya; Kurosaki, Kenji; Komatsu, Yuki; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Machino, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Hiro; Xu, Dongzhu; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2018-04-01

    Several conducting channels of ventricular tachycardia (VT) can be identified using voltage limit adjustment (VLA) of substrate mapping. However, the sensitivity or specificity to predict a VT isthmus is not high by using VLA alone. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of VLA and fast-Fourier transform analysis to predict VT isthmuses. VLA and fast-Fourier transform analyses of local ventricular bipolar electrograms during sinus rhythm were performed in 9 postinfarction patients who underwent catheter ablation for a total of 13 monomorphic VTs. Relatively higher voltage areas on an electroanatomical map were defined as high voltage channels (HVCs), and relatively higher fast-Fourier transform areas were defined as high-frequency channels (HFCs). HVCs were classified into full or partial HVCs (the entire or >30% of HVC can be detectable, respectively). Twelve full HVCs were identified in 7 of 9 patients. HFCs were located on 7 of 12 full HVCs. Five VT isthmuses (71%) were included in the 7 full HVC+/HFC+ sites, whereas no VT isthmus was found in the 5 full HVC+/HFC- sites. HFCs were identical to 9 of 16 partial HVCs. Eight VT isthmuses (89%) were included in the 9 partial HVC+/HFC+ sites, whereas no VT isthmus was found in the 7 partial HVC+/HFC- sites. All HVC+/HFC+ sites predicted VT isthmus with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80%. Combined use of VLA and fast-Fourier transform analysis may be a useful method to detect VT isthmuses. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. CT arteriography of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, K; Matsuura, K; Baba, H; Numaguchi, Y; Komaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    The technique of CT arteriography was introduced, and CT images of the upper abdomen were explained. Very clear enhancement of parenchyma and vessels (especially portal vein) of the object organs could be obtained by CT arteriography of the upper abdomen, anatomical structures of organs were identified more easily by CT arteriography than by conventional CT, and the amount of information obtained was increased by using CT arteriography. However, the indication of CT arteriography must be limited, because of its complexity that CT arteriography is performed after angiography and involves the invasion of patients' bodies. As described in many reports, CT arteriography is useful for malignant tumors of the liver, and it is worthwhile, especially when surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma is considered. CT arteriography for organs except the liver has not been discussed sufficiently. Therefore, an application of this method for other organs must be decided after consideration of the balance of the amount of information obtained by CT arteriography with invasion to patients.

  18. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  19. Development and validation of an index of musculoskeletal functional limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While musculoskeletal problems are leading sources of disability, there has been little research on measuring the number of functionally limiting musculoskeletal problems for use as predictor of outcome in studies of chronic disease. This paper reports on the development and preliminary validation of a self administered musculoskeletal functional limitations index. Methods We developed a summary musculoskeletal functional limitations index based upon a six-item self administered questionnaire in which subjects indicate whether they are limited a lot, a little or not at all because of problems in six anatomic regions (knees, hips, ankles and feet, back, neck, upper extremities. Responses are summed into an index score. The index was completed by a sample of total knee replacement recipients from four US states. Our analyses examined convergent validity at the item and at the index level as well as discriminant validity and the independence of the index from other correlates of quality of life. Results 782 subjects completed all items of the musculoskeletal functional limitations index and were included in the analyses. The mean age of the sample was 75 years and 64% were female. The index demonstrated anticipated associations with self-reported quality of life, activities of daily living, WOMAC functional status score, use of walking support, frequency of usual exercise, frequency of falls and dependence upon another person for assistance with chores. The index was strongly and independently associated with self-reported overall health. Conclusion The self-reported musculoskeletal functional limitations index appears to be a valid measure of musculoskeletal functional limitations, in the aspects of validity assessed in this study. It is useful for outcome studies following TKR and shows promise as a covariate in studies of chronic disease outcomes.

  20. An upper bound for the proton temperature anisotrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial describes recent research concerning the upper bound on the hot proton temperature anisotropy imposed by wave-particle scattering due to enhanced fluctuations from the electromagnetic proton cyclotron anisotropy instability. This upper bound, which has been observed in both the magnetosheath and the outer magnetosphere, represents a limited closure relation for the equations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics. Such a closure relation has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale anisotropic models of the magnetosphere

  1. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Progress of the ECRH Upper Launcher design for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, D.; Aiello, G.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Gagliardi, M.; Garcia, V.; Goodman, T.P.; Grossetti, G.; Heemskerk, C.; Henderson, M.A.; Kasparek, W.; Krause, A.; Landis, J.-D.; Meier, A.; Moro, A.; Platania, P.; Plaum, B.; Poli, E.

    2014-01-01

    The design of the ITER ECRH system provides 20 MW millimeter wave power for central plasma heating and MHD stabilization. The system consists of an array of 24 gyrotrons with power supplies coupled to a set of transmission lines guiding the beams to the four upper and the equatorial launcher. The front steering upper launcher design described herein has passed successfully the preliminary design review, and it is presently in the final design stage. The launcher consists of a millimeter wave system and steering mechanism with neutron shielding integrated into an upper port plug with the plasma facing blanket shield module (in-vessel) and a set of ex-vessel waveguides connecting the launcher to the transmission lines. Part of the transmission lines are the ultra-low loss CVD torus diamond windows and a shutter valve, a miter bend section and the feedthroughs integrated in the plug closure plate. These components are connected by corrugated waveguides and form together the first confinement system (FCS). In-vessel, the millimeter-wave system includes a quasi-optical beam propagation system including four mirror sets and a front steering mirror. The millimeter wave system is integrated into a specifically optimized upper port plug providing structural stability to withstand plasma disruption forces and the high heat load from the plasma side with a dedicated blanket shield module. A recent update in the ITER interface definition has resulted in the recession of the upper port plug first wall panels, which is now integrated into the design. Apart from the millimeter wave system the upper port plug houses also a set of shield blocks which provide neutron shielding. An overview of the actual ITER ECRH Upper Launcher is given together with some highlights of the design

  3. Laparoscopic ultrasonography--a method for staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup Scheel-Hincke, J; Mortensen, M B; Pless, T

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) is a method that can be useful in the staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer. Dedicated transducers are available, and preliminary studies have proposed indications for the use of LUS staging of hepatic, esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer disease. In t...

  4. Use of a single implant to retain mandibular overdenture: A preliminary clinical trial of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this preliminary prospective clinical study, single-implant-supported mandibular overdentures were a successful alternative treatment option for elderly edentulous patients.

  5. Engineering issues on the diagnostic port integration in ITER upper port 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sunil, E-mail: paksunil@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cheon, Mun Seong [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Giacomin, Thibaud [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Heemskerk, Cock J.M.; Koning, Jarich F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands); Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nemtcev, Grigorii [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, Akademika Kurchatova sq., Moscow (Russian Federation); Ronden, Dennis M.S. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Seon, Chang Rae [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Udintsev, Victor; Yukhnov, Nikolay [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Zvonkov, Alexander [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, Akademika Kurchatova sq., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Diagnostic port integration in the upper port 18 of ITER is presented in order to house the three diagnostic systems. • Issue on the neutron shielding in the upper port 18 is addressed and the shut-down dose rate in the interspace is summarized. • The maintenance strategy in the upper port 18 is described. - Abstract: The upper port #18 (UP18) in ITER hosts three diagnostic systems: the neutron activation system, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet spectrometer system, and the vertical neutron camera. These diagnostics are integrated into three infrastructures in the port: the upper port plug, interspace support structure and port cell support structure. The port integration in UP18 is at the preliminary design stage and the current design of the infrastructure as well as the diagnostic integration is described here. The engineering issues related to neutron shielding and maintenance are addressed and the design approach is suggested.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of FY98 KALIMER shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Kang, Chang Mu; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the shielding design of FY98 KALIMER. The KALIMER shielding design includes the Inner Fixed Shield of a stainless cylinder located inside the support barrel; the Radial PSDRS Shields which are three B{sub 4}C cylinders located outside the support barrel at core level; the Lower IHX shield of a cylindrical B{sub 4}C plate located above the flow guide; and Inner and Outer IHX shields of B{sub 4}C cylinders located inside and outside of the support barrel, respectively. The DORT3.1 two-dimensional transport code was used to evaluate the KALIMER shielding design. The reactor system was represented by four axial zones, each of which was modeled in the R-Z geometry. The KAFAX-F22 library was used in the analyses, which was generated from the JEF-2.2 of OECD/NEA files for LMR applications by KAERI. The performance of the KALIMER shielding design is compared against the shielding design criteria. The results indicate that the support barrel, upper grid plate, and other reactor structures meet the maximum neutron fluence and DPA limits established in the shielding design criteria. Activities of the air effluent in the PSDRS were also evaluated and are shown to satisfy the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) limits in 10 CFR Part 20. In the future, the validation of the DORT model by a detailed three dimensional calculation such as MCNP and the justification of the current shielding design limits are needed. (author). 13 refs., 23 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  8. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  9. The Preliminary Pollutant Limit Value Approach: Procedures and Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    and T is the temperature in OK. Soil Organic Carbon Adsorption Coefficient Koc ) 71. This is the ratio of the concentration of a compound physically...5 1 Table 10 includes some soil organic matter assays for different locales in the United States. 73. Soil adsorption isotherms are typically used to...0.003 Tributyl phosphate 0.01 - Trichlorometafos-3 0.4 S Triethanolamine 1.4 Phosbutyl 0.03 Phosphamide 0.03 Ph~halophos 0.2 Furfural 1.0 Chloranil

  10. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu

    2012-10-01

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  11. Limits on rare exclusive decays of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, P.; Besson, D.; Bowcock, T.; Giles, R.T.; Hassard, J.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Gentile, T.; Haas, P.; Hempstead, M.; Jensen, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Behrends, S.; Guida, J.M.; Guida, J.A.; Morrow, F.; Poling, R.; Thorndike, E.H.; Tipton, P.; Alam, M.S.; Katayama, N.; Kim, I.J.; Sun, C.R.; Tanikella, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Chen, A.; Garren, L.; Goldberg, M.; Holmes, R.; Horwitz, N.; Jawahery, A.; Lubrano, P.; Moneti, G.C.; Sharma, V.; Csorna, S.E.; Mestayer, M.D.; Panvini, R.S.; Word, G.B.; Bean, A.; Bobbink, G.J.; Brock, I.C.; Engler, A.; Ferguson, T.; Kraemer, R.W.; Rippich, C.; Vogel, H.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Blucher, E.; Cassel, D.G.; Copie, T.; DeSalvo, R.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Halling, A.M.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Holzner, S.; Ito, M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreinick, D.L.; Kubota, Y.; Mistry, N.B.; Mueller, J.; Namjoshi, R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Perticone, D.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Read, K.; Riley, D.; Silverman, A.; Stone, S.; Yi Xia; Sadoff, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    We have set upper limits for rare exclusive decays of B mesons arising from higher order processes in the standard model of electroweak interactions. Such decays may occur via ''penguin diagrams'' in B decay. We also set an upper limit on a lepton-number-violating decay mode of the neutral B meson. (orig.)

  12. Reflections on the present and future of upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Dario; Amsüss, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in research and media attention on active upper limb prostheses, presently the most common commercial upper limb prosthetic devices are not fundamentally different from solutions offered almost one century ago. Limited information transfer for both control and sensory-motor integration and challenges in socket technology have been major obstacles. By analysing the present state-of-the-art and academic achievements, we provide our opinion on the future of upper limb prostheses. We believe that surgical procedures for muscle reinnervation and osseointegration will become increasingly clinically relevant; muscle electrical signals will remain the main clinical means for prosthetic control; and chronic electrode implants, first in muscles (control), then in nerves (sensory feedback), will become viable clinical solutions. After decades of suspended clinically relevant progress, it is foreseeable that a new generation of upper limb prostheses will enter the market in the near future based on such advances, thereby offering substantial clinical benefit for patients.

  13. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  14. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  15. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  17. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  18. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  20. The question of an upper bound on entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.

    1982-08-01

    We discuss the possibility, and significance, of an upper bound on entropy in the light of the arguments of Bekenstein and Unruh and Wald. We obtain a stricter bound than Bekenstein does, and point out some limitations with regard to its significance. (author)

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIG. 14. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • March 2007. ORIG. Abstract. Background. Current practice at our institution for routine abdominal. CT includes coverage from the diaphragm to the symphysis pubis and therefore includes pelvic organs. Limited upper abdominal imaging exists in other modalities, and tailoring the ...

  2. Conclusion of the Preliminary Safety report for the LILW Repository on Trgovska Gora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.; Schaller, A.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Cerskov Klika, M.; Subasic, D.

    2002-01-01

    For more than a decade, APO d.o.o. has been engaged in preparations which might lead to establishment of a radioactive waste repository on Trgovska Gora, suitable for disposal of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) from the nuclear power plant Krsko. A recent product of theses activities is the preliminary safety assessment report (PSAR) for the proposed repository. In addition to an extensive overview of the repository project status, this preliminary SAR describes how the safety assessment methodology is used to demonstrate that a LILW facility will comply with radiological protection and safety requirements after the repository closure. LILW repository is designed to isolate waste from the environment for a couple hundred years in a reasonably efficient manner. It is generally not practicable to grant full waste containment throughout that period, because it suffices to demonstrate that radionuclide release and migration will remain below acceptable levels, which is achieved through safety assessment scenarios, modeling and calculations. However, with very limited repository specific data, safety assessment can only produce a conservative estimate of the upper bounds of potential exposures the repository could inflict. This PSAR arrives at such estimates in two different ways: (a) by simple bounding calculations and (b) through more sophisticated modeling and application of dedicated computer codes, but with similar conservative assumptions. Both approaches conservatively estimate that the highest potential dose to a nearby resident cannot significantly exceed the dose constraint of 0.2 mSv per year. Only in case of inadvertent intrusion into the near-surface disposal vault, much higher doses might be inflicted immediately after the planned institutional control of 250 years expires, but that can be prevented by a longer control period. Despite the preliminary and bounding style of the calculations, the PSAR has identified most important assumptions and

  3. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  4. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  5. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  6. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  7. Preliminary seismic design of dynamically coupled structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, N.; Dalcher, A.W.; Gluck, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis criteria for coupling and decoupling, which are most commonly used in nuclear design practice, are briefly reviewed and a procedure outlined and demonstrated with examples. Next, a criterion judged to be practical for preliminary seismic design purposes is defined. Subsequently, a technique compatible with this criterion is suggested. A few examples are presented to test the proposed procedure for preliminary seismic design purposes. Limitations of the procedure are also discussed and finally, the more important conclusions are summarized

  8. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  9. A study on flammability limits of fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Sekiya, Akira

    2008-07-15

    Flammability limit measurements were made for various binary and ternary mixtures prepared from nine different compounds. The compounds treated are methane, propane, ethylene, propylene, methyl ether, methyl formate, 1,1-difluoroethane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. The observed values of lower flammability limits of mixtures were found to be in good agreement to the calculated values by Le Chatelier's formula. As for the upper limits, however, some are close to the calculated values but some are not. It has been found that the deviations of the observed values of upper flammability limits from the calculated ones are mostly to lower concentrations. Modification of Le Chatelier's formula was made to better fit to the observed values of upper flammability limits. This procedure reduced the average difference between the observed and calculated values of upper flammability limits to one-third of the initial value.

  10. Risk mitigation strategy for the ITER electron cyclotron upper port launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goede, A.P.H.; Bongers, W.A.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Graswinckel, M.F.; Baar, M.R. de

    2010-01-01

    A basic requirement for ITER equipment to meet is a high level of reliability, because ITER operation time is precious and radioactive operation leaves limited scope for repair. In order to reduce the risk of failure during ITER operation an effective risk mitigation strategy is necessary. This paper presents such strategy for the ITER electron cyclotron upper port launcher (ECUPL). A preliminary ECUPL risk analysis identifies possible failure modes. A probabilistic risk assessment quantifies the risk of failure using a 4 x 4 impact-likelihood matrix. Impact is quantified through technical, cost and schedule elements. Likelihood depends on the risk mitigation strategy adopted. A cost benefit analysis determines the most cost effective risk mitigation strategy. An essential element in risk mitigation is the testing of equipment prior to installation on the ITER machine. This paper argues the need for low- and highpower millimetre wave tests carried out on the fully assembled ECUPL. It presents a conceptual design for a dedicated on-site test bed that can handle 2 of 8 microwave beams at 2 MW long pulse operation.

  11. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  12. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  13. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  14. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) is a novel and simple measure of upper extremity weight-bearing that can be measured with a grip dynamometer. There are no published studies on the validity and reliability of the POT. The relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation and impairment measures remain an unexplored realm. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the POT. The secondary purpose is to estimate the relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures. A convenience sample of 22 patients with wrist or elbow injuries were tested for POT, wrist/elbow range of motion (ROM), isometric wrist extension strength (WES) and grip strength; and completed two self-report activity/participation questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and the Hand (DASH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26). POT's inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity was tested. Pearson's correlations were run between the impairment measures and self-report questionnaires to look into the relationship amongst them. The POT demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.97; 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99; ICC unaffected = 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.68-0.94) and intra-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.96; 95% C.I. 0.92-0.97; ICC unaffected = 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.85-0.97). The POT was correlated moderately with the DASH (r = -0.47; p = 0.03). While examining the relationship between upper extremity self-reported activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures the strongest correlation was between the DASH and the POT (r = -0.47; p = 0.03) and none of the correlations with the other physical impairment measures reached significance. At-work disability demonstrated insignificant correlations with physical impairments. The POT test provides a reliable and easily

  15. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  16. Regeneration of upper-elevation red oak in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    Northern red oak occurs in limited amounts with a mixture of softwoods on the shallow soils at upper elevations in northern New England. These stands are important for wildlife habitat and forest diversity as well as a modest amount of timber harvesting. Little experience or research is available on how to regenerate upper-elevation oak. However, an examination of a 35...

  17. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Chantal

    1990-01-01

    Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained

  19. 78 FR 42520 - Control Technology, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Technology, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On December 18, 2012, Control Technology, Inc. filed an... lower reservoir, (3) a reinforced concrete penstock with intake/outlet structure in the upper reservoir...

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  2. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  3. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Limits on the Isotropic Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, Jim; Cornish, Neil; Demorest, Paul; Deng, Xihao; Dolch, Tim; Ellis, Justin; Ferdman, Rob; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nate

    2015-01-01

    We compute upper limits on the nanohertz-frequency isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB) using the 9-year data release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration. We set upper limits for a GWB from supermassive black hole binaries under power law, broken power law, and free spectral coefficient GW spectrum models. We place a 95\\% upper limit on the strain amplitude (at a frequency of yr$^{-1}$) in the power law model of $A...

  4. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  5. Six upper incisors: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneburg, Mirjam; Meller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes our therapeutic approach taken in a girl with eruption disturbance of the upper anterior teeth. Two supernumerary teeth were involved, which required a combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment. The initial situation in the upper anterior segment was characterized by two supernumerary mesial incisors, ectopic eruption of the distally located lateral incisors, and crowded tooth buds in the canine areas. Key decisions had to be made as to whether any teeth needed to be extracted and, if so, regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Removing teeth too early would have preempted a complete assessment of tooth quality, whereas late extraction would have carried a risk of eruption disturbance. Once the distal lateral incisors had erupted, the supernumerary mesial incisors were extracted and the central incisors (initially located in between) mesialized with a bracket appliance. Following space closure and mesialization of the lateral incisors, a functional appliance was used. Tooth 13 was erupting, while tooth 23 was displaced and subsequently aligned as part of the final bracket treatment. To successfully treat eruption disturbances, a careful diagnostic workup is essential, including informative radiographs, personalized treatment planning, and correct decision-making as to whether teeth need to be extracted and regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Finally, the eruption of the canines should be monitored.

  6. Tokamak plasma interaction with limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    The importance of plasma purity is first discussed in terms of the general requirements of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The tokamak approach to fusion and its inherent problem of plasma contamination are introduced. A main source of impurities is due to the bombardment of the limiter by energetic particles and thus the three main aspects of the plasma-limiter interaction are reviewed, boundary plasma conditions, fuelling/recycling and impurity production. The experiments, carried out on the DITE tokamak at Culham Laboratory, UK, investigated these three topics and the results are compared with predicted behaviour; new physical phenomena are presented in all three areas. Simple one-dimensional fluid equations are found to adequately describe the SOL plasma, except in regard to the pre-sheath electric field and ambipolarity; that is, the electric field adjacent to the limiter surface appears to be weak and the associated plasma flow can be non-ambipolar. Recycling of fuel particles from the limiter is observed to be near unity at all times. The break-up behaviour of recycled and gas puffed D 2 molecules is dependent on the electron temperature, as expected. Impurity production at the limiter is chemical erosion of graphite being negligible. Deposition of limiter and wall-produced impurities is found on the limiter. The spatial distributions of impurities released from the limiter are observed and are in good agreement with a sputtered atom transport code. Finally, preliminary experiments on the transport of impurity ions along field lines away from the limiter have been performed and compared with simple analytic theory. The results suggest that the pre-sheath electric field in the SOL is much weaker than the simple fluid model would predict

  7. Late renal function after upper abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica M.; Willett, Christopher G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the late renal function and complications following upper abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six adult patients were identified who were treated with curative intent to the upper abdomen, received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 26 Gy, and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. Creatinine clearance was calculated by the formula: creatinine clearance equals [(140 - age) x (weight in kilograms)] / (72 x serum creatinine), which has a close correlation to creatinine clearances measured by 24 hour urine measurement. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. Seventeen patients were followed for 11 or more years. Results: Of the 16 patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, eight required an increase in the number of medications for control and eight required no change in medication. Twenty-one patients developed hypertension in follow-up, 15 of whom required no medication. One patient developed malignant hypertension on the basis of renal artery stenosis. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to irradiation was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2-3 mg/100 ml in five patients. On univariate analysis, older patient age, female sex, pre-existing hypertension and initially abnormal renal function (creatinine clearance <90mg/ml) were significantly correlated with later poor creatinine clearance (<50 mg/ml). Conclusions: After significant unilateral kidney irradiation, patients demonstrated a laboratory trend to increased creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. With long-term follow-up, these physiologic changes did not appear to translate into a clinically relevant alteration in

  8. Upper limb assessment using a Virtual Peg Insertion Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the initial evaluation of a Virtual Peg Insertion Test developed to assess sensorimotor functions of arm and hand using an instrumented tool, virtual reality and haptic feedback. Nine performance parameters derived from kinematic and kinetic data were selected and compared between two groups of healthy subjects performing the task with the dominant and non-dominant hand, as well as with a group of chronic stroke subjects suffering from different levels of upper limb impairment. Results showed significantly smaller grasping forces applied by the stroke subjects compared to the healthy subjects. The grasping force profiles suggest a poor coordination between position and grasping for the stroke subjects, and the collision forces with the virtual board were found to be indicative of sensory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that the analyzed parameters could be valid indicators of impairment. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators

  10. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2006-11-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  11. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: one bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  12. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [Physikalisches Institut, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, W. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2006-11-27

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  13. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  14. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  15. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  16. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  17. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Endovascular treatment of nonvariceal acute arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization as treatment of upper nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding is increasingly being used after failed primary endoscopic treatment. The results after embolization have become better and surgery still has a high mortality. Embolization is a safe and effective...... procedure, but its use is has been limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and high mortality, both of which are associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and non-gastrointestinal related mortality causes. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable minimal invasive method...

  19. 1995 and 1996 Upper Three Runs Dye Study Data Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of dye tracer studies conducted on Upper Three Runs. The revised STREAM code was used to analyze these studies and derive a stream velocity and a dispersion coefficient for use in aqueous transport models. These models will be used to facilitate the establishment of aqueous effluent limits and provide contaminant transport information to emergency management in the event of a release

  20. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Biyani, Chandra S; El-Mokadem, Ismail; Nabi, Ghulam

    2011-04-13

    Upper tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) are uncommon and aggressive tumours. There are a number of surgical approaches to manage this condition including open radical nephroureterectomy and laparoscopic procedures. To determine the best surgical management option for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. A sensitive search strategy was developed to identify relevant studies for inclusion in this review. The following databases were searched for randomised trials evaluating surgical approaches to the management of upper tract TCC: Medline EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science®, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, and ISI Proceedings. The following criteria that were considered for this review.Types of studies - All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the various surgical methods and approaches for the management of localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of participants - All adult patients with localised transitional cell carcinoma. Localised disease was defined as limited to the kidney or ureter with no gross regional lymph nodal enlargement on imaging. Types of interventions - Any surgical method or approach for managing localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of outcome measures - Overall and cancer-specific survival were primary outcomes. Surgery-related morbidity. Quality of life and health economics outcomes were secondary outcomes. Two review authors examined the search results independently to identify trials for inclusion. We identified one randomised controlled trial that met our inclusion criteria. The trial showed that the laparoscopic approach had superior peri-operative outcomes compared to open approach. Laparoscopic was superior and statistically significant for blood loss (104 mL (millilitres) versus 430 mL, P management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma

  1. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  2. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  3. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  4. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: Demographic and Health History Predictors of URI (Upper Respiratory Illness) During Basic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-05

    Symptom Reporting scores represent hypochondriasis , somatic responses to acute stress, or simple response biases in filling out questionnaires. The...laboratory settings which presumably are not as stressful as basic training and may tend, therefore, to minimize the expression of hypochondriasis ... somatization , and related factors that could be important in basic training. However: the present findings make it clear that even if the upper limit of the

  5. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.

  6. An upper bound on right-chiral weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton--proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass. 2 refs

  7. An upper bound on right-Chiral weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton-proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass

  8. Nasolabial Growth in Individuals With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: A Preliminary Study of Longitudinal Observation Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Omar; Morioka, Daichi; Miyabe, Mai; Tosa, Yasusoshi; Ohkubo, Fumio; Yoshimoto, Shinya

    2017-07-01

    There are limited numbers of studies comparing the preoperative and postoperative facial features of infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) using three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry. The authors attempted an anthropometric analysis of nasolabial asymmetry 1 year after primary lip repair using a handheld 3D imaging system. Five different nasolabial dimensions in 24 infants with UCLP were measured using 3D images captured during primary lip repair and again, 1 year after the repair. The nasal and upper-lip elements of the cleft side were significantly changed after primary lip repair, and nasolabial asymmetry was anthropometrically improved. This is a preliminary longitudinal observation of nasolabial growth in individuals with UCLP using 3D stereophotogrammetric technique. The authors would like to follow these children until adulthood, capturing 3D images at every intervention.

  9. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  10. Effectiveness of Service Dogs for Veterans with PTSD: Preliminary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Belleville, Geneviève; Gagnon, Dany H; Dumont, Frédéric; Auger, Edouard; Lavoie, Vicky; Besemann, Markus; Champagne, Noël; Lessart, Geneviève

    2017-01-01

    Limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of psychiatric service dogs used by Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is available. This study investigated their short-term effectiveness among 15 Canadian veterans who received a first psychiatric service dog. Preliminary results suggest potential beneficial effects at 3 months on the psychiatric symptoms.

  11. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  12. Thermostructural and mechanical aspects of the TFTR plasma limiter design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condolff, R.; Fixler, S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary mechanical and thermostructural aspects of the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor) plasma limiter design. The evolution of the limiter design is traced through the various stages from conceptual design to the present state. Results of parametric limiter blade studies are presented. Design criteria, requirements, design loads (mechanical and thermal), material considerations, and remote handling problems are described. The design approach used to achieve a satisfactory plasma limiter and blade is discussed

  13. Thermostructural and mechanical aspects of the TFTR plasma limiter design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condolff, R.; Fixler, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary mechanical and thermostructural aspects of the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor) plasma limiter design. The evolution of the limiter design is traced through the various stages from conceptual design to the present state. Results of parametric limiter blade studies are presented. Design criteria, requirements, design loads (mechanical and thermal), material considerations, and remote handling problems are described. The design approach used to achieve a satisfactory plasma limiter and blade is discussed

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  15. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  16. A short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, S.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    As some studies show, the number of people over 65 years old increases constantly, leading to the need of solution to provide services regarding patient mobility. Diseases, accidents and neurologic problems affect hundreds of people every day, causing pain and lost of motor functions. The ability of using the upper limb is indispensable for a human being in everyday activities, making easy tasks like drinking a glass of water a real challenge. We can agree that physiotherapy promotes recovery, but not at an optimal level, due to limited financial and human resources. Hence, the need of robot-assisted rehabilitation emerges. A robot for upper-limb exercises should have a design that can accurately control interaction forces and progressively adapt assistance to the patients’ abilities and also to record the patient's motion and evolution. In this paper a short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices is presented. Our goal is to find the shortcomings of the current developed devices in terms of utility, ease of use and costs, for future development of a mechatronic system for upper limb rehabilitation.

  17. ITER operating limit definition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.; Chiocchio, S.; Hureau, D.; Girard, J.Ph.; Gordon, C.; Portone, A.; Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez; Roldan, C.; Saibene, G.; Uzan-Elbez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.

  18. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  19. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Smartphone supported upper limb prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepp D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be

  1. Empirical limits to antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; Richter, A.

    1990-01-01

    An upper bound of one part in 10 6 /10 7 is derived for the violation of the equivalence principle for antimatter in the form of antiprotons based on existing data for bulk matter, electrons, positrons, neutrons and protons

  2. An upper and lower bound of the Medication Possession Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperber CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Christian M Sperber, Suren R Samarasinghe, Grace P Lomax Patient Connect Limited, Guildford, UK Background: The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR is a ubiquitous and central measurement for adherence in the health care industry. However, attempts to standardize its calculation have failed, possibly due to the opacity of a single, static MPR, incapability of directly lending itself to a variety of studies, and challenges of comparing the value across studies. This work shows that the MPR strictly depends on the length of the time interval over which it is measured as well as on the dominant dispense quantity for short time intervals. Furthermore, removing a proportion of the patient cohort based on the number of acquisitions may also have a severe impact on the MPR. Therefore, it is suggested that the MPR is represented as a trend over a range of time intervals. To this end, an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend is developed with an upper bound acknowledging patients who change their treatment and the lower bound acknowledging patients who discontinue their treatment.Purpose: Introducing a representation of the MPR value as a trend rather than a static number by developing a quantitative description of an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend, while shedding light on the impacts on prefiltering the patient cohort.Patients and methods: Anonymized patient-level data was utilized as an example for a suggested calculation of an upper and lower bound of the MPR.Results: Representation of the MPR for a predefined time interval precludes a reliable MPR assessment. A quantitative approach is suggested to generate an upper and lower trend of the MPR while emphasizing the impact on removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions.Conclusion: An upper and lower trend makes the MPR more transparent and allows a better comparison across different studies. Removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions should be avoided. Keywords: MPR

  3. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  4. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  5. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  6. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  8. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time

  9. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  10. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  11. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  12. Lockheed Martin T-Rex: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    T-Rex is a robot which may be used in toxic or flammable environments. The assessment of the T-Rex conducted at the Lockheed Martin facility was limited in its scope. The scope of the assessment was directed by the type of equipment being used and the amount of accessibility to the equipment. Due to severe time constraints--the assessment was conducted in one day--human factors interface activities were limited. This should be considered a preliminary assessment. This report covers aspects of the technology that were available to the assessment team. Recommendations for future evaluation of this technology are also included. The contents are as follows: Electrical Considerations; General Electrical Consideration; Trailing Cables; Grounding; Surface High Voltage Distribution; Low and Medium Voltage Alternating Current Circuits; Potential for Harmful Human Factor Incidents and Enterprise Disablement; Exclusion Zone Emergency Maintenance; and Recommendations

  13. A preliminary view of water quality conditions of the Upper Verde River [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin L. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Stream water temperatures are of general interest because of interactive effects among physical, biological, and chemical parameters of water chemistry (Langford 1990). Water temperature regimes dictate the types of aquatic flora and fauna present within the aquatic system, as well as influence the system’s susceptibility to parasites and disease. These regimes are...

  14. Numerical and experimental study of expiratory flow in the case of major upper airway obstructions with fluid structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouly, F.; van Hirtum, A.; Lagrée, P.-Y.; Pelorson, X.; Payan, Y.

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the numerical prediction and experimental description of the flow-induced deformation in a rapidly convergent divergent geometry which stands for a simplified tongue, in interaction with an expiratory airflow. An original in vitro experimental model is proposed, which allows measurement of the deformation of the artificial tongue, in condition of major initial airway obstruction. The experimental model accounts for asymmetries in geometry and tissue properties which are two major physiological upper airway characteristics. The numerical method for prediction of the fluid structure interaction is described. The theory of linear elasticity in small deformations has been chosen to compute the mechanical behaviour of the tongue. The main features of the flow are taken into account using a boundary layer theory. The overall numerical method entails finite element solving of the solid problem and finite differences solving of the fluid problem. First, the numerical method predicts the deformation of the tongue with an overall error of the order of 20%, which can be seen as a preliminary successful validation of the theory and simulations. Moreover, expiratory flow limitation is predicted in this configuration. As a result, both the physical and numerical models could be useful to understand this phenomenon reported in heavy snorers and apneic patients during sleep.

  15. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  16. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Stango

    Full Text Available Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR. The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed.

  17. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  18. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  19. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  20. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard; Zamaraev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph

  1. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  2. Preliminary assessments for disposal of high-level waste within small islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.L.; Li, S.H.; Yu, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes, for the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW), the possibility of a repository sited below the fresh/saline groundwater interface within islet rock formations. Because of their relatively stable tectonics, the offshore islets of some countries (such as those of Taiwan) are worthy of being considered as potential repository sites. Before the emplacement of radwastes in such a repository, however, the mass exchange across the fresh/saline groundwater interface must be limited and the horizontal movement of advective saline ground-water must be extremely low. Theoretical equations for the location and shape of the interface are derived. When radwastes are buried in rock formations, the temperature effect of the decay heat could cause buoyant convection flow of saline groundwater upward across the groundwater interface. This could carry released radionuclides across the groundwater interface to upper formation layers where fresh groundwater flows. The radionuclides could then be carried by the fresh groundwater to the sea. Although basic HLW repository designs should eliminate the significance of this temperature effect, it is incorporated into this preliminary analysis for the purpose of conservative estimations

  3. Upper temperature tolerance of North Atlantic and North Pacific geographical isolates of Chondrus species (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, K.; Guiry, M. D.; Masuda, M.

    1987-09-01

    The upper survival temperature for most isolates of Chondrus crispus from localities ranging from northern Norway and Iceland to Spain, and for an isolate from Nova Scotia, was 28 °C after 2 weeks of exposure to temperatures of 20 31 °C at intervals of 1 °C. An upper survival limit of 29 °C was exhibited by a few European isolates from the English Channel, the North Sea, and one Irish isolate from the upper intertidal. The warm-temperate Japanese species C. nipponicus and C. giganteus forma flabellatus survived 30 °C, whereas 29 °C was the upper survival limit for the coldtemperature C. pinnulatus forma pinnulatus from northern Japan. A possible origin of C. crispus in the north Pacific is discussed.

  4. Clinical comparison of automatic, noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the forearm and upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Kathleen; Bradley, Elisabeth; Bucher, Linda; Seckel, Maureen; Lyons, Denise; Wakai, Sandra; Bartell, Deborah; Carson, Elizabeth; Chichester, Melanie; Foraker, Teresa; Simpson, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    When the upper arm (area from shoulder to elbow) is inaccessible and/or a standard-sized blood pressure cuff does not fit, some healthcare workers use the forearm to measure blood pressure. To compare automatic noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the upper arm and forearm. A descriptive, correlational comparison study was conducted in the emergency department of a 1071-bed teaching hospital. Subjects were 204 English-speaking patients 6 to 91 years old in medically stable condition who had entered the department on foot or by wheelchair and who had no exclusions to using their left upper extremity. A Welch Allyn Vital Signs 420 series monitor was used to measure blood pressure in the left upper arm and forearm with the subject seated and the upper arm or forearm at heart level. Pearson r correlation coefficients between measurements in the upper arm and forearm were 0.88 for systolic blood pressure and 0.76 for diastolic blood pressure (P upper arm and forearm differed significantly (t = 2.07, P = .04). A Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the distances between the mean values and the limits of agreement for the 2 sites ranged from 15 mm Hg (mean arterial pressure) to 18.4 mm Hg (systolic pressure). Despite strict attention to correct cuff size and placement of the upper arm or forearm at heart level, measurements of blood pressure obtained noninvasively in the arm and forearm of seated patients in stable condition are not interchangeable.

  5. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, C. G.; Putterman, S. J.; Hopkins, S. D.; Suslick, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 degree sign C driven by a 15 atm sound field and seeded with a neutron generator reveals an upper bound that is a factor of 10 000 less than the signal reported by Taleyarkhan et al. The strength of our upper bound is limited by the weakness of sonoluminescence, which we ascribe to the relatively high vapor pressure of acetone

  6. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  7. Co-opting Science: A preliminary study of how students invoke science in value-laden discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    '. As a preliminary step, this study investigated how Danish upper secondary biology students actually interwove science facts and values in socio-scientific discussions. In particular, the focus was the argumentative effects of different ways of blurring the fact-value distinction. The data consisted...

  8. Characterization by Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J.; Delgado, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M.; Poupeau, G.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  9. Rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California: a microstructural study of xenoliths from San Quintin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Werf, Thomas F.; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    Baja California is an active transtensional rift zone, which links the San Andreas Fault with the East Pacific Rise. The erupted basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field contain xenoliths, which sample the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California. The aim of this research is to gain insight in the rheology of the lower crust and the upper mantle by investigating the xenolith microstructure. Microstructural observations have been used to determine the dominant deformation mechanisms. Differential stresses were estimated from recrystallized grain size piezometry of plagioclase and clinopyroxene for the lower crust and olivine for the upper mantle. The degree of deformation can be inferred from macroscopic foliations and the deformation microstructures. Preliminary results show that both the lower crust and the upper mantle have been affected by multiple stages of deformation and recrystallization. In addition the dominant deformation mechanism in both the lower crust and the upper mantle is dislocation creep based on the existence of strong crystallographic preferred orientations. The differential stress estimates for the lower crust are 10-29 MPa using plagioclase piezometry and 12-35 MPa using clinopyroxene piezometry. For the upper mantle, differential stress estimates are 10-20 MPa. These results indicate that the strength of the lower crust and the upper mantle are very similar. Our data do not fit with the general models of lithospheric strength and may have important implications for the rheological structure of the lithosphere in transtensional plate margins and for geodynamic models of the region.

  10. Cyborg beast: a low-cost 3d-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Jorge; Katsavelis, Dimitrios; Peck, Jean; Stollberg, John; Petrykowski, Marc; Carson, Adam; Fernandez, Cristina

    2015-01-20

    There is an increasing number of children with traumatic and congenital hand amputations or reductions. Children's prosthetic needs are complex due to their small size, constant growth, and psychosocial development. Families' financial resources play a crucial role in the prescription of prostheses for their children, especially when private insurance and public funding are insufficient. Electric-powered (i.e., myoelectric) and body-powered (i.e., mechanical) devices have been developed to accommodate children's needs, but the cost of maintenance and replacement represents an obstacle for many families. Due to the complexity and high cost of these prosthetic hands, they are not accessible to children from low-income, uninsured families or to children from developing countries. Advancements in computer-aided design (CAD) programs, additive manufacturing, and image editing software offer the possibility of designing, printing, and fitting prosthetic hands devices at a distance and at very low cost. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to describe a low-cost three-dimensional (3D)-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb reductions and to propose a prosthesis fitting methodology that can be performed at a distance. No significant mean differences were found between the anthropometric and range of motion measurements taken directly from the upper limbs of subjects versus those extracted from photographs. The Bland and Altman plots show no major bias and narrow limits of agreements for lengths and widths and small bias and wider limits of agreements for the range of motion measurements. The main finding of the survey was that our prosthetic device may have a significant potential to positively impact quality of life and daily usage, and can be incorporated in several activities at home and in school. This investigation describes a low-cost 3D-printed prosthetic hand for children and proposes a distance fitting procedure. The Cyborg Beast

  11. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  12. Limit on mass differences in the Weinberg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Within the Weinberg model mass differences between members of a multiplet generate further mass differences between the neutral and charged vector bosons. The experimental situation on the Weinberg model leads to an upper limit of about 800 GeV on mass differences within a multiplet. No limit on the

  13. ITER Experts' meeting on density limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Igitkhanov, Y.L.; Uckan, N.A.

    1989-12-01

    The necessity of achieving a prescribed wall load or fusion power essentially determines the plasma pressure in a device like ITER. The range of operation densities and temperatures compatible with this condition is constrained by the problems of power exhaust and the disruptive density limit. The maximum allowable heat loads on the divertor plates and the maximum allowable sheath edge temperature practically impose a lower limit on the operating densities, whereas the disruptive density limit imposes an upper limit. For most of the density limit scalings proposed in the past an overlap of the two constraints or at best a very narrow accessible density range is predicted for ITER. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms is therefore a crucial issue in order to provide a more reliable basis for extrapolation to ITER and to identify possible ways of alleviating the problem

  14. The ITER EC H&CD upper launcher: Design, analysis and testing of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gessner, R.; Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Ronden, D.; Spaeh, P.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2013-01-01

    The final design of the structural system for the ITER EC H&CD upper launcher is in progress. Many design features of the preliminary design are under revision with the aim to achieve the built-to-print-status. This paper deals with design and analysis of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield

  15. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project Building limited scope risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.J.; Lindberg, S.E.; Reardon, M.F.; Wilson, G.P.

    1992-10-01

    A limited scope risk assessment was performed on the preliminary design of a high-level waste interim storage facility. The Canister Storage Building (CSB) facility will be built to support remediation at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State. The CSB will be part of the support facilities for a high level Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The limited scope risk assessment is based on a preliminary design which uses forced air circulation systems to move air through the building vault. The current building design calls for natural circulation to move air through the building vault

  17. Preliminary design county plan Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary design 'Streekplan Zeeland' (Country plan Zeeland, with regard to the location of additional nuclear power plants in Zeeland, the Netherlands) has passed through a consultation and participation round. Thereupon 132 reactions have been received. These have been incorporated and answered in two notes. This proposal deals with the principal points of the preliminary design and treats also the remarks of the committees Environmental (town and country) Planning (RO), Provincial (town and country) Planning Committee (PPC) and Association of Communities of Zeeland (VZG), on the reply notes. The preliminary design with the modifications, collected in appendix 3, is proposed to be the starting point in the drawing-up of the design-country-plan. This design subsequently will pass the formal country-plan procedure. (author). 1 fig

  18. Using aerogravity and seismic data to model the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Riverman, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that ice shelves along the Amundsen Sea coast in West Antarctica are losing substantial mass through sub-ice-shelf melting and contributing to the accelerating mass loss of the grounded ice buttressed by them. For Pine Island Glacier (PIG), relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water has been identified as the key driver of the sub-ice-shelf melting although poor constraints on PIG sub-ice shelf have restricted thorough understanding of these ice-ocean interactions. Aerogravity data from NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) have been useful in identifying large-scale (on the order of ten kilometers) features but the results have relatively large uncertainties due to the inherent non-uniqueness of the gravity inversion. Seismic methods offer the most direct means of providing water thickness and upper crustal geological constraints, but availability of such data sets over the PIG ice shelf has been limited due to logistical constraints. Here we present a comparative analysis of the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the ice shelf of PIG through joint inversion of OIB aerogravity data and in situ active-source seismic measurements collected in the 2012-13 austral summer. Preliminary results indicate improved resolution of the ocean cavity, particularly in the interior and sides of the PIG ice shelf, and sedimentary drape across the region. Seismically derived variations in ice and ocean water densities are also applied to the gravity inversion to produce a more robust model of PIG sub-ice shelf structure, as opposed to commonly used single ice and water densities across the entire study region. Misfits between the seismically-constrained gravity inversion and that estimated previously from aerogravity alone provide insights on the sensitivity of gravity measurements to model perturbations and highlight the limitations of employing gravity data to model ice shelf environments when no other sub-ice constraints are available.

  19. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  20. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  1. γ -phlebography of the upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr

  2. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  3. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy ... build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) ..... a retrospective and prospective audit of all upper ... endoscopy should be reserved for the high risk.

  4. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  5. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  6. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  7. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  8. Preliminary conceptual design and analysis on KALIMER reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to perform preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) reactor structures to assess the design feasibility and to identify detailed analysis requirements. KALIMER thermal hydraulic system analysis results and neutronic analysis results are not available at present, only-limited preliminary structural analyses have been performed with the assumptions on the thermal loads. The responses of reactor vessel and reactor internal structures were based on the temperature difference of core inlet and outlet and on engineering judgments. Thermal stresses from the assumed temperatures were calculated using ANSYS code through parametric finite element heat transfer and elastic stress analyses. While, based on the results of preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses, the ASME Code limits for the reactor structures were satisfied for the pressure boundary, the needs for inelastic analyses were indicated for evaluation of design adequacy of the support barrel and the thermal liner. To reduce thermal striping effects in the bottom are of UIS due to up-flowing sodium form reactor core, installation of Inconel-718 liner to the bottom area was proposed, and to mitigate thermal shock loads, additional stainless steel liner was also suggested. The design feasibilities of these were validated through simplified preliminary analyses. In conceptual design phase, the implementation of these results will be made for the design of the reactor structures and the reactor internal structures in conjunction with the thermal hydraulic, neutronic, and seismic analyses results. 4 tabs., 24 figs., 4 refs. (Author)

  9. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  10. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  11. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  12. Treatment of the Upper Extremity Contracture/Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Scott N; Agranovich, Olga; Pajardi, Giorgio E; Novelli, Chiara; Baindurashvili, Alexey G; Trofimova, Svetlana I; Abdel-Ghani, Hisham; Kochenova, Evgenia; Prosperpio, Giulietta; Jester, Andrea; Yilmaz, Güney; Şenaran, Hakan; Kose, Oksana; Butler, Lesley

    Patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita have a characteristic upper extremity resting posture consisting of internal rotation of the shoulders, elbow extension, flexed wrists, thumb-in palm deformities, and variable degrees of finger contractures. Treatment of these patients is aimed at improving independence and performance of activities of daily living. Although each area needs to be assessed independently for the most appropriate surgical procedure, often multiple areas can be addressed at the same operative setting. This limits the number of anesthetic exposures and cast immobilization time. The following is a synopsis of treatment strategies presented at the second international symposium on Arthrogryposis which took place in St Petersburg in September 2014.

  13. A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Kui, Mu; Chun-Min, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A static polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds is presented, based on two Savart plates with their optical axes perpendicular to each other. The principle and characteristics of the interferometer are described. The interferometer with a wide field of view can offer a stable benchmark optical path difference over a specified spectral region of 0.55–0.63 μm because there are no quarter wave plates. Since the instrument employs a straight line common-path configuration but without moving parts and slits, it is very compact, simple, inherently robust and has high throughput. The paper is limited to a theoretical analysis. (general)

  14. Upper critical field of Mo-Ni heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, C.; Watson, W.J.; Cohn, J.L.; Schuller, I.K.

    1985-12-01

    Upper critical field and its anisotropy have been measured on two very short wavelength Mo-Ni heterostructures of different degrees of perfection, lambda = 13.8A (disordered structure) and lambda = 16.6A (layered structure). In both cases the parallel critical field has an unexpected temperature dependence, a large and temperature dependent anisotropy, and over 60% enhancement over the Clogston-Chandrasekhar limit. Data are fit to the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory and the spin-orbit scattering times are found to be 1.79 x 10 -13 s and 2 x 10 -13 s, respectively

  15. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  16. Energy Dissipation in the Upper Atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1 Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ofer; Glocer, Alex; Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Bell, Jared M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a method to quantify the upper limit of the energy transmitted from the intense stellar wind to the upper atmospheres of three of the TRAPPIST-1 planets (e, f, and g). We use a formalism that treats the system as two electromagnetic regions, where the efficiency of the energy transmission between one region (the stellar wind at the planetary orbits) to the other (the planetary ionospheres) depends on the relation between the conductances and impedances of the two regions. Since the energy flux of the stellar wind is very high at these planetary orbits, we find that for the case of high transmission efficiency (when the conductances and impedances are close in magnitude), the energy dissipation in the upper planetary atmospheres is also very large. On average, the Ohmic energy can reach 0.5–1 W m‑2, about 1% of the stellar irradiance and 5–15 times the EUV irradiance. Here, using constant values for the ionospheric conductance, we demonstrate that the stellar wind energy could potentially drive large atmospheric heating in terrestrial planets, as well as in hot Jupiters. More detailed calculations are needed to assess the ionospheric conductance and to determine more accurately the amount of heating the stellar wind can drive in close-orbit planets.

  17. Integrity analysis of an upper guide structure flange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Hyoung; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The integrity assessment of reactor vessel internals should be conducted in the design process to secure the safety of nuclear power plants. Various loads such as self-weight, seismic load, flow-induced load, and preload are applied to the internals. Therefore, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, Section III, defines the stress limit for reactor vessel internals. The present study focused on structural response analyses of the upper guide structure upper flange. The distributions of the stress intensity in the flange body were analyzed under various design load cases during normal operation. The allowable stress intensities along the expected sections of stress concentration were derived from the results of the finite element analysis for evaluating the structural integrity of the flange design. Furthermore, seismic analyses of the upper flange were performed to identify dynamic behavior with respect to the seismic and impact input. The mode superposition and full transient methods were used to perform time–history analyses, and the displacement at the lower end of the flange was obtained. The effect of the damping ratio on the response of the flange was also evaluated, and the acceleration was obtained. The results of elastic and seismic analyses in this study will be used as basic information to judge whether a flange design meets the acceptance criteria.

  18. Empirical limits to antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, T.E.O. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (CH)); Richter, A. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1990-02-01

    An upper bound of one part in 10{sup 6}/10{sup 7} is derived for the violation of the equivalence principle for antimatter in the form of antiprotons based on existing data for bulk matter, electrons, positrons, neutrons and protons.

  19. Climate limits across space and time on European forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A. L. S.; Neumann, M.; Hasenauer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The impact climate has on forests has been extensively studied. However, the large scale effect climate has on forest structures, such as average diameters, heights and basal area are understudied in a spatially explicit manner. The limits, tipping points and thresholds that climate places on forest structures dictate the services a forest may provide, the vulnerability of a forest to mortality and the potential value of the timber there within. The majority of current research either investigates climate impacts on forest pools and fluxes, on a tree physiological scale or on case studies that are used to extrapolate results and potential impacts. A spatially explicit study on how climate affects forest structure over a large region would give valuable information to stakeholders who are more concerned with ecosystem services that cannot be described by pools and fluxes but require spatially explicit information - such as biodiversity, habitat suitability, and market values. In this study, we quantified the limits that climate (maximum, minimum temperature and precipitation) places on 3 forest structures, diameter at breast height, height, and basal area throughout Europe. Our results show clear climatic zones of high and low upper limits for each forest structure variable studied. We also spatially analyzed how climate restricts the potential bio-physical upper limits and creates tipping points of each forest structure variable and which climate factors are most limiting. Further, we demonstrated how the climate change has affected 8 individual forests across Europe and then the continent as a whole. We find that diameter, height and basal area are limited by climate in different ways and that areas may have high upper limits in one structure and low upper limits in another limitted by different climate variables. We also found that even though individual forests may have increased their potential upper limit forest structure values, European forests as a whole

  20. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.