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Sample records for preliminary thermal treatment

  1. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  3. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  4. Preliminary research on the effect of thermal treatment of maize silage on biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pilarska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the methane fermentation is affected by the type of substrates used and the rate of the process, which is mainly conditioned by the dynamics of hydrolysis – the first fermentation step. In order to improve the decay of hardly biodegradable material (in the literature called lignocellulosic biomass, pre-treatment of substrates is often applied: heat treatment, chemical treatment, mechanical treatment and other. In this research the heat treatment was carried out, with use of waste heat from the methane fermentation process, which is a difficult material to be stored. The idea of using heat from methane fermentation is an innovative solution with signific­ant economic and ecological aspect. The purpose of this work is to examine the effect of heat treatment on biogas efficiency. The research was carried out on one of the most common biogas substrates, maize silage, which was heated on a steam at 80°C and then heat treated at 100°C.

  5. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  7. Preliminary thermal analysis of transistor packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L. M.; Bennett, G. A.

    1987-04-01

    Efficient thermal design of microwave power transistors is critical for realizing reliable operation of high-power modern electronic circuitry. In an effort to improve thermal performance and enhance reliability, a systematic study is made to quantify transistor package thermal behavior. A series of two-dimensional finite element thermal analyses was completed of a transistor side view. These analyses provide trends for the temperature field and internal thermal resistance components as functions of material properties and geometry. Results from the analyses are shown as isothermal contour plots, plots of temperature drop across the flange and carrier, and plots of temperature versus time.

  8. Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1980-04-01

    Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

  9. Thermal treatment for nanofibrous membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylidene fluoride nanofibrous membranes with high porosity, large electrolyte solution uptake, and adequate mechanical properties were prepared by electrospinning. The physical properties of the electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride membranes can be improved by thermal treatment. Results showed after the thermal treatment, there had appeared ever-increasing tensile strength and elongation of the poly(vinylidene fluoride membranes. The crystal structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride fibers were greatly improved.

  10. Preliminary Thermal Design of Cryogenic Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Mustafi, Shuvo; Boutte, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic Hydrogen Radiation Shielding (CHRS) is the most mass efficient material radiation shielding strategy for human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Future human space flight, mission beyond LEO could exceed one year in duration. Previous radiation studies showed that in order to protect the astronauts from space radiation with an annual allowable radiation dose less than 500 mSv, 140 kgm2 of polyethylene is necessary. For a typical crew module that is 4 meter in diameter and 8 meter in length. The mass of polyethylene radiation shielding required would be more than 17,500 kg. The same radiation study found that the required hydrogen shielding for the same allowable radiation dose is 40 kgm2, and the mass of hydrogen required would be 5, 000 kg. Cryogenic hydrogen has higher densities and can be stored in relatively small containment vessels. However, the CHRS system needs a sophisticated thermal system which prevents the cryogenic hydrogen from evaporating during the mission. This study designed a cryogenic thermal system that protects the CHRS from hydrogen evaporation for one to up to three year mission. The design also includes a ground based cooling system that can subcool and freeze liquid hydrogen. The final results show that the CHRS with its required thermal protection system is nearly half of the mass of polyethylene radiation shielding.

  11. Preliminary thermal expansion screening data for tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1980-03-01

    A major variable in evaluating the potential of silicic tuffs for use in geologic disposal of heat-producing nuclear wastes is thermal expansion. Results of ambient-pressure linear expansion measurements on a group of tuffs that vary treatly in porosity and mineralogy are presente here. Thermal expansion of devitrified welded tuffs is generally linear with increasing temperature and independent of both porosity and heating rate. Mineralogic factors affecting behavior of these tuffs are limited to the presence or absence of cristobalite and altered biotite. The presence of cristobalite results in markedly nonlinear expansion above 200{sup 0}C. If biotite in biotite-hearing rocks alters even slightly to expandable clays, the behavior of these tuffs near the boiling point of water can be dominated by contraction of the expandable phase. Expansion of both high- and low-porosity tuffs containing hydrated silicic glass and/or expandable clays is complex. The behavior of these rocks appears to be completely dominated by dehydration of hydrous phases and, hence, should be critically dependent on fluid pressure. Valid extrapolation of the ambient-pressure results presented here to depths of interest for construction of a nuclear-waste repository will depend on a good understanding of the interaction of dehydration rates and fluid pressures, and of the effects of both micro- and macrofractures on the response of tuff masss.

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  13. Preliminary thermal architecture of the X-IFU instrument dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Ivan; Daniel, Christophe; André, Jérome; Duband, Lionel; Duval, Jean-Marc; den Hartog, Roland; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shinozaki, Keisuke; van Weers, Henk; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2016-07-01

    The ESA Athena mission will implement 2 instruments to study the hot and energetic universe. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) will provide spatially resolved high resolution spectroscopy. This high energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 7 keV could be achieved thanks to TES (Transition Edge Sensor) detectors that need to be cooled to very low temperature. To obtain the required 50 mK temperature level, a careful design of the cryostat and of the cooling chain including different technologies in cascade is needed. The preliminary cryogenic architecture of the X-IFU instrument that fulfils the TES detector thermal requirements is described. In particular, the thermal design of the detector focal plane assembly (FPA), that uses three temperature stages (from 2 K to 50 mK) to limit the thermal loads on the lowest temperature stage, is described. The baseline cooling chain is based on European and Japanese mechanical coolers (Stirling, Pulse tube and Joule Thomson coolers) that precool a sub Kelvin cooler made of a 3He sorption cooler coupled with a small ADR (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator). Preliminary thermal budgets of the X-IFU cryostat are presented and discussed regarding cooling chain performances.

  14. Thermal treatment of magnetite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kalska-Szostko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a thermal treatment process for magnetite nanoparticles in the temperature range of 50–500 °C. The tested magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods that resulted in nanoparticles with different surface characteristics and crystallinity, which in turn, was reflected in their thermal durability. The particles were obtained by coprecipitation from Fe chlorides and decomposition of an Fe(acac3 complex with and without a core–shell structure. Three types of ferrite nanoparticles were produced and their thermal stability properties were compared. In this study, two sets of unmodified magnetite nanoparticles were used where crystallinity was as determinant of the series. For the third type of particles, a Ag shell was added. By comparing the coated and uncoated particles, the influence of the metallic layer on the thermal stability of the nanoparticles was tested. Before and after heat treatment, the nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the fabrication methods determine, to some extent, the sensitivity of the nanoparticles to external factors.

  15. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.

    1987-01-01

    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  16. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  17. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilitewski, Bernd [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, Arndt I. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik; Faulstich, Martin (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technologie Biogener Rohstoffe

    2008-07-01

    Within the 13th meeting with the titel 'Thermal waste management' at 11th to 12th March, 2008, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Development of new boundary conditions for thermal waste management (Andreas Jaron); (b) Transnational acquisition-economical activity of municipalities and European Law (Walter Frenz); (c) Waste management and development of capacities in Europe (Holger Alwast, Baerbel Birnstengel); (d) Complete utilization in a waste incinerator - Inventory and climate balance (Horst Fehrenbach); (e) Utilization of refuse-derived fuels in industrial power plants - Experiences and new developments (Ralf Borghardt); (f) Thermal waste treatment at EnBW (Michael Pfoertner); (g) The future of the utilization of refuse-derived fuels in lignite-fired power plants from the view of Vattenfall Europe (Frank Mielke, Sven Kappa, Andreas Sparmann); (h) Developments in the use of secondary fuels in the cement industry (Martin Oerter); (i) Ecological practicability of the use of plastics as a reductant in blast furnaces (Thomas Buergler); (j) Experiences in mono plants (Bernd Neukirchen); (k) Energy efficiency in the waste incinerator Amsterdam - first operational experiences (Joeern Wandschneider); (l) Potential improvements of energy efficiency (Oliver Gohlke); (m) Generation of electricity and heat from waste - significance and potential (Rolf Kaufmann, Dirk Zachaeus); (n) Hybrid regulation in order to optimize the operation of waste incinerators (Dietrich-Georg Ellersiek); (o) Perspectives and obstacles to an energetic waste utilization in Greece (Avraam Karagianidis); (p) Melt processing - Experiences in Japan (Alfons Buekens); (q) Thermal treatment of sewage sludge - a significant way of disposal for the Peeple's Republic of China as a threshold country (Michael Nelles, Tao liu, Ke Wu, Gert Woscheck).

  18. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  19. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Urban, A.I.; Bilitewski, B. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    One effect of the enactment of the new Law on Recycling and Waste Management, in conjunction with the lowering of emission limit values, has been to bring thermal water treatment more and more into the focus of the discussion on optimal water utilisation. The present volume discusses the consequences of changing waste arisings and composition for various process combinations. [Deutsch] Durch das Inkrafttreten des neuen Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes und strengeren Emissionsgrenzwerten rueckt immer mehr die thermische Abfallbehandlung in den Vordergrund der Diskussionen um die optimale Abfallverwertung. Die Folgen der sich veraendernden Abfallmengen und -zusammensetzungen im Hinblick auf Anlagenauslastung, Feuerungstechnik, Rueckstaende und Kosten werden eroertert. Es werden verschiedene Verfahrenskombinationen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Verschiedene Moeglichkeiten der Klaerschlammbehandlung und der Einsatz der Reststoffe Asche und Schlacke in der Bauindustrie werden behandelt. (ABI)

  20. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  1. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-08-23

    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

  2. Thermal treatment of moroccan phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Issiouy S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is produced as a by-product during treatment of phosphate rock with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid according to the following simplified reaction: Ca10(PO26F2+10H2SO4 + 20H2O →70 à 80°C 6H3PO4 + 2HF + 10(CaSO4.2H2O$Ca_{10} (PO_2 _6 F_2 + 10H_2 SO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}20H_2 O{m{ }}uildrel {70{m{ }}`a {m{ }}80^circ C} over longrightarrow {m{ }}6H_3 PO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}2HF{m{ }} + {m{ }}10(CaSO_4 .2H_2 O$ Minerai Phosphogypse PG is mainly CaSO4·2H2O but also contains impurities such as free phosphoric acid, phosphates, fluorides and organic matter that adhere to the surface of the gypsum crystals. Phosphogypsum is discharged directly to the Sea or into the natural evaporation ponds. Previous studies have focused on reducing impurity levels in PG. Phosphogypsum impurities can be removed by simple techniques. Washing with water removes the soluble impurities. By cons, other contaminants (radioactive elements, heavy metals ... a specific treatment method required a complex technique where the treatment is likely to be expensive. In this study, we studied purification of phosphogypsum using water and the thermal behavior of the natural gypsum and Moroccan phosphogypsum to calculation of parameters for drying and dehydration reactions. Also, the effects of different heating temperature on the course of dehydration are investigated.

  3. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. Laser treatment of stretch marks: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Piccinetti, A. L.; Monache, G. D.; Botta, G.; Mancini, S.

    2000-06-01

    The best treatment of these stretch mark is still unknown. Some authors proposed the treatment with flash-lamp-pumped dye laser 585 nm, with fluence over 8 J/cm2. Reviewing our experiences on no-surgical effects of lasers in the various phases of the wound healing, including the re- epithelization, we would like to apply the no-surgical laser therapy treating the stretch marks of breast, abdomen and lumbo-sacral region. The goal is to inhibit the fibrous tissue metabolism, encouraging the destruction of the collagen fibers with inflammatory mechanism, and increasing the reconstitution of the superficial dermis layers. We treated five cases of stretch marks in women 22-35 years old, since May 1999, with a cycle of applications of double lasers, 511 and 577 nm, with energy of 20 Joule for spot, respecting the maximum thermal relaxation times of the skin. We waited two weeks interval between the applications. Results obtained after five applications are very positive, and we are encouraged to continue this experimentation.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Effects of Reduced Discharge onThermal Habitat of Pedersen Warm Springs Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary report to study the potential impacts of possible flow reductions in thermal spring systems located in the Warm Springs area of Moapa Valley NWR on the...

  6. Advanced Treatment Planning in Cancer Thermal Therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros SAMARAS; Esra NEUFELD; Niels KUSTER

    2016-01-01

    CEM43 thermal dose is a very common concept in thermal oncology. Thermal dose is the maximum amount of energy that can be transmitted during hyperthermia therapy conducted on temperature-sensitive tissue. Thermal dose is also the maximum value of local energy accumulation in human bodies, which can lead to tissue injury and pain. Thermal dose can also decrease the ifnishing temperature and reduce the energy to the tolerable range. There are two functions of the individualized hyperthermia treatment plan: it determines the setting and location that can realize the best tumor hyperthermia therapy; at the same time, it can decrease the effect of hyperthermia therapy on healthy tissues. There are four steps in the treatment plan of hyperthermia therapy for tumors: the ifrst step is to establish a three dimensional human body model and its corresponding an atomical structure that can be used in numerical algorithmvia medical imaging resources; the second step is to determine the volume of the electromagnetic energy accumulation. Based on the peculiarity of frequency and materials, even full-wave electromagnetic wave or quasi-static technique can be used to determine the tissue distribution. Evaluation of the therapy can be conducted based on thermal dose and the corresponding tissue damage model; the third step is to use Arrhenius model to provide direct evaluation of tissues in the thermal ablation zone, solidiifcation zone, as well as the necrotic area; the last step is the optimization of the treatment plan.

  7. 77 FR 73615 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010... duty order on lightweight thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany for the period November 1, 2010, through... sales of subject merchandise at less than normal value, based on adverse facts available (AFA). DATES...

  8. Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    fully-delineated prior to the ERH design and application) are masking the treatment effect. Shallow DNAPL wells (plan view) 24 Example 2 NAS Alameda...m2 or one- quarter acre treatment areas) It i l t th t th ti l t t f s a so apparen a e spa a ex en s o many source zones are likely ill...emperature ra ents 112 Key Questions 1. Are reductively dechlorinating (i.e., organohalide- respiring ) bacteria active at elevated temperatures? 2. Do

  9. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are additionall

  10. [Preliminary results of treatment with aflibercept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blăjan, Codruta; Nicula, D; Rusu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the first results concerning the Aflibercept (Eylea) treatment, the last antiVEGF approved for treatment of the age related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular form and for macular edema due to the central retinal vein occlusion. The treatment was applied to patients presenting AMD, ME and other diseases: myopic and idiopatic choroidal neovascularisation, central serous choroidopathy (CSC) or diabetic macular edema (DME). The results were good: improvement of the visual acuity, resolution of the intraretinal fluids and macular edema. Although we did not notice major side-effects, resistance or tachyphylaxis, we noticed some recurrences.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro E., E-mail: pacunaa004@alumno.uaemex.mx; López, Roberto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique; Hernández-López, Susana; Camacho-López, Marco [Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA). Facultad de Química de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Paseo Colón esquina Paseo Tollocan C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Ornelas-Gutierrez, Carlos; Antunez, Wilber [Centro de investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (CIMAV). Miguel de Cervantes N° 120. C.P. 31109. Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Metallic Zn nanodisks with hexagonal morphology were obtained onto glass substrate under vacuum thermal evaporation. A thermal characterization of Zn nanodiks showed a lower oxidation temperature than source powder Zn. Different thermal treatment on Zn nanodisks played an important role on the morphology, crystal size and surface vibrational modes of ZnO. The growth of ZnO nanoneedles started at the edge of metallic zinc hexagonal structures according with SEM images, the higher temperature the longer needles were grown. XRD diffractogram confirmed the wurtzite structure of ZnO with metallic nuclei. A wide band between 530 and 580 cm{sup −1} of Raman scattering corresponded at surface vibrational modes not observed at higher temperature.

  12. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  13. Focused ultrasound transducer for thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Air-backed transducers have been employed for thermal ultrasonic treatment including both ablation and hyperthermia because the power efficiency rather than the bandwidth is a main concern, unlike a typical imaging transducer working in a pulse mode. The characteristic of an air-backed piezoelectric transducer with a matching layer is analysed, and the role and choice of the matching layer is discussed. An element size of a focused array transducer, appropriate for such thermal treatment, is then estimated, and the characteristic of a piezoceramic transducer element of such a size was numerically analysed using a finite element code. The characteristic of a piezocomposite transducer element is also numerically analysed and its suitability to such a therapeutic array transducer is discussed.

  14. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  15. Thermal structure of Venus upper atmosphere by a ground-to-thermosphere GCM: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, G.; Lebonnois, S.; Salmi, L.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Eymet, V.; Forget, F.

    2014-04-01

    We present here preliminary results of the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of Venus simulated by a ground-to thermosphere General Circulation Model (GCM). The GCM developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) [1] has been recently improved and extended vertically from 100 to 150 km, with the inclusion of the physical processes which mostly contribute to the thermal balance in the mesosphere/thermosphere of Venus (i.e near IR heating by CO2, 15 μm thermal cooling, extreme UV heating, thermal conduction). We also focus on recent Venus Express and ground-based temperature measurements above 100 km, both at daytime and nighttime, and we interpret the observed main features with the help of model simulations. This ongoing study may indicate that both radiative and dynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the thermal structure of those upper layers of Venus atmosphere.

  16. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H. R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system; and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  17. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, H.R. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  18. [Surgical treatment of macular pucker--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, J; Pikulski, Z; Dziegielewski, K

    1993-01-01

    The authors presented preliminary results of pars plana vitrectomy applied in 8 eyes with macular pucker. The aim of the surgery was to remove epiretinal membranes and it was achieved in 7 eyes; in one some fragments of the membrane remained. Visual acuity before surgery ranged from 1/50 to 3/50, after the treatment it was improved in 7 cases, in one being the same as before.

  19. Polarization in Thermal Emission from Hot Jupiters: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Yung, Yuk; Spurr, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Scattering of thermal emission from a deep, hot region by high altitude atmospheric particles induces polarization in the scattered light. However, symmetries on a spherical planet with a uniform spatial distribution of scattering particles usually result in zero net polarization. If the symmetry is broken, either by rotation induced oblateness or by spatially inhomogeneous cloud or haze particle distributions, polarization may become observable. Additionally, variation of temperatures across the planetary disc could also contribute to asymmetries, giving us a new way to measure the day-night temperature contrast on hot exoplanets. We perform modeling studies using a multiple scattering, radiative transfer model for polarized light to understand how to distinguish between various symmetry breaking phenomena and map an observed polarization to a specific atmospheric state. The models can be used to predict the most suitable candidates for observation, and once observations are available, to retrieve various parameters of interest.

  20. Field observations, preliminary model analysis, and aquifer thermal efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.T.; Delin, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated (150 degrees Celsius (°C) water in the deep (180 to 240 meters (m)) Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer and later recovering it for space heating. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage (ATES) system was a doublet-well design in which the injection and withdrawal wells were spaced approximately 250 m apart. High-temperature water from the university's steam-generation facilities supplied heat for injection. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. Water then was injected back into the aquifer through the other well. The experimental plan for testing the ATES system consisted of a series of short-term hot-water injection, storage, and withdrawal cycles. Each cycle was 24 days long, and each injection, storage, and withdrawal step of the cycle was 8 days.

  1. The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES): Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Gunapala, Sarah D.; Lamborn, Andrew U.; Mouroulis, Pantazis, Z.; Mouroulis, Pantazis, Z.; Paine, Christopher G.; Soibel, Alexander; Wilson, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier 2 Decadal Survey Missions. HyTES will provide information on how to place the filters on the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Instrument (TIR) as well as provide antecedent science data. The pushbroom design has 512 spatial pixels over a 50-degree field of view and 256 spectral channels between 7.5 micrometers to 12 micrometers. HyTES includes many key enabling state-of-the-art technologies including a high performance convex diffraction grating, a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array, and a compact Dyson-inspired optical design. The Dyson optical design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). It also minimizes cooling requirements due to the fact it has a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows baffling for stray light suppression. The monolithic configuration eases mechanical tolerancing requirements which are a concern since the complete optical assembly is operated at cryogenic temperatures ((is) approximately 100K). The QWIP allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity or D-star to allow 200mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. Assembly of the system is nearly complete. After completion, alignment results will be presented which show low keystone and smile distortion. This is required to minimize spatial-spectral mixing between adjacent spectral channels and spatial positions. Predictions show the system will have adequate signal to noise for laboratory calibration targets.

  2. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  3. Preliminary Thermal Mechanical Analysis of the Equatorial Thermal Shield for ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷明准; 宋云涛; 杜世俊; 叶民友; 奚维斌; 刘旭峰

    2012-01-01

    Thermal analysis of the equatorial thermal shield for ITER is conducted in order to confirm that the cooling tube design was reasonable under both the plasma operational and the baking operational conditions. The structural performance was analyzed by means of the finite element software ANSYS. A comparison of the results with design requirements shows that the results of the simulation are within allowable design requirements, which indicates the feasibility and reliability of the equatorial thermal shield structure.

  4. 75 FR 41439 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Extension of Time Limits for the... antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany (LTWP), covering the period November 20, 2008... cost of production. See Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Preliminary Determination...

  5. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  6. Effect of preliminary vacuum plasma treatment on coating adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research results on the adhesion properties of Si coatings synthesized by different methods and under different conditions of preliminary vacuum ion plasma treatment of substrates with subsequent magnetron sputtering. The substrate surface was pretreated with low-energy ion beams, high-energy ion beams, gas discharge plasma, and plasma produced by a magnetron sputtering system. The vacuum conditions (pump type, pressure, etc.), the ion current density, and the bias parameters (pulse repetition frequency and duration) were varied. The research results demonstrate a considerable effect of plasma immersion ion implantation on the adhesion of Si coatings to NiTi substrates.

  7. Specialized treatment for Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD): Treatment rationales and preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian

    and preliminary results from a specialized psychotherapy program developed for patients with AvPD treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre, Capital Region of Denmark. Methods: Treatment consists of individual therapy based on Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT) while group therapy is a modified form...

  8. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  9. Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

    2007-07-16

    In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention.

  10. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Desigh Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume presents the preliminary design configuration and system optimization. (WHK)

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Design Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume describes system operation, a complete test program to verify mechanical reliability and thermal performance, fabrication and installation operations, and a cost analysis. (WHK)

  13. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  14. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Lucas; Bezerra, Ewertton; Paladino, Kayo; dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni; Priego Quesada, Jose I.; Rossato, Mateus

    2016-11-01

    Training with blood flow restriction could lead to an effect on skin temperature. Additionally, this effect could be higher in people with lower physical fitness level due to their lower capacity of heat loss. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to evaluate the effects of training experience on the acute and chronic thermal skin responses after performing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. The study included ten men, of these, five were trained. All subjects performed tests and re-tests for maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) through unilateral leg extensions (right thigh at 45 ± 6.7 kg and left thigh at 45.5 ± 8.1 kg, p > 0.05). The protocol consisted of four sets to concentric failure, with one-minute rest intervals between sets at an intensity corresponding to 40% of 1 RM. There were 7-day intervals between experimental sessions (150 mmHg versus unrestricted flow restriction). The thermal images were made before the protocol (pre), immediately after the end of the series (post), and 24 h afterward (post 24 h). When comparing temperature variation (Δ exercise and Δ 24 h) between groups, it was observed that the trained participants showed a greater drop in temperature 24 h after exercise with 150 mmHg restriction (confidence interval: 95% of Δ 24 h [-0.2 to -0.9 °C]) compared to untrained subjects (p = 0.006 and ES > 1.5, confidence interval: 95% Δ 24 h [-0.1 to 0.6 °C].) In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that training experience interferes with the chronic cutaneous thermal temperature of the anterior thigh when strength training associated with blood flow restriction 150 mmHg was performed.

  15. Varfarin in the complex treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Reshetnyak

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy and tolerance of varfarin in prophylaxis and therapy of thrombotic complications in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Methods. 20 pts with APS (5 male and 15 female received varfarin during a year. 8 of them had primary APS (PAPS and 12 -systemic lupus erythematosus with APS (SLE+APS. 2 other pts (I with SLE+APS and I with PAPS received varfarin during the last 4 years. Nobody from 9 pts with PAPS received corticosteroids (CS. In SLE+APS pts CS dose varied from 4 to 20 mg/day and was not increased during follow up. During the study prothrombine time (PT was examined with thromboplastin ( manufactured by Renam having international sensitivity index 1,2 and international normalization relation (INR. Depending on treatment scheme APS pts were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 8 pts with INR<2,0, Group 2-7 with INR >3,0, group 3 - 7 pts with INR<2,0 receiving as additional treatment thrombo ASS 100 mg/day and vasonit from 600 to 1200 mg/day. Results. Two pts with INR = 1,8 had thrombosis recurrence (due to leg thrombophlebitis. There were no recurrences in other groups. 2 from 22 pts had "large" bleedings. "Small" bleedings episodes were noted in 7 from 22 pts. Largely that were subcutaneous bleedings (in 4 pts no more than 5 cm of size. Two pts receiving varfarin with INR 1,8 and 2,4 had renal colic. Conclusion. Our preliminary results prove the necessity of inclusion of varfarin in the treatment of pts with APS and thrombosis but intensive anticoagulant effect is not always desired.

  16. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  17. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  18. Power system development: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Preliminary design report: appendices, Part 2 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the electrical system, instrumentation and control, ammonia pump evaluation study, ammonia and nitrogen support subsystems, piping and support design calculations, and plant availability. (WHK)

  19. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  20. Preliminary Design of Large Scale Sodium Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Tae Joon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Lee, Jae Han; Jeong, Ji Young; Park, Su Ki; Han, Ji Woong; Yoo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A large scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test facility is being designed for verification of the advanced design concept of the passive decay heat removal circuit (PDRC) in a medium- or large-sized pool-type SFR. In the test, its cooling capability during the long- and short-term periods after the reactor trip will be evaluated, and also the produced experimental data will be utilized for the assessment and verification of the safety and performance analysis codes. Starting with the preliminary design of the test facility this year using KALIMER-600 as a reference reactor, the basic and the detailed designs will be made through 2011-2012 based on the demonstration reactor which is intended to be constructed by 2028 according to a long-term national SFR development plan. The installation is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013, and the main experiments will commence from 2015 after the startup test in 2014. This paper briefly introduces the preliminary design features which were produced as a first step to assess the appropriateness of the facility design methodology.

  1. The future of thermal waste treatment; Zukunft der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Tappen, I.; Weber-Wied, R. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    Contents: State of the art of energy-efficient thermal waste treatment processes and practical examples; Regional and economic aspects; Licensing problems of thermal waste treatment plants. [German] Der vorliegende Tagungsband zum 2. Stassfurter Abfall- und Energieforum beschreibt den aktuellen Stand energieeffizienter thermischer Abfallbehandlungsmethoden an praktischen Beispielen und stellt den Bezug dieser Massnahmen zum raeumlich-wirtschaftlichen Umfeld dar. Darueber hinaus werden vergaberechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht fuer die Errichtung thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen aufgezeigt und eroertert. (orig.)

  2. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  3. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART. 8 refs., 4 tabs (Author)

  4. Effect of preliminary heat treatment on the formation of a boronized layer on steel 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, N. G.; Kostenko, A. A.; Trakshinskii, R. B.; Demchenko, I. L.; Oleinik, N. L.; Guzova, I. L.

    1990-12-01

    Preliminary heat treatment of specimens leading to refinement of the austenite grain helps increase the thickness of the boronized layer on steel 35. The greatest thickness of the boronized layer is attained after HC, and this layer is thicker than the layer obtained without preliminary treatyment.

  5. Preliminary design and thermal analysis of device for finish cooling Jaffa biscuits in a.d. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper preliminary design of device for finish cooling chocolate topping of biscuits in A.D. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka was done. The proposed preliminary design followed by the required technological process of finish cooling biscuits and required parameters of process which was supposed to get and which represented part of project task. Thermal analysis was made and obtained percentage error between surface contact of the air and chocolate topping, obtained from heat balance and geometrical over proposed preliminary design, wasn't more than 0.67%. This is a preliminary design completely justified because using required length of belt conveyor receive required temperature of chocolate topping at the end of the cooling process.

  6. Improved thermal treatment of aluminum alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, F. H.

    1968-01-01

    Newly developed tempering treatment considerably increases the corrosion resistance of 7075-T6 alloy and concomitantly preserves its yield strength. The results of tests on samples of the alloy subjected to the above treatments show that when the overaging period is 12 hours /at 325 degrees F/, the alloy exhibits a yield strength of 73,000 psi.

  7. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  8. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  9. Thermal power sludge – properties, treatment, utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a knowledge about properties of thermal power sludge from coal combustion in smelting boilers is presented. The physical and technological properties of slag – granularity, density, specific, volume and pouring weight, hardness and decoupling – together with chemical properties influence its exploitation. The possibility of concentrating the Fe component by the mineral processing technologies (wet low-intenzity magnetic separation is verified. An industrial use of the slag in civil engineering, e.g. road construction, was realised. The slag-fly ashes are directly utilized in the cement production as a substitute of a part of natural raw materials. For the use of slag as the stoneware in the road construction, all the criteria are fulfilled.

  10. Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Monte Scott

    While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When

  11. CHEMICAL AND THERMAL STABILITY OF RICE HUSKS AGAINST ALKALI TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwire S. Ndazi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and thermal stability of rice husks against alkali treatment with 2 to 8% w/v NaOH are presented and discussed in this paper. The thermal stability of the rice husks was examined by using a thermal gravimetric analysis instrument. Chemical stability was evaluated by examining the organic components of rice husks using proximate analysis. The results indicated that the proportion of lignin and hemicellulose in rice husks treated with NaOH ranging from 4 to 8% decreased significantly by 96% and 74%, respectively. The thermal stability and final degradation temperatures of the alkali-treated rice husks were also lowered by 24-26°C due to degradation of hemicellulose and lignin during alkali treatment. Absence of the onset degradation zones in the alkali-treated rice husks was a further indication that hemicellulose and other volatile substances degraded during alkali treatment. This leads to a conclusion that alkali treatment of rice husks with more than 4% NaOH causes a substantial chemical degradation of rice husks, which subsequently decreases their thermal stability.

  12. Strategies for microwave thermal treatment planning, navigation, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2011-03-01

    Thermal treatment is commonly performed interstitially in either surgical or percutaneous procedures, using microwave antenna sources at 915 or 2540 MHz. There are a number of tools or aids as well as challenges for clinicians performing these procedures in the course of patient treatment. These challenges will be present whether the procedure is surgical, laparoscopic, or percutaneous, and include treatment planning, image guidance, navigation, coregistration in 3D, and treatment assessment. Treatment planning has been used historically in hyperthermia for microwave antenna arrays, but has yet to be properly applied in thermal ablation. Image assessment of thermal treatment is not typically performed in real time, although these tools will provide the clinician with further information to understand the extent of treatment and whether further treatment is needed. 3D imaging is available, but not coregistered to patient space. Navigation has been used in many medical specialties, but is also not in the clinician's toolbox in thermal treatment. Although treatment planning will lay out the skin entry and trajectory for each antenna placed, subsequently, each antenna needs to be tracked to accurately show placement in the patient and overlaid in patient space, along with the tumor target location. Some patient treatments may consist of multiple, but sequential single placements of an antenna, and guidance is even more critical to track positions and plan for the next insertion. Lastly, real-time image assessment will show the extent and shape of the coagulated lesion and which targets may have been undertreated. If used synchronously in arrays, MW power steering may also aid in filling in the ablation as the treatment progresses. This paper will analyze the present state-of-the art as well as a strategy to incorporate the various facets of planning, guidance, and assessment of treatment. The integration of thermal treatment planning, navigation and guidance, robotics

  13. Preliminary Thermal Hydraulic Analyses of the Conceptual Core Models with Tubular Type Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Park, Jong Hark; Park, Cheol

    2006-11-15

    A new research reactor (AHR, Advanced HANARO Reactor) based on the HANARO has being conceptually developed for the future needs of research reactors. A tubular type fuel was considered as one of the fuel options of the AHR. A tubular type fuel assembly has several curved fuel plates arranged with a constant small gap to build up cooling channels, which is very similar to an annulus pipe with many layers. This report presents the preliminary analysis of thermal hydraulic characteristics and safety margins for three conceptual core models using tubular fuel assemblies. Four design criteria, which are the fuel temperature, ONB (Onset of Nucleate Boiling) margin, minimum DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) and OFIR (Onset of Flow Instability Ratio), were investigated along with various core flow velocities in the normal operating conditions. And the primary coolant flow rate based a conceptual core model was suggested as a design information for the process design of the primary cooling system. The computational fluid dynamics analysis was also carried out to evaluate the coolant velocity distributions between tubular channels and the pressure drop characteristics of the tubular fuel assembly.

  14. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  15. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  16. Cellulose destruction under successive thermal and radiation treatment. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Komarov, V.B.

    1985-02-01

    The influence of successive thermal and radiation effect on cellulose is investigated. The samples were ..gamma.. irradiated (/sup 60/Co) with a dose rate of 20 kGy/h (the absorbed doses ranged from 0 to 80 kGy) and heated up to 190 deg C. It is shown that the attainment of the same destruction depth for the heated-up cellulose occurs at noticeably lower absorbed doses than for the cellulose which has not been subjected to thermal treatment. For successive thermal and radiation treatment of cellulose the ratio S=S therm.+Ssub(rad) where S is a number of broken bonds in a macromolecule is correct. The radiation-chemical yield of cellulose destruction is determined to be: G=7.3 +- 0.1 mol/100 eV.

  17. Pyrolysis oil upgrading by high pressure thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure thermal treatment (HPTT) is a new process developed by BTG and University of Twente with the potential to economically reduce the oxygen and water content of oil obtained by fast pyrolysis (pyrolysis oil), properties that currently complicate its co-processing in standard refineries. D

  18. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillary, J.M. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes.

  19. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  20. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics

  1. Preliminary stop of the TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, M. M.; Kruse, A. J.; Kooreman, L. F S; zur Hausen, A.; Hopman, A. H N; Sep, S. J S; Van Gorp, T.; Slangen, B. F M; van Beekhuizen, H. J.; van de Sande, A. J M; Gerestein, C. G.; Nijman, H. W.; Kruitwagen, R. F P M

    2017-01-01

    The "TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (TOPIC) trial was stopped preliminary, due to lagging inclusions. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy and clinical applicability of imiquimod 5% cream in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (

  2. Effect of interfacial treatment on the thermal properties of thermal conductive plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO, which is processed by different surface treatment approaches, is blended together with polypropylene to produce thermal conductive polymer composites. The composites are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to investigate the surface modification of filler, their distribution in the matrix and the condition of two-phase interface. Optimized content of filler surface modifier is investigated as well. The results showed that using low-molecular coupling agent produces positive effect to improve the interface adhesion between filler and matrix, and the thermal conductivity of the composite as well. Macro-molecular coupling agent can strongly improve two-phase interface, but it is not beneficial at obtaining a high thermal conductivity. The blend of ZnO without modification and polypropylene has many defects in the two-phase interface, and the thermal conductivity of the composite is between those of composites produced by previous two approaches. The surface treatment of the filler also allowed producing the composites with lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. As for the content of low-molecular coupling agent, it obtains the best effect at 1.5 wt%.

  3. From hydrophobic to superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic siloxanes by thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Manoudis, Panagiotis N; Zurba, Andreea; Lampakis, Dimitrios

    2014-11-11

    The cross-influence effects of treatment temperature and time on the wettability of a siloxane elastomer is investigated in detail, through static and tilt contact angle measurements. The material is heated at 400, 500, 600, 650, 700, and 800 °C for various periods, ranging from 1 to 300 s. The siloxane surface is subjected to multiple wettability transitions with treatment time: from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity (and water repellency) and then through intermediate stages (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) to superhydrophilicity. For the time scale used herein (1-300 s), this scenario is recorded for treatment at 650, 700, and 800 °C. For treatment at lower temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C) only the first transition, from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity, is recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR), and micro-Raman spectroscopies are employed to correlate the aforementioned wettability transitions with structural and chemical changes of the siloxane surface, developed during thermal treatment. It is shown that the first transition from intrinsic hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity is accompanied by a severe surface-structure evolution that increases surface roughness. Once superhydrophobicity is achieved, the surface structure reaches a saturation point and it is not subjected to any other change with further thermal treatment. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the intensity of the O-H/C-H peaks increases/decreases with treatment time, and Raman measurements show that the C-Si-C vibrations gradually disappear with treatment time. The evaporation of a droplet resting on a superhydrophobic, water-repellent siloxane surface, which was produced after appropriate thermal treatment, is monitored. It is shown that droplet evaporation initially follows the constant contact area mode. At later evaporation stages, a transition to the constant contact angle mode is recorded. Finally, it is

  4. Improving the specifications of Syrian raw phosphate by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Watti

    2016-09-01

    In this research we treated the Syrian raw phosphate by thermal way in order to: (1 Enriching of studied Syrian raw phosphate that contains proportions of 28.60% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, 6.12% of carbonate, which we got after treatment at 850 °C for 30 min on a phosphate containing proportion of 33.95% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, small amount of carbonate 0.75% and almost free of organic materials. (2 Preparing phosphate fertilizer by thermal treatment in the presence of sodium carbonate, where it was found that the best conditions are adding 40% of sodium carbonate by weight of phosphate ore; temperature 1100 °C; time 120 min.

  5. Treatment of waste thermal waters by ozonation and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Z L; Szép, A; Kertész, S; Hodúr, C; László, Z

    2013-01-01

    After their use for heating, e.g. in greenhouses, waste thermal waters may cause environmental problems due to their high contents of ions, and in some cases organic matter (associated with an oxygen demand) or toxic compounds. The aims of this work were to decrease the high organic content of waste thermal water by a combination of ozone treatment and membrane separation, and to investigate the accompanying membrane fouling. The results demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand and the total organic content can be effectively decreased by a combination of ozone pretreatment and membrane filtration. Ozone treatment is more effective for phenol elimination than nanofiltration alone: with a combination of the two processes, 100% elimination efficiency can be achieved. The fouling index b proved to correlate well with the fouling and polarization layer resistances.

  6. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  7. Effects of Melt Thermal Treatment on A356 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To increase the casting quality of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, the effects of melt thermal treatment on the solidification structure of the A356 alloy were analyzed by a factorial experiment, in which the overheated melt was mixed with the low temperature melt. Experimental results show that the elongation ratio and strength of the treated samples increase remarkably compared with the control sample. The primary dendrite size reduces dramatically and the dendrite changes from columnar to equiaxed, with a little change of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS).Combined with the measurement of the nucleation undercooling, it is concluded that the solidification structure and refining effect are dependent primarily on the low temperature melt. The refining mechanism is believed as a result of the multiplication of the nuclei in the melt thermal treatment procedure.

  8. Thermal Characteristics of Hyperaccumulator and Fate of Heavy Metals during Thermal Treatment of Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daoxu; Zhong, Zhaoping; Wu, Longhua; Xue, Hui; Song, Zuwei; Luo, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal treatment is one of the most promising disposal techniques for heavy metal- (HM)-enriched hyperaccumulators. However, the thermal characteristics and fate of HMs during thermal treatment of hyperaccumulator biomass need to be known in detail. A horizontal tube furnace was used to analyze the disposal process of hyperaccumulator biomass derived from a phyto-extracted field in which the soil was moderately contaminated with heavy metals. Different operational conditions regarding temperature and gas composition were tested. A thermo-dynamic analysis by advanced system for process engineering was performed to predict HM speciation during thermal disposal and SEM-EDS, XRD and sequential chemical extraction were used to characterize the heavy metals. The recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash decreased with increasing temperature but recovery increased in the fly ash. Recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd fluctuated with increasing air flow rate and the metal recovery rates were higher in the fly ash than the bottom ash. Most Cl, S, Fe, Al and SiO2 were found as alkali oxides, SO2, Fe2(SO4)3, iron oxide, Ca3Al2O6, K2SiO3 and SiO2 instead of reacting with HMs. Thus, the HMs were found to occur as the pure metals and their oxides during the combustion process and as the sulfides during the reducing process.

  9. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  10. Preliminary thermal/structural analysis of a carbon-carbon/refractory-metal heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David E.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1990-01-01

    This study presents preliminary thermal/structural analyses of a carbon-carbon/refractory-metal heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge concept designed for an air breathing single-stage-to-orbit hypersonic vehicle. The concept features chordwise (i.e., normal to the leading edge) and spanwise (i.e., parallel to the leading edge) refractory-metal heat pipes which are completely embedded within a carbon-carbon primary structure. Studies of the leading edge were performed using nonlinear thermal and linear structural three-dimensional finite element analyses. The concept was shown to be thermally feasible within the limits of the assumptions made in the analyses when internal radiative cooling is present during ascent, and a three-dimensional carbon-carbon architecture is used. In addition, internal radiative cooling was found not to be necessary during descent. The linear stress analysis indicated excessively large thermal stresses in the rafractory metal walls of the heat pipes even though a soft layer of carbon was included between the heat pipe and the carbon-carbon structure in an attempt to reduce the thermal stresses. A nonlinear structural analysis may be necessary to properly model the response of the refractory-metal heat pipes.

  11. Effect of cryogenic treatment on thermal conductivity properties of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, D. S.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sampathkumaran, P.; Prashanth, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Copper exhibits high thermal conductivity properties and hence it is extensively used in cryogenic applications like cold fingers, heat exchangers, etc. During the realization of such components, copper undergoes various machining operations from the raw material stage to the final component. During these machining processes, stresses are induced within the metal resulting in internal stresses, strains and dislocations. These effects build up resistance paths for the heat carriers which transfer heat from one location to the other. This in turn, results in reduction of thermal conductivity of the conducting metal and as a result the developed component will not perform as per expectations. In the process of cryogenic treatment, the metal samples are exposed to cryogenic temperature for extended duration of time for 24 hours and later tempered. During this process, the internal stresses and strains are reduced with refinement of the atomic structure. These effects are expected to favourably improve thermal conductivity properties of the metal. In this experimental work, OFHC copper samples were cryotreated for 24 hours at 98 K and part of them were tempered at 423K for one hour. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity values were observed after cryotreating and tempering the copper samples.

  12. Preliminary design report for the K basins integrated water treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a revised concept for the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment Systems (IWTS). This PDR incorporates the 11 recommendations made in a May 1996 Value Engineering session into the Conceptual Design, and provides new flow diagrams, hazard category assessment, cost estimate, and schedule for the IWTS Subproject.

  13. N-[F-18]-FLUOROALKYLATION OF NORAPORPHINES - MICROWAVE VERSUS THERMAL-TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, S; DEGROOT, TJ; KOK, LP; VISSER, GM; VAALBURG, W

    1995-01-01

    A comparable study of microwave versus thermal heating is described for the N-[F-18]-fluoroalkylation of noraporphines. As compared to thermal treatment, different products were obtained during microwave treatment. Thermal treatment resulted in the loss of the protection of the catechol functionalit

  14. Manual khalifa therapy in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament in the knee: First preliminary results from thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This preliminary publication describes acute temperature effects after manual Khalifa therapy. Aims : The goal of this study was to describe temperature distribution and the effects on surface temperature of the knees and feet in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament before and immediately after the manual therapy. Materials and Methods: Ten male patients were investigated with thermal imaging. An infrared camera operating at a wavelength range of 7.5-13 μm was used. Temperature was analyzed at three locations on both knees and in addition on both feet. Results: The study revealed that baseline temperature of the injured knee differed from that of the untreated control knee. After the therapy on the injured knee, the surface temperature was significantly increased on both knees (injured and control. There were no significant changes in the temperature of the feet. Conclusions: Further studies using continuous thermal image recording may help to explain the details concerning the temperature distribution.

  15. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively. Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→ pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  16. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; PAN YongXin; LI JinHua; QIN HuaFeng

    2008-01-01

    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively.Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  17. Biofeedback treatment for Tourette syndrome: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoko; Cavanna, Andrea E; Critchley, Hugo D; Stern, Jeremy J; Robertson, Mary M; Joyce, Eileen M

    2014-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback treatment in reducing tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Despite advances in the pharmacologic treatment of patients with Tourette syndrome, many remain troubled by their tics, which may be resistant to multiple medications at tolerable doses. Electrodermal biofeedback is a noninvasive biobehavioral intervention that can be useful in managing neuropsychiatric and neurologic conditions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of electrodermal biofeedback training in 21 patients with Tourette syndrome. After training the patients for 3 sessions a week over 4 weeks, we observed a significant reduction in tic frequency and improved indices of subjective well-being in both the active-biofeedback and sham-feedback (control) groups, but there was no difference between the groups in these measurements. Furthermore, the active-treatment group did not demonstrably learn to reduce their sympathetic electrodermal tone using biofeedback. Our findings indicate that this form of biofeedback training was unable to produce a clinical effect greater than placebo. The main confounding factor appeared to be the 30-minute duration of the training sessions, which made it difficult for patients to sustain a reduction in sympathetic tone when their tics themselves were generating competing phasic electrodermal arousal responses. Despite a negative finding in this study, electrodermal biofeedback training may have a role in managing tics if optimal training schedules can be identified.

  18. Treatment of Bone Waste Using Thermal Plasma Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KI Ho Beom; KIM Woo Hyung; KIM Bong Soo; K00 Hyung Joon; LI Mingwei; CHAE Jae Ou

    2007-01-01

    Daily meat consumption produces a lot of bone waste, and dumped bone waste without treatment would result in environmental hazards. Conventional treatment methods of waste bones have some disadvantages. Herein, an investigation of bone waste treated using thermal plasma technology is presented. A high-temperature plasma torch operated at 25.2 kW was used to treat bone waste for seven minutes. The bone waste was finally changed into vitric matter and lost 2/3 of its weight after the treatment. The process was highly efficient, economical, convenient, and fuel-free. This method could be used as an alternative for disposal of bone waste, small infectious animals, hazardous hospital waste, etc.

  19. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  20. Thermal treatments modulate bacterial adhesion to dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X L; Ho, B; Lim, C T; Hsu, C S

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of laser-induced heat on demineralization of enamel; however, no studies have investigated the link between heat/laser-induced changes in physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. In this study, we investigated the effects of thermal treatment on surface properties of enamel such as hydrophobicity and zeta potential. Bacterial adhesion to treated surfaces was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and adhesion force was quantified by atomic force microscopy. The hydrophobicity of enamel increased after heating (p enamel became more negative than that of the control (p enamel after being heated (p adhesion force of both S. mitis and S. oralis to enamel with or without saliva coating. Reduction of adhesion force was statistically significant for S. mitis (p 0.05). Heating did not affect the adhesion of S. sanguis with or without saliva coating. In conclusion, thermal treatment and photothermal/laser treatments may modulate the physicochemical properties of enamel, preventing the adhesion of some bacterial species.

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support to ensure right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infants develop allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. An in-depth analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study. The interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of different thermal treatments on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen, powdered and lyophilized donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. This study demonstrated the possibility of using lyophilization in order to maintain the nutritional characteristics of donkey milk. The article presents some promising patents on the effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

  2. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development-I. Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-18

    The results of a conceptual and preliminary design study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) closed loop ammonia power system modules performed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) are presented. This design study is the second of 3 tasks in Phase I of the Power System Development-I Project. The Task 2 objectives were to develop: 1) conceptual designs for a 40 to 50-MW(e) closed cycle ammonia commercial plant size power module whose heat exchangers are immersed in seawater and whose ancillary equipments are in a shirt sleeve environment; preliminary designs for a modular application power system sized at 10-MW(e) whose design, construction and material selection is analogous to the 50 MW(e) module, except that titanium tubes are to be used in the heat exchangers; and 3) preliminary designs for heat exchanger test articles (evaporator and condenser) representative of the 50-MW(e) heat exchangers using aluminum alloy, suitable for seawater service, for testing on OTEC-1. The reference ocean platform was specified by DOE as a surface vessel with the heat exchanger immersed in seawater to a design depth of 0 to 20 ft measured from the top of the heat exchanger. For the 50-MW(e) module, the OTEC 400-MW(e) Plant Ship, defined in the Platform Configuration and Integration study, was used as the reference platform. System design, performance, and cost are presented. (WHK)

  3. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  4. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  5. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics

  6. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  7. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  8. Clinoptilolite for Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Preliminary Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutovic, Milisav; Lazovic, Milica; Vukovic-Dejanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic-Markovic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana

    2017-09-01

    A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite (natural aluminosilicate mineral) has been used to increase growth in meat-producing animals, as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, and a heavy metal remover in humans. Because of its unique cation exchanging and chelating properties, we hypothesized that clinoptilolite may be beneficial for the treatment of dyslipidemia in the manner similar to bile acid sequestrants. Thus, specific aims of this pilot study were to orally administer clinoptilolite in different doses and granule size combinations to determine magnitude and time profile of changes in blood lipids. A phase I/IIa prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, dose/granule size-ranging study (treatment phase 8 weeks, follow-up 6 weeks). Blood lipids were examined every 2 weeks. Outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Forty-one subjects (all white, mean age 57.6 ± 6.8 years, 17 women) with blood lipids above the normative limits divided into three groups. A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite was administered in three dose/grind combinations: 6 g/day of fine grind (6gF), 6 g/day of coarse grind (6gC), and 9 g/day of coarse grind (9gC). Blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and triglycerides (TG). For the 3 groups combined, all lipid fractions significantly improved after 8 weeks of treatment (20-25%, p < 0.001), which reversed to baseline after 6 weeks of clinoptilolite withdrawal. Early (week 2) and the most pronounced decrease in TC and LDLc was observed in the 6gF group (19% and 23% in week 8, respectively), with no difference in HDLc and TG between the three dose/grind groups. No side effects were reported. These pilot results suggest that oral administration of clinoptilolite may improve lipid profile in individuals with dyslipidemia, which warrants further investigations.

  9. HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.

  10. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C.; Convertti, A.; Rovatti, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R.; Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  11. Thermal conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites filled with MWCNT and hydrotalcite clay: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vittorio; Naddeo, Carlo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Aim of this work is to study the effect clay on the thermal conductivity of epoxy resin filled with CNTs. Experiments and theoretical predictions show that the presence of hydrotalcite clay in a mesh of carbon nanotubes gives rise to aggregates and twisted bundles, resulting in a lower carbon nanotubes length and a lower thermal conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites.

  12. Chitosan rod reinforced by self-crosslinking through thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) rods were reinforced at high temperatures to form network structure by self-crosslinking of amino groups.Properties of treated CS rods were studied by FTIR spectroscopy,intrinsic viscosity measurement,mechanical properties testing and water absorption measurement.The FTIR spectra indicated that the CS configuration was transformed from β-CS for untreated CS rods to α-CS for thermally treated CS rods.Meanwhile,the crosslinking also occurred between amino groups of CS.Due to the increase in the crosslinking degree,the intrinsic viscosity increased with the rising of temperature.It was found that the network structure enhanced the bending strength of CS rods,which reached 154.8 MPa when CS rods were treated at 140℃ for 2 h.Thermal treatment also reduced the water absorption of CS rods.Due to the improved mechanical properties,thermally treated CS rods could be used as a novel device for internal fixation of bone fracture.

  13. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-03-03

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

  14. Non-thermal plasma treatment of hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, L.J.; Hartvigsen, J.; Elangovan, S. [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a non-thermal plasma reforming process to treat hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in heavy hydrocarbons. H{sub 2}S is present in natural gas, petroleum, and various process gases. It is an unwanted compound that is generally removed using an amine extraction process followed by a Claus process. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a GlidArc plasma reformer to recover some of the hydrogen from the H{sub 2}S. Non-thermal plasma reforming breaks hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and elemental sulphur. Ceramatec has established the catalytic nature of the non-thermal plasma generated by its GlidArc plasma reformer. This treatment process is still in the laboratory stage, but it offers the possibility of a new method to treat acid gas that will provide an opportunity to recover hydrogen that is currently burned to water during the Claus sulphur removal process. Ceramatec, in conjunction with Albin Czernichowski of ECP in France, has demonstrated the ability to reform a variety of hydrocarbons using the non-thermal plasma catalyzed reaction. The plasma reaction can be initiated in either a partial oxidation or steam reforming mode. Multiple hydrocarbons can be processed by the same unit with only control parameters changing to meet the requirements of the individual hydrocarbons being processed. Although a tested unit did not accomplish complete conversion, some additional options will be tested that are expected to increase the conversion under an existing program operated by the United States Department of Energy. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment of supernatant of cow manure by thermal pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Y; Nishii, A; Nishimoto, M; Yamada, N; Suzuki, T

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) methane fermentation treatment of cow manure that was subjected to screw pressing, thermal treatment and subsequent solid-liquid separation was studied. Conducting batch scale tests at temperatures between 140 and 180 degrees C, the optimal temperature for sludge settling and the color suppression was found to be between 160-170 degrees C. UASB treatment was carried out with a supernatant obtained from the thermal treatment at the optimal conditions (170 degrees C for 30 minutes) and polymer-dosed solid-liquid separation. In the UASB treatment with a COD(Cr) loading of 11.7 kg/m3/d and water temperature of 32.2 degrees C, the COD(Cr) level dropped from 16,360 mg/L in raw water to 3,940 mg/L in treated water (COD(Cr), removal rate of 75.9%), and the methane production rate per COD(Cr) was 0.187 Nm3/kg. Using wastewater thermal-treated at the optimal conditions, also a methane fermentation treatment with a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was conducted (COD(Cr) in raw water: 38,000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT): 20 days, 35 degrees C). At the COD(Cr) loading of 1.9 kg/m3/d, the methane production rate per COD(Cr), was 0.153 Nm3/kg. This result shows that UASB treatment using thermal pre-treatment provides a COD(Cr), loading of four times or more and a methane production rate of 1.3 times higher than the CSTR treatment.

  16. Response to "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2014-01-01

    Last November, the European Journal of Psychotraumatology published an interesting paper entitled "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study". This article

  17. Thermal ablation for the treatment of abdominal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Christopher L; Hinshaw, J Louis; Lubner, Meghan G

    2011-03-07

    Percutaneous thermal ablation is an emerging treatment option for many tumors of the abdomen not amenable to conventional treatments. During a thermal ablation procedure, a thin applicator is guided into the target tumor under imaging guidance. Energy is then applied to the tissue until temperatures rise to cytotoxic levels (50-60 °C). Various energy sources are available to heat biological tissues, including radiofrequency (RF) electrical current, microwaves, laser light and ultrasonic waves. Of these, RF and microwave ablation are most commonly used worldwide. During RF ablation, alternating electrical current (~500 kHz) produces resistive heating around the interstitial electrode. Skin surface electrodes (ground pads) are used to complete the electrical circuit. RF ablation has been in use for nearly 20 years, with good results for local tumor control, extended survival and low complication rates. Recent studies suggest RF ablation may be a first-line treatment option for small hepatocellular carcinoma and renal-cell carcinoma. However, RF heating is hampered by local blood flow and high electrical impedance tissues (eg, lung, bone, desiccated or charred tissue). Microwaves may alleviate some of these problems by producing faster, volumetric heating. To create larger or conformal ablations, multiple microwave antennas can be used simultaneously while RF electrodes require sequential operation, which limits their efficiency. Early experiences with microwave systems suggest efficacy and safety similar to, or better than RF devices. Alternatively, cryoablation freezes the target tissues to lethal levels (-20 to -40 °C). Percutaneous cryoablation has been shown to be effective against RCC and many metastatic tumors, particularly colorectal cancer, in the liver. Cryoablation may also be associated with less post-procedure pain and faster recovery for some indications. Cryoablation is often contraindicated for primary liver cancer due to underlying coagulopathy and

  18. Thermal Ablation for the Treatment of Abdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous thermal ablation is an emerging treatment option for many tumors of the abdomen not amenable to conventional treatments. During a thermal ablation procedure, a thin applicator is guided into the target tumor under imaging guidance. Energy is then applied to the tissue until temperatures rise to cytotoxic levels (50-60 °C). Various energy sources are available to heat biological tissues, including radiofrequency (RF) electrical current, microwaves, laser light and ultrasonic waves. Of these, RF and microwave ablation are most commonly used worldwide. During RF ablation, alternating electrical current (~500 kHz) produces resistive heating around the interstitial electrode. Skin surface electrodes (ground pads) are used to complete the electrical circuit. RF ablation has been in use for nearly 20 years, with good results for local tumor control, extended survival and low complication rates1,2. Recent studies suggest RF ablation may be a first-line treatment option for small hepatocellular carcinoma and renal-cell carcinoma3-5. However, RF heating is hampered by local blood flow and high electrical impedance tissues (eg, lung, bone, desiccated or charred tissue)6,7. Microwaves may alleviate some of these problems by producing faster, volumetric heating8-10. To create larger or conformal ablations, multiple microwave antennas can be used simultaneously while RF electrodes require sequential operation, which limits their efficiency. Early experiences with microwave systems suggest efficacy and safety similar to, or better than RF devices11-13. Alternatively, cryoablation freezes the target tissues to lethal levels (-20 to -40 °C). Percutaneous cryoablation has been shown to be effective against RCC and many metastatic tumors, particularly colorectal cancer, in the liver14-16. Cryoablation may also be associated with less post-procedure pain and faster recovery for some indications17. Cryoablation is often contraindicated for primary liver cancer due to

  19. Microstructural Characteristic of Montmorillonite and Its Thermal Treatment Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pingxiao; MING Caibing; LI Rong

    2005-01-01

    The montmorillonite was studied by different methods, such as chemical analysis, DAT, TG, XRD, IR, AFM and MAS NMR. The experimental results show that the hydroxyl in octahedra sheets begins dehydrating when the thermal treatment temperature reaches 659℃, but the layer structure remains the same,and the corresponding Al(Ⅵ) is turned into Al(Ⅳ) in octahedra sheets. When the temperature reaches 900℃, the layer structure of montmorillontite is destroyed, and the new mineral phase μ-cordierite is found. When the temperature reaches 1200℃, the μ-cordierite phase loses its stability, and decomposes into cristobalite phase and mullite phase.Meanwhile, the recrystallization phenomenon in thermal treatment products is obvious. There is a small quantity of AlⅥ signal in MAS NMR spectrum, corresponding to Al of mullite. When the temperature reaches 1350℃, the cristobalite and mullite phases reduce slightly, and more Fe-cordierite phase appears, corresponding to Fe-cordierite spectrum in XRD and MAS NMR.

  20. Nitrogen oxides and methane treatment by non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, E.; Pacheco, M.; Colín, A.; Sánchez, V.; Pacheco, J.; Valdivia, R.; Soria, G.

    2015-03-01

    Non thermal plasma was used to treat nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH4), since they are important constituents of hydrocarbon combustion emissions processes and, both gases, play a key role in the formation of tropospheric ozone. These gases are involved in environmental problems like acid rain and some diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia. In the case of methane is widely known its importance in the global climate change, and currently accounts for 30% of global warming. There is a growing concern for methane leaks, associated with a rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas extraction techniques as well as a large-scale methane release from Arctic because of ice melting and the subsequent methane production of decaying organic matter. Therefore, methane mitigation is a key to avoid dangerous levels of global warming. The research, here reported, deals about the generation of non-thermal plasma with a double dielectric barrier (2DBD) at atmospheric pressure with alternating current (AC) for NOx and CH4 treatment. The degradation efficiencies and their respective power consumption for different reactor configurations (cylindrical and planar) are also reported. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gases degradation are reported before and after treatment with cold plasma. Experimental and theoretical results are compared obtaining good removal efficiencies, superior to 90% and to 20% respectively for NOx and CH4.

  1. Preliminary treatment of MSW fly ash as a way of improving electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current work electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was applied to remove heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash, a hazardous waste collected during flue gas treatment. Tests were conducted to evaluate if EDR could be improved by introducing a preliminary treatment in which very ...... to the fly ash. It was seen that at the end metals are mainly found in the strongly bonded and residual phases. This indicates that the combined treatment (washing + EDR) is successful in reducing the environmental risk posed by fly ash....

  2. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. (a) Owners or operators of thermal treatment devices subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status thermal...

  3. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate.

  4. Application of thermal plasma technology for the treatment of solid wastes in China: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Kou; Yan, Shengjun; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-12-01

    With its enormous social and economical development, China is now experiencing a rapid increase in solid wastes generation and growing pressure for solid wastes management. Today solid wastes in China are mainly managed by a combination of landfill, incineration, and composting. Within different possible treatment routes, thermal plasma technology (TPT) offers the advantages of efficiently gasifying the organic contents of solid wastes into syngas that can be used for heat and power generation, and vitrifying the inorganics simultaneously into glassy slag with very low leachabilities. This process makes it feasible for near-zero emission into the environment while making use of all the useful components. Encouraged by the industrial operations of solid wastes treatment plants using TPT in some countries, several plasma demonstration projects have already been undertaken in China. This paper provides a preliminary overview of the current laboratory researches and industrial developments status of TPT for the treatment of solid wastes in China and analyzes the existing challenges. Furthermore, the future prospects for TPT in China are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge—comparison of thermal pretreatments with thermal inter-stage treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment methods for improved anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge were evaluated. Pretreatments at moderate thermal (water bath at 80 °C), high thermal (loop autoclave at 130–170 °C) and thermo-chemical (170 °C/pH 10) conditions prior to AD in batch vials (40 days/37 °C...

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles for thermal lysis and application in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumana; Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Veerla, Sarath Chandra; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation-therapy are conventional treatment procedure of cancer. Though radiation therapy is very common practice for cancer treatment, it has limitations including incomplete and non specific destruction. Heating characteristics of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) is modelled using molecular dynamics simulation setup. This model would give an understanding for the treatment of cancer cell through MNP associated radiation-therapy. In this paper, alternating magnetic field driven heat generation of MNP is studied using classical molecular dynamics. Temperature is measured as an ensemble average of velocity of the atoms. Temperature stabilization is achieved. Under this simulation setting with certain parameters, 45°C temperature was obtained in our simulations. Simulation data would be helpful for experimental analysis to treat cancerous cell in presence of MNP under exposure to radiofrequency. The in vitro thermal characteristics of magnetite nanoparticles using magnetic coil of various frequencies (5, 7.5, 10 and 15 kHz), the saturation temperature was found at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. At frequency 50 kHz the live/dead and MTT assay was performed on magnetite nanoparticles using MC3T3 cells for 10 min duration. Low radio frequency (RF) radiation induced localized heat into the metallic nanoparticles which is clearly understood using the molecular dynamics simulation setup. Heating of nanoparticle trigger the killing of the tumor cells, acts as a local therapy, as it generates less side effects in comparison to other treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  8. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan@ono.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Martinez Montes, Jose Luis [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean ({+-}SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 {+-} 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  9. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  10. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  11. Preliminary evaluations of the undesirable patient dose from a BNCT treatment at the ENEA-TAPIRO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Nava, E; Burn, K W

    2007-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental technique for the treatment of certain kinds of tumors. Research in BNCT is performed utilizing both thermal and epithermal neutron beams. Epithermal neutrons (0.4 eV-10 keV) penetrate more deeply into tissue and are thus used in non-superficial clinical applications such as the brain glioma. In the last few years, the fast reactor TAPIRO (ENEA-Casaccia Rome) has been employed as a neutron source for research into BNCT applications. Recently, an 'epithermal therapeutic column' has been designed and its construction has been completed. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was employed to optimize the design of the column and to evaluate the dose profiles and the therapeutic parameters in the cranium of the anthropomorphic phantom ADAM. In the same context, some preliminary evaluations of the undesirable doses to the patient were performed with MCNPX. A hermaphrodite phantom derived from ADAM and EVA was employed to evaluate the energy deposition in some organs during a standard BNCT treatment. The total dose consists of the contributions from the primary neutron beam, the neutron interactions with boron and the neutron induced photons generated in the epithermal column structures and in the patient's tissues. The paper summarizes the computational procedure and provides a general dosimetric framework of the patient radiological protection aspects related to a BNCT treatment scenario at the TAPIRO reactor.

  12. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  13. Preliminary Development of Thermal Power Calculation Code H-Power for a Supercritical Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SCWR (Supercritical Water Reactor is one of the promising Generation IV nuclear systems, which has higher thermal power efficiency than current pressurized water reactor. It is necessary to perform the thermal equilibrium and thermal power calculation for the conceptual design and further monitoring and calibration of the SCWR. One visual software named H-Power was developed to calculate thermal power and its uncertainty of SCWR, in which the advanced IAPWS-IF97 industrial formulation was used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of water and steam. The ISO-5167-4: 2003 standard was incorporated in the code as the basis of orifice plate to compute the flow rate. New heat balance model and uncertainty estimate have also been included in the code. In order to validate H-Power, an assessment was carried out by using data published by US and Qinshan Phase II. The results showed that H-Power was able to estimate the thermal power of SCWR.

  14. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  15. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  16. Role of the preliminary heat treatment in anisothermic eutectoid change of the cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szykowny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary heat treatment, preceding continuous cooling of the iron casting, assumed in the research, complies with the applied in prac- tice single normalization, double normalization or normalization with slow cooling. In each of these cases continuous cast iron cooling has been begun from the same temperature 925°C. CCT diagrams have been made with use of metallographic method. The mechanism, kinet- ics and the final structure of eutectoid change of the cast iron after such treatment have been traced.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Power system development. Preliminary design report, final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The preliminary design of the 10 MWe OTEC power module and the 200 kWe test articles is given in detail. System operation and performance; power system cost estimates; 10 MWe heat exchangers; 200 kWe heat exchanger articles; biofouling control;ammonia leak detection, and leak repair; rotating machinery; support subsystem; instrumentation and control; electrical subsystem; installation approach; net energy and resource analysis; and operability, maintainability, and safety are discussed. The conceptual design of the 40 MWe electrical power system includes four or five 10 MWe modules as designed for the 10 MWe pilot plant. (WHK)

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurements By Means of a New `Small Hot-Box' Apparatus: Manufacturing, Calibration and Preliminary Experimental Tests on Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C.; Belloni, E.; Lunghi, L.; Barbanera, M.

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation of the thermal performance building components requires a high level of accuracy. Windows, doors and thermal bridges are not homogeneous, and their thermal transmittance can be evaluated by means of Hot-Box, used for full-scale elements. For homogeneous materials and one-dimensional heat flux, the thermal conductivity can be easily measured through other experimental apparatuses, such as the guarded hot plate and the heat flow meters. This study presents a new experimental apparatus named Small Hot-Box, built at the University of Perugia. No European standards are available for this innovative facility, but it takes into account some prescriptions of EN ISO 8990 and EN ISO 12567; it was built for the evaluation of the thermal properties of small specimens. The apparatus was designed, built, and calibrated by means of preliminary measurements. It is composed of a hot and a cold side, and the external walls are made of thick insulation. The thermal conductivity can be calculated by two different methodologies: the Hot-Box and the thermal flux meter method. Preliminary calibrations were carried out and different materials with known thermal transmittance were tested. The aim is the development of a new experimental apparatus; guidance documents could be defined for the measurements methodology requirements.

  19. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  20. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  1. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for 330MWt SMART integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Sim, S. K.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. C.

    1997-09-01

    The work reported in this document identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in a 330 MWt SMART integral reactor which is under development at KAERI. The result of this efforts is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by the consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this report is intended for use to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed and thermal-hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART integral reactor. (author). 7 refs., 21 tabs., 22 figs.

  2. Design and Preliminary Thermal Performance of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John; Kelly, Frank; Birur, Gajanana; Bhandari, Pradeep; Pauken, Michael; Illsley, Peter; Liu, Yuanming; Bame, David; Miller, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The challenging range of proposed landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover requires a rover thermal management system that is capable of keeping temperatures controlled across a wide variety of environmental conditions. On the Martian surface where temperatures can be as cold as -123 degrees Centigrade and as warm as 38 degrees Centigrade, the Rover relies upon a Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) and external radiators to maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 degrees Centigrade to 50 degrees Centigrade range. The MPFL also manages significant waste heat generated from the Rover power source, known as the Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). The MMRTG produces 110 Watts of electrical power while generating waste heat equivalent to approximately 2000 Watts. Two similar Heat Exchanger (HX) assemblies were designed to both acquire the heat from the MMRTG and radiate waste heat from the onboard electronics to the surrounding Martian environment. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of each HX. Since these two surfaces need to be at very different temperatures in order for the MPFL to perform efficiently, they need to be thermally isolated from one another. The HXs were therefore designed for high in-plane thermal conductivity and extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity by using aerogel as an insulator inside composite honeycomb sandwich panels. A complex assembly of hand welded and uniquely bent aluminum tubes are bonded onto the HX panels and were specifically designed to be easily mated and demated to the rest of the Rover Heat Recovery and Rejection System (RHRS) in order to ease the integration effort. During the cruise phase to Mars, the HX assemblies serve the additional function of transferring heat from the Rover MPFL to the separate Cruise Stage MPFL so that heat

  3. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  4. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  5. Effect of thermal treatments on arsenic species contents in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, V; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2008-01-01

    In arsenic-endemic and other areas, food is an important path of exposure to this contaminant. Food is generally consumed in processed form, after a preservation treatment or cooking, which may alter the concentrations and chemical forms of arsenic. This article summarizes and discusses the work so far published on the effect that thermal treatment used in the cooking or processing of food, including sterilization and preservation stages, has on total arsenic and arsenic species contents. It also reviews possible transformations in arsenic species. The studies included use model systems or food products of marine or vegetable origin. Processing may cause a considerable increase or decrease in the real arsenic intake from food. For example, traditional washing and soaking of Hizikia fusiforme seaweed, which has very high inorganic arsenic contents, may reduce the contents by up to 60%. On the other hand, all the arsenic present in cooking water may be retained during boiling of rice, increasing the contents of this metalloid to significant levels from a toxicological viewpoint. This calls for modifications in arsenic risk assessment, hitherto based on analysis of the raw product. It is necessary to consider the effect of processing on total arsenic and arsenical species in order to obtain a realistic view of the risk associated with intake in arsenic-endemic and other areas.

  6. Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Chu, J P; Tzeng, C C; Chen, Y S

    2002-01-01

    To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma environment, incinerated ashes are vitrified into benign slag with large volume reduction and extreme detoxification. Several one-step heat treatment processes are carried out at four temperatures (i.e. 850, 950, 1,050 and 1,150 degrees C) to obtain various "microstructure materials". The major phase to form these materials is a solid solution of gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) belonging to the melilite group. The physical and mechanical properties of the microstructure materials are improved by using one-step post-heat treatment process after plasma vitrification. These microstructure materials with good quality have great potential to serve as a viable alternative for construction applications.

  7. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a comprehensive understanding of requirements for a facility that could safely conduct effluent treatment for a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket...

  8. Thermal radiation measurements. Parts I and II. Preliminary report. Project 39. 3 (of) Operation Plumbbob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, A.L.; Pearse, H.E.

    1958-01-01

    Attempts are reported to obtain records of transient air temperatures at selected locations in a blast biology underground shelter during nuclear explosions. No records were obtained due to failure of equipment. An evaluation of thermal burns was made on Chester White pigs used as test animals. One pig in the entrance and one about three feet inside the door received severe burns, while animals away from the entrance and those in the slow fill side received no burns. Possible explanations are discussed.

  9. A preliminary thermal budget for lava tubes on the Earth and planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo

    1995-10-01

    Lava tubes are a very common and important feature in mafic lava flows. The insulation provided by lava tubes allows molten lava to travel large distances from the vent with little cooling. This paper presentes the first attempt to quantify the processes that control this cooling. The resulting thermal budget balances heat loss by (1) conduction, (2) convection of air in the wall rocks, (3) vaporization of rainwater, and (4) radiation out of skylights against (1) viscous dissipation, (2) latent heat released during crystallization, and (3) the cooling of the lava. When applied to the Waha'ula tube on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, this thermal budget reproduces the observed ~1°C/km cooling of the lava inside the active tube. The thermal budget is also used to compare the insulating ability of hypothetical lava tubes in a continental flood basalt setting, on the ocean floor, Venus, the Moon, and Mars. This analysis demonstrates the large effect of rainfall and atmospheric convection, the importance of the volumetric flux of lava through the tube, and the overwhelming importance of compositional (i.e., rheological) differences. This work suggests that basaltic tube-fed flows several hundred kilometers long can be produced by eruptions with effusion rates of only a few tens of cubic meters per second. Thus even the longest lava flows observed in our solar system could have been produced by low to moderate effusion rate eruptions, if they were tube-fed. .

  10. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  11. Preliminary data on Pemphigus vulgaris treatment by a proteomics-defined peptide: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelman Abraham

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although described by Hippocrates in 400 B.C., pemphigus disease still needs a safe therapeutical approach, given that the currently used therapies (i.e. corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs often provoke collateral effects. Here we present preliminary data on the possible use of a proteomics derived desmoglein peptide which appears promising in halting disease progression without adverse effects. Methods The low-similarity Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide was topically applied for 1 wk onto a lesion in a patient with a late-stage Pemphigus vulgaris (PV complicated by diabetes and cataract disease. The peptide was applied as an adjuvant in combination with the standard corticosteroid-based immunosuppressive treatment. Results After 1 wk, the treated PV eroded lesion appeared dimensionally reduced and with an increased rate of re-epithelization when compared to adjacent non-treated lesions. Short-term benefits were: decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer and reduction of the corticosteroid dosage. Long-term benefits: after two years following the unique 1-wk topical treatment, the decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer persists. The patient is still at the low cortisone dosage. Adverse effects: no adverse effect could be monitored. Conclusion With the limits inherent to any preliminary study, this case report indicates that topical treatment with Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide may represent a feasible first step in the search for a simple, effective and safe treatment of PV.

  12. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  13. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  14. PRELIMINARY REPORT: EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL EXPOSURE ON ELASTOMERIC SEALS FOR CASK TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2014-05-30

    A testing and analysis approach to predict the sealing behavior of elastomeric seal materials in dry storage casks and evaluate their ability to maintain a seal under thermal and radiation exposure conditions of extended storage and beyond was developed, and initial tests have been conducted. The initial tests evaluate the aging response of EPDM elastomer O-ring seals. The thermal and radiation exposure conditions of the CASTOR® V/21 casks were selected for testing as this cask design is of interest due to its widespread use, and close proximity of the seals to the fuel compared to other cask designs leading to a relatively high temperature and dose under storage conditions. A novel test fixture was developed to enable compression stress relaxation measurements for the seal material at the thermal and radiation exposure conditions. A loss of compression stress of 90% is suggested as the threshold at which sealing ability of an elastomeric seal would be lost. Previous studies have shown this value to be conservative to actual leakage failure for most aging conditions. These initial results indicate that the seal would be expected to retain sealing ability throughout extended storage at the cask design conditions, though longer exposure times are needed to validate this assumption. The high constant dose rate used in the testing is not prototypic of the decreasingly low dose rate that would occur under extended storage. The primary degradation mechanism of oxidation of polymeric compounds is highly dependent on temperature and time of exposure, and with radiation expected to exacerbate the oxidation.

  15. Efifcacy of Argentum-Quartz Solution in the Treatment of Perianal Fistulas:A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasello Giovanni; Tralongo Pietro; Di Trapani Benedetto; Carini Francesco; Sinagra Emanuele; Oueidat Doreid; Tarek Bou Assi; Jurjus Abdo; Leone Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Nowadays, an optimal and effective medical surgery remains the gold standard for perianal fistulas. Hereby we reported preliminary results in favor of using Argentum-quartz solution for both primary and recurrent perianal ifstulas. Methods:Three patients with intersphincteric and extrasphincteric fistulas were enrolled. Argentum-quartz solution was administrated twice a week for a period of 4 weeks, followed by a pause of 8 days and then another 4 weeks of treatment, totally 16 administrations. After treatment, all patients were monitored for a 4-month follow-up. Results: Complete closures of 2 extrasphincteric fistulas and a partial closure with absence of inlfammation and superative phenomena in the intrasphincteric ifstula were both manifested. Conclusion: Selective treatment of perianal ifstulas with an argentum-quartz solution is safe and effective, and may represent a reliable alternative.

  16. Preliminary study of impact of fuel options on performance of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Montanez, P.; Bezler, P.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the sensitivity to fuel type and composition on the performance of two Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concepts is presented. The performance measures are the specific impulse and the thrust/weight (T/W) ratio, and the concepts considered are based on the NERVA and ESCORT reactors. For the NERVA concept use of alternative fissile materials showed significant reductions in core mass which improves the values of T/W. However, launch safety considerations may be the dominant factor in selection of fissile material. The use of ternary carbide based fuels allows higher exhaust temperatures, but due to their higher density reduces T/W. The use of molybdenum based cermets, and cermets which use UN or UC2 fuel allow for significant reductions in the reactor mass, and thus an increase in T/W. However, the use of molybdenum reduces the exhaust temperature. Both these results for the NERVA and ESCORT based systems indicate the need to axially zone the core. The lower temperature but lighter material should be used in the cooler (<2500 K) parts of the core, and the heavier, higher temperature material should be used in the outlet end of the core. In addition, the thermal response, and implied stress is estimated for the NERVA concept. .

  17. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  18. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  19. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The successful performance of the CWP is of crucial importance to the overall OTEC system; the pipe itself is considered the most critical part of the entire operation. Because of the importance the CWP, a project for the analysis and design of CWP's was begun in the fall of 1978. The goals of this project were to study a variety of concepts for delivering cold water to an OTEC plant, to analyze and rank these concepts based on their relative cost and risk, and to develop preliminary design for those concepts which seemed most promising. Two representative platforms and sites were chosen: a spar buoy of a Gibbs and Cox design to be moored at a site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, and a barge designed by APL/Johns Hopkins University, grazing about a site approximately 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil. The approach was to concentrate on the most promising concepts and on those which were either of general interest or espoused by others (e.g., steel and concrete concepts). Much of the overall attention, therefore, focused on analyzing rigid and compliant wall design, while stockade (except for the special case of the FRP stockade) and bottom-mounted concepts received less attention. A total of 67 CWP concepts were initially generated and subjected to a screening process. Of these, 16 were carried through design analysis, costing, and ranking. Study results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  20. Thermal waste treatment in China; Die thermische Abfallbehandlung in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa [Zhejiang Univ. (China). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Vehlow, Juergen [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2011-08-15

    Increasing industrialisation and urbanisation as well as fast changing consumption habits in China entail a dramatic increase in waste generation. This development goes along with a severe lack in landfill sites, especially in densely populated areas. In combination with today's growing demand for aftercare free disposal the Chinese government decided to focus on thermal treatment, preferentially with energy recovery, of all types of waste as the only environmentally compatible pre-treatment option prior to final disposal. This principle is followed by the authorities despite entailing costs and recently in few places emerging public concern over this technology. The first incineration plant for municipal solid waste in China using imported technology was commissioned in 1988. Further such plants built during the following years had severe problems with the low calorific value of Chinese waste and failed often to achieve acceptable burnout. This fact and the high costs initiated at the end of the last century the development of a circulating fluidised bed incinerator at the University of Zhejiang which burns residential waste with an addition of 20 % of coal to increase its heating value. This strategy enables a well controlled combustion with burnout as well as emission figures, including those for dioxins, which easily comply with the actual Chinese air emission limits. These are to a great extent comparable with those of the EU Incineration Directive. This technology has successfully entered the market between 2000 and 2010 and will most likely, together with a similar type developed by the Tsinghua University, become the backbone of Chinese waste incineration in future due to its moderate costs and excellent performance. (orig.)

  1. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  2. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries.

  3. Study of Thermal Treatment on Properties of Polycrystalline Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of thermal annealing on oxygen behavior and carrier lifetimes of mc-Si wafers were investigated by means of FTIR and QSSPCD during single step and two step heat treatments in N2 and O2 ambient. It reveals that interstitial oxygen concentration of mc-Si and CZ-Si has a slighter decrease in N2 and O2 ambient during single-step annealing, which means oxygen precipitates are not generated. But oxygen concentration greatly decreases and generates a number of oxygen precipitates during two-step annealing. Bulk lifetime of mc-Si increases in N2 ambient at 850, 950, 1150 ℃ respectively, and annealing in O2 shows better results than that in N2 and annealing in two-step reflected better consequence than annealing in single-step. But lifetime of CZ-Si annealed in N2 or O2 decreases rapidly. The reason of lifetime increase is probably considered due to the fact that interstitial Si atoms of Si/SiO2 interface fill vacancies or some recombination centers at high temperature annealing. Moreover, a number of impurities in mc-Si probably diffuse to grain boundaries so that greatly reduce recombination centers result to lifetime rising.

  4. Effect of Thermal Treatment and Acid Leaching Process on Pore Characteristics of Nanometer Porous Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianjun; XU Feng; LIU Jiandang; ZHAO Xiujian

    2007-01-01

    Porous glass was prepared by thermally treating sodium borosilicate glass for different time,the effect of thermal treatment on pore size distribution was discussed and the pore size of the prepared porous glass was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results show that the optimum porous glass with an average diameter of 80 nm can be prepared by thermal treatment at 600 ℃ for 12 h and then acid treatment for 12 h in 2 mol· L-1 hydrochloric acid solution.

  5. By-products of the Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Waste: Formation and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maud; Cormier, Stephania; Varner, Kurt; Dellinger, Barry

    2010-04-01

    Destruction of toxic chemicals by thermal treatment can be a highly effective method for remediation of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Of the 977 Superfund source control treatment projects in the United States from 1982 to 2005, 16% used incineration or other thermal treatments (the proportion is similar for 126 projects in the period 2002-2005).(1) However, as with other technologies, if thermal treatments are not matched correctly with the site or are improperly operated, harmful by-products can form, requiring further treatment.

  6. Thermal treatment of electronic waste in a fluidised bed and chemical digestion of solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Amelia; Żukowski, Witold; Żelazny, Sylwester

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of e-waste thermal treatment in a fluidised bed reactor and solid products digestion under acidic conditions. During the processes, measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, phenol, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen fluoride and phosgene were carried out. Several digestion tests of the solid residue in sulphuric acid (VI) at 25 °C-65 °C, for 55 min-24 h were conducted. In each case, the dilution method was used, i.e. preliminary digestion in concentrated sulphuric acid (VI) (95%) for 40 min, and then dilution to expected concentrations (30%-50%). Most preferred results were obtained using sulphuric acid (VI) with a target concentration of 40% at 65 °C, where the leaching degrees were 76.56% for copper, 71.67% for iron, 91.89% for zinc and 97.40% for tin. The time necessary to effectively carry out the digestion process was 220 min.

  7. High-resolution cross-borehole thermal tracer testing in granite: preliminary field results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how heat is transported, stored and exchanged across fractured media is becoming increasingly relevant in our society, as manifested from the growing popularity of modern technologies relying on the subsurface to either source or store heat. One good example is the utilization of heat from deep hydrothermal or petrothermal systems to generate electricity for base load power generation, a technology also known as deep geothermal energy (DGE). While very attractive in principle, the number of geothermal fields producing economical levels of electricity to this day is still very limited - largely due to the difficulty of either locating deep reservoirs that are both sufficiently hot and permeable or, in the absence of the latter, creating them. In this context, the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER - SoE) is carrying out an in situ stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), an underground rock lab located in the Aar massif, in the Swiss Alps. The circulation experiment planned for the post-stimulation phase represents one of the key components of this experimental research program, and the outcome of this test is expected to ultimately provide key insights in the factors controlling the performance of enhanced geothermal reservoirs. Therefore, to support the design of this experiment, short-term thermal tracer tests (TTT) were conducted with the objective to (i) assess the feasibility of conducting TTTs in a relatively intact granite (where fluid flow is controlled by a limited number of discrete fractures); (ii) determine optimal experimental setups; and to ultimately (iii) monitor thermal breakthroughs at high spatial and temporal resolution, providing insights on heat transport and complementing the characterization of hydrogeological conditions carried out through conventional means (e.g. hydraulic and/or solute tracer tests). Presented herein are the results of a 10-day

  8. Preliminary Thermal Characterization of a Fully-Passive Wireless Backscattering Neuro-Recording Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, H. N.; Xu, W.; Shekhar, S.; Chae, J.; Miranda, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present analytical and experimental thermal characteristics of a battery-less, fully-passive wireless backscattering microsystem for recording of neuropotentials. A major challenge for cortically implantable microsystems involves minimizing the heat dissipated by on-chip circuitry, which can lead to permanent brain damage. Therefore, knowledge of temperature changes induced by implantable microsystems while in operation is of utmost importance. In this work, a discrete diode appended to the neuro-recording microsystem has been used to indirectly monitor the aforesaid temperature changes. Using this technique, the maximum temperature rise measured for the microsystem while in operation was 0.15 +/- 0.1 C, which is significantly less than current safety guidelines. Specific absorption ratio (SAR) due to the microsystem was also computed to further demonstrate fully-passive functionality of the neuro-recording microsystem.

  9. Thermal stability of chemically denatured green fluorescent protein (GFP) A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Attila; Malnasi-Csizmadia, Andras; Somogyi, Bela; Lorinczy, Denes

    2004-02-09

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The protein consist of 238 amino acids and produces green fluorescent light ({lambda}{sub max}=508 nm), when irradiated with near ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser{sup 65}-Tyr{sup 66}-Gly{sup 67}-, which buried into {beta}-barrel. GFP is extremely compact and heat stable molecule. In this work, we present data for the effect of chemical denaturing agent on the thermal stability of GFP. When denaturing agent is applied, global thermal stability and the melting point of the molecule is decreases, that can be monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicate, that in 1-6 M range of GuHCl the melting temperature is decreasing continuously from 83 to 38 deg. C. Interesting finding, that the calculated calorimetric enthalpy decreases with GuHCl concentration up to 3 M (5.6-0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}), but at 4 M it jumps to 8.4 and at greater concentration it is falling down to 1.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. First phenomena, i.e. the decrease of melting point with increasing GuHCl concentration can be easily explained by the effect of the extended chemical denaturation, when less and less amount of heat required to diminish the remaining hydrogen bonds in {beta}-barrel. The surprising increase of calorimetric enthalpy at 4 M concentration of GuHCl could be the consequence of a dimerization or a formation of stable complex between GFP and denaturing agent as well as a precipitation at an extreme GuHCl concentration. We are planning further experiments to elucidate fluorescent consequence of these processes.

  10. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the

  11. COMPUTER-BASED ANALYSIS OF THERMAL TREATMENT PARAMETERS APPLICABLE TO MINERAL WOOL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of mineral wool products are, to a significant extent, pre-set by conditions of their thermal treatment. The findings of analytical and experimental researches into patterns of thermal treatment of mineral wool carpets have been converted into dominant factors of influence used to compile a network of factor-to-factor dependencies and resulting characteristics. Dependencies derived in pursuance of the aforementioned pattern serve as the basis for the algorithm of software programmes integrated into a single software facility. The software facility is designated for the analysis of the value of hydraulic resistance of a mineral wool carpet exposed to thermal treatment using the method of heat carrier blowing through the mineral wool carpet layer spread over the punched surface of the transporter. The software facility may be used to identify the minimal length of the thermal treatment chamber and the thermal treatment exposure time.

  12. Treatment of paraphilia in young adults with leuprolide acetate: a preliminary case report series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fabian M; Niel, Tracey; Fishman, Marc J

    2004-11-01

    Some juveniles who engage in sexual offenses may have a paraphilia, a psychiatric disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of deviant and impairing sexual fantasies, thoughts, and/or behaviors. Though there is no known cure for these conditions, paraphilias can be effectively managed using a multimodal treatment approach. This may include the use of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment interventions, including antiandrogen medications. One such agent, leuprolide acetate (leuprolide), a luteinizing hormone-releasing-hormone agonist, has been shown to be effective in reducing paraphilic symptoms in adult patients. To date, however, there is no published data on its use and effectiveness in adolescent and young adult paraphilic patients. This study consists of a case report series of six young adult patients treated with leuprolide. All subjects had been diagnosed with at least one paraphilia (i.e., Pedophilia, Sexual Sadism, Frotteurism, and Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified). All subjects had been refractory to treatment in a residential program for adolescent sex offenders prior to initiation of leuprolide. All six subjects reported a reduction in sexually deviant symptoms following treatment with leuprolide. Clinicians rated four as much improved and two as moderately improved. The treatment was well tolerated in all six subjects. This preliminary case series supports the conclusion that leuprolide deserves further examination as a potentially safe and effective component in the treatment of young adult patients with paraphilia.

  13. A preliminary study on the lithospheric thermal-rheological structure of the East Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shunyou; ZHANG Guowei; DIAO Bo; GUO Anlin; YU Xiangni

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the lithospheric rheological structure of the East Qinling orogenic belt to explore its geodynamics. The lithospheric rheological structure was calculated by the constraints of the lithospheric temperature structure. The thermal-rheological stratification structures of the lithosphere in the East Qinling orogenic belt present different features from each other within different tectonic units. The hinterland fault-bounded fold zone (HLZ) and the North Qinling thick-skinned imbricated thrust zone (NQL) in the northern half part of the Qinling orogen, with a tempera-ture of 305℃ for the Moho boundary, are characterized by "cold" geotherm, thickened lithosphere and the model C for rheological stratification structure. The South Qinling tectonic zone (SQL), with a mean temperature of 642℃ and a high temperature of 826℃ for the Moho boundary, has obvious features with the model H of"hot" geotherm, thinned lithosphere and intensive rheological behavior within moderate-lower crust and top of the upper mantle. During post-orogenesis, the NQL, being the convergent frontal region of continental subduction beneath the Qinling orogen by both the North China craton (NC) and Yangtze craton (YZ), is in a coexistence period of a dominantly thickened lithosphere and an initial delamination, and the SQL, proba-bly under pluming, has been developing new delamination and underplating and partial melting within the crust in its axel area and recycling for mass and energy (in the forms of heat transfer and convection) between the crust and mantle.

  14. Modeling Penicillium expansum resistance to thermal and chlorine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Beatriz C M; Churey, John J; Aragão, Gláucia M F; Worobo, Randy W

    2009-12-01

    Apples and apple products are excellent substrates for Penicillium expansum to produce patulin. In an attempt to avoid excessive levels of patulin, limiting or reducing P. expansum contamination levels on apples designated for storage in packinghouses and/or during apple juice processing is critical. The aim of this work was (i) to determine the thermal resistance of P. expansum spores in apple juice, comparing the abilities of the Bigelow and Weibull models to describe the survival curves and (ii) to determine the inactivation of P. expansum spores in aqueous chlorine solutions at varying concentrations of chlorine solutions, comparing the abilities of the biphasic and Weibull models to fit the survival curves. The results showed that the Bigelow and Weibull models were similar for describing the heat inactivation data, because the survival curves were almost linear. In this case, the concept of D- and z-values could be used, and the D-values obtained were 10.68, 6.64, 3.32, 1.14, and 0.61 min at 50, 52, 54, 56, and 60 degrees C, respectively, while the z-value was determined to be 7.57 degrees C. For the chlorine treatments, although the biphasic model gave a slightly superior performance, the Weibull model was selected, considering the parsimony principle, because it has fewer parameters than the biphasic model has. In conclusion, the typical pasteurization regimen used for refrigerated apple juice (71 degrees C for 6 s) is capable of achieving a 6-log reduction of P. expansum spores.

  15. Effects of Post-Thermal Treatment on Quality of SiC Grown by PVT Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-Na; CHEN Xiao-Long; YANG Hui; PENG Tong-Hua; NI Dai-Qin; HU Bo-Qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the effects of post-thermal treatment on the quality of 2-inch 6H-SiC wafer cut from a crystal boule grown by physical vapour transportation method. The full widths at half maximum of x-ray diffraction rocking curves measured on sites across the 2-inch wafer become narrower, indicating the quality improvement after a three-step post-thermal treatment. It is found that the most common defects such as micropipes and inclusions can be significantly reduced after the treatment. Our results show that the post-thermal treatment is an effective route to improve the quality of SiC single crystals.

  16. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  17. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of collagen as a component in the thermally induced 'weld'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemole, G. M., Jr.; Anderson, R. Rox; DeCoste, Sue

    1991-06-01

    A simple thermodynamic approach to tissue 'welding' was studied. Fresh bovine tendon (67% type I collagen) was sectioned into disk shaped pieces, pairs of which were inserted between bowed glass coverslips and wrapped in aluminum foil. The packets were heated in a waterbath according to two protocols. In group I, packets were tested for four minutes at temperatures between 55-65 degree(s)C, in 1 degree(s)C intervals. In group II, the packets were kept at 62 degree(s)C for 4 minutes while the rate of cooling was altered. The force necessary to separate the tendon disks was then measured. The optimal temperature for tissue bonding (group I) was 62 degree(s)C (598 gm/in2). Stress values below 250 gm/in2 could be achieved without heat application and were considered non-welds. Group II showed that the faster the sample cools, the stronger the bond. Several conclusions can be postulated. The narrow temperature region necessary for tissue 'welding' strongly suggests that melting of type I collagen fibrils is involved. Bonding presumably occurs at 62 degree(s)C by allowing (alpha) -strands from the collagen super-helix molecule to form new, random connections. Group II results suggest that trans-incisional reannealing of unraveled helices does not play a role in tissue bonding. Rapid cooling allows less time for extended helix reformation; same-side a-helix reannealing may inhibit effective welds by reducing sites for trans-incisional visco-elastic bonding. Although the exact nature and optimization of thermal tissue 'welds' remains unclear, the behavior of collagen appears to play a central role.

  19. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2004-12-01

    There is good evidence for cognitive and physiological arousal in chronic insomnia. Accordingly, clinical trial studies of insomnia treatments aimed at reducing arousal, including relaxation and meditation, have reported positive results. Yoga is a multicomponent practice that is also known to be effective in reducing arousal, although it has not been well evaluated as a treatment for insomnia. In this preliminary study, a simple daily yoga treatment was evaluated in a chronic insomnia population consisting of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia and primary or secondary insomnia. Participants maintained sleep-wake diaries during a pretreatment 2-week baseline and a subsequent 8-week intervention, in which they practiced the treatment on their own following a single in-person training session with subsequent brief in-person and telephone follow-ups. Sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), total wake time (TWT), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and sleep quality measures were derived from sleep-wake diary entries and were averaged in 2-week intervals. For 20 participants completing the protocol, statistically significant improvements were observed in SE, TST, TWT, SOL, and WASO at end-treatment as compared with pretreatment values.

  20. Hand Robotics Rehabilitation: Feasibility and Preliminary Results of a Robotic Treatment in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Sale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria. Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions of robotic treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week. Each session lasted for 40 minutes. The exercises were carried out as follows: passive modality (5 minutes, passive/plus modality (5 minutes, assisted therapy (10 minutes, and balloon (10 minutes. The following impairment and functional evaluations, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM, Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles (MRC, Motricity Index (MI, and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (AS, were performed at the beginning (T0, after 10 sessions (T1, and at the end of the treatment (T2. The strength hand flexion and extension performed by Robot were assessed at T0 and T2. The Barthel Index and COMP (performance and satisfaction subscale were assessed at T0 and T2. Results. Clinical improvements were found in all patients. No dropouts were recorded during the treatment and all subjects fulfilled the protocol. Evidence of a significant improvement was demonstrated by the Friedman test for the MRC (P<0.0123. Evidence of an improvement was demonstrated for AS, FM, and MI. Conclusions. This original rehabilitation treatment could contribute to increase the hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. The simplicity of the treatment, the lack of side effects, and the first positive results in acute stroke patients support the recommendations to extend the clinical trial of this

  1. Preliminary Study: Treatment of Food Industrial Wastewater using Two-Phase Anaerobic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Shafendy Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Food processing industrial wastewater is well known for its high concentration of COD, BOD and suspended solid. The condition of the wastewater formed makes it illegal for the industry to release the wastewater to the open body of water without essential treatment. The study is conducted on food manufacturing company which specializes in chips export business. The quality of the wastewater produced from the manufacturing is not appropriate to be discharged directly. Thus, a two phase treatment system involving UASB and HUASB reactors as primary treatment and followed by AF reactor as secondary treatment is proposed. Basically, this research will focus on the performance of UASB-AF and HUASB-AF treatment systems and the affect of adding palm oil shell into the HUASB and AF respectively as support media. Parameters measured are pH, COD, NH3-N, oil and grease and total phosphorus. The instruments used for collecting data in this research are pH meter and HACH DR5000. In this research, the highest COD removal for the effluents from the U1 and U2 were at the 14th day with 93.6% removal and at the 62th day with 96.6% each. Meanwhile, in the R2 treatment system, the highest COD removal for the effluents from the H1 and H2 were at the 14th day with 98.3% removal and at 110th day with 97.6% removal. It is hoped that this study will generate useful findings that could be applied to alleviate the current problem at the food factory and also at other food industry in the future.

  2. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  3. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-STORM 100 Storage Modules at Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-17

    Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for two modules at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI identified as candidates for inspection. These are HI-STORM 100 modules of a site-specific design for storing PWR 17x17 fuel in MPC-32 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions. • storage module overpack configuration based on FSAR documentation of HI-STORM100S-218, Version B; due to unavailability of site-specific design data for Diablo Canyon ISFSI modules • Individual assembly and total decay heat loadings for each canister, based on at-loading values provided by PG&E, “aged” to time of inspection using ORIGEN modeling o Special Note: there is an inherent conservatism of unquantified magnitude – informally estimated as up to approximately 20% -- in the utility-supplied values for at-loading assembly decay heat values • Axial decay heat distributions based on a bounding generic profile for PWR fuel. • Axial location of beginning of fuel assumed same as WE 17x17 OFA fuel, due to unavailability of specific data for WE17x17 STD and WE 17x17 Vantage 5 fuel designs • Ambient conditions of still air at 50°F (10°C) assumed for base-case evaluations o Wind conditions at the Diablo Canyon site are unquantified, due to unavailability of site meteorological data o additional still-air evaluations performed at 70°F (21°C), 60°F (16°C), and 40°F (4°C), to cover a range of possible conditions at the time of the inspection. (Calculations were also performed at

  4. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salerno, Kilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  5. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future.

  6. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Abdullah, Bawadi; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2015-07-01

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N2-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N2-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  7. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid, E-mail: omid.akbarzadeh63@gmail.com; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi-abdullah@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  8. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fioretti; Paolo Principi

    2014-01-01

    External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been invest...

  9. Interest of Colchicine for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis Patients. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sermet-Gaudelus

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease is characterized by persistent inflammation. Antiinflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids and ibuprofene, have proved to slow the decline of pulmonary function although their use is limited because of frequent adverse events. We hypothesized that colchicine could be an alternative treatment because of its antiinflammatory properties and upregulatory effect on cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR closely related proteins. We herein present results obtained in an open study of eight CF children treated with colchicine for at least 6 months. Clinical status was better in all patients and respiratory function tests significantly improved in five. Median duration of antibiotherapy decreased significantly. These preliminary results support our hypothesis of a beneficial effect of colchicine in CF patients and stress the need for a controlled therapeutic trial.

  10. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with radiolabeled Lipiodol: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.H.; Suh, J.H.; Yoo, H.S.; Lee, J.T.; Kim, D.I.; Kim, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    Fatty acid esters such as Lipiodol or Ethiodol are known to selectively localize in vascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), following intraarterial hepatic administration. Lipiodol was labeled with radioactive /sup 131/I and administered in 47 patients with HCC for both imaging and therapy. The short term preliminary results suggest radiolabeled Lipiodol is effective in eliminating ascites, shrinking the tumor by a high internal radiation dose, and in improving symptomatology of these tumors. In the future, /sup 90/Y, which is a stronger pure beta-emitter (maximum beta energy of 2.27 MeV, a half life of 64 h, and a maximum penetration or beta range of 11mm), than /sup 131/I will be used for more effective treatment of HCC.

  11. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  12. Formation of nanocarbon spheres by thermal treatment of woody char from fast pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Hossein Toghiani; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Influences of thermal treatment conditions of temperature, reaction cycle and time, and purge gas type on nanocarbon formation over bio-chars from fast pyrolysis and effects of thermal reaction cycle and purge gas type on bio-char surface functional groups were investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reduction methods....

  13. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...

  14. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  15. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Miller

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature.In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy.Eight (73% patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD: 18.1 (2.8 versus 8.4 (4.8; p = .001. Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01, while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05.Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875.

  16. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Luparia, A.; Marchette, F.; Peroni, C.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  17. Preliminary study of Conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the preliminary efficacy of conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration(wAMD.METHODS:Seventeen wAMD patients(18 eyeswere selected to receive conbercept injection. All patients were given a single conbercept injection every month, 3 times. Before and after 1, 2, 3mo of the injection, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, intraocular pressure(IOP, measured by Non-contact tonometer, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, indocyanine green angiography(ICG, optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination and the complications incidence were compared.RESULTS:Three months after conbercept injection, the BCVA improved in 15 eyes(83%, stable in 3 eyes(17%. Before treatment, the average central macular thickness was 421.72±54.43μm, at 1 and 2 and 3mo after treatment, the average central macular thickness was 337.89±25.88μm, 293.56±26.87μm, 266.89±19.10μm respectively. There were significant differences compared with before and after injection(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal injection conbercept for wAMD can significantly improve the visual function, reduce the macular edema and the leakage with higher safety and less complications. However the prolonged efficacy needs further observation.

  18. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar

    2010-01-01

    -treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 degrees C-150 degrees C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect...

  19. Nonablative minimally invasive thermal therapies in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ancona, F.C.H. d'

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As all new treatment modalities nonablative thermal therapy for minimal invasive treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia should be critically analyzed. This review discusses the literature to identify the merits of these so-called minimally invasive treatments and the place they

  20. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its application for polymer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarani, Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet is a suitable source for polymer treatment. The main characteristic of this plasma jet is the remote operation and its scalable dimension, thus, allowing local treatment of 3D surfaces. In this work an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet has been constructed and the application of the plasma jet for polymer treatment is investigated.

  1. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  2. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  3. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  4. A Preliminary Study in Applying the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model in Consultation to Increase Treatment Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Candace J.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the use of the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model (Decision Model; Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, & Lane, 2007) to improve teacher treatment integrity for a function-based classroom management plan. The participants were a special education teacher and three elementary-age students receiving special…

  5. The Effect of Repeated Ketamine Infusion Over Facial Emotion Recognition in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Paulo R; Albott, C Sophia; Johns, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Wels, Joseph; Lim, Kelvin O

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to improvement in emotion recognition bias by traditional antidepressants, the authors report preliminary findings that changes in facial emotion recognition are not associated with response of depressive symptoms after repeated ketamine infusions or relapse during follow-up in treatment-resistant depression.

  6. Thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge at Hengelo Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Mathijs; Ringoot, Davy; Hendriks, Alexander; Roeleveld, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is a sludge treatment technique which affects anaerobic biodegradability, viscosity and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS). In 2011 a THP-pilot plant was operated, connected to laboratory-scale digesters, at the water board Regge en Dinkel and in cooperation with Cambi A.S. and MWH Global. Thermal hydrolysis of WAS resulted in a 62% greater volatile solids (VS) reduction compared to non-hydrolysed sludge. Furthermore, the pilot digesters could be operated at a 2.3 times higher solids loading rate compared to conventional sludge digesters. By application of thermal sludge hydrolysis, the overall efficiency of the sludge treatment process can be improved.

  7. Thermal Stability of Retained Austenite in TRIP Steel After Different Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen; LI Lin; Bruno C De Cooman; Patrick Wollants; YANG Chun-xia

    2008-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of retained austenite in TRIP steel was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The decomposition curve was abnormal, and the decomposition temperature and the activation energy were measured by the Kissinger method, which were all higher than those in quenched steel. The thermal decomposition data of samples soaked in liquid nitrogen after TRIP treatment were all similar to those without additional low temperature treatment. It indicated that there is a high thermal stability in retained austenite of the TRIP steel at low temperature, which was also proved by XRD analysis.

  8. Novel approaches to treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastases using thermal ablation and thermosensitive liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Mark W; Landon, Chelsea D; Hofmann, Christina L; Stauffer, Paul R

    2013-07-01

    Because of the limitations of surgical resection, thermal ablation is commonly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Current methods of ablation can result in marginal recurrences of larger lesions and in tumors located near large vessels. This review presents a novel approach for extending treatment out to the margins where temperatures do not provide complete treatment with ablation alone, by combining thermal ablation with drug-loaded thermosensitive liposomes. A history of the development of thermosensitive liposomes is presented. Clinical trials have shown that the combination of radiofrequency ablation and doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes is a promising treatment.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Vacuum Heat Treatment Thermal Hysteresis Time of GH4169 Superalloy Workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGMing-wei; ZHANGLi-wen; JIANGGuo-dong; ZHANGFan-yun; LiChen-hui; ZHANGLi-sheng; ZHANGZun-li

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element model of vacuum heat treatment process was developed. In this model, influence of many factors, such as nonlinear heat radiation, temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of material are considered. The temperature field of GH4169 alloy workpiece during vacuum heat treatment process was calculated using finite element software MSC.Marc, and the thermal hysteresis time of the workpiece was predicted. An experiment of vacuum heat treatment of GH4169 superalloy workpiece was carried out to verify the calculation. The experimental results of temperature profile agree well with the simulated results. This work lays a theoretical foundation for optimizing technical parameter of vacuum heat treatment process.

  10. Intraprostatic injection of alcohol gel for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: preliminary clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Benjamin T; Netto, Nelson; Huidobro, Christian; de Lima, Marcelo Lopez; Matheus, Wagner; Acevedo, Cristian; Larson, Thayne R

    2006-09-06

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases ailing older men. Office-based procedures offer the advantage of being more effective than medications, while limiting the adverse effects, cost, and recovery of surgery. This study presents preliminary data on a new procedure that utilizes intraprostatic alcohol gel injection to ablate prostatic tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using this gel as a treatment for BPH. A total of 65 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH were treated with intraprostatic injections of alcohol gel. The gel is composed of 97% denatured alcohol and a patented polymer to cause viscosity. Three different methods of injection were utilized: transrectal (TR) injections (8), transurethral (TU) injections (36), and transperineal (TP) injections guided by biplaned ultrasound (21). Each method provided easy access to the center of the prostate, where a volume of gel, approximately 20-30% of the prostatic volume, was injected. Follow-up was based on changes in peak urinary flow (Qmax), IPSS scores, quality of life scores (QoL), adverse effects, and failures. Data are available at 3 and 12 months. The procedure was well tolerated with only local or no anesthesia in the TR and TP groups; the TU group received spinal anesthesia. All groups showed statistically significant (p gel injected was 8.05 ml, representing 21.56% of the prostatic volume. Qmax increased from a baseline mean of 8.50 to 12.01 ml/s at 3 months, and to 11.29 ml/s at 12 months. IPSS scores improved from a baseline mean of 21.12 to 10.00 at 3 months, and to 11.84 at 12 months. QoL scores were only available for 55 patients. QoL scores improved from a baseline of 3.93 to 1.98 at 3 months, and to 2.18 at 12 months. No extraprostatic injury or adverse effects were reported due to treatment. This preliminary study presents significant results showing that intraprostatic injection of alcohol gel could be an

  11. Photodynamic therapy with green light for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecka, B J; Jurczyszyn, K; Nockowski, P; Murawski, M; Ziółkowski, P

    2017-03-01

    The standard treatment for lichen sclerosus (LS) is symptomatic and is primarily based on the chronic use of corticosteroids, sometimes resulting in unsatisfactory effects. Therefore, other non-pharmacological methods are being sought, which are less aggravating for the patient. LS can be treated topically by using photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Unfortunately, therapy with the red light is often connected with severe local pain during the illumination. Green light can also be characterised by its ability to turn on photodynamic reactions in cells. The aim of this study was an evaluation into the efficacy and tolerance of 5-ALA-PDT with a green light (540nm±15nm) in 11 patients with chronic LS that were characterised by severe itching. The disease lasted from 1.5 to 4 years. All the patients were treated with three sessions of PDT. Following treatment with PDT, a significant improvement of local status, as well as a reduction of the main symptom (pruritus), were observed. No patient complained of severe pain during the sessions that would have required an interruption of irradiation or local application of analgesics. Our preliminary results of using green light in PDT for superficial skin non-oncological lesions are very promising but require further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT) for Complex Anal Fistula: A Preliminary Evaluation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui-Hong; Liu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhen; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Li, A-Jian; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Liang; Lin, Mou-Bin

    2017-04-30

    BACKGROUND Although many attempts have been made to advance the treatment of complex anal fistula, it continues to be a difficult surgical problem. This study aimed to describe the novel technique of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) and our preliminary experiences using VAAFT with patients with complex anal fistula. MATERIAL AND METHODS From May 2015 to May 2016, 52 patients with complex anal fistula were treated with VAAFT at Yangpu Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, and the clinical data of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS VAAFT was performed successfully in all 52 patients. The median operation time was 55 minutes. Internal openings were identified in all cases. 50 cases were closed with sutures, and 2 were closed with staplers. Complications included perianal sepsis in 3 cases and bleeding in another 3 cases. Complete healing without recurrence was achieved in 44 patients (84.6%) after 9 months of follow-up. No fecal incontinence was observed. Furthermore, a significant improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score was observed from preoperative baseline (mean, 85.5) to 3-month follow-up (mean, 105.4; panal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.

  13. [Preliminary efficacy of video-assisted anal fistula treatment for complex anal fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailong; Xiao, Yihua; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhihui; Peng, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Li, Ajian; Zhou, Lulu; Yin, Lu; Lin, Moubin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the preliminary efficacy of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) for complex anal fistula. Clinical data of 11 consecutive patients with complex anal fistula undergoing VAAFT in our department from May to July 2015 were reviewed. VAAFT was performed to manage the fistula under endoscope without cutting or resection. VAAFT was successfully performed in all the 11 patients. The internal ostium was closed using mattress suture in 10 cases, and Endo-GIA stapler in 1 case. The mean operative time was (42.0±12.4) min, mean hospital stay was (4.1±1.5) d. Complication included bleeding and perianal infection in 1 case respectively. After 1 to 3.2 months follow-up, success rate was 72.7%(8/11), and no fecal incontinence was observed. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is an effective, safe and minimally invasive surgical procedure for complex anal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.

  14. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  15. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities.

  16. Preliminary experimental results using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility (VISTA) for the pilot plant of the system integrated modular advanced reactor, SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Pak, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Pak, Choon Kyung; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Moon Ki [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility, VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents), which has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P. The VISTA facility is an integral test facility including the primary and secondary systems as well as safety-related Passive Residual heat removal (PRHR) systems. Its scaled ratio with respect to the SMART-P is 1/1 in height and 1/96 in volume and heater power. So far, several steady states and transient tests have been carried out to verify the overall thermal hydraulic primary and secondary characteristics in a range of 10% to 100% power operation. As results of preliminary results, the steady state conditions were found to coincide with the expected design values of the SMART-P. But the major thermal hydraulic parameters are greatly affected by the initial water level and the nitrogen pressure in the reactor upper annular cavity. In the PRHR transient tests, the steam inlet temperature of the PRHR system is found to drop suddenly from a superheated condition to a saturated condition at the end period of PRHR operation.

  17. Behavior of Fe-ODS Alloys After Thermal Aging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Garcia, Marta; Hernández-Mayoral, Mercedes; Esparraguera, Elvira Oñorbe

    2016-06-01

    Oxide dispersion alloys are one of the candidates as cladding materials for Gen IV fast reactors, due to their high strength at high temperature, good creep properties, and swelling resistance. This good performance is mainly due to a fine dispersion of nano-oxide particles on the microstructure and to non-grained structure. The microstructural stability and the mechanical properties of a Fe-ODS alloy are studied after different thermal aging experiments at 973 K (700 °C), 5000 hours; 973 K (700 °C), 10,000 hours; and 1123 K (850 °C), 10,000 hours. SEM/EBSD and TEM together with tensile and impact tests on the as-received and thermally aged material have been carried out. In general, for all the tested conditions, a slight softening effect is observed attributed to the changes in the grain structure as well as to the changes in the amount and size of nano-oxide particles. In addition, the aged material shows a lower impact USE value while the DBTT is maintained.

  18. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  19. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fioretti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been investigated. The purpose of this application is to obtain a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block by lowering the radiative heat exchange in the enclosures. The aims of this paper are to indicate a methodology for evaluating the thermal performance of the brick and to provide information about the benefits that should be obtained. Theoretical evaluations are carried out on several bricks (12 geometries simulated with two different thermal conductivities of the clay, using a finite elements model. The heat exchange procedure is implemented in accordance with the standard, so as to obtain standardized values of the thermal characteristics of the block. Several values of emissivity are hypothesized, related to different kinds of coating. Finally, the values of the thermal transmittance of walls built with the evaluated blocks have been calculated and compared. The results show how coating the internal surface of the cavity provides a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block, of between 26% and 45%, for a surface emissivity of 0.1.

  20. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  2. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge.

  3. Effects of thermal treatment on colour and texture of Typha latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhou, Yun-hua; Wang, Shaojin; Tang, Juming

    2012-04-01

    Through the analysis of the residual activity of peroxidase (POD), chromatic aberration, shear intensity and shear power, the effects of different thermal treatment times at 100°C on the POD, surface colour and texture of Typha latifolia L. were evaluated. The results showed that the activity of POD decreased with the increasing thermal treatment time at 100°C. The regeneration amount of POD increased first for some time and then started to decrease with the treatment time. Thermal treatment times 1.0 and 1.5 min at 100°C exhibited maximum regeneration of POD for the samples stored at 20 and 37°C, respectively. The sample had acceptable texture and surface colour when they were treated at 100°C for 4 min because the POD in the sample was inactivated to an acceptable level.

  4. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  5. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  6. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  7. Blastocyst transfer for patients with multiple assisted reproduction treatment failures: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, D; Percival, G; D'Arcy, Y; Lenton, W; Sharif, K; Afnan, M

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study reports the results obtained from a patient group in which blastocyst culture and transfer were performed, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing blastocyst transfer in a clinic. Twenty-six patients who had failed to achieve a pregnancy in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments were offered the choice of a fresh cycle with culture to the blastocyst stage. Of the 26 patients who elected to attempt blastocyst culture, 11 opted to have transfer on day 2 or day 3 due to low numbers of embryos. Of the 15 patients who proceeded to blastocyst culture, 46.2% of the embryos cultured reached the blastocyst stage or later and eight of the patients achieved a clinical pregnancy. More oocytes were collected in this patient group, hence the chances of obtaining blastocysts were higher. Offering blastocyst culture to patients with a reasonable chance of success who have had previous multiple assisted reproduction failures is an acceptable way of introducing blastocyst culture into practice.

  8. The use Prometheus FPSA system in the treatment of acute liver failure: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarek, A; Grodzicki, M; Nyckowski, P; Kotulski, M; Zieniewicz, K; Michalowicz, B; Patkowski, W; Grzelak, I; Paczkowska, A; Giercuszkiewicz, D; Sańko-Resmer, J; Paczek, L; Krawczyk, M

    2006-01-01

    The preliminary outcomes of patients with acute liver failure treated with the Prometheus Fractionated Plasma Separation and Absorption (FPSA) system are presented herein. The procedures were performed in 13 patients (4, intoxication by Amanita phalloides; 4, unknown reason; 3, acetaminophen intoxication; 1, Wilson disease, and 1, liver insufficiency after hemihepatectomy owing to metastases of colon adenocarcinoma). The patients were qualified for the procedure according to the King's College Hospital criteria. The patients' general status was assessed on basic of GCS, UNOS, and the 4-grade encephalopathy classifications. The procedures were performed with the Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care unit. The 29 procedures were of mean duration 6.5 hours. There were statistically significant reductions in total bilirubin, ammonia, and aminotransferase levels. In addition, the procedures corrected water, mineral, and carbohydrate disorders. One patient did not require liver transplantation. Seven patients received liver transplants: three patients with positive outcomes; two died due to septicemia within 30 days perioperatively, one died at 6 months after OLT owing to respiratory failure; and one, owing to hemorrhagic diathesis. Four patients did not receive a liver transplant because of lack of a organ, no consent for the surgery, or neoplastic disease with metastases. The Prometheus FPSA-System was an effective detoxication method for patients with acute liver failure. The system was useful as a symptomatic treatment before liver transplantation allowing a longer wait for a graft.

  9. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Hygroscopicity and Dimensional Stability of Oak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga JUODEIKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal treatment on moisture exchange between wood and natural environment with variable air parameters as well as on dimensional stability of wood samples was investigated. The experiments were carried out with oak wood samples indoors and outside. The thickness of samples was 30 mm, width was 30 mm and length was 20 mm; conventional density varied from 500 kg/m3 to 580 kg/m3. Initially, the wood was air-dried down to 7 % – 9 % of moisture content. In order to decrease possibility of the both moisture absorption and evaporation during wood application thermal treatment must be applied. Due to that the samples were heated at temperature of 60, 80, 100 and 120 ºC for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The moisture content of wood and its variations after thermal treatment depends on the both heating temperature and duration. The higher temperature and the longer heating duration, the lower wood hygroscopicity can be achieved. The effect of thermal treatment on the moisture content and its changes were observed for wood samples stored indoor and outside. In dependence of thermal treatment conditions moisture content in wood samples independently on storing conditions (indoor or outside can decrease down to 30 % compare to the untreated ones. The change of moisture content during various seasons after 24 hours of storing indoor decreases down to 60 %, while outside that is only 39 %. Dimensional stability of wood samples also depends on the both thermal treatment temperature and duration. The higher treatment temperature and the longer duration, the higher dimensional stability can be obtained. The heat treatment of oak wood samples at selected regimes allows to decrease values of shrinkage and swelling coefficients down to 40 %.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3825

  10. ECONOMY OF MATERIAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers ecologically harmless heat treatment method  for pieces made of black metals. It can override import methods.  The water polymer solutions are used like cooling fluid. The traditional heat treatment methods (like cooling in water or oil and new method are compared in the article. The criterions of cooling can be established by changing solution concentration for different steels. Using the method of electronic scanning microscopy  we have studied structure and micro composition of films formed on a heat treated surface.

  11. Estimation of the Processing Parameters in Electron Beam Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Mircea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam have many special properties which make them particularly well suited for use in materials handling through melting, welding, surface treatment, etc., taking into account that this manufacturing is performed in vacuum. The use of electron beam for surface limited heat treatment of workpiece has brought about a noticeable extension of the beam technologies. Some theoretical aspects and simulation results are presented in this paper, considering a high power electron beam processing system and Matlab facilities. This paper can be used in power engineering and electro-technologies fields as a guideline, in order to simulate and analyse the process parameters.

  12. BDNF variability in opioid addicts and response to methadone treatment: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cid, R; Fonseca, F; Gratacòs, M; Gutierrez, F; Martín-Santos, R; Estivill, X; Torrens, M

    2008-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways have been shown to be essential for opioid-induced plasticity. We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate BDNF variability in opioid addict responders and nonresponders to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We analyzed 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the BDNF genomic region. Responders and nonresponders were classified by means of illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. Patients were assessed by a structured interview (Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM)-DSM-IV) and personality was evaluated by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. No clinical, environmental and treatment characteristics were different between the groups, except for the Cooperativeness dimension (P < 0.001). Haplotype block analysis showed a low-frequency (2.7%) haplotype (13 SNPs) in block 1, which was more frequent in the nonresponder group than in the responder group (4/42 vs. 1/135; P(corrected) = 0.023). Fine mapping in block 1 allows us to identify a haplotype subset formed by only six SNPs (rs7127507, rs1967554, rs11030118, rs988748, rs2030324 and rs11030119) associated with differential response to MMT (global P sim = 0.011). Carriers of the CCGCCG haplotype had an increased risk of poorer response, even after adjusting for Cooperativeness score (OR = 20.25 95% CI 1.46-280.50, P = 0.025). These preliminary results might suggest the involvement of BDNF as a factor to be taken into account in the response to MMT independently of personality traits, environmental cues, methadone dosage and psychiatric comorbidity.

  13. Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity with topical ketorolac tromethamine: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafferata Maria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP is a common retinal neovascular disorder of premature infants. It is of variable severity, usually heals with mild or no sequelae, but may progress to blindness from retinal detachments or severe retinal scar formation. This is a preliminary report of the effectiveness and safety of a new and original use of topical ketorolac in preterm newborn to prevent the progression of ROP to the more severe forms of this disease. Methods From January 2001 to December 2002, all fifty nine preterm newborns with birthweight less than 1250 grams or gestational age less than 30 weeks of gestational age admitted to neonatal intensive care were eligible for treatment with topical ketorolac (0.25 milligrams every 8 hours in each eye. The historical comparison group included all 53 preterm newborns, with the same inclusion criteria, admitted between January 1999 and December 2000. Results Groups were comparable in terms of weight distribution, Apgar score at 5 minutes, incidence of sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. The duration of oxygen therapy was significantly longer in the control group. In the ketorolac group, among 43 children that were alive at discharge, one (2.3% developed threshold ROP and cryotherapy was necessary. In the comparison group 35 children survived, and six child (17% needed cryotherapy (Relative Risk 0.14, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80, p = 0.041. Adjusting by duration of oxygen therapy did not significantly change these results. Adverse effects attributable to ketorolac were not detected. Conclusions This preliminary report suggests that ketorolac in the form of an ophthalmic solution can reduce the risk of developing severe ROP in very preterm newborns, without producing significant adverse side effects. These results, although promising, should be interpreted with caution because of the weakness of the study design. This is an inexpensive and simple intervention that

  14. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Chahal, M S; Bowen, J W

    2002-11-07

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  15. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  16. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  17. Nanoparticles in treatment of thermal injured rats: Is it safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, P S; Ferreira, I R [Biochemistry Department, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Marcato, P D; Paula, L B de; Duran, N; Alves, O L [Chemistry Institute, UNICAMP, SP (Brazil); Huber, S C [VERIS, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Almeida, A B A [SOBRAPAR, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Torsoni, S [FCA, UNICAMP, SP (Brazil); Seabra, A B, E-mail: pmelo@unicamp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    The aim of this study was to assess whether thermal trauma induced oxidative stress altered the balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems in the blood of burn wound rats in the absence and presence of silver nanoparticles and S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO. Free silver nanoparticles, free GSNO and silver nanoparticles + GSNO had no cytotoxic effects. Under anesthesia, the shaved dorsum of the rats was exposed to 90{sup 0}C (burn group) water bath. Studied compounds were administered topically immediately and at 28 days after the burn injury, four times a day. Silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles + GSNO were no toxic in vitro and in vivo. There were no significant differences in the levels of urea, creatinine, aminotransferases and hematological parameters, in control-burn groups (free silver nanoparticles) and treated-burn groups (free GSNO or silver nanoparticles + GSNO). There were no differences in lipid peroxidation and in the levels of protein carbonyls and glutathione, used as oxidative stress markers. A little inflammatory cell response, papillary dermis vascularization, fibroblasts differentiated into contractile myofibroblasts and the presence of a large amount of extracellular matrix were evidenced in treated groups following skin injury. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles and GSNO may provide an effective action on wound healing.

  18. Laser treatment for liver metastases : thermal and photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    van Hillegersberg, Richard

    1993-01-01

    textabstractMedical laser applications are one of the points of interest of the Department of Surgery of the Erasmus University Rotterda._"Il. In 1988. experiments were conducted at the Laboratory for Experimental Surgery to investigate the use of laser in destroying liver metastases. These studies led to the research program "Laser treatment of experimental liver metastases", that was supported by the Netherlands Digestive Disease Foundation from beginning 1990 to the middle of 1992. Within ...

  19. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Aryanti, N., E-mail: nita.aryanti@gmail.com; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H. [Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto Street, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024)7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  2. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  3. Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačík, František; Veľková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Kačíková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

    2012-08-21

    Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects.

  4. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  5. Dual mode microwave tool for dielectric analysis and thermal ablation treatment of organic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Margarita; Bashir, Fahed; Schüssler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A dual mode tool design to analyze organic tissue and locally perform thermal ablation treatment is presented. The tool is made of an array of split-ring resonators. It can operate on a sensing mode to track the relative dielectric changes from the organic tissue and on a treatment mode to perform thermal ablation at different input powers. The measurements were done with phantoms of human tissue. The tool is able to focus a hot spot of approximately 0.2mm with a temperature of 109 °C at an input power of 10W.

  6. Numerical simulation of thermal disposition with induction heating used for oncological hyperthermic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dughiero, F; Corazza, S

    2005-01-01

    Hyperthermia plays an important role in oncological therapies, most often being used in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The success of this therapy is strongly dependent on the precision and control of thermal deposition. Hyperthermia based on induction heating, with thermally self-regulating thermoseeds inserted into the tumorous mass, is used for interstitial treatment. The technique was the subject of the numerical study presented in the paper. The analysis was carried out using coupled electromagnetic heating and thermo-fluid dynamic FEM simulations. During thermal deposition by induction heating of inserted seeds, the simulations estimated the thermal field inside and outside the tumour, as well as the sensitivity of the thermal field to variations regarding seed temperature, configuration and proximity to vessels. The method, for which accurate anatomical patient's information is essential, is suitable for providing useful qualitative and quantitative information about thermal transients and power density distribution for hyperthermic treatment. Several grid steps were analysed and compared. A 1 cm seed grid was resulted in good homogeneity and effectiveness of the thermal deposition. The cold spot effect caused by large vessels was demonstrated and quantified. Simulations of the heating of a tumorous mass in the liver showed that an indcutor generator operating at 200 kHz frequency and 500 A current, producing a pulsating magnetic field of H = 60 A cm(-1), was adequate for the treatment. The seeds that perform best among those tested (Nicu (28% Cu), PdNi (27.2% Ni), PdCo (6.15% Co) and ferrite core) were the PdNi (1 mm radius, 10 mm length), as they have a low Curie temperature (52 degrees C), which is the closest to the desired treatment temperature and thus reduces the risk of hot spots.

  7. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal...

  8. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  9. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  10. Local thermal property analysis by scanning thermal microscopy of an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.A. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China) and Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: guofuan@yahoo.com; JI, Y.L. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Trannoy, N. [Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Lu, J. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) was used to map thermal conductivity images in an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). It is found that the deformed surface layer shows different thermal conductivities that strongly depend on the grain size of the microstructure: the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured surface layer decreases obviously when compared with that of the coarse-grained matrix of the sample. The role of the grain boundaries in thermal conduction is analyzed in correlation with the heat conduction mechanism in pure metal. A theoretical approach, based on this investigation, was used to calculate the heat flow from the probe tip to the sample and then estimate the thermal conductivities at different scanning positions. Experimental results and theoretical calculation demonstrate that SThM can be used as a tool for the thermal property and microstructural analysis of ultrafine-grained microstructures.

  11. Thermal treatment of dusts from non ferrous metallurgical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menad, Noureddine

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of dusts generated by the non ferrous metallurgical industries are treated between 200 and 800 °C in controlled oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals from these wastes. The treatments of these solids under oxidizing conditions at 700 °C are well adapted for two samples. The totality of valuable elements are concentrated in the treatments' residues. The use of hydrogen at 600 °C, permits the removal of up to 100 % of valuable metals contained in the treated industrial wastes. The recovery rate of valuable metals (Pb, Zn, Cu as well as the Global Decontamination Factor are reported.

    Se han tratado tres muestras procedentes de la industria metalúrgica no férrea entre 200 y 800 °C, en atmósferas oxidantes o reductoras controladas. El objetivo de este estudio es recuperar cuanto sea posible de los elementos valiosos de estos residuos. Los tratamientos bajo condiciones oxidantes a 700 °C han dado buenos resultados en dos muestras, en donde la totalidad de los elementos valiosos se concentraba en los residuos de tratamiento. El uso del hidrógeno a 600 °C permite la separación de hasta el 100 % de los metales valiosos contenidos en los residuos industriales tratados. Finalmente, se detallan las tasas de recuperación de los metales plomo, zinc y cobre así como el factor de descontaminación global (GDF.

  12. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  13. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  14. Preliminary effect of proximal femoral nail antirotation on emergency treatment of senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin; LIU Lei; YANG Tian-fu; TU Chong-qi; WANG Guang-lin; FANG Yue; DUAN Hong; ZHANG Hui; PEI Fu-xing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyse the clinical outcome of emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fractures with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA).Methods: From September 2008 to March 2009, 35 senile patients with intertrochanteric fracture, aged from 65 to 92 years with an average age of 76.5 years, were treated with PFNA within 24 hours after injury. There were 10 type Ⅰ fractures, 19 type Ⅱ and 6 type Ⅲ according to upgraded Evans-Jensen classification system. All patients were complicated with osteoporosis, and 19 patients had preexisting internal medical diseases. According to the rating scale of disease severity by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), there were 9 grade Ⅰ, 14 grade Ⅱ, 8 grade Ⅲ, and 4 grade Ⅳ.Results: The duration for operation ranged from 45 to 73 minutes with an average of 57.6 minutes. The volume of blood loss during operation ranged from 50 to 120 ml with an average of 77.5 ml. Patients could ambulate 2-4 days after operation (mean 3.5 days). Hospital stay was 4-7 days (mean 5.3 days). Full weight bearing time was 10-14 weeks (mean 12.8 weeks). During hospitalization period, there was no regional or deep infection, hypostatic pneumonia, urinary tract infection and bedsore except for 2 cases of urine retention. All cases were followed up with an average period of 12.3 months, and bone healing achieved within 15-18 weeks (mean 16.6 weeks). No complications such as delayed union, coxa vara or coxa valga, screw breakage or backout occurred and only 2 cases had trochanter bursitis because of thin body and overlong end of the antirotated nail. According to the Harris grading scale, the results were defined as excellent in 21 cases, good in 9 cases and fair in 5 cases, with the excellent and good rates of 85.7%.Conclusion: The emergency treatment of senile intertrochanteric fracture with proximal femoral nail antirotation has the advantages of minimal invasion, easy manipulation,less blood loss

  15. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Charles Ruocco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT. While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, twenty-nine actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after seven months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after seven months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.

  16. Comparison of cryotherapy and thermal therapy for breast cancer treatment simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2001-05-01

    Breast cancer presents an ongoing challenge in regard to treatment efficacy and successful clinical outcomes. There has been a challenge to increase the survival rate over the past 50 years and only recently have clinical outcomes improved, although slightly. Thermal treatment regimes have been evolving and most recently, have been applied in situ. A standalone treatment for malignancies is challenging due to the rigor in achieving homogeneity in the distribution of therapeutic temperatures in the tumor and the lack of therapy in the adjacent normal tissue. Although initial work used lasers, contemporary work utilizes radiofrequency (RF) or cryotherapy as a treatment modality. Both monopolar and bipolar RF devices were modeled for the RF treatments in the breast. Using finite element techniques, these two modalities were simulated in breast tissue and the results of the bioheat equation compared for similar sized devices. The model incorporated changing electrical and thermal properties of tissue with temperature, as well as blood flow changes. For thermal treatment, the isotherm of +55 degree(s)C was considered the margin of coagulation necrosis, while for cryotreatment, the -40 degree(s)C isotherm was used. The comparison aids in the selection of the best method to improve clinical outcomes, while paying attention to the size of the applicator and time length of treatment.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  18. Effect of melt pulse electric current and thermal treatment on A356 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树先; 王俊; 江莞; 孙宝德; 周尧和

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the melt pulse electric current and thermal treatment on solidification structures of A356 alloywere investigated. In the experiments, the low temperature melt(953 K and 903 K) treated by pulse electric currentwas mixed with high temperature melt(1 223 K). By the control experiments, the results show that the solidificationstructure of A356 alloy is refined apparently by the pulse electric current togeth er with melt thermal treatmentprocess, and the mechanical properties, especially the elongation ratio of the specimen treated is improved greatly.The structure change of the melt by pulse electric current and melt thermal treatment is the main reason for the re-finement of the solidification structure of A356 alloy.

  19. Effect of low-temperature plasma treatment on tailorability and thermal properties of wool fabrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Goud; J S Udakhe

    2011-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge type of plasma reactor was used for the low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of the wool fabrics. Air was used as the non-polymerizing gas for the plasma treatment at different time intervals. Low-stress mechanical properties of the treated and untreated wool fabrics were evaluated using Siro-fast technique which revealed that the tensile, bending, compression, shear, dimensional stability and surface properties were altered after the LTP treatment. Other properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal resistance and pilling propensity were also evaluated. The surface topographical changes of the wool fibres after LTP treatment were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in these properties are supposed to be related closely to the interfibre and interyarn frictional force and increased surface area of the fibres induced by the etching effect of plasma.

  20. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  1. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Thermal Expansion Properties of Cordierite Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jiahai; GUO Lucun

    2006-01-01

    Cordierite honeycomb ceramics was treated with 1.5 M HNO3, followed with 1.5 M NaOH at 93 ℃. The combination of acid treatment with alkali treatment significantly diminished the rebounding of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)caused by heat treatment, a phenomenon observed in samples treated solely with acid. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis results reveal that the alkali treatment preferentially dissolved "free" SiO2 left in the acid-treated samples, which is considered to be a key factor responsible for the CTE rebounding.

  2. Comparison of microwaves and conventional thermal treatment on enzymes activity and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit puree

    OpenAIRE

    Benlloch Tinoco, María; Igual Ramo, Marta; Rodrigo Aliaga, María Dolores; Martínez Navarrete, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes are naturally present in food and can cause product deterioration. For this reason,most food-processing steps try to reduce the enzymatic activity. The aimof thisworkwas to compare, in terms of both the inactivation of kiwifruit puree peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and pectinmethylesterase and also themaintenance of the antioxidant capacity of the product, the effect of a microwave treatment with a conventional thermal treatment designed to cause the same level of peroxidas...

  3. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did...

  4. Effect of Thermal and Ultrasound Treatments on Vegetal Biomass from Hard Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie toth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper points out the combined effect of thermal and ultrasound treatments on vegetal biomass from hard seed germination. Exposing hard seeds to temperatures of -30°C for 72 h and then treating them with ultrasounds increased the amount of biomass of the germs with 75.4% compared to the control variant (not treated.

  5. Effect of thermal ammoniation and heat treatment of high-tannin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to (i) determine the effect of heat treatment and thermal ammoniation on dry-matter digestibility ... these stresses are severe. However, the ..... gains with chickens fed an untreated low-tannin sorghum diet and a ...

  6. Cooling Rate Study of Nickel-Rich Material During Thermal Treatment and Quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fransua; Murguia, Silvia Briseno (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    To investigate quench cracking that results from water quenching after heat treatment of binary and Ni-rich material, cooling rates of specimens were measured during quenching and hardness post-thermal treatment. For specific applications binary Ni-Ti is customarily thermally treated and quenched to attain desired mechanical properties and hardness. However, one problem emerging from this method is thermal cracking, either during the heat treatment process or during the specimen's application. This can result in material and equipment failure as well as financial losses. The objective of the study is to investigate the internal cooling rate of 60-NiTi during quenching and determine possible factors causing thermal cracking. Cubic (1 in.3) samples of both material were heat treated in air at 1000 deg C for 2 hrs and quenched in room temperature water using two methods: (1) dropped in the water and (2) agitated in the water. Hardness of the two fore-mentioned methods was measured post heat treatment. Results indicate that the quenching method had an effect on cooling rate during quenching but hardness was observed to be essentially the same through the thickness of the samples.

  7. A cell for the controllable thermal treatment and electrochemical characterisation of single crystal alloy electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondarenko, Alexander S.; Stephens, Ifan E.L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    A new electrochemical cell is described which provides the opportunity to perform electrochemical experiments and apply a controllable thermal treatment without exposing the sample to the laboratory atmosphere. We report typical model experiments with Pt(111) single crystal electrodes which can...

  8. Study of Dosimetric and Thermal Properties of a Newly Developed Thermo-brachytherapy Seed for Treatment of Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bhoj R.

    Studies on the curative effects of hyperthermia and radiation therapy on treatment of cancer show strong evidence of synergistic enhancement when both radiation and hyperthermia treatment modalities are applied simultaneously. A variety of tissue heating approaches developed to date still fail to overcome essential limitations such as inadequate temperature control, temperature non-uniformity, and prolonged time delay between hyperthermia and radiation treatments. We propose a new self-regulating Thermo-brachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent administration of brachytherapy and hyperthermia. The proposed seed is based on the BestRTM Iodine-125 seed model 2301, where the tungsten marker core and the air gap are replaced with ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic core produces heat when subjected to an alternating electromagnetic (EM) field and effectively shuts off after reaching the Curie temperature (TC) of the ferromagnetic material, thus establishing temperature self-regulation. The seed has a ferromagnetic Ni-Cu alloy core having a Curie transition at a temperature of 52 °C. This study summarizes the design and development of the self regulating ferromagnetic core TB seed for the concurrent hyperthermia and brachytherapy treatments. An experimental study of the magnetic properties of the Ni1-xCu x (0.28≤ x ≤0.3) alloys, and the simulation studies of radiation and thermal distribution properties of the seed have been performed. A preliminary experiment for the ferromagnetic induction heating of Ni-Cu needles has been carried out to ensure the practical feasibility of the induction heating. Radiation dose characterizing parameters (dose rate constant and other TG-43 factors) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. For the thermal characteristics, we studied a model consisting of single or multiple seeds placed in the central region of a cylindrical phantom using a finite-element analysis method

  9. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  10. Second generation antihistamines: assessment of the efficacy of treatment and tolerance of some preparations of this group (preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata A. Czarny-Działak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Second generation antihistamines are key medicines in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Aim of the research: To compare the effectiveness of selected antihistamines and frequency of side effects in the course of their therapy in the patient opinion. Material and methods : The study was conducted on a group of 40 patients taking rupatadine, bilastine, levocetirizine and fexofenadine. The method of diagnostic survey was used, having the character of a preliminary examination in view of the small number of people involved in the study. Results: Among the 40 patients, side effects of the medicines only appeared in 3 respondents, which is 1.2%. Conclusions : The new generation antihistamines in light of our studies appear to be safe and associated with few side effects. Due to the small number of surveyed people we treat these tests as preliminary to further analysis of the effectiveness of selected antihistamines.

  11. Functional and histologic assessment of rat gastric mucosa after chronic treatment with sulphurous thermal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gabriella; Adami, Maristella; Pozzoli, Cristina; Solenghi, Elvira; Grandi, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a chronic (4 weeks) administration of sulphurous thermal water on gastric acid secretion and mucosal defense was investigated in rats. Animals were randomized to receive daily intake of tap water or of thermal water obtained from a local spa center (Tabiano, Parma, Italy). Rats were followed for one month as for water and food consumption, body weight and general conditions. At the end of the watering period, the following study protocols were carried out: (a) study of basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion under general anesthesia, and (b) study of the gastric mucosal resistance against the damage induced by ethanol and indomethacin in conscious rats. Basal acid secretion and the acid response to pentagastrin or to histamine were similar in rats assuming ordinary drinking water or thermal water. As for resistance to gastric damage, histological, but not macroscopic, evaluation revealed that rats which assumed thermal water were slightly more resistant to the gastrolesive effect of ethanol (either absolute or diluted). Again, when indomethacin was used as a noxious stimulus, no difference was noted between the two groups as for macroscopic damage; only a nonsignificant reduction of damage was observed histologically in stomachs of rats assuming thermal water. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic treatment of rats with thermal water, rich in sulphur compounds, may have only minimal effects on the rat gastric mucosa and did not significantly affect mucosal defense mechanisms. The observed tendency to gastroprotection would possibly need further investigation with longer periods of administration. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PLYWOOD PRODUCED WITH PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke VENEERS MODIFIED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Medeiros Arruda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this preliminary research was to study the effects of thermo-mechanical modification in veneers of Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke to improve plywood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties. The amount of 24 veneers was used with the dimensions 25 x 25 cm, that were compressed under different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes at 150°C and pressure at 1 N.mm-2, constituting three treatments and one untreated. Plywood were bonded with resorcinol-formaldehyde, glue consumption of 360 g.m-2 at ambient temperature and pressure of 1 N.mm-2 for 10 hours. The samples were evaluated by colorimetric analysis and physical and mechanical properties. Colorimetric analysis showed that there was a darkening of the wood toward the increase of treatment time. The treatment was not efficient in reducing swelling, only reducing absorption of water. The mechanical properties were not significantly affected by the treatment.

  13. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence; Oswald, Donald; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint,…

  14. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  15. Structural changes in quantum dots core-shell CdSe/ZnS by thermal treatment and proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, L.G.; Sortica, M.A.; Grande, P.L.; Debastiani, R.; Dias, J.F.; Hentz, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IF/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Radtke, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Compound quantum-dots (QDs) are promising materials used in many fields of technological development. In spite of that, the accurate knowledge of their compositional depth-profiling is still a technological challenge. Recently, we used the MEIS (medium energy ion-scattering) technique, combined with PIXE and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) to characterize core-shell nanostructures of CdSe/ZnS [1]. In this work, we use the same characterization methods to survey the changes of elemental distribution in the the core and shell regions of these QDs, when submitted to a range of thermal treatments and proton irradiation conditions. Our preliminary results show that for temperatures below the melting point of the bulk CdSe compound, there is already a decrease in the amount of cadmium, accompanied by an overall decrease in the diameter of the CdSe QD nuclei. [1] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, C. Radtke, L. Almeida, R. Debastiani, J. F. Dias, A. Hentz, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (2012)023110. (author)

  16. Analysis of thermal damage in vocal cords for the prevention of collateral laser treatment effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul Vélez, Félix; Luis Arce-Diego, José; del Barrio Fernández, Ángela; Borragán Torre, Alfonso

    2007-05-01

    The importance of vocal cords for the interaction with the world around is obviously known. Vocal cords disorders can be divided mainly into three categories: difficulty of movement of one or both vocal folds, lesion formation on them, and difficulty or lack of mucosal wave movement. In this last case, a laser heating treatment can be useful in order to improve tissue vibration. However, thermal damage should be considered to adjust laser parameters and so to prevent irreversible harmful effects to the patient. in this work, an analysis of thermal damage in vocal folds is proposed. Firstly thermo-optical laser-tissue interaction is studied, by means of a RTT (Radiation Transfer Theory) model solved with a Monte Carlo approach for the optical propagation of radiation, and a bio-heat equation, with a finite difference numerical method based solution, taking into account blood perfusion and boundary effects, for the thermal distribution. The spatial-temporal temperature distributions are obtained for two widely used lasers, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and KTP (532 nm). From these data, an Arrhenius thermal damage analysis allows a prediction of possible laser treatment harmful effects on vocal cords that could cause scar formation or tissue burn. Different source powers and exposition times are considered, in such a way that an approximation of adequate wavelength, power and duration is achieved, in order to implement an efficient and safe laser treatment.

  17. Dual-wavelength photoacoustic technique for monitoring tissue status during thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Wang, Xueding; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) techniques have been exploited for monitoring thermal treatments. However, PA signals depend not only on tissue temperature but also on tissue optical properties which indicate tissue status (e.g., native or coagulated). The changes in temperature and tissue status often occur simultaneously during thermal treatments, so both effects cause changes to PA signals. A new dual-wavelength PA technique to monitor tissue status independent of temperature is performed. By dividing the PA signal intensities obtained at two wavelengths at the same temperature, a ratio, which only depends on tissue optical properties, is obtained. Experiments were performed with two experimental groups, one with untreated tissue samples and the other with high-intensity focused ultrasound treated tissue samples including thermal coagulated lesion, using ex vivo porcine myocardium specimens to test the technique. The ratio of PA signal intensities obtained at 700 and 800 nm was constant for both groups from 25 to 43°C, but with distinct values for the two groups. Tissue alteration during thermal treatment was then studied using water bath heating of tissue samples from 35 to 60°C. We found that the ratio stayed constant before it exhibited a marked increase at around 55°C, indicating tissue changes at this temperature.

  18. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  19. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  20. Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique G. de Cademartori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal treatments on physical and mechanical properties of rose gum and Sydney blue gum wood was evaluated. Wood samples were thermally modified in a combination: pre-treatment in an autoclave (127°C - 1h and treatment in an oven (180-240°C - 4h; and only treatment in an oven at 180-240°C for 4h. Chemical changes in the structure of woods were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of physical properties was performed through mass loss, specific gravity, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability tests. Surface changes were analyzed through apparent contact angle technique and static bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior. Use of pre-treatment in autoclave affected the properties analyzed, however oven, resulted in the highest changes on wood from both species. Chemical changes were related to the degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, a significant decrease of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of thermally modified woods was observed, while specific gravity did not significantly change for either of the species studied. The best results of decrease of wettability were found in low temperatures, while dimensional stability increased as a function of temperature of exposure in oven. The highest loss of mechanical strength was observed at 240°C for both species.

  1. Post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, J.; Babinski, A.; Bozek, R.; Baranowski, J.M.

    2000-11-22

    The effect of post-growth thermal treatment of the InAs/GaAs quantum dots is investigated in this work. The photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of samples annealed at temperatures up to 950 degrees C are presented. A complete dissolution of QDs and substantial broadening of the wetting layer (WL) can be seen from TEM. We propose that the thermally induced modification of the WL rather than QDs can be responsible for a blue-shift and narrowing of PL peaks in structures containing InAs/GaAs QDs.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment in vacuum on Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilovol, V. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mudarra Navarro, A.M.; Rodriguez Torres, C.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F., E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A sample of 10 at% Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} powder was prepared by mechanical alloying and then thermally treated at 773 K in vacuum. The fit of the diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed that the as milled sample was pure doped rutile. Fe dissolved into SnO{sub 2} was found in Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} ionic valence with mainly paramagnetic behavior. After the thermal treatment all techniques indicate the formation of the ternary Sn{sub 0.36}Fe{sub 2.64}O{sub 4} spinel phase, which is responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  3. Automated thermal treatment of metals with a mechanically fluidized vacuum machine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, W.E.

    1997-09-05

    The ERIP project {open_quotes}Automated Thermal Treatment of Metals with a Mechanically Fluidized Vacuum Machine{close_quotes} produced more benefits in unintended areas than in the original intent of the program. The first project was directed to heat treating of solid parts using a retort half filled with fine powder. The treatment of metal powders was not originally envisioned at the time of proposal preparation. This second application, where the powder itself is being treated, has turned out to be multi-billion dollar market in which the Mechanical Fluidized Vacuum machine can create revolutionary changes. Consequently most efforts in recent years have been dedicated to further growth of the powder markets. These efforts procured a second ERIP grant titled {open_quotes}Thermal Heat and Diffusion Treatment of Bulk Powders.{close_quotes}

  4. Method of treating oils derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culbertson, W.J.; Nevens, T.D.; Schnackenberg, W.D.

    1966-08-09

    A method for treating a heavy fraction separated under substantially non-cracking conditions from a crude oil derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous material in order to produce a heavy fraction and a light fraction consists of heat treating the separated heavy fraction at a temperature above about 600$F. This temperature is below the point of incipient thermal decomposition of the heavy fraction. The heat treatment takes place for a period of time which is inversely proportional to the temperature to produce a product which, when combined with at least part of a light fraction, results in an oil having a pour point lower than that of the original crude oil. The heat treatment produces substantially no non-condensible hydrocarbons and substantially no elemental carbon. (21 claims)

  5. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Tribopairs: Effect of Thermal Oxidation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Massimo; Boccarusso, Luca; Velotti, Carla; Astarita, Antonello; Squillace, Antonino; Carrino, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the study of the influence of the thermal oxidation (TO) treatment on the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V tribopairs. A detailed experimental campaign, including tribological tests, microgeometrical measurements, microhardness tests and phase composition analyses, was carried out on both treated and untreated components. The tribological behavior was studied through the pin-on-disk tests in four different contact conditions: treated disk coupled with untreated pin, untreated disk coupled with treated pin, both treated and both untreated. The effectiveness of the treatment in enhancing the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheets was found. In particular, the thermal oxidation treatment, promoting hardness enhancement and the formation of a superficial rutile layer, changed the wear mechanism of the titanium alloy, passing from adhesive wear type, for the untreated case, to abrasive wear, in the treated one.

  6. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

  7. Thermal Changes in the Hard Dental Tissue at Diode Laser Root Canal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The laser coagulation at the apical part of the root canal after vital extirpation is a proper method of preventing complications such as pain, bleeding, remaining vital pulp. The aim of the present survey is to register the thermal changes that occur on the tooth surfaces during laser treatment of the root canal after vital extirpation. An in vitro study of 30 extracted teeth has been conducted. The teeth have been prepared with ProTaper nickel-titanium machine tools and wiped dry. During the course of laser treatment of root canals with a diode laser DenLase temperatures, changes of the surface of the hard dental tissues have been recorded with infrared camera FLIR T330. The captured thermal images have been processed with software product Flir Reporter Pro 9. In conclusion, temperature changes in hard dental tissues at diode laser treatment of the root canal are biocompatible.

  8. Preliminary assessment of a mixture of capric and lauric acids for low-temperature thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimaano, M.N.R. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Escoto, A.D. [University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    A mixture of capric and lauric acids was evaluated as a possible phase-change media suitable for Philippine low-temperature thermal-energy storage systems. The properties of different combinations of acids were verified against existing literature data with the use of a differential scanning calorimeter. Classical evaluation techniques were employed to determine the required thermodynamic, kinetic, and other physical properties. The accuracy of the set-up was determined and phase transitions were observed by performing a series of thermal cycles. To authenticate the long-term stability and reproducibility of the combination, 120 thermal cycles were carried out using a fabricated equilibrium cell. The observed lowest temperature averaged 11.63{sup o}C. The material remained physically stable. (author)

  9. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs. I

  10. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs.

  11. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs. I

  12. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  14. Evaluation of the Role of Probiotics in Endodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Aarti; Kokate, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i.e. E. faecalis and C. albicans, and (b) to evaluate the potential use of probiotic therapy as an additive in endodontic treatment procedures. Materials and Methods: Two commercial probiotics were selected and evaluated based upon the numbers and concentration of organisms. Pathogenic test organisms were C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Phase 1 of the study was conducted by agar cup method test to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the selected probiotics against E. faecalis and C. albicans by measuring zones of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Microorganisms from probiotic samples were isolated following manufacturer's instructions. Pathogenic organisms were set to a 0.1 McFarland standard challenge. Circular wells of 8 mm diameter were punched in each of the poured plates. Appropriately diluted test samples were added to the above-punched wells. The volume of the solution added to each well was 100 μl. The plates were incubated in an upright position at 37°C for 24 hours under aerobic conditions. Post incubation, ZOI was measured (mm). Phase 2 was conducted by mixing 9 ml of 30% poloxamer 407 and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth in a test tube with 500 μl of either E. faecalis or C. albicans set at an optical density (OD) of 0.252, together with 500 μl of test probiotic strain, set at a respective OD. Samples were then incubated at 37°C for

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development (PSD) II. Preliminary design report. Appendix I: specifications and drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.O.

    1979-08-10

    This volume contains the specifications and drawings prepared in support of the preliminary design of a 10MWe OTEC power system using enhanced plate type heat exchangers. Included are: (1) the specification tree; (2) system specification; (3) 10 MWe heat exchangers; (4) nitrogen storage, conditioning and supply subsystem specification; (5) ammonia storage, conditioning and supply specification; (6) electrical power distribution and control subsystem specification; (7) equipment valves, instruments and live lists and specifications; (8) drawing tree; (9) drawing package; and (10) 0.2 MWe test articles procurement specifications. (WHK)

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the thermal expansion coefficient of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayon saidi, M. [Dept. Metallurgy-Karaj Azad Univ.-Karaj (Iran); Baghersaie, N. [Tehran Center, Control Dept., Eng. Research Inst., Ministry of Jihad Agriculture (Iran); Varahram, N. [RAZI Metallurgical Research Inst.-Tehran (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron provide a unique combination of strength and toughness coupled with excellent design flexibility for automotive application as compared to forged or cast steels. Some material properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and its influence in final machining tolerance is a matter of discussion in the automotive industry. In this study the effect of heart treatment cycle on the microstructure and thermal expansion of ADI was investigated. Samples were austempered at 275 C and 375 C for one hour and then dilatometric test carried out in the temperature range of 50 C to 350 C, then the result was compared with the thermal expansion coefficient of forged steel. Microstructure and mechanical investigations were used to the assurance of these results. The results indicate that replacing of forged steel with ADI due to lower cost production and reduction in weight is possible if the correct tolerance were selected. (orig.)

  17. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  18. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Appendices include (A) TRW CWP/hull dynamics computer model (HULPIPE); (B) environmental data; (C) structural analysis methods; (D) work breakdown structure; (E) costing worksheets; (F) thermal design of the cold water pipe; (G) CWP/Platform transition ROM costs; (H) installation scenarios and costs; (I) cost uncertainty assessment; (J) risk assessment; and (K) OTEC cold water pipe concept catalog. (WHK)

  19. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE THERMAL EXPANSION BEHAVIOR OF SiC WHISKER REINFORCED ALUMINUM COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Hu; W.D. Fei; W.L. Li; C.K. Yao

    2001-01-01

    The thermal expansion behaviors of SiC whisker reinforced commercially pure aluminum composites subjected to different heat treatments were studied. The results indicated that the thermal expansion behaviors were greatly affected by heat treatment.To explain the results, the microstructures and thermal mismatch stresses in the matrix of the composite were examined by the transmission electron microscope and Xray diffraction, respectively. The dislocation density and thermal mismatch stresses in the matrix of the composites water quenched from 600°C are much higher than that of the composite slowly cooled from 600°C. The analysis suggested that the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) are closely related to the change of thermal mismatch stresses and yield strength of the matrix of the composite. The comparison of the coefficients of thermal expansion between experiments and calculations suggested that the temperature behaviors of CTE of SiCw/Al composite agree better with those of Kerner's model within lower temperature range.

  20. Enhancing the photoelectrochemical properties of titanium dioxide by thermal treatment in oxygen deficient environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Aadesh P., E-mail: aadshp1982@gmail.com; Kodan, Nisha; Mehta, Bodh R., E-mail: brmehta@physics.iitd.ac.in

    2016-05-30

    Highlights: • Oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2} thin films were introduced by the thermal treatment in oxygen deficient environment. • Oxygen vacancies are effective to shift the optical absorption in visible region. • The up-shift of the Fermi level and more negative flat band potential were obtained in thermal treated TiO{sub 2} films. • Thermal treated TiO{sub 2} thin films exhibits fast charge separation at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. • Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films in the presence of oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: The effect of thermal treatment on TiO{sub 2} thin films under oxygen deficient environment (5% H{sub 2} in Ar) at partial pressure of 2 × 10{sup −2} Torr have been studied for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting application. Thermal treatment in anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films exhibits a shift in optical absorption from UV to visible region and activates TiO{sub 2} for water splitting application under visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the thermal treated thin films contain oxygen vacancies, which suggests improved charge transport. Optical absorption, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) studies show reduction in band gap by 0.36 eV, shift in valence band maximum by 0.49 eV towards the Fermi level and work function values by 0.3 eV towards the vacuum level. The pristine TiO{sub 2} thin films exhibit very less photoactivity in terms of photocurrent density, whereas thermally treated thin films displayed a markedly enhanced photocurrent density of ∼2.41 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher values of photocurrent density in thermal treated TiO{sub 2} films have been explained in terms of change in the optical and electrical properties along with energy band diagram.

  1. fMRI response to negative words and SSRI treatment outcome in major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey Morris; Schneck, Noam; Siegle, Greg J; Chen, Yakuan; Ogden, R Todd; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-12-30

    Clinically useful predictors of treatment outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD) remain elusive. We examined associations between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during active negative word processing and subsequent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment outcome in MDD. Unmedicated MDD subjects (n=17) performed an emotional word processing fMRI task, and then received eight weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment with escitalopram. Lower pre-treatment BOLD responses to negative words in midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, paracingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus and caudate nuclei correlated significantly with greater improvement following escitalopram treatment. Activation of these regions in response to negative words correlated significantly with reaction time for rating word relevance. Maximally predictive clusters of voxels identified using a cross-validation approach predicted 48% of the variance in response to treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that SSRIs may be most beneficial in patients who are less able to engage cognitive control networks while processing negative stimuli. Differences between these findings and previous fMRI studies of SSRI treatment outcome may relate to differences in task design. Regional BOLD responses to negative words predictive of SSRI outcome in this study were both overlapping and distinct from those predictive of outcome with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in previous studies using the same task. Future studies may examine prediction of differential outcome across treatments in the context of a randomized controlled trial.

  2. Preliminary validity of the barriers to treatment adherence questionnaire in fibromyalgia: combining quantitative and focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Patricia L; De Civita, Mirella; Bernatsky, Sasha; Filipski, Marta; Sita, Aurelio; Baron, Murray

    2009-10-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) provide preliminary reliability and validity of the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire, developed for patients with fibromyalgia, and (2) examine barriers to adherence and general adherence to multimodal treatment during a 3-mo. period. A secondary goal was to explore in a focus discussion group format patients' perceptions of the adherence process and ways of managing the treatment program. 39 fibromyalgia patients were followed while participating in a combined outpatient program of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire demonstrated good reliability. Construct validity of the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire was supported through significant positive correlations with the General Adherence Scale at Months 1 and 3. In addition, a significant change was observed in scores on the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for the physiotherapy component of treatment, with scores decreasing between Months 2 and 3. Addressing barriers to improve adherence may maximize the benefit of treatment programs.

  3. Fast thermal simulations and temperature optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning, including realistic 3D vessel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; van den Berg, C A T; Bel, A; Crezee, J

    2013-10-01

    Accurate thermal simulations in hyperthermia treatment planning require discrete modeling of large blood vessels. The very long computation time of the finite difference based DIscrete VAsculature model (DIVA) developed for this purpose is impractical for clinical applications. In this work, a fast steady-state thermal solver was developed for simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. Additionally, an efficient temperature-based optimization method including the thermal effect of discrete vasculature was developed. The steady-state energy balance for vasculature and tissue was described by a linear system, which was solved with an iterative method on the graphical processing unit. Temperature calculations during optimization were performed by superposition of several precomputed temperature distributions, calculated with the developed thermal solver. The thermal solver and optimization were applied to a human anatomy, with the prostate being the target region, heated with the eight waveguide 70 MHz AMC-8 system. Realistic 3D pelvic vasculature was obtained from angiography. Both the arterial and venous vessel networks consisted of 174 segments and 93 endpoints with a diameter of 1.2 mm. Calculation of the steady-state temperature distribution lasted about 3.3 h with the original DIVA model, while the newly developed method took only ≈ 1-1.5 min. Temperature-based optimization with and without taking the vasculature into account showed differences in optimized waveguide power of more than a factor 2 and optimized tumor T90 differed up to ≈ 0.5°C. This shows the necessity to take discrete vasculature into account during optimization. A very fast method was developed for thermal simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. The short simulation time allows online calculations and makes temperature optimization with realistic vasculature feasible, which is an important step forward in hyperthermia treatment planning.

  4. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, H.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  5. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

  6. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  7. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  8. Morphological and structural investigation of wool-derived keratin nanofibres crosslinked by thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluigi, Annalisa; Corbellini, Alessandro; Rombaldoni, Fabio; Zoccola, Marina; Canetti, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Mats of wool-derived keratin nanofibre have been prepared by electrospinning solutions of keratin in formic acid at 20 and 15 wt.%, and obtaining nanofibres with mean diameter of about 400 and 250 nm, respectively. These mats can find applications in tissue engineering (they can mimic the native extracellular matrix) and in wastewater treatment (they can trap small particles and adsorb heavy-metals). A drawback to overcome is their solubility in water. A stabilization method, based on a thermal treatment alternative to the use of formaldehyde, is proposed. The solubility test in the dithiothreitol/urea extraction buffer, the amino acid composition analysis and studies on keratin secondary structures suggest that the improved stability in water of thermally treated mats can be ascribed to the formation of amide bonds between acid and basic groups of some amino acid side chains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Nanostructured AA3103 by Equal Channel Angular Pressing and Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to the achievement of a nanometric structure in AA3103, employing severe plastic deformation processes (SPD, in this case equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The changes in the mechanical properties and in the microstructure of AA3103 were studied after being processed by ECAP. Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the evolution of the microstructure after different thermal treatments on the material processed by this severe plastic deformation process. Furthermore, a more profound knowledge of the changes in the mechanical properties of this aluminium alloy was obtained. It was demonstrated that with different appropriate combinations of thermal treatments and ECAP processing, it is possible to significantly improve the mechanical properties through obtaining submicrometric grain size structures.

  10. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  11. Aging Thermal Treatment in the Inconel 725 Brazed Incorporating Tungsten Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hdz-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures in blade sections of Inconel 725 were impregnated with tungsten nanoparticles and jointed by the brazing process. In order to evaluate their effect over the microstructure, aging thermal treatments at 750°C for 2, 6, 10, and 14 h were done. BNi-9 was selected as brazing filler metal and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Before brazing, the fractures were impregnated with a mixture of tungsten NPs in ethanol. Measurements of Vickers microhardness showed an increase in the melting zone of samples with aging thermal treatment for 14 h, which is attributed to the precipitation of the γ′ phase with a typical size of ca. 100 nm. Likewise, the tungsten NPs modified the size and morphology of Cr-Ni eutectics into finer and uniformly distributed microstructures.

  12. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  13. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOCARP AND KERNEL OF CASHEW NUT 'CCP 76' PRIOR AND POST THERMAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    De Araujo, MC; Ferraz, ACD

    2008-01-01

    Viscoelastic characteristics of raw cashew nut shell hinder its decortication by compression. In order to facilitate the shell opening and to liberate the kernel, nuts were subjected to hydration and thermal treatment in cashew nut shell liquid (CSL) at 210 degrees C. With the objective of developing more appropriate shelling mechanisms the cashew nut 'CCP 76' was characterized by its main dimensions, mass and volume, as well as mechanical behavior of the endocarp and kernel, prior and after ...

  14. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  15. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    11. Khokhlova, V.A., et al., Effects of nonlinear propagation, cavitation , and boiling in lesion formation by high intensity focused ultrasound in...intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Concepts, Seattle, WA) operating at its fundamental frequency (1.1 MHz) or its third harmonics (3.3 MHz). The ultrasound imaging system was a 5/7

  16. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and 70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.

  17. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  18. Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Coal Measures Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Mao, Xianbiao; Cao, Lili; Pu, Hai; Mao, Rongrong; Lu, Aihong

    2016-09-01

    Many projects such as the underground gasification of coal seams and coal-bed methane mining (exploitation) widely involve the dynamic problems of coal measures sandstone achieved via thermal treatment. This study examines the dynamic mechanical properties of coal measures sandstone after thermal treatment by means of an MTS653 high-temperature furnace and Split Hopkinson pressure bar test system. Experimental results indicate that 500 °C is a transition point for the dynamic mechanical parameters of coal measures sandstone. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength increase linearly from 25 to 500 °C while the dynamic peak strain decreases linearly over the same temperature range. The dynamic elastic modulus and peak strength drop quickly from 500 to 800 °C, with a significant increase in the dynamic peak strain over the same temperature range. The rock mechanics are closely linked to material composition and mesoscopic structure. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the molecules inside the sandstone increase in density due to the thermal expansion of the material particles, which effectively improves the deformation resistance and carrying capacity of the sandstone and reduces the likelihood of axial deformation. With heat treatment that exceeds 500 °C, the dynamic mechanical properties rapidly weaken due to the decomposition of kaolinite; additionally, hot cracking of the mineral particles within the materials arises from coal sandstone internal porosity, and other defects gradually appear.

  19. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50℃ in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon(TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50℃. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships,especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50℃ increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on the anodic growth of tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y., E-mail: yqchai85@gmail.com; Tam, C.W.; Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-08-03

    This work reports the investigation of the effects of thermal treatment on anodic growth tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). The increase of the thermal treatment temperature above 400 °C significantly influences WO{sub 3} film where high porosity structure reduces to more compact film. As-grown film is amorphous, which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic phase upon annealing at 300–600 °C. With the reducing of porous structure, preferential growth of (002) plane shifts to (020) plane at 600 °C with more than twentyfold increase of peak's intensity compared to the film annealed at 500 °C. Films annealed at low thermal treatment show better ion intercalation and reversibility during electrochemical measurements; however, it has larger optical band gap. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals that film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the best photocatalytic performance among the films annealed at 300–600 °C. - Highlights: • Porosity of the WO{sub 3} reduces as annealing temperature increases above 400 °C. • As-grown film is amorphous which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic upon annealing. • As-grown film shows better ion intercalation in electrochemical process. • Optical band gap of WO{sub 3} reduces as the annealing temperature increases. • Film annealed at 400 °C exhibits best photocatalytic performance.

  1. Effect of Nisin and Thermal Treatments on the Heat Resistance of Clostridium sporogenes Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Chumillas, Maria; Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments (isothermal or nonisothermal) combined with nisin, a natural antimicrobial, on the survival and recovery of Clostridium sporogenes spores. The addition of nisin to the heating medium at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. Without a thermal treatment, nisin added at concentrations up to 0.1 mg liter(-1) did not reduce the viable counts of C. sporogenes when added to the recovery medium, but inactivation of more than 4 log cycles was achieved after only 3 s at 100°C. At 100°C, the time needed to reduce viable counts by more than 3 log cycles was nine times shorter when 0.01 mg liter(-1) nisin was added to the recovery medium than without it. The heat resistance values calculated under isothermal conditions were used to predict the survival in the nonisothermal experiments, and the predicted values accurately fit the experimental data. The combination of nisin with a thermal treatment can help control C. sporogenes.

  2. Tratamiento térmico de acero cubano // Thermal treatment of cuban steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caballero Stevens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran algunos de los resultados obtenidos durante la investigación de un nuevo acero cubano que sepretende destinar a la fabricación de elementos de corte para máquinas combinadas cortadoras de caña de azúcar,herramientas de mano y otras piezas de gran responsabilidad que requieren elevada dureza para su trabajo. En el trabajo sepresentan los aspectos principales que relacionan la composición química, microestructura y dureza de este acero. Seestablecen experimentalmente las temperaturas de los puntos críticos para definir los regímenes de tratamiento térmico. Seincluye el comportamiento de las propiedades de dureza ante diferentes regímenes de tratamiento térmico.Palabras claves: Acero, recocido, temple, revenido, martensita, dureza________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article are shown some of the results obtained during the investigation of a new cuban steel that it is going to beused in the manufacture of blades for cane cutting machines, hand tools and other part of great responsibility that requirehigh hardness for the job.In the article are presented the principles aspects of quimical composition, microstructure and hardness of this steel. Thereare stablished experimentally the temperature of the critic points in order to determine the regimes of the thermal treatment.The behavior of the properties of hardness is included at different regimes of thermal treatment.Key words: Steel, thermal treatment, quenching, tempering, hardness.

  3. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  4. A Preliminary Study of an Integrated and Culturally Attuned Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chung, Catherine Lai Ping; Wu, Janet; Tang, Joe; Lau, Patrick; Wan, Jennie Po Ching

    2015-09-01

    Chinese people may have a higher rate of gambling problems than other cultural groups. However, there are very few clinical outcome studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of clinical interventions for helping Chinese gamblers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for helping problem gamblers to significantly reduce their gambling problems in western countries. Very few CBT clinical trials have been conducted with the Chinese populations, and the results were masked by methodological limitations. This preliminary study attempted to test the effectiveness of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a randomized control design and 38 participants were allocated randomly to the experimental condition (n = 18) and control condition (n = 20). The experimental group received 10 weekly CBT group sessions and individual counseling services while control group only received the individual counseling services. Significant decreases in gambling severity and frequencies of gambling were found in the experimental group. The findings also showed that a change in gambling cognitions predicted the changes in gambling severity and gambling urge while a change in gambling severity was also linked to a change in depression. Preliminary evidence highlights the potential benefits of an integrated and culturally attuned CBT group treatment for Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong. However, a more vigorous research design with a larger sample is needed to provide solid evidence of the effectiveness of the model for Chinese problem gamblers.

  5. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleszek, Sylwia, E-mail: sylwia_oleszek@yahoo.com [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Grabda, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Shibata, Etsuro, E-mail: etsuro@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi, E-mail: ntakashi@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is

  6. Thermal treatment of Lloydminster heavy oil: yield and product separation by adsorption chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, P.K.; Sastre, H.; Chornet, E.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Ripmeester, J.A.; Overend, R.P. (University of Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-09-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on Lloydminster heavy oil has been studied under pyrolytic, catalytic and non-catalytic hydropyrolysis and hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin) regimes using a batch autoclave. Product yields are reported for each type of reaction regime in terms of gases, maltenes, asphaltenes and toluene insoluble organic matter (coke). The maltene fraction was further separated by column chromatography into four chemical compound types namely: saturates, mono- and di-aromatics, polyaromatics and polars. The asphaltene fraction was also separated in four fractions by column chromatography by elution with solvents of increasing polarity. These fractions were characterized by FTIR and {sup 1}{sup 3}C NMR. The evolution of these fractions was studied as a function of the treatment. Tetralin was found to be effective in eliminating coke and increasing the maltene content relative to other treatments. It has been observed that the decrease of polyaromatic and polar species in the maltenes results in a corresponding increase of saturates. The asphaltene yield also decreases with thermal treatment. In all treatments the asphaltene fractions rich in polar and highly functional groups decrease drastically. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Supercritical water oxidation for wastewater treatment Preliminary study of urea destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, S. H.; Hong, G. T.; Simson, M.; Modell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is being investigated as a method of treating spacecraft wastewater for recycle. In this process, oxidation is conducted in an aqueous phase maintained above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (215 bar) of water. Organic materials are oxidized with efficiencies greater than 99.99 percent in residence times of less than 1 minute. This paper presents preliminary results for urea destruction. Above 650 C, urea can be completely broken down to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide and water by supercritical water oxidation, without the use of a specific catalyst.

  8. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  9. A Preliminary Study on the Relation Between the Thermal and Geometric Surface Centroids of the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Mingqiang

    2006-01-01

    Numerous published results have shown the importance of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) surface centroid movement in ENSO-(El Nino/Southern Oscillation) related studies. However, some recent research conclusions make it necessary to clarify the differences of the currently exiting two types of WPWP surface centroid: the geometric centroid and the thermal (heat) centroid. This study analyzes the physical backgrounds of the two types of centroid and points out their differences, which suggest that different types of centroid may serve different study purposes. This study also shows gion sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and can also be regarded as an important indicator of ENSO events.

  10. Effect of thermal post-treatment on some surface-related properties of oriented strandboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A very promising method for improving the dimensional stability of oriented strandboard (OSB has been studied in Brazil since 2001. According to this method, the OSB is thermally treated under mild conditions using a hot-press, where it is reheated without high level of compression stress. The properties of the treated OSB panels are different from and enhanced compared to those untreated ones. It means that the treated OSB can be used in more severe uses, like concrete formwork. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of the proposed thermal treatment on nail-holding capability and on surface hardness of OSB. Samples from 42 commercials OSB were thermally treated according to two levels of temperature (190°C and 220°C and three heating times (12, 16 and 20 min using a single opening hot-press. For comparison, control panels were kept untreated. The following surface-related properties were evaluated: Janka hardness, nail-holding capability in a plane normal to the surface, in the edge of the panel, water absorption and thickness swelling (TS of edge sealed samples, and four surface roughness parameters. According to the Dunnett test, there were significant differences between treated and untreated panels for nail-holding, dimensional stability and surface roughness. The factorial ANOVA identified that the temperature was the main factor governing these properties while the duration of the treatment had lesser effect. It was concluded that the proposed thermal treatment improved significantly dimensional stability and did not affect adversely the nail-holding capability and surface roughness of the treated OSB

  11. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  12. Effect of thermal and freezing treatments on rheological, textural and color properties of basil seed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameni, Akefe; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Aalami, Mehran; Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocolloids are macromolecular carbohydrates that are added to many foodstuffs to achieve the appropriate rheological and textural properties and to prevent synersis or to increase the viscosity and stability of foodstuffs. In this study the effect of different thermal treatments (25, 50, 75, 100 and 121°C for 20 min) and freezing treatments (-18 and -25 °C for 24 h) on rheological, textural and color change of basil seed gum as a new source of hydrocolloids was investigated. The results demonstrated that basil seed gum solutions had desirable rheological and textural properties. Power law model well described non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior of basil seed gum in all conditions. When the hydrocolloid samples were heated or frozen, increase in viscosity of basil seed gum solutions was observed. Hardness, adhesiveness and consistency of basil seed gel for control sample were 13.5 g, 16.79, 52.59 g.s, respectively and all increased after thermal treatments. The results revealed that basil seed gum has the excellent ability to stand against heat treatment and the highest hardness, adhesiveness and consistency value of gum gels were observed in sample treated at 121 °C for 20 min. In addition this gum gel has the good ability to stand against freeze-thaw treatment and its textural properties improved after freezing. Therefore, basil seed gum can be employed as a textural and rheological modifier in formulation of foods exposed to thermal and freezing temperatures.

  13. The advent of non-thermal, non-tumescent techniques for treatment of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootun, Roshan; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2016-02-01

    Varicose veins are common and their management has undergone a number of changes over the years. Surgery has been the traditional treatment option, but towards the 21st century, new endovenous thermal ablation techniques, namely, radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation, were introduced which have revolutionised the way varicose veins are treated. These minimally invasive techniques are associated with earlier return to normal activity and less pain, as well as enabling procedures to be carried out as day cases. They are, however, also known to cause a number of side-effects and involve infiltration of tumescent fluid which can cause discomfort. Non-thermal, non-tumescent methods are believed to be the answer to these unwelcome effects. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy is one such non-thermal, non-tumescent method and, despite a possible lower occlusion, has been shown to improve the quality of life of patients. The early results of two recently launched non-thermal, non-tumescent methods, mechanochemical ablation and cyanoacrylate glue, are promising and are discussed.

  14. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Draijer, Nel

    2013-01-01

    In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive) (N=14) with the non-adaptive patients (N=24) as revealed by a cluster analysis. We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles "withdrawn" and "aggressive," were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  15. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and personality disorders (PDs are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive (N=14 with the non-adaptive patients (N=24 as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results: We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  16. Characteristics of drug-abusing women with children in residential treatment: a preliminary evaluation of program retention and treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Lori

    2008-01-01

    An ex post facto study was conducted to investigate treatment outcomes for 80 women and 168 children admitted into a residential substance-abuse treatment program. The results indicated childhood emotional neglect is a barrier for remaining in and completing treatment for African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders but not for those with crack cocaine dependent disorders. African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders were also three times more likely to dropout of treatment. In addition, there were relatively few differences for between drug-exposed and nonexposed children. However, the results indicated that children of substance-abusing women who completed treatment were more likely to have behavioral problems, to receive early intervention services, and to have mothers as legal guardians by the end of treatment. Implications for gender-specific interventions for African-American women and their children in residential treatment are discussed.

  17. Feasibility study of an interactive multimedia electronic problem solving treatment program for depression: a preliminary uncontrolled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Margit I; Buckey, Jay C; Hull, Jay G; Linardatos, Eftihia; Song, Sueyoung L; McLellan, Robert K; Hegel, Mark T

    2014-05-01

    Computer-based depression interventions lacking live therapist support have difficulty engaging users. This study evaluated the usability, acceptability, credibility, therapeutic alliance and efficacy of a stand-alone multimedia, interactive, computer-based Problem Solving Treatment program (ePST™) for depression. The program simulated live treatment from an expert PST therapist, and delivered 6 ePST™ sessions over 9weeks. Twenty-nine participants with moderate-severe symptoms received the intervention; 23 completed a minimally adequate dose of ePST™ (at least 4 sessions). Program usability, acceptability, credibility, and therapeutic alliance were assessed at treatment midpoint and endpoint. Depressive symptoms and health-related functioning were assessed at baseline, treatment midpoint (4weeks), and study endpoint (10weeks). Depression outcomes and therapeutic alliance ratings were also compared to previously published research on live PST and computer-based depression therapy. Participants rated the program as highly usable, acceptable, and credible, and reported a therapeutic alliance with the program comparable to that observed in live therapy. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over time. These findings also provide preliminary evidence that ePST™ may be effective as a depression treatment. Larger clinical trials with diverse samples are indicated.

  18. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  19. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron.

  2. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  3. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-07-22

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C(-1) for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Panduro, E., E-mail: 04130127@unmsm.edu.pe; Bravo Cabrejos, J., E-mail: jbravoc@unmsm.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2010-01-15

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  5. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, E. Chavez; Cabrejos, J. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100°C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000°C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe3 + sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the “camel back” curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  6. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Schena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C, sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings, and frequency response (hundreds of kHz, are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  7. Single step thermal treatment synthesis and characterization of lithium tetraborate nanophosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalilzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the synthesis of nano-sized lithium tetraborate by an innovative single step thermal treatment method and characterization of the products. The heating temperature for the synthesis was varied between 200 and 850 °C with the retention time of 2 h. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP with different concentrations was used as surfactant. Characterization of the samples was achieved by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry analysis (DTG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques and UV–vis spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of initial solution allowed the optimization of the heat treatment program and showed that the thermal stability of samples is started at 460 °C. FT-IR, XRD and TEM results proved the formation of pure nano-crystalline lithium tetraborate at temperature between 460 and 750 °C. Furthermore, the band gap investigation was performed using UV–vis spectra in the presence of different concentrations of PVP and in variety of calcination temperatures. The estimated optical bandgap was found to be between 5.2 and 6.2 eV.

  8. Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism. Preliminary Findings in Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neurophysiological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; van Schie, Hein T.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of neurofeedback treatment were investigated in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixty percent of the participants in the treatment group successfully reduced excessive theta power during neurofeedback treatment. Reduction of theta power was confirmed by pre- and post-QEEG measures. Parents of participants in the…

  9. Patterns of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis in Thermal Laser Acupuncture Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA manifests with pain, joint stiffness, and limited function. In traditional Chinese medicine, knee OA is differentiated into three patterns: yang deficiency and cold coagulation, kidney deficiency, and blood stasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether yang deficiency cold coagulation patients respond better to thermal laser acupuncture treatment than do non-yang deficient patients. Fifty-two patients with OA were allocated to group A (yang deficient, n=26 or B (non-yang deficient, n=26. All patients received a 20-min thermal laser acupuncture treatment at acupoint Dubi (ST 35 three times a week for two weeks and twice a week for another four weeks. Outcome assessments were performed immediately after the first treatment, and at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Group A function scores were significantly better than those of Group B at weeks 2 (P=0.049, 6 (P=0.046, and 10 (P=0.042, but no significant differences were found between the two groups in pain and stiffness scores at any time point. No significant adverse effect was observed. The combined 10.6 μm–650 nm laser treatment might be most beneficial to yang deficiency cold coagulation knee OA patients, particularly in improving function.

  10. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference(P<0.01). Conclusion: TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation has a significant efficacy with high safety for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  11. Investigation of structural modification and thermal characteristics of lignin after heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Hyewon; Oh, Shinyoung; Kim, Yong-Sik; Kim, Ung-Jin; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-05-01

    Milled wood lignin was subjected to heat treatment between 150 and 300°C to understand the pattern of its structural modification and thermal properties. When the temperature was elevated with interval of 50°C, the color of the lignin became dark brown and the lignin released various forms of phenols from terminal phenolic groups in the lignin, leading to two physical phenomena: (1) gradual weight loss of the lignin, up to 19% based on dry weight and (2) increase in the carbon content and decrease in the oxygen content. Nitrobenzene oxidation and (13)C NMR analyses confirmed a cleavage of β-O-4 linkage (depolymerization) and reduction of methoxyl as well as phenolic hydroxyl group were also characteristic in the lignin structure during heat treatment. Simultaneously with lignin depolymerization, GPC analysis provided a possibility that condensation between lignin fragments could also occur during heat treatment. TGA/DTG/DSC data revealed that thermal stability of lignin obviously increased after heat treatment, implicating the structural rearrangement of lignin to reduction of β-O-4 linkage as well as accumulation of CC bonds.

  12. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  13. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a significant challenge in dealing with the physiological issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as significant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long surface stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological effects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hyperbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a significant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power levels (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower specific mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for efficient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust at reasonably high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive transplanetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation/EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  14. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  15. Effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste: a pilot scale study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingjun; Takaoka, Masaki; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Co-digestion of wasted sewage sludge, restaurant kitchen waste, and fruit-vegetable waste was carried out in a pilot plant with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Steam was used as heat source for thermal hydrolysis. It was found 38.3% of volatile suspended solids were dissolved after thermal hydrolysis, with digestibility increased by 115%. These results were more significant than those from lab studies using electricity as heat source due to more uniform heating. Anaerobic digesters were then operated under organic loading rates of about 1.5 and 3 kg VS/(m³ d). Little difference was found for digesters with and without thermal pre-treatment in biogas production and volatile solids removal. However, when looking into the digestion process, it was found digestion rate was almost doubled after thermal hydrolysis. Digester was also more stable with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Less volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated and the VFAs/alkalinity ratio was also lower. Batch experiments showed the lag phase can be eliminated by thermal pre-treatment, implying the advantage could be more significant under a shorter hydraulic retention time. Moreover, it was estimated energy cost for thermal hydrolysis can be partly balanced by decreasing viscosity and improving dewaterability of the digestate.

  16. Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm resists repeated intravaginal antiseptic treatment in a subset of women with bacterial vaginosis: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Verstraelen, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept). In case of treatment failure or relapse within 6 months, patients were re-treated with a 28-day course of octenidine. In case of recurrence within 6 months after the second treatment course, patients were treated again with a 28-day course followed by weekly applications for 2 months. Treatment effect was evaluated by assessment of the presence of the biofilm on voided vaginal epithelial cells through fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The initial cure rate following a 7-day course of octenidine was as high as 87.5%. The 6-month relapse rate was, however, as high as 66.6%. Repeated treatment for 28 days led to an overall cure rate of 75.0%; however, it was also associated with emergence of complete resistance to octenidine in a subset of women. The overall cure rate after three treatment courses with 1-year follow-up was 62.5 %, with 37.5 % of the patients showing complete resistance to octenidine. Our preliminary results showed that octenidine dihydrochloride was initially highly effective, but the efficacy of repeated and prolonged treatment dropped quickly as challenge with the antiseptic rapidly led to bacterial resistance in a considerable subset of women.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development (PSD) II. Preliminary design report. Appendix II: supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    The trade studies, calculations, and reports which provide the rationale for design conclusions for the 10 MWe OTEC power system are presented in this volume. These appendices include: (1) system design and optimization model; (2) system off-design performance computer model; (3) seawater system dynamics; (4) system mechanical design studies; (5) electrical design studies; (6) structural design studies; (7) tube cleaner design report and proposed brush test program; (8) heat exchangers: mechanical design; (9) heat exchangers: thermal hydraulic computer model; (10) heat exchangers: manufacturing flow plan; (11) heat exchangers: installation and removal procedures; (12) heat exchangers: stainless steel conceptual design; (13) heat exchangers: cost studies; (14)heat exchangers: materials selection and corrosion; and (15) heat exchangers: quality assurance. (WHK)

  18. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  19. Design and construction of a compact module of surfaces treatment by thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188 D, Santiago (Chile); Feugeas, J.; Clausse, A.; Bruzzone, H. [Red Interinstitucional de Plasmas Densos y Magnetizados (PLADEMA) (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Research on surfaces treatment by thermal shock is currently being pursued at The Institute of Physics of the University of Rosario (IFUR), using plasma focus systems. Thus, the effect of the thermal shock, due to the incidence of highly energetic, short duration, plasma beams, on metallic surfaces, offers interesting possibilities for application in steels, increasing their resistance to the wear and microhardness. This work addresses the design and construction of a compact plasma focus module (30x30xl00 cm{sup 3}), generating pulses of ions, with a duration of 200 to 500 nanoseconds and an emission frequency under 10 Hz. The energy deposited is 10 J at a fluence of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} per pulse. (Author)

  20. Thermal treatment of solid waste in view of recycling: Chromate and molybdate formation and leaching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinnen, Bram; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    Elevated Cr and Mo concentrations are often found in leachates of thermally treated solid waste, but there is no general explanation for this so far. Therefore, we studied the leaching behaviour after thermal treatment as a function of heating temperature and residence time for two types of solid waste: contaminated sludge and bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The leaching behaviour of both waste streams was compared with experiments on synthetic samples, allowing deduction of a general mechanism for Cr and Mo leaching. Cr and Mo showed a similar leaching behaviour: after an initial increase, the leaching decreased again at higher temperatures. Oxidation of these elements from their lower oxidation states to chromate and molybdate at temperatures up to 600 °C was responsible for the increased leaching. At higher temperatures, both Mo and Cr leaching decreased again owing to the formation of an amorphous phase, incorporating the newly formed chromate and molybdate salts, which prevents them from leaching.

  1. Improved electrical stability of CdS thin film transistors through Hydrogen-based thermal treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Salas Villaseñor, Ana L.

    2014-06-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated using a photolithography process with chemically bath deposited (CBD) cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as the active channel. Thermal annealing in hydrogen was used to improve electrical stability and performance of the resulting CdS TFTs. Hydrogen thermal treatments results in significant V T instability (V T shift) improvement while increasing the I on/I off ratio without degrading carrier mobility. It is demonstrated that after annealing V T shift and I on/I off improves from 10 V to 4.6 V and from 105 to 10 9, respectively. Carrier mobility remains in the order of 14.5 cm2 V s-1. The reduced V T shift and performance is attributed to a reduction in oxygen species in the CdS after hydrogen annealing, as evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-04-15

    Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation.

  3. ART adherence changes among patients in community substance use treatment: a preliminary analysis from MACH14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Marc I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiate substitution treatment has been associated with better adherence to lifesaving antiretroviral medications, but the impact of other substance abuse treatment on adherence is unknown. Findings In this study, 215 patients who had been in adherence-focused research studies provided electronically-measured adherence data and a measure of whether the patient had recently been in substance abuse treatment. Recent engagement in substance abuse treatment was independently associated with significantly higher adherence, after covarying for recent substance use and other factors potentially affecting adherence. Conclusions The findings suggest that substance abuse treatment is associated with better adherence. Potential mechanisms by which substance abuse treatment improves adherence, such as more stability or more future-orientation, require further study.

  4. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  5. SPME analysis of volatile compounds from unfermented olives subjected to thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, T; De Lorenzo, C; Pérez, R A

    2004-07-01

    The effect of different types of thermal treatment, designed to increase the product's shelf-life, on the volatile composition of "Campo Real" unfermented table olives, has been studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-MS analysis. Different SPME fibres were evaluated to determine their selectivity for a mixture of the main components of the different spices used in "Campo Real" olive dressing. Of the different fibres investigated, the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre was selected for analysis of the olive brines, which contained nine main aroma components. The types of thermal treatment were sterilisation (121 degrees C, 15 min) and four pasteurisation conditions (60 degrees C or 80 degrees C each for 5 or 9 min). Pasteurisation did not lead to significant changes in the amounts of these nine volatile compounds; the 2-butanol signal was reduced by treatment at 80 degrees C. On the other hand, sterilisation of the brine resulted in an decrease in the signals from these compounds and the appearance of a new, high signal for benzaldehyde; the origin of this has not yet been determined. Results suggest that the selected pasteurisation conditions do not significantly modify the typical, and valued, aroma characteristics of "Campo Real".

  6. Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds in water by non-thermal plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magureanu, Monica; Mandache, Nicolae Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I

    2015-09-15

    Pharmaceutical compounds became an important class of water pollutants due to their increasing consumption over the last years, as well as due to their persistence in the environment. Since conventional waste water treatment plants are unable to remove certain non-biodegradable pharmaceuticals, advanced oxidation processes was extensively studied for this purpose. Among them, non-thermal plasma was also recently investigated and promising results were obtained. This work reviews the recent research on the oxidative degradation of pharmaceuticals using non-thermal plasma in contact with liquid. As target compounds, several drugs belonging to different therapeutic groups were selected: antibiotics, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, lipid regulators, vasodilatators, contrast media, antihypertensives and analgesics. It was found that these compounds were removed from water relatively fast, partly degraded, and partly even mineralized. In order to ensure the effluent is environmentally safe it is important to identify the degradation intermediates and to follow their evolution during treatment, which requires complex chemical analysis of the solutions. Based on this analysis, degradation pathways of the investigated pharmaceuticals under plasma conditions were suggested. After sufficient plasma treatment the final organic by-products present in the solutions were mainly small molecules in an advanced oxidation state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. APPLICATION OF THERMAL PLASMA FOR INERTIZATION OF SLUDGE PRODUCED DURING TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas

    Full Text Available One of the outstanding issues of concern by governments and society in general relates to the final destination of solid waste, which can bring severe impacts on social, political, economic and environmental dimensions. The sustainable development of enterprises and industries goes for the care of the planet, thus ensuring the quality of life for future generations and the planet. The disposal of municipal waste in landfills is the technique most commonly employed for the remediation of solid residues. The residues undergo decomposition beneath the soil and in the presence of water this generates leachate, which percolates down to the bottom of the landfill through drainage. This drained liquid is collected from the landfill installations and subjected to treatment, which involves physico-chemical and biological processes. Landfill leachate commonly contains heavy metals due to the incorrect disposal of products such as fluorescent bulbs and batteries. In this context, a method for the treatment of sludge originating from the physicochemical remediation of leachate using thermal plasma is proposed in this paper. The efficiency of the method was verified by monitoring the total organic carbon content, water content and density of the sludge. The quantity of metals present in the samples was determined before and after pyrolysis by thermal plasma using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry techniques. The results show that the leachate treatment method used was efficient, presenting the best results for the samples of iron and zinc.

  8. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  9. Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Reza; Moosberg-Bustnes, John; Akhtar, Shahid; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2014-11-01

    The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

  10. Childhood cancer in El Salvador: A preliminary exploration of parental concerns in the abandonment of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy--a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perceived their child's cancer and treatment, and what led them to stop bringing their child for chemotherapy. In in-depth interviews, parents of six children who abandoned their child's cancer treatment discussed sickness and life circumstances during the course of treatment. Poverty, effects of treatment, mistrust, emotions and religious convictions all figured in the parents' explanation of their actions. However, each family weighed these concerns differently. It was the interaction of the concerns, and not the concern per se, that represented the explanatory frameworks the families used to explain stopping their child's treatment. This finding illustrates the parents' navigation among a collection of variable concerns, rather than exposing one fixed cause for their behavior. For example, poverty affects a parent's worldview as well as concrete living conditions, and therefore has a complex relationship with abandonment of treatment. Thus, it follows that strategies to reduce treatment abandonment (and increase a child's chance for survival) must be multidimensional. Qualitative studies of how families perceive childhood cancer and treatment can illuminate the processes and relationships involved in abandonment of treatment. This approach can also show how families' living circumstances frame their perceptions and inform strategies to improve how medical services are provided, thus reducing abandonment of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbie N.; Marsden, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA) graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400–1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700–800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000–1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput. PMID:28793326

  12. Perisciatic Ultrasound-Guided Infiltration for Treatment of Deep Gluteal Syndrome: Description of Technique and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Julio; García, Nicolás; Rafols, Claudio; Pérez, Marcelo; Verdugo, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a perisciatic ultrasound-guided infiltration technique for treatment of deep gluteal syndrome and to report its preliminary clinical results. A mixture of saline (20 mL), a local anesthetic (4 mL), and a corticosteroid solution (1 mL) was infiltrated in the perisciatic region between the gluteus maximus and pelvitrochanteric muscles. Relative pain relief was achieved in 73.7% of the patients, with average preprocedural and postprocedural visual analog scale scores of 8.3 and 2.8, respectively. Fifty percent of patients reported recurrence of discomfort, and the average duration of the therapeutic effect in these patients was 5.3 weeks.

  13. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  14. A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

    The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Continuous and Intermittent Exposures in the Treatment of Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Waller, Stacey A.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders are only effective if the exposures are presented continuously until a marked decrement in anxiety is achieved (e.g. Foa & Kozak, 1986). However, the data supporting this conclusion is limited. This study compared two treatments for public speaking anxiety: one requiring…

  16. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  17. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per

  18. Thermal treatment synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and investigation of its light harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Ansari, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    In this research, nanostructured SnO2 materials have been prepared via thermal treatment method with the aid of new Schiff base complex. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-propylenediamine (H2salpn) has been used as Schiff base to prepare a new Schiff base complex. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and TEM. Then, as-prepared SnO2 nanoparticles have been applied as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells sensitizing with two different natural dyes: madder and mignonette.

  19. The thermal waste treatment: A technology for the environment; Termodistruzione dei rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-09-01

    The present report is divided into three parts: the first describes the combustion technology and energy recovery process, analyses the most efficient devices to reduce exhaust emissions, examines the environmental effects of emissions and reports economical considerations on the technology. The second part describes the commercial, pre commercial and experimental devices and their appliance sectors. The third part analyses the Italian situation taking into account separately industrial and municipal solid wastes. The aim of the distinction is to define for each stream the problems connected to the diffusion of the thermal waste treatment and the obstacles encountered to obtain information about the existent plant.

  20. Effect of low temperature melt on solidification structure of A356 alloy with melt thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树先; 王俊; 孙宝德; 周尧和

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the low temperature melt (LTM) structure on solidification structure of the sample with melt thermal treatment (MTT) process was studied. And the mechanism of the MTT process was analyzed with cluster theory. It is shown that the final solidification structure is dependent mainly on the structure of LTM. Dendrites will appear in the solidification structure if the structure of LTM is dendritic before MTT. Otherwise, non-dendritic grains will appear in the solidification structure. And the lower the temperature of LTM, the more remarkable the effect of the LTM structure is.

  1. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30–100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas...... production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60–70°C by microwaves of 900W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor...

  2. Survey of integrative lumbar spinal stenosis treatment in Korean medicine doctors: preliminary data for clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-Riong; Ahn, Yong-Jun; Shin, Ye-Sle; Park, Ki Byung; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Joo-Hee; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2017-08-29

    Considering that large variations exist amongst practitioners in lumbar disorder management and the significant costs that lumbar disorders incur, determining clinical practice patterns to provide preliminary data for standardization should be given higher priority. Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is commonly treated using integrative non-surgical methods by Korean medicine doctors (KMDs) in Korea, and this is the first study to assess current Korean medicine practice trends for LSS. A survey on KMD diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and decision-making in LSS treatment was developed in a 3-step procedure of preliminary drafting, revision based on extramural expert opinion, and final editing. The survey was conducted at the internal conference of a spine-specialty Korean medicine hospital on January 25th, 2015. The response rate was high at 79.19% (n = 118/149). Participants replied that they treated 7.3 ± 6.8 LSS patients/day using a multimodal treatment method consisting of acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, Chuna manipulation, and electroacupuncture. Acupuncture mainly used Ashi points and MSAT, and pharmacopuncture mainly Shinbaro solution. The most frequently prescribed herbal medicine was Chungpa-jun, and the most commonly applied Chuna techniques were sidelying lumbar extension dysfunction correction technique, and prone lumbosacral joint distraction method. Radiological findings were mainly referred to for diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, age, radiological findings, and medical history were regarded to be important for prognosis. Participants replied that 7.8 ± 3.3 weeks were required for 50% reduction in pain, and 16.1 ± 7.7 weeks for 80% reduction. These results suggest that KMDs in Korea combine a conventional approach to LSS and a Korean medicine approach to low back pain for integration of empirical- and evidence-based diagnosis and treatment. The findings may contribute in bridging the divide between evidence and clinical practice

  3. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients: preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to cofactor treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, a repurposing approach of BH4 was suggested to increase cerebral neurotransmitter synthesis. To investigate whether BH4 may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, we investigated blood prolactin concentrations-as a parameter of brain dopamine availability. We retrospectively compared blood prolactin in relation to blood phenylalanine concentrations of nine (male) BH4-responsive PKU patients, when being treated without and with BH4. Blood prolactin concentrations positively correlated to blood phenylalanine concentrations (p=0.002), being significantly lower with than without BH4 treatment (p=0.047). In addition, even in this small number of male patients, blood prolactin concentrations tended to be lower at increasing BH4 dose (p=0.054), while taking blood phenylalanine concentrations into account (p=0.002). In individual BH4-responsive patients, median blood prolactin concentrations were significantly lower while using BH4 than before using BH4 treatment (p=0.024), whereas median blood phenylalanine concentrations tended to be lower, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.107). Therefore, these data show that high blood phenylalanine in BH4-responsive PKU male patients seems to be associated with increased blood prolactin concentrations, suggesting reduced cerebral dopamine availability. Moreover, these data suggest that BH4 treatment in itself could decrease blood prolactin concentrations in a dose-responsive way, independent of blood phenylalanine concentrations. We conclude that these preliminary data

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  5. Light transmittance of fiber posts following various surface treatments: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Ergun, Gulfem; Egilmez, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the light transmittance of fiber posts following application of various surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Fiber post specimens (Snowpost red size #14) were tested (n = 7). The fiber posts were divided into five groups according to the application of surface treatments: Group 1: No surface treatment; Group 2: Etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF) + silane application; Group 3: Airborne-particle abraded with 110 μm Al2O3; Group 4: Irradiated with erbium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser; Group 5: Airborne-particle abraded with 110 μm Al2O3 + silane application. The light transmittance of the specimens was compared using a spectrophotometer. Statistical significance was determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). Results: One-way ANOVA revealed that surface treatment had significant effects on light transmittance of posts (P < 0.001). While laser treatment had the highest percentage of light transmittance, treatment with silane following HF application had the lowest. Conclusion: Application of surface treatments might negatively affect the light transmission property of fiber posts. PMID:27095902

  6. Compositional insights and valorization pathways for carbonaceous material deposited during bio-oil thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Aitor; Aramburu, Borja; Ibáñez, María; Valle, Beatriz; Bilbao, Javier; Gayubo, Ana G; Castaño, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    This work analyses the composition, morphology, and thermal behavior of the carbonaceous materials deposited during the thermal treatment of bio-oil (thermal pyrolytic lignin-TPL). The bio-oil was obtained by flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (pine sawdust), and the TPLs were obtained in the 400-700 °C range. The TPLs were characterized by performing elemental analysis; (13)C NMR, Raman, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; SEM; and temperature-programmed oxidation analyzed by differential thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The results are compared to a commercial lignin (CL). The TPLs have lower oxygen and hydrogen contents and a greater aromaticity and structural order than the CL material. Based on these features, different valorization routes are proposed: the TPL obtained at 500 °C is suitable for use as a fuel, and the TPL obtained at 700 °C has a suitable morphology and composition for use as an adsorbent or catalyst support.

  7. Temperature control for thermal treatment of aluminum alloy in a large-scale vertical quench furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玲; 贺建军; 喻寿益; 桂卫华

    2016-01-01

    The temperature control of the large-scale vertical quench furnace is very difficult due to its huge volume and complex thermal exchanges. To meet the technical requirement of the quenching process, a temperature control system which integrates temperature calibration and temperature uniformity control is developed for the thermal treatment of aluminum alloy workpieces in the large-scale vertical quench furnace. To obtain the aluminum alloy workpiece temperature, an air heat transfer model is newly established to describe the temperature gradient distribution so that the immeasurable workpiece temperature can be calibrated from the available thermocouple temperature. To satisfy the uniformity control of the furnace temperature, a second order partial differential equation (PDE) is derived to describe the thermal dynamics inside the vertical quench furnace. Based on the PDE, a decoupling matrix is constructed to solve the coupling issue and decouple the heating process into multiple independent heating subsystems. Then, using the expert control rule to find a compromise of temperature rising time and overshoot during the quenching process. The developed temperature control system has been successfully applied to a 31 m large-scale vertical quench furnace, and the industrial running results show the significant improvement of the temperature uniformity, lower overshoot and shortened processing time.

  8. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Surface Treatments to Enhance the Wear Resistance of 60-Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of protective surface treatments on 60-Nitinol (60wt%Ni-40wt%Ti) was studied. Various nitriding techniques as well as a (Ti, Al)N coating were evaluated visually, microscopically, and by hardness and scratch testing. The chemical composition of the surface treatments was investigated by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that very hard (greater than 1,000 HK) and adherent surface layers can be produced on 60-Nitinol. Further work is needed to determine the tribological properties of these surface treatments in relevant operating environments.

  10. Preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility: possibility of early and effective therapy during treatment of septic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood cultures have the drawback of requiring long time to be carried out. Our study was designed with the aim of early reports on both causing agents and preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility. We carried out a direct antimicrobial susceptibility on 79 positive blood cultures (42 for Gram-negative bacteria of which 21 MDRO; 22 for staphylococci of which 15 S. aureus; and 15 Enterococci/Streptococci employing E-test strips deposited on Müller-Hinton Agar for staphylococci and Gram-negative bacteria, and Müller-Hinton Agar + 5% of blood for enterococci/streptococci. MICs were compared to the antimicrobial susceptibility tests carried out using Vitek2. On the basis of the interpretative criteria (SIR, the comparison between the direct antimicrobial susceptibility and the routine antimicrobial susceptibility, showed a concordance from 92.6% up to 100% for Gram-negative bacteria; from 90.0% up to 100% for staphylococci; from 86.7% up to 100% for streptococci/enterococci, respectively. With regard to MICs comparison, good concordance was detected on the basis of ± 1 doubling dilution. Moreover, this work allowed, in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, either the early identification of multidrug-resistant organisms or providing the MIC evaluation in a broader interval than it would be possible by the reference antimicrobial susceptibility.

  11. Application of Thermal Network Model to Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronic Package Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ishizuka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a growing demand to have smaller and lighter electronic circuits which have greater complexity, multifunctionality, and reliability. High-density multichip packaging technology has been used in order to meet these requirements. The higher the density scale is, the larger the power dissipation per unit area becomes. Therefore, in the designing process, it has become very important to carry out the thermal analysis. However, the heat transport model in multichip modules is very complex, and its treatment is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an application of the thermal network method to the transient thermal analysis of multichip modules and proposes a simple model for the thermal analysis of multichip modules as a preliminary thermal design tool. On the basis of the result of transient thermal analysis, the validity of the thermal network method and the simple thermal analysis model is confirmed.

  12. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  13. ACAMPROSATE AND BACLOFEN WERE NOT EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING: PRELIMINARY BLIND RATER COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinhas N Dannon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pathological gambling (PG is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, Baclofen and Acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Materials & Methods: 17 male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the six months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. Results: None of the 17 patients reached the six months abstinence. One patient receiving Baclofen sustained abstinence for 4 months. 14 patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1-3 months. 2 patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Conclusion: Baclofen and Acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers.

  14. Danazol a new perspective in the treatment of htlv-l associated myelopathy (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Melo

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of danazol treatment in eight patients with HTLV-l associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Treatment with danazol yielded clinical improvement of urinary control and gait disturbances in 7 out of the 8 patients. The improvement was noted within 15 days of danazol administration. Analysis of factors of relevance to the clinical improvement with danazol showed that the beneficial response was preferentially found in females.

  15. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment: technical considerations and preliminary results of the first brazilian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Carlos Ramon Silveira; FERREIRA, Luciano Santana de Miranda; Sapucaia,Ricardo Aguiar; LIMA, Meyline Andrade; Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Backgroung : Anorectal fistula represents an epithelized communication path of infectious origin between the rectum or anal canal and the perianal region. The association of endoscopic surgery with the minimally invasive approach led to the development of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment. Aim : To describe the technique and initial experience with the technique video-assisted for anal fistula treatment. Technique : A Karl Storz video equipment was used. Main steps included the ...

  16. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (pShoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (pshoulder pain.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure non-thermal plasmas for surface treatment of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Feng; Wen, Chun-Hsiang; Wei, Hsiao-Kuan; Kou, Chwung-Shan

    2006-10-01

    Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to surface treatment. In this work, we used an asymmetric glow dielectric-barrier discharge (GDBD), at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen, to improve the surface hydrophilicity of three kinds of polymer films, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyimide (PI), and triacetyl cellulose (TAC). This set-up consists of two asymmetric electrodes covered by dielectrics. And to prevent the filamentary discharge occur, the frequency, gas flow rate and uniformity of gas flow distribution should be carefully controlled. The discharge performance is monitored through an oscilloscope, which is connected to a high voltage probe and a current monitor. The physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces before and after GDBD treatment were analyzed via water contact angle (CA) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques.

  18. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with non-thermal atmospheric plasma generated in water

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhitong; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Gjika, Eda; Keidar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) can be applied to living tissues and cells as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Even though studies report on the successful use of NTAP to directly irradiate cancer cells, this technology can cause cell death only in the upper 3-5 cell layers. We report on a NTAP argon solution generated in DI water for treating human gastric cancer cells (NCl-N87). Our findings showed that the plasma generated in DI water during a 30-minute treatment had the strongest affect in inducing apoptosis in cultured human gastric cancer cells. This result can be attributed to presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in water during treatment. Furthermore, the data showed that elevated levels of RNS may play an even more significant role than ROS in the rate of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

  19. Recovery of Cu and valuable metals from E-waste using thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrasinovic, Aleksandar; Pershin, Larry; Wen, John Z.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2011-08-01

    A thermal plasma treatment was employed for economical recovery of valuable metals from e-waste. Cu-clad plates that simulated circuit boards were fed at the bottom of the reactor and treated with a plasma jet at temperatures between 385 and 840°C. Organic components of the Cu-clad plates were decomposed and contributed to the increased temperature of the offgas. Due to the low temperatures at the base of the reactor, the analyzed samples did not show losses characteristic for the plasma processes such as evaporation or metal oxidation. After plasma treatment, Cu foils were separated from the fiber glass and other solid residues allowing a complete recovery. Solid residues of the plates at the bottom of the reactor were crunched into small particles, allowing easy recycling or use as construction material.

  20. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms.

  1. A new water treatment scheme for thermal development : the SIBE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedenaud, P.; Dang, F. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The production of extra heavy oil or bitumen through thermal methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) involves the generation and injection into the reservoir of large quantities of steam which is recirculated with the produced bitumen. It is expected that maximizing the recycling of the produced water into steam will be mandatory, because of the need to minimize fresh water consumption and the possibility of increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The SAGD water treatment scheme is complex. It depends on the water characteristics, the steam generator type selected, and the decision to completely eliminate waste water disposal or use other waste handling and disposal methods. Other challenges such as the high silica content in the produced water, are encountered with SAGD water treatment. This paper presented an overview of the current water treatment process options for SAGD, as well as a new patented process called silica inhibition and blowdown evaporation (SIBE). The paper also presented an estimate of the economic benefit of the new SIBE process relative to conventional process schemes. Treatment objectives and water characteristics and the steps involved in conventional water treatment were first outlined. It was concluded that the silica and hardness removal scheme combined with the boiler blowdown evaporator were less economical because of higher investment cost due to the evaporation unit. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of meat batter structural changes induced by thermal treatment and salt addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A M; Carmona, P; López-López, I; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2008-08-27

    Raman spectroscopy, texture, proximate composition, and water binding analysis were carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment and/or salt addition to meat batter. For this purpose, different meat batters were elaborated: control meat batter (no salt) and meat batters with low (1.0%) and high (2.5%) NaCl content with and without thermal treatment (70 degrees C/30 min). Increase (P < 0.05) in penetration force and hardness upon heating was observed. Results also showed hardness increasing (P < 0.05) as a function of salt addition in heated meat batter. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in alpha-helix content accompanied by an increase (P < 0.05) in beta-sheets resulting from heating. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found between these secondary structural changes in meat proteins and water binding and textural properties of meat batter. In this way, a significant correlation was found between beta-sheets, salt content, hardness, and chewiness in heated samples.

  3. The Effect of Thermal Treatment on Mechanical Property of Alloy 690 Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ki-Nam; Cha, Hyun-Jin; An, Ji-Hyeong; Kim, Kyu-Tae [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The effect of thermal treatment on mechanical property of alloy 690 was investigated using tube specimens thermal treated in vacuum chamber at 705 .deg. C, 716 .deg. C, 727 .deg. C, 738 .deg. C, 749 .deg. C for 12 hours. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation was the highest at 727 .deg. C. Both the UTS and EL increased, it may be caused by dislocation and Cr carbides. Three types of alloy 690 were used in this paper. Fig.1 shows the configuration of ring specimen. The chemical composition is given in Table I. P55 and N55 are manufactured using mother pipe with outer diameter of 55mm, and N63 are manufactured using mother pipe with outer diameter of 63mm. N63 and N55 have the same chemical composition. During the long- term operation, the steam generator tubes were degraded under this condition. Stress corrosion crack(SCC) is one of the most serious problems of alloy 690. It is closely related to the amount of Cr in the grain boundary. This paper describes the effect of heat-treatment conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure.

  4. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  5. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  6. Structure and magnetic anisotropy evolution in Au/Co/Au sandwiches upon thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawro, A.; Kurant, Z.; Baczewski, L.T.; Pankowski, P.; Pelka, J.B.; Maneikis, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Bojko, A.; Zablotskii, V.; Maziewski, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Bialystok, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between structural and magnetic properties of Au(111)/Co(0001)/Au(111) sandwiches with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, has been studied in details. Thermal treatment in the range between room temperature and 300 C at various stages of samples growth process as well as after its completion is applied as a factor modifying the structure of studied specimens. Annealing at 150 C does not affect substantially either crystalline structure or perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. At 250 C the RHEED pattern of Co layers reveals the loss of the lattice coherence with Au underlayer and the analysis of synchrotron radiation reflectometry leads to the conclusion that the continuity of Co layers is lost. Structural evolution upon thermal treatment is well correlated with changes of magnetic anisotropy studied by magnetooptical Kerr effect. After annealing at 250 C magnetization switches from out-of-plane to in-plane orientation, which is explained in terms of interfacial and magnetoelastic contributions to the sample magnetic anisotropy. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally

  8. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases:a preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey N Weiss; Steven Levy; Alexis Malkin

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date-www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre-and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD) and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS). Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  9. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of the Surgical Treatment of Anorectal Malformations in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Dmitry; Pimenova, Evgeniya; Oculov, Evgeniy; Gusev, Alexey; Utkina, Kseniya

    2015-12-01

    The article provides the analysis of a survey of the professional community of Russian pediatric surgeons, dedicated to the treatment of anorectal malformations (ARM). The authors evaluated the differences and similarities in classification, surgical procedures, time of definitive repair, and postoperative management of ARM in different hospitals and centers. This was done by a survey upon specialists and experts in Russia followed by a symposium with live surgery, open discussion, and vote. Overall, 85% of the delegates supported the idea to create several regional centers of pediatric coloproctology as the way to improve the treatment of ARM in Russia. Moreover, 80% of delegates agreed to create a universal database of ARM information. The development of neonatal surgery and videoendoscopic surgical methods in the treatment of patients with ARM requires creation of a national guideline by the Russian Association of Pediatric Surgeons. Next step will concern standardization of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of children with ARM. This study is a collaborative effort to provide Russian Consensus on treatment of ARM.

  11. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  12. Preliminary results of the global audit of treatment of refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlisi, M; Hocker, S; Grade, M; Trinka, E; Shorvon, S

    2015-08-01

    The treatment of refractory and super refractory status epilepticus is a "terra incognita" from the point of view of evidence-based medicine. As randomized or controlled studies that are sufficiently powered are not feasible in relation to the many therapies and treatment approaches available, we carried out an online multinational audit (registry) in which neurologists or intensivists caring for patients with status epilepticus may prospectively enter patients who required general anesthesia to control the status epilepticus (SE). To date, 488 cases from 44 different countries have been collected. Most of the patients had no history of epilepsy and had a cryptogenic etiology. First-line treatment was delayed and not in line with current guidelines. The most widely used anesthetic of first choice was midazolam (59%), followed by propofol and barbiturates. Ketamine was used in most severe cases. Other therapies were administered in 35% of the cases, mainly steroids and immunotherapy. Seizure control was achieved in 74% of the patients. Twenty-two percent of patients died during treatment, and four percent had treatment actively withdrawn because of an anticipated poor outcome. The neurological outcome was good in 36% and poor in 39.3% of cases, while 25% died during hospitalization. Factors that positively influenced outcome were younger age, history of epilepsy, and low number of different anesthetics tried. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  13. Skin-derived fibroblasts for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinosis: preliminary short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Haron; Clarke, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Peter; Leach, Christopher; Connell, David

    2012-02-01

    Chronic Achilles tendinosis is a common musculoskeletal disorder often refractory to conservative management. Our study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the use of autologous skin-derived collagen-producing cells in the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study on forty Achilles tendons in thirty-two patients (eight with bilateral involvement) who had a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of Achilles tendinosis. The patients ranged from twenty-two to sixty-seven years old and had a mean age of 45.2 years. The patients with unilateral involvement were randomized into the treatment group (twelve patients) and control group (twelve patients). The eight patients with bilateral involvement were individually randomized into treatment and control groups, with eight Achilles tendons in each group. Achilles tendons in the treatment group were injected under ultrasound guidance with laboratory-expanded, skin-derived fibroblasts suspended in autologous plasma. The control group received ultrasound-guided injection of a local anesthetic and physiotherapy. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were used as the main outcome measures for both groups. Significant differences in the mean VISA and VAS scores were detected between the treatment and the control groups for the patients with unilateral involvement at six months (p tendinosis is safe. However, larger studies with a longer duration of follow-up are required to determine the long-term effectiveness before wider clinical application is considered.

  14. Open multicenter trial with Madopar HBS in parkinsonian patients. Preliminary assessment after short-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, E N; Meerwaldt, J D; Heersema, T; van Manen, J; Speelman, J D

    1987-01-01

    In 23 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease presenting with severe fluctuations in motor performance and 'on-off' phenomena after long-term treatment with levodopa, the standard form of Madopar was replaced by the controlled-release form Madopar HBS. The Meerwaldt's patient card has been used to evaluate the frequency and intensity of response swings. Only 2 patients, who suffered from clear-cut 'end-of-dose' deterioration, significantly benefited by this switch from standard Madopar to Madopar HBS. Eight patients had a minimal or not essential improvement of the parkinsonian symptomatology and/or of the response fluctuations. Thirteen patients returned to their previous standard Madopar treatment after deterioration of parkinsonian symptoms or increase of dyskinesia under the HBS treatment. The overall increase in dosage of levodopa with Madopar HBS was 54% in comparison with the initial standard Madopar dosage.

  15. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe Fornias; Marotti, Juliana; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Correa; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients who had been diagnosed with recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) after treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) associated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). PDT has shown great effectiveness for treating already-established RHL vesicles, compared to ordinary treatments involving antiviral compounds. Two patients with vesicles on their lips were treated with PDT, followed by irradiation with LLLT. Both patients reported pain relief immediately after the procedure; at a six-month follow-up, neither patient showed signs or symptoms that related to RHL.

  16. Preliminary results on optimising hydrothermal treatment used in co-production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jørgensen, H.

    In December 2002, an EU-project for co-production of biofuels was started. The overall objective is to develop cost and energy effective production systems for co-production of bio ethanol and electricity based on integrated biomass utilization. Duringthe first 12 months period of the project...... illustrates that it is possible to extract more than 95% of the alkaline salts (at 200 C) leaving a solid cellulose rich biofuel for combustion or for further treatment in the ethanol process. In the experiments performed at 190 C, the best totalglucose yield after pre-treatment and following enzymatic...

  17. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  18. Crude Oil Sludge Degradation in Microcosmic Scale: Simple Simulation as Preliminary Study on Land Treatment Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study in microcosmic condition has been carried out to evaluate the bacterial hydrocarbonoclastic capability in increasing the oil sludge degradation being mixed with NPK fertilizer as nitrogen resources. Aerobic test was carried out by putting erlenmeyers in a shaker incubator, 120 rpm shaking speed, at 50°C temperature. While 150 days in microcosmic one observation showed that the consortium has the potential to grow up to 50% (v/v sludge oil load. Maximum growth and  maximum growth rate of the consortium occurred in the III C treatment (by adding 50% (v/v sludge oil and by mixing nitrogen in the form of NPK fertilizer amounting 30% (w/v of added substrat. The observation showed that at the day 150, all the treatments were degradated above 64%. Highest degradation accured in the III A treatment followed by the III C treatment amounting 88.72% and 87.19% respectively. The gas chromatography analysis showed that at t15 and t30, hydrocarbon C8 and C9 turned up and then vanished after t30. Hydrocarbon do increased at t30 while the relative abundance of C11 up to C17 was decreasing gradually. The biggest decreasing of that was in C14, as 85.28% before and 43.11% after. At the end of the study 7 species of bacteria were identified, 5 of them are of Bacillus sp, which are aerobical

  19. The impact of recovery-oriented day clinic treatment on internalized stigma: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Provaznikova, Katarina; Lipp, Madeleine; Lakeman, Richard; Amering, Michaela

    2013-10-30

    Internalized stigma is a complicating feature in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and considerably hinders the recovery process. The empowerment and recovery-oriented program of our day clinic might contribute to a reduction in internalized stigma. The aim of the study was to explore the influence of this day clinic program on internalized stigma and other subjectively important outcome measures such as quality of life and psychopathology. Data from two groups of patients had been collected twice, at baseline and after 5 weeks. The experimental group attended the day clinic treatment (N=40) and the control group waited for the day clinic treatment (N=40). The following significant differences between the two groups were found: Patients in day clinic treatment showed a reduction in internalized stigma while the control group showed a minimal increase (Cohen's d=0.446). The experimental group as compared with the control group also showed a greater improvement in the quality of life domain psychological health (Cohen's d=0.6) and in overall psychopathology (Cohen's d=0.452). Interestingly, changes in internalized stigma and psychological quality of life were not associated with changes in psychopathology. Results are encouraging but have to be confirmed in a randomized design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surgery treatment of vast abdominal hernias with application of unpressed syntetic mesh--preliminary communications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waz, Krzyszrof; Buczynowska, Mirosława; Cienciała, Antoni; Friediger, Jerzy; Topa, Jacek; Steczko-Sieczkowska, Małgorzata; Kisiel, Andrzej; Pedziwiatr, Wiesław; Gotfryd-Bugajska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation present outcome of surgery treatment of vast abdominal hernias occurred in 9 patients with application of unpressed synthetic mesh: Gore-Dualmesh and SurgimeshVN. All of operated hernias was complications post previous surgery. Surgery perfomed by 5 male and 4 female patients. One of implanted mesh was removed due to faecal fistula. Patients were followed for 2 to 12 month.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  2. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe neur

  3. Preliminary laboratory evaluation of iron-bearing reactive media for pesticide water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural pesticides are often found in ground and surface waters, and if present in high enough concentrations, create risks to human and ecological health. Filter treatment systems can potentially remove pesticides from water. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was initiated to assess the wa...

  4. Preliminary study of e-beam processing as a phytosanitary treatment against Guignardia citricarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Micologia], e-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Citrus black spot (CBS) is a fungal disease, caused by Guignardia citricarpa and affects practically all citrus species of economic importance, especially sweet oranges. It has become a serious, widespread problem for citrus production in South America. It causes lesions on citrus fruit peel and leaves and can induce fruit drop before maturity. Fruits from citrus areas affected by CBS represent a risk for introduction of this pathogen into new areas. European Community and United States severely limit importation of fresh citrus fruit from those countries were the disease is present. Various treatments have been explored to reduce the risk of introduction of CBS into countries that are currently free of this disease. E-beam processing has been successfully used to inactivate food spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Ionizing radiation treatment has been known to extend the postharvest life of many tropical and subtropical fruits. Irradiation is the most recent commercial phytosanitary treatment for fresh commodities. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electron beam processing on the viability of G. citricarpa. Isolated fungi from naturally infected oranges were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy using an electron beam irradiator (Radiation Dynamics Co., model JOB-188, New York, USA). Irradiation appeared to be a useful alternative as a phytosanitary treatment to control citrus black spot dissemination. (author)

  5. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment: technical considerations and preliminary results of the first Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Carlos Ramon Silveira; Ferreira, Luciano Santana de Miranda; Sapucaia, Ricardo Aguiar; Lima, Meyline Andrade; Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal fistula represents an epithelized communication path of infectious origin between the rectum or anal canal and the perianal region. The association of endoscopic surgery with the minimally invasive approach led to the development of the video-assisted anal fistula treatment. To describe the technique and initial experience with the technique video-assisted for anal fistula treatment. A Karl Storz video equipment was used. Main steps included the visualization of the fistula tract using the fistuloscope, the correct localization of the internal fistula opening under direct vision, endoscopic treatment of the fistula and closure of the internal opening which can be accomplished through firing a stapler, cutaneous-mucosal flap, or direct closure using suture. The mean distance between the anal verge and the external anal orifice was 5.5 cm. Mean operative time was 31.75 min. In all cases, the internal fistula opening could be identified after complete fistuloscopy. In all cases, internal fistula opening was closed using full-thickness suture. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. After a 5-month follow-up, recurrence was observed in one (12.5%) patient. Video-assisted anal fistula treatment is feasible, reproducible, and safe. It enables direct visualization of the fistula tract, internal opening and secondary paths.

  6. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Investigational Ebola Virus Disease Treatments on Viral Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L M; Albariño, César; Shepard, Samuel S; Dudas, Gytis; Sheth, Mili; Brown, Shelley C; Cannon, Deborah; Erickson, Bobbie R; Gibbons, Aridth; Schuh, Amy; Sealy, Tara; Ervin, Elizabeth; Frace, Mike; Uyeki, Timothy M; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute

    2016-10-15

     Several patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) managed in the United States have received ZMapp monoclonal antibodies, TKM-Ebola small interfering RNA, brincidofovir, and/or convalescent plasma as investigational therapeutics.  To investigate whether treatment selected for Ebola virus (EBOV) mutations conferring resistance, viral sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from clinical blood specimens from patients with EVD following treatment, and putative viral targets were analyzed.  We observed no major or minor EBOV mutations within regions targeted by therapeutics.  This small subset of patients and clinical specimens suggests that evolution of resistance is not a direct consequence of antiviral treatment. As EVD antiviral treatments are introduced into wider use, it is essential that continuous viral full-genome surveillance is performed, to monitor for the emergence of escape mutations. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Efficacy of physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorders: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velluti Claudio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No controlled trials have evaluated the long term efficacy of exercise activity to improve the treatment of patients with Major Depressive Disorders. The aim of the present study was to confirm the efficacy of the adjunctive physical activity in the treatment of major depressive disorders, with a long term follow up (8 months. Methods Trial with randomized naturalistic control. Patients selected from the clinical activity registries of the Psychiatric Unit of the University of Cagliari, Italy. Inclusion criteria: female, between 40 and 60 years, diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorders (DSM-IV TR resistant to the ongoing treatment. Exclusion criteria: diagnosis of psychotic disorders; any contraindications to physical activity. 30 patients (71.4% of the eligible participated to the study. Cases: 10 randomized patients undergoing pharmacological treatment plus physical activity. Controls: 20 patients undergoing only pharmacological therapy. The following tools were collected from each patient by two different psychiatric physicians at baseline and 8 month after the beginning of exercise program: SCID-I, HAM-D, CGI (Clinical Global Impression, GAF. Results The patients that made physical activity had their HAM-D, GAF and CGI score improved from T0 to T8, all differences were statistically significant. In the control group HAM-D, GAF and CGI scores do not show any statistically significant differences between T0 and T8. Limits Small sample size limited to female in adult age; control group was not subject to any structured rehabilitation activity or placebo so it was impossible to evaluate if the improvement was due to a non specific therapeutic effect associated with taking part in a social activity. Conclusion Physical activity seems a good adjunctive treatment in the long term management of patients with MDD. Randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to confirm the results.

  9. Thermal water applications in the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sarah; König, Volker; Mösges, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background. Thermal water inhalations and irrigations have a long tradition in the treatment of airway diseases. Currently there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the effectiveness of thermal water treatment in upper respiratory tract diseases. Methods. A systematic search in the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, and MedPilot was accomplished. Results. Eight evaluable outcome parameters from 13 prospective clinical studies were identified for 840 patients. Mucociliary clearance time improves significantly (P thermal water subgroup and the sulphurous subgroup after 2 weeks (-6.69/minutes) and after 90 days (-8.33/minutes), not for isotonic sodium chloride solution (ISCS). Nasal resistance improved significantly after 2 weeks (Radon, ISCS, and placebo), after 30 days (sulphur and ISCS), and after 90 days (sulphur). Nasal flow improved significantly with the pooled thermal water, radon alone, and ISCS subgroups. For the IgE parameter only sulphurous thermal water (P 0.01) were analyzable. Adverse events of minor character were only reported for sulphurous treatment (19/370). Conclusion. Thermal water applications with radon or sulphur can be recommended as additional nonpharmacological treatment in upper airway diseases. Also in comparison to isotonic saline solution it shows significant improvements and should be investigated further.

  10. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...

  11. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    biochemical reactions and higher growth rate of microorganisms resulting in an increased methanogenic potential at lower hydraulic retention times. Furthermore, thermal pre-treatment is suitable for the improvement of stabilization and could be realized at relatively low cost especially at low temperatures....... The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...

  12. Thermal and enzymatic treatment of digested manure fibers in the re-injection loop concept to increase biogas yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Esperanza Jurado; Uellendahl, Hinrich Wilhelm; Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the digested manure fibers (DMF) in combination with the re-injection loop concept were tested. Thermal treatment of DMF at 105oC showed an increase of the specific methane yield of DMF by 65% while no siginificant effect was observed for enzymatic treatment of DMF for 1 h prior......The re-injection loop concept proposes the recirculation of lignocellulosic organic matter after a first cycle of anaerobic digestion in order to increase the conversion into biogas. This re-circulation can potentially increase the methane yield up to 20%. In this study thermal and enzymatic...

  13. Thermal Properties of Algerian Diatomite, Study of the Possibility to Its Use in the Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Boualem; Hamdi, Safia

    The chemical and physical properties of a Algerian diatomite were given before and after heat treatment and chemical with an aim of a use in the heat insulation of constructions. The preliminary results obtained showed that this material is extremely porous (porosity >70 %), characterized of a low density and a very low thermal conductivity. These promising properties support the use of this local material in the thermal insulation.

  14. The dual toning technique for melasma treatment with the 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, HY; Kim, JH; Goo, BC

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Melasma is a treatment-resistant and acquired pigmentary facial skin condition of uncertain etiology particularly prevalent in the older Asian female. Traditional bleaching agents have offered some success. Intense pulsed light (IPL), fractionated nonablative and more recently ablative laser technology have also been used, but were associated with postoperative hyperpigmentation in the Asian skin. The present study examined the consecutive application of 2 modes of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in the ‘dual toning’ process. Subjects and Methods: Thirty females, mean age 41.4 ± 11.96 yr, Fitzpatrick skin type IV, participated in the prospective uncontrolled study. All subjects were treated with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, first with the 5 ns Q-switched mode, 1.2 J/cm2, 8 mm collimated handpiece with multiple passes and then immediately after with the micropulsed mode, 300 µs, 7.0 J/cm2, 5 mm handpiece, multiple passes. Mild and even erythema was the endpoint. Treatments were given every other week until maximum improvement was obtained. Improvement was rated at a final assessment 6 weeks after the final treatment on a 5 point scale where 1 was little or no improvement and 5 was maximum improvement. Results: At the final treatment session and at the 6-week assessment, 20 of the 30 patients (67%) saw a fair to excellent degree of improvement, 7 (23%) had visible improvement and little or no improvement was seen in 3 (10%) patients. There were no unexpected side effects in any patients. Conclusions: The dual toning technique using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser was safe and effective, and well-tolerated by all patents without anesthesia. Larger controlled studies are merited with more objective measurement techniques to confirm the results of this preliminary study. PMID:24155528

  15. Preliminary Study of Intravenous Amantadine Treatment for Ataxia Management in Patients with Probable Multiple System Atrophy with Predominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Youn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is a disabling neurologic disease. However, effective management has not yet been established. We conducted a short-term, open-label preliminary study to assess the benefits of intravenous amantadine treatment in patients with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia. Methods: Twenty patients (10 male, 10 female with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia received 400 mg of amantadine by intravenous per day for 5 days. Ataxia severity was evaluated by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale before and after intravenous amantadine therapy and all subjects reported subjective improvement after intravenous amantadine treatment using a patient global impression scale. We analyzed the total and subscale scores by the ataxia scale and patient global impression scale. Results: The mean age was 57.4 years (range: 47–72 and the mean disease duration was 30.8 months (range: 11–79. The ataxia severity significantly decreased after intravenous amantadine therapy from 42.5 to 37.3 (p < 0.001. The mean patient global impression scale for improvement was 2.9 and there were no side effects of intravenous amantadine treatment observed. When we assessed responders, the duration of intravenous amantadine effect was more than 1 month in 4 subjects of 7 responders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that intravenous amantadine treatment can be a safe management option in cerebellar ataxia, although the mechanism is unclear. Thus, further double-blind, long-term studies with a larger sample size are needed.

  16. Influence of sitgliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xiang; Xun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of stigliptin and metformin treatment on glucose fluctuation and serum inflammatory factors in preliminary diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2015, 168 cases of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into observation group and control group. The observation group was given sitgliptin (Januvia, 100 mg per d), while the control group was given metformin (Glucophage tablet, initial dose 0.5 g bid, twice per d), and the dosage of drugs was adjusted every 2 weeks according to glucose level. If the glucose level still wasn’t controlled to reach the normal standard by maximum dosage of drugs, 0.5 g bid of acarbose (Glucobay) was applied for the treatment 3 times one day till the glucose level reached the normal standard and the observation was kept for 6 months. The HbA1c, BMI, fluctuation indexes, and serum inflammatory factors of two groups were compared. Results: After the treatment of control group and observation group, the differences of PPGE (t=8.425,P=0.012), MAGE (t=7.348,P=0.014) and MODD (t=9.327,P=0.010) between two groups were significant (P<0.05). The differences of IL-6 (t=6.337,P=0.010) and TNF-α(t=6.521,P=0.011) level of observation group and control group after treatment were statistical significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:The sitgliptin could not only achieve glycemic control goal as metformin, but also induce glucose fluctuation and inhibit serum inflammation better.

  17. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 1: Techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    This paper provides an overview of alternatives to conventional thermal treatments and a review of the literature on fruit-juice processing for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice yield enhancement, these being radiation treatments (UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation), electrical treatments (pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, ohmic heating), microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, inert gas treatments (supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation), and flash-vacuum expansion. The nonthermal technologies discussed in this review have the potential to meet industry and consumer expectations. However, the lack of standardization in operating conditions hampers comparisons among different studies, and consequently ambiguity arises within the literature. For the juice industry to advance, more detailed studies are needed on the scaling-up, process design, and optimization, as well as on the effect of such technologies on juice quality of juices in order to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing.

  18. Transition phases of zeolite Faujasite type to Sodalite by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia K. Kaminishikawahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The zeolites can have several functions as catalysts (biofuel production and molecular sieves (treatment of contaminated areas. This study aims to characterize the zeolites obtained in the transition of a Faujasite like zeolite into a Sodalite, when submitted to different thermal treatment times. The synthesized zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction where the crystalline phases were identified: Faujasite, Sodalite, SiO2 and amorphous material. The 4 hours heat treatment produces zeolite crystal structure similar to Faujasite, having basic sites, surface area of 552.7 m2 g-1 , and pore volume of 0.3391 cm3 g-1. With increasing time of heat treatment was observed the transition to the Sodalite phase witch containing 0.277 mmol g-1 of basic active sites with surface area of 11.38 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.0651 cm3 g-1. By the Rietveld method was identified and quantified the presence of Sodalite and Hidrossodalite in samples with 24 and 30 hours of reaction times.

  19. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed.

  20. Preliminary soft-tissue distraction versus checkrein ligament release after fasciectomy in the treatment of dupuytren proximal interphalangeal joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Randall O; Smith, Anthony A; Coakley, Brandon; Casey, William J; Rebecca, Alanna M; Duncan, Scott F M

    2011-11-01

    Checkrein ligament release for treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint Dupuytren contractures does not address the shortened arteries or deficient skin. The Digit Widget uses soft-tissue distraction to overcome these issues. This study compares checkrein ligament release after fasciectomy versus preliminary soft-tissue distraction, followed by operative release, for treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint Dupuytren contractures. The authors compared operative and postoperative characteristics of patients treated with either fasciectomy plus checkrein ligament release or Digit Widget distraction between 2001 and 2008. Seventeen patients (20 digits) underwent ligament release (mean contracture, 55.9 degrees); six of these 20 were reoperations. Thirteen patients (17 digits) underwent distraction (mean contracture, 67.6 degrees); 10 of 17 were reoperations. The 20 digits treated with fasciectomy plus ligament release had an average extension improvement of 31.4 degrees (range, -4 to 70 degrees). Digits treated with distraction had an average extension improvement of 53.4 degrees (range, 30 to 75 degrees) (pDupuytren fasciectomy plus checkrein ligament release. Therapeutic, III.

  1. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  2. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  3. Iron content of skin before and after thalidomide treatment of lepra reaction. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, J; Gorodetsky, R; Weinreb, A; Loewinger, E

    1981-01-01

    THe concentration of copper, zinc and iron in the skin of patients suffering from lepra reaction was measured by diagnostic X-ray spectrometry (DXS) at the sites of the lesions before and after treatment with thalidomide. The results were compared with the levels of these elements in the skin of healthy individuals. No significant changes in the copper level of leprous skin were found. The zinc levels showed significant elevations in some lesions with no apparent trend. The iron level in the affected areas had highly elevated values in all cases of lepra reaction. However, in contrast to the fast clinical improvement which followed the treatment with thalidomide, the iron levels did not decrease for prolonged periods.

  4. [The results of wet AMD treatment by intravitreal injections--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszko, Anna; Borucka, Anna I; Ulińska, Magdalena; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible, severe loss of vision in the developed countries. One of the modern methods of treatment in neovascular form of AMD are repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (Lucentis). Ranibizumab is a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all biologically active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). The aim of the study was to analyze the results of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in wet AMD patients. There were 57 patients enrolled in the study. 87% of them avoided any loss of visual acuity and 47.3% gained at least one line at visual acuity chart. Authors conclude that treatment with repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab is effective in neovascular form of AMD.

  5. A Preliminary Study of Sexual Dysfunction in Male Opioid-Dependants under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudeh Babakhanian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual dysfunction is one of the prevalent problems of opiate-dependent patients. The current preliminarily study examines sexual dysfunction in a group of opiate-dependent patients before and after 6 months of MMT. Methods: The current study is a cross-sectional study. The numbers of 30 opiate-dependent patients were selected of Cheraghiyan clinic in Damghan, Iran. Demographics questionnaire and the International Index of Erectile Function were administered before and after treatment. Results: Erectile function showed an increase and intercourse satisfactions completely improved. Sexual desire and overall satisfaction increased, showing slight improvement while orgasmic function increased showing no improvement. Discussion: The findings revealed the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and improvement of some component in patients after treatment. Future studies are needed to explore the roles of other factors.

  6. Preliminary Evidence for the Off-Label Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa With Psychostimulants: Six Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Helson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Psychostimulants have been assessed in bulimia nervosa patients with comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the impact of psychostimulants on bulimia nervosa patients without comorbid ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine psychostimulants as a potential treatment for bulimia nervosa and to assess the concern of weight loss, given the medication's appetite-suppressing effects. This retrospective study describes 6 case reports of outpatients who were prescribed a psychostimulant specifically for their bulimia nervosa. The number of binge/purge days per months and body mass index were assessed. All patients demonstrated reductions in the number of binge/purge days per month, and 1 patient experienced total remission of bulimic symptoms. Minor fluctuations in weight were observed, but no clinically significant reductions in weight were noted. These findings support the need for clinical trials to examine the efficacy and safety of this potential treatment. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. New Treatment for Pain due to Lumbar Stenosis with a Percutaneous 16 Polar Lead: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano De Carolis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar Spinal Stenosis refers to several conditions that decrease the total area of the spinal canal, lateral recesses, or neural foramina. Usual treatment for symptomatic lumbar stenosis is surgical. Alternative medical treatment such as pain management should be reserved for patients whose surgical risk is prohibitive. Whereas in FBSS e LB patients lower limb pain can be alleviated easily with SCS, it is more difficult to achieve sufficient pain relief in the low back region. 16 polar lead has been a good and safe alternative to treat six patients with pain due to lumbar stenosis. Further data, a larger sample and a longer follow-up period are required to confirm these data.

  8. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  9. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Counseling and oral splint for conservative treatment of temporomandibular dysfunction: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Temporoamndiular Disorders (TMD) involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The most common symptom is pain, which is usually located in the muscles of mastication, pre-auricular region, and / or ATM, especially during mandibular function. The main treatment for TMD is related to pain relief. Objective The purpose of this case report was to evaluate the reduction of pain symptoms using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of patients with TMD treate...

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all participants at posttreatment. At a 3-month follow-up, 1 partici...

  12. Preliminary safety analysis for offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S

    2000-09-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct refabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since there is a lot of highly radioactive spent fuel(200 kg) to be used in DUPIC fuel fabrication process, safety analysis on DFDF facility is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and to reduce the dose exposure to operator. This report describes the design of IMEF facility, manufacturing equipment and process, offgas treatment system necessary for DUPIC fuel manufacturing process. Also, it provides the flow chart of arising and activity for each nuclide in offgas treatment system and final arising and activity for gaseous waste discharged from offgas treatment equipment into inside of M6 cell during OREOX and sintering processes in DUPIC fuel manufacturing process.

  13. Fidaxomicin in the treatment of colitis due to Clostridium difficile: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI and Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD is increasing in Canada, USA, and Europe and represents a considerable clinical problem. Both naïve and hypervirulent strains can be considered as opportunistic bacteria affecting immunocompromised, antibiotic-treated, critical, or subcritical patients with a microbiota disruption. CDI arising is strictly related to antibiotic, single or combined, and/or proton pump inhibitor treatment. CDI can cause a syndrome with systemic involvement and complex treatment, sometimes requiring surgical interventions (e.g. colectomy in fulminant colitis. Antibiotic treatment with metronidazole by mouth is the first choice and generally vancomycin is administered in case of lack of effectiveness. Fidaxomicin is a new macrocyclic antibiotic for C. difficile with microflora-sparing properties. This paper reports our initial experience in 11 patients with non-responder or relapsing CDIs. Fidaxomicin was effective in 10 cases (91%. Only one patient with an active ulcerative colitis did not respond and was treated with fecal-microbiota transplantation. In two patients diarrhea persisted, but just the ulcerative colitis one was C. difficile-related. No adverse events were experienced.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i1s.956

  14. A preliminary model of work during initial examination and treatment planning appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, J Y; Torres-Urquidy, M H; Schleyer, T; Monaco, V

    2009-01-10

    Objective This study's objective was to formally describe the work process for charting and treatment planning in general dental practice to inform the design of a new clinical computing environment.Methods Using a process called contextual inquiry, researchers observed 23 comprehensive examination and treatment planning sessions during 14 visits to 12 general US dental offices. For each visit, field notes were analysed and reformulated as formalised models. Subsequently, each model type was consolidated across all offices and visits. Interruptions to the workflow, called breakdowns, were identified.Results Clinical work during dental examination and treatment planning appointments is a highly collaborative activity involving dentists, hygienists and assistants. Personnel with multiple overlapping roles complete complex multi-step tasks supported by a large and varied collection of equipment, artifacts and technology. Most of the breakdowns were related to technology which interrupted the workflow, caused rework and increased the number of steps in work processes.Conclusion Current dental software could be significantly improved with regard to its support for communication and collaboration, workflow, information design and presentation, information content, and data entry.

  15. Acupuncture Treatment for Acute Ankle Injury in the Emergency Department: A Preliminary Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivesruangdet, Nopmanee

    2016-02-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient medical treatment that is increasingly attracting the interest of the public. It is a complementary therapy that is widely used for management of pain, especially chronic discomfort caused by migraine, low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee(¹⁻³). The evidence base for the effectiveness of acupuncture and its clinical applications is controversial, and although its efficacy and safety in the management of acute pain have been demonstrated, the quality of this modality is still questionable. The present study reports a case of acute ankle injury, which was treated with acupuncture. A 33-year-old man presented with acute twisted ankle injury. He had pain with swelling around the ankle, and he was experiencing difficulty in walking. His clinical diagnosis was acute ankle sprain with severe pain. Several drug treatments are used for pain control, but in this case, we used acupuncture. After treatment, his pain diminished significantly with a decrease in VAS pain level from 8 to 4 in 20 minutes. At follow-up after one month, we found no skin infection in this case.

  16. Successful treatment of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis with indomethacin: a preliminary report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Juan Carlos; Ramirez, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a disease of children and young adults. Clinically, the disease is characterized by the insidious onset of local pain and swelling in affected bones. Its course is one of intermittent periods of exacerbation and remission with successive bones affected. The pathogenesis of CRMO remains unknown, although an autoinflammatory disorder may be the cause, with inflammation of bone. This lesion is radiologically characterized as multiple lucencies surrounded by defined zones of patchy but dense sclerosis, cortical thickening from periosteal new bone formation, and increased bone size with different bones involved. Multiple therapeutic regimens had shown only a partial or temporary response. Because indomethacin has been successfully applied in inhibition of ossification and inflammatory processes, we initiated therapy with indomethacin in patients with CRMO. We report on the cases of 5 patients who responded dramatically to treatment with indomethacin. All underwent progressive clinical improvement (mean, 2.8 months). Radiological lesions disappeared after a mean period of 10.5 months. In 1 case where treatment was started late, small osteolytic zones persisted but with no clinical consequences. There were no additional recurrences or new bones affected during follow-up period (mean, 4 years). Our observation indicates that indomethacin may be an effective treatment for CRMO.

  17. New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture–a preliminary case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option. PMID:24670232

  18. Radial shock wave therapy in the treatment of chronic constriction injury model in rats: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Miao; Cheng Hao; Li Duoyi; Yu Xiaotong; Ji Nan; Luo Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain physicians pay close attention to neuropathic pain (NP),since there is currently no ideal treatment.Radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) is a noninvasive treatment to chronic pain of soft tissue disorders.So far,there is no information on the use of RSWT for the treatment of NP.Therefore we observe the effects of RSWT on a NP model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats.Methods Four different energy densities (1.0,1.5,2.0 and 2.5 bar) RSWT administered as a single session or repeated sessions in rats with NP induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve.The analgesic effect was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).The safety was assessed through calculating sciatic functional index (SFI).Results MWT and TWL increased after a single session of RSWT from day 1 to day 5 but retumed to baseline levels by day 10.Following repeated sessions of RSWT,both the MWT and TWL were significantly higher than NP group (P < 0.01)for at least 4 weeks.In addition,no significant changes of SFI were observed in any groups after repeated sessions of RSWT and no increased pain or other side effects in any animals.Conclusions A single session of RSWT is rapidly effective in the treatment of CCI,but the efficacy maintained in a short period.However,repeated sessions of RSWT have prolonged efficacy.

  19. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000°C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is resistant to HBr and remains unchanged in the residue.

  20. Adjunctive agomelatine therapy in the treatment of acute bipolar II depression: a preliminary open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michele Fornaro,1 Michael J McCarthy,2,3 Domenico De Berardis,4 Concetta De Pasquale,1 Massimo Tabaton,5 Matteo Martino,6 Salvatore Colicchio,7 Carlo Ignazio Cattaneo,8 Emanuela D'Angelo,9 Pantaleo Fornaro61Department of Formative Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Veteran's Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, "ASL 4", Teramo, Italy; 5Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy; 6Department of Neurosciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy; 7Unit of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 8National Health System, "ASL 13", Novara, Italy; 9National Health System, "ASL 3", Genoa, ItalyPurpose: The circadian rhythm hypothesis of bipolar disorder (BD suggests a role for melatonin in regulating mood, thus extending the interest toward the melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine as well as type I (acute or II cases of bipolar depression.Patients and methods: Twenty-eight depressed BD-II patients received open label agomelatine (25 mg/bedtime for 6 consecutive weeks as an adjunct to treatment with lithium or valproate, followed by an optional treatment extension of 30 weeks. Measures included the Hamilton depression scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Clinical Global Impression Scale–Bipolar Version, Young Mania Rating Scale, and body mass index.Results: Intent to treat analysis results demonstrated that 18 of the 28 subjects (64% showed medication response after 6 weeks (primary study endpoint, while 24 of the 28 subjects (86% responded by 36 weeks. When examining primary mood stabilizer treatment, 12 of the 17 (70.6% valproate and six of the 11 (54.5% lithium patients responded by the first endpoint. At 36 weeks, 14 valproate treated (82.4% and 10 lithium

  1. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PITCH-BASED AND PAN-BASED CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Sardar S. [Southern Illinois University; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Fillip, Peter [Southern Illinois University

    2011-01-01

    Thermal properties of two directional (2D) pitch-based carbon fiber with charred resin and three directional (3D) PAN-based carbon fiber with CVI carbon matrix C/C composite were investigated for non-heat treated (NHT) and heat treated (HT) materials through the thickness (z-direction). Heat treatment was performed at 1800, 2100 and 2400 oC for 1-hr in inert argon atmosphere. Thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density were measured to calculate thermal conductivity. Thermal diffusivity and conductivity was the highest for 3D C/C heat treated at maximum temperature with non-heat treated one exhibiting the lowest one. Similarly, 2D C/C heat treated at maximum temperature exhibited the highest thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) images of HTT C/C show a progressive improvement in microstructure when compared to NHT C/C. However, HTT 2D and 3D C/C composites exhibited extensive shrinkage of charred resin and CVI carbon matrix, respectively, from fibers resulting in intra and inter-bundles cracking when compared to NHT one. Raman spectroscopy and XRD results of NHT and HTT C/C indicated increased ordering of structure. A progressive improvement in thermal properties was observed with increased heat treatment temperatures.

  2. Comparison of conventional and low dose steroid in the treatment of PFAPA syndrome: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgan, Hamza; Gültekin, Erhan; Yazıcılar, Osman; Sagun, Ömer Faruk; Uzun, Lokman

    2012-11-01

    Steroids have been widely used to relief symptoms in the patients with PFAPA syndrome. This study was constructed to show the effectiveness of low-dose steroid therapy in patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome. 41 patients (86 febrile attacks) who were diagnosed using the criteria suggested by Thomas et al. were involved in the study. The cases were classified into two groups and the selection of patients in groups was made randomly. Twenty patients received prednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day (first group: 40 attacks) and 21 patients received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (second group: 46 attacks). The effectiveness of the treatment was especially determined by the time needed to reduce the fever and the effect on the duration between the two attacks. The patients were re-examined 24 hours later, after a steroid treatment. The patients who were in the first group received 2mg/kg/day dose of prednisolone and their fever was dramatically decreased in 6-8 hours (7.6 ± 0.9 hours). The second group received 0.5mg/kg/day dose and 19 of these patients' fever was decreased in 8-12 hours. Two patients whose temperature did not decrease, received another dose of prednisolone 24 hours after the first dose and their fever was reduced 12 hours after the second dose (11.3 ± 6.4 hours). A comparison of the rate of fever reduction and the interval between the attacks (Group I: 5.11 ± 1.01 week and Group II: 5.2 ± 1.13 week) in the two groups did not show any statistical significance (p=0.104). Low-dose steroid treatment is as effective as normal dose in PFAPA syndrome but there is need to study with a larger group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic effects of sapropterin treatment in autism spectrum disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, R E; DeLatorre, R; Taylor, H B; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N; James, S J

    2013-03-05

    Sapropterin, a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), has been reported to improve symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, as BH4 is involved in multiple metabolic pathway that have been found to be dysregulated in ASD, including redox, pterin, monoamine neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO) and immune metabolism, the metabolic pathway by which sapropterin exerts its therapeutic effect in ASD effect remains unclear. This study investigated which metabolic pathways were associated with symptomatic improvement during sapropterin treatment. Ten participants (ages 2-6 years old) with current social and/or language delays, ASD and a central BH4 concentration 30 nM l(-1) were treated with a daily morning 20 mg kg(-1) dose of sapropterin for 16 weeks in an open-label fashion. At baseline, 8 weeks and 16 weeks after starting the treatment, measures of language, social function and behavior and biomarkers of redox, pterin, monoamine neurotransmitter, NO and immune metabolism were obtained. Two participants discontinued the study, one from mild adverse effects and another due to noncompliance. Overall, improvements in subscales of the Preschool Language Scale (PLS), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and autism symptoms questionnaire (ASQ) were seen. Significant changes in biomarkers of pterin, redox and NO were found. Improvement on several subscales of the PLS, VABS, ABC and ASQ were moderated by baseline and changes in biomarkers of NO and pterin metabolism, particularly baseline NO metabolism. These data suggest that behavioral improvement associated with daily 20 mg kg(-1) sapropterin treatment may involve NO metabolism, particularly the status of pretreatment NO metabolism.

  4. An economic evaluation of implant treatment in edentulous patients-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Sendi, Pedram; Marinello, Carlo P

    2005-01-01

    Edentulous patients with denture problems benefit from implant treatment with overdenture prostheses. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a method of analyzing cost effectiveness in dentistry. As an example, overdenture treatment with two or four implants was compared to the conventional complete denture (CD). In a self-selected trial, 20 patients each were treated with implant-retained overdentures (two implants, IRET), implant-supported overdentures (four implants, ISUP), or CDs (control group) in the edentulous mandible. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the patient's perspective, with a time horizon of 6 months. Direct health-care costs were calculated in Swiss Francs (in 2000), and effects were defined as improvements in perceived chewing ability compared with the baseline value before treatment (measured on a VAS). Point estimates for mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were complemented with cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to account for uncertainties associated with costs and effects. Mean incremental costs were CHF 4,329 (IRET-CD), CHF 13,360 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 9,031 (ISUP-IRET); these cost differences were all statistically significant. The mean incremental effects at 6 months were 19% (IRET-CD), 23% (ISUP-CD), and 4% (ISUP-IRET). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were CHF 228 (IRET-CD), CHF 581 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 2,258 (IRET-ISUP) per percentage increase in chewing ability. From an economic point of view, IRETs were more attractive than ISUPs. The latter were associated with a statistically significant improvement in perceived chewing ability compared to CDs, but at substantially higher costs.

  5. Economic costs of Oxford House inpatient treatment and incarceration: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley D; Viola, Judah; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I; Ferrari, Joseph R; Rabin-Belyaev, Olga

    2006-01-01

    The Oxford House model for substance abuse recovery has potential economic advantages associated with the low cost of opening up and maintaining the settings. In the present study, annual program costs per person were estimated for Oxford House based on federal loan information and data collected from Oxford House Inc. In addition, annual treatment and incarceration costs were approximated based on participant data prior to Oxford House residence in conjunction with normative costs for these settings. Societal costs associated with the Oxford House program were relatively low, whereas estimated costs associated with inpatient and incarceration history were high. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with the Gynecare TVT Secur™ System – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Baranowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sling procedures were first introduced over 100 years ago in the treatment of stress urinaryincontinence. Since then they have evolved to become less invasive and safer. The sling procedure using theGynecare TVT Secur™ system is a new therapeutic option for women with stress urinary incontinence.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gynecare TVT Secur™ in the surgical treatment of stressurinary incontinence in women. Material and methods: The study comprised consecutive female patients admitted to the Department ofGynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology of the Military Institute of Health Services in Warsaw, Poland, whohad been qualified for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the basis of physical signs and symptomsand the findings of a urodynamic study. The procedure was performed using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system with tapes introduced in an H- or U-shape mode. Results: Between October 2006 and September 2009, 77 sling procedures using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system were performed in women with stress urinary incontinence. Their mean age was 55.1 (30-76 years, meanBMI 28.5 (20.2-43.8 kg/m2. Sixty-nine implants were positioned in H-shape mode, 8 in U-shape mode. Fortyninewomen (63.6% were menopausal, 14 (18.2% previously had three or more natural deliveries, 13 (16.8%had a history of gynaecological surgeries. Thirty-one procedures were performed under general anaesthesia and46 under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of the surgery was 9 (4-42 minutes. It was possible to dischargefifty-seven (74% women on the day of the surgery. Urine retention was observed only in 1 (1.7% woman. Noother complications were recorded. Conclusions: The surgical treatment of urinary incontinence with sling procedures using the Gynecare TVTSecur™ system shows good immediate efficacy and safety. Considering this as well as the short duration ofthe procedure and its good tolerability under local anaesthesia, use

  7. Cetuximab in the treatment of head and neck cancer: preliminary results outside clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Dequanter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Didier Dequanter, Mohammad Shahla, Pascal Paulus, Phillippe LothaireDepartment of Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Charleroi, Montigny le Tilleul, BelgiumIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy in our daily practice, outside clinical trials, of cetuximab plus radiotherapy in a majority of treatment-naive patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.Methods: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate outcomes in patients who were treated definitively with cetuximab and radiotherapy (ExRT. Patients with stage III or IV, nonmetastatic, measurable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN were eligible.Results: There were 18 males and two females. The median age was 61 years (range from 49 to 87 years old. Concurrent radiotherapy and cetuximab was used, in first line, in 17 patients with locally advanced disease; two patients with recurrent SCCHN, who were intolerant of Cisplatin-based regimens, were treated with radiotherapy combined with weekly cetuximab; and 1 patient received cetuximab and radiotherapy postoperatively. The median time of response was 10 months (range from 2 to 24 months. A partial response was observed in 11 cases; a complete response in nine cases. The occurrence of grade 2–3 skin toxicity was observed in 11 cases. Skin toxicity was clearly correlated with a better response and the duration of the response to the treatment. The use of cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy does not increase the side effects of radiotherapy. At the end of the follow-up, 17 patients died.Conclusion: Cetuximab, with its highly targeted mechanism of action and synergistic activity with current treatment modalities, is a valuable treatment option in head and neck patients. The effect of the epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist occurs without any change in the pattern and the severity of toxicity usually associated with head and neck radiation. Cetuximab seems

  8. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment......, but the inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of the included pharmaceuticals could be seen....

  9. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  10. Effect of thermal treatments on phytochemicals in conventionally and organically grown berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablani, Shyam S; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Saez, Hector; Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Mohekar, Pallavi R

    2010-04-15

    Consumer demand for organic foods is increasing despite a lack of conclusive evidence of nutritional superiority of organically grown produce. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of thermal treatments on phytochemicals in conventionally and organically grown berries. Two cultivars of conventionally and organically grown red raspberries and blueberries were analysed for total anthocyanins, total and specific phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity. Fresh berries were thermally processed into cans and juice/puree with and without blanching, and the changes in phytochemicals were monitored. Total anthocyanin and phenolic contents of berries were not influenced by the agricultural production system. Total antioxidant activity of berries was also not influenced by the production system, but antioxidant activity varied significantly between cultivars. After canning, total anthocyanins decreased by up to 44%, while phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of both berries generally increased by up to 50 and 53% respectively. The level of changes in phytochemicals during berry puree/juice processing was influenced by blanching and type of berries. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of berries increased while total anthocyanins decreased during canning. Blanching prior to puree/juice processing improved the retention of phytochemicals in blueberries. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    It was the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Reaction rate constants and activation energy have been determined, and energy and mass balances performed. Substitution of a synthetic flue gas (7% 0{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 81% N{sub 2}) for nitrogen in the tube furnace resulted in at least equivalent chlorine removal (85.5%) compared to nitrogen. The fluidized bed dechlorination system modifications have resulted in a steady increase in performance, the most recent run providing 64% reduction in chlorine concentration. Addition of supplemental heat to the column should permit attainment of the slightly higher temperatures required to attain over 80% removal of the chlorine. Calcium chloride by-product of 67% purity has been produced. A bench scale catenary grid concentrator with supplemental heating coils and limited insulation is capable of concentrating CaCl{sub 2} solution up to essentially 40%, with no sign of scale or plugging. Further development of the process should include a thorough evaluation of the use of combustion gases to serve as the fluidizing medium and to provide the energy for the thermal dechlorination process.

  12. Heavy metal vaporization and abatement during thermal treatment of modified wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, S.; Verwilghen, C.; Ramaroson, J. [Centre RAPSODEE, UMR CNRS 2392, Ecole des Mines d' Albi, Campus Jarlard, 81000 Albi (France); Nzihou, A. [Centre RAPSODEE, UMR CNRS 2392, Ecole des Mines d' Albi, Campus Jarlard, 81000 Albi (France)], E-mail: ange.nzihou@enstimac.fr; Sharrock, P. [LCBM, Chemistry Department, Paul Sabatier University, Avenue G. Pompidou, B.P. 258, 81104 Castres (France)

    2007-09-30

    This study examines the vaporization percentage and partitioning of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn during thermal treatment of wastes with added PVC, heavy metals or phosphate, and the efficiency of sorbents for removal of these metallic compounds in flue gas of an industrial solid waste incinerator. Firstly, vaporization experiments were carried out to determine the behavior of heavy metals during combustion under various conditions (type of waste, temperature, presence of chloride or phosphate ...). The experimental results show relatively high vaporization percentage of metallic compounds within fly ash and limestone matrix while heavy metals within sediments treated with phosphoric acid are less volatile. Vaporization of metals increases with increasing temperature and with chloride addition. The thermal behavior of the selected heavy metals and their removal by sorbents (sodium bicarbonate, activated carbon) was also studied in an industrial solid waste incinerator. These pilot scale experiments confirm that heavy metals are concentrated in fly ashes and cyclone residues, thus effectively controlling their release to the atmosphere.

  13. Controlled release properties of Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules by thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Pong; Gao, Ying-Lin

    2006-12-01

    This research uses modified orifice method to prepare the O/W type Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules. In this article, we investigated the forming condition of microcapsules and the influence to sustained release effect of volatile Citronella Oil by applying thermal pretreatment to microcapsules. The results suggest that the forming of microcapsules should be processed under the fundamental conditions of: (1) the concentration of Chitosan is at least 0.2wt%, (2) NaOH is greater than 0.1wt%, and (3) with the additive of coconut oil as natural surfactant, so that we could obtain final product of microcapsules with better formation and dispersion. The changes in concentration of Chitosan will affect the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile Citronella Oil. When the concentrations of Chitosan are 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the encapsulation efficiencies are 98.2%, 95.8% and 94.7%, respectively. The particle size of Chitosan microcapsules would decrease as the emulsification stirring speed increases. When the stirring speeds are 400 rpm, 800 rpm, and 1500 rpm, the average particle sizes of microcapsules produced are 225+/-24 microm, 131+/-20 microm, and 11+/-3 microm, respectively. If the microcapsules were thermal pretreated at 80 degrees C, the structure of Chitosan wall membrane would shrink and thus achieve the effect of sustained release. The sustaining effect would increase along with treatment time increases.

  14. Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Mumford, K G; Kueper, B H

    2014-08-01

    In situ thermal treatment technologies, such as electrical resistance heating and thermal conductive heating, use subsurface temperature measurements in addition to the analysis of soil and groundwater samples to monitor remediation performance. One potential indication of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal is an increase in temperature following observations of a co-boiling plateau, during which subsurface temperatures remain constant as NAPL and water co-boil. However, observed co-boiling temperatures can be affected by the composition of the NAPL and the proximity of the NAPL to the temperature measurement location. Results of laboratory heating experiments using single-component and multi-component NAPLs showed that local-scale temperature measurements can be mistakenly interpreted as an indication of the end of NAPL-water co-boiling, and that significant NAPL saturations (1% to 9%) remain despite observed increases in temperature. Furthermore, co-boiling of multi-component NAPL results in gradually increasing temperature, rather than a co-boiling plateau. Measurements of gas production can serve as a complementary metric for assessing NAPL removal by providing a larger-scale measurement integrated over multiple smaller-scale NAPL locations. Measurements of the composition of the NAPL condensate can provide ISTT operators with information regarding the progress of NAPL removal for multi-component sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief rapid thermal treatment effect on patterned CoFeB-based magnetic tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Ming; Huang, Chao-Hsien; Wang, Yung-Hung; Kao, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Jinn; Wu, Jong-Ching; Horng, Lance

    2007-05-01

    The brief thermal treatment effects on the magnetoresistance of microstructured Co60Fe20B20-based magnetic tunneling junctions have been studied. The elliptical shape of devices with long/short axis of 4/2μm was patterned out of film stack of seed layer (20)/PtMn(15)/Co60Fe20B20(3)/Al(0.7)oxide/C60Fe20B20(20)/capping layer (48) (thickness unit in nanometers) combining conventional lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion beam etching technologies. The thermal annealing was carried out with device loading into a furnace with preset temperatures ranging from 100to400°C for only 5min in the absence of any external magnetic field. The magnetoresistance was found to increase with increasing annealing temperatures up to 250°C and then decrease at higher annealing temperatures. In addition, the magnetoresistance ratio of around 35%, similar to that of as-fabricated devices, sustains up to annealing temperature of 350°C. This survival of magnetoresistance at higher annealing temperature is due to boron conservation in the amorphous CoFeB ferromagnetic layer at higher annealing temperature for only a short time, which is manifested using x-ray diffractometer technique.

  16. Effects of thermal treatments with a curling iron on hair fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K

    2004-01-01

    The effect of curling hair with a curling iron has been investigated. Possibilities of thermal damage with repeated curling according to, and in violation of, the manufacturer's specifications have been studied. The propensity of hair surface to damage depends on the moisture content of the hair, and these experiments have been conducted in both wet and dry conditions, with and without application of tension, and with short or prolonged times. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination revealed that fibers treated under the dry condition (50% RH) show radial and axial cracking along with scale edge fusion. Similar thermal treatment on wet hair resulted in severe damage of the type described above, as well as bubbling and buckling of the cuticle due to the formation and escaping of steam from the fiber. Fibers subjected to repeated curling in the dry condition show slight increases in tensile mechanical properties, characteristic of a crosslinked fiber. Fibers treated with conditioners show an improvement in characteristic life, especially in the case of low-molecular-weight conditioners, such as CETAB, which can penetrate into the hair fiber (shown by TOF-SIMS analysis).

  17. Local treatment of coal-water slurries from thermal power plants with the use of coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapulova, G. I.; Logunova, N. I.

    2015-04-01

    The coagulation of coal particles in a coal-water slurry from the Novo-Irkutsk thermal power plant was studied. The advisability of the application of highly basic aluminum hydroxochloride of grade B for the treatment of contaminated water with a concentration of suspended particles of 30 g/dm3 was shown. The granulometric analysis of coal particles was performed. The application of the reagent was revealed to be efficient for the coagulation of both coarse particles and a finely dispersed fraction. Carbonate hardness values of up to 1.5 mmol-equiv/dm3 and pH ≤ 7.8 were shown to be typical for the contaminated water from the fuel supply shop. They were the most optimal parameters for hydrolysis and efficient flocculation and did not require the addition of sodium bicarbonate and flocculants. The process flowsheet of the separate purification of a coal-water slurry was developed for the fuel supply shop. Among the advantages of this purification method are the return of rather highly purified water for thermal power plant needs, and also the production of additional fuel in the form of recovered coal particles. The product was characterized by improved engineering parameters in comparison with the initial fuel, i.e., had a higher calorific value and a lower sulfur content. The purified water corresponded to the normative requirements to the content of residual aluminum. This technology of purification was resource-saving, environmental-friendly, and economically profitable.

  18. Ketamine augmentation for outpatients with treatment-resistant depression: Preliminary evidence for two-step intravenous dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusin, Cristina; Ionescu, Dawn Flosnik; Pavone, Kara Jean; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Cassano, Paolo; Taylor, Norman; Eikermann, Matthias; Durham, Kelley; Swee, Michaela Ballentyne; Chang, Trina; Dording, Christina; Soskin, David; Kelley, John; Mischoulon, David; Brown, Emery Neal; Fava, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evidence supports the safety and efficacy of subanesthetic ketamine as an experimental antidepressant, although its effects are often not sustained beyond one week. Studies are lacking that have examined the sustained effects of escalating ketamine doses as augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the aims of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the safety and antidepressant efficacy of two-step, repeated-dose ketamine augmentation and (2) to assess the duration of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy as augmentation to ongoing antidepressant pharmacotherapy for 3 months after the final infusion. Fourteen patients with treatment-resistant depression were eligible to receive augmentation with six open-label intravenous ketamine infusions over 3 weeks. For the first three infusions, ketamine was administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg over 45 minutes; the dose was increased to 0.75 mg/kg over 45 minutes for the subsequent three infusions. The primary outcome measure was response (as measured on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-28 items). After the completion of three ketamine infusions, 7.1% (1/14) responded; after all six ketamine infusions, 41.7% (5/12) completers responded and 16.7% (2/12) remitted. Intent-to-treat response and remission rates at the end of the final infusion were 35.7% (5/14) and 14.3% (2/14), respectively. However, all but one responder relapsed within 2 weeks after the final infusion. Repeated, escalating doses of intravenous ketamine augmentation were preliminarily found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated. Interaction with concomitant medications and elevated level of treatment resistance are possible factors for non-response.

  19. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiak, Peter; Holm, Anders; Halička, Juraj; Mojžiš, Peter; Piñero, David P

    2017-06-28

    The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye. However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment. A total of 17 subjects (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range, 17-69 year) and anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoacuity (Stereo Randot graded circle test) changes were evaluated after 8 sessions (40 min per session) of dichoptic training with the computer game Diplopia Game (Vivid Vision) run in the Oculus Rift OC DK2 virtual reality head mounted display (Oculus VR). Mean BCVA in amblyopic eye improved significantly from a logMAR value of 0.58 ± 0.35 before training to a post-training value of 0.43 ± 0.38 (p virtual reality head mounted display seems to be an effective option of treatment in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Trial ID: ISRCTN62086471 . Date registered: 13/06/2017. Retrospectively registered.

  20. Non-surgical periodontal treatment of peri-implant diseases with the adjunctive use of diode laser: preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerario, Francesco; Roncati, Marisa; Gariffo, Annalisa; Attorresi, Enrica; Lucchese, Alessandra; Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Romeo, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant diseases present in two forms: peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The prevalence of peri-implant complications is significantly rising. The aim of this study was to compare conventional treatment of inflamed peri-implant tissues with conventional treatment together with diode laser application. Twenty-seven patients (age 36 to 67, 15 women and 12 men, 12 smokers and 15 non-smokers) requiring treatment for mucositis or peri-implantitis were taken into account for this preliminary study. Plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD), and bleeding on probing (BoP) were recorded at baseline evaluation. Patients in control group (CG) received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment. Patients in test group received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment together with diode laser application (810 nm, 30 s, 1 W, 50 Hz, t on = 100 ms, t off = 100 ms, energy density = 24.87 J/cm(2)). Paired t test was used to evaluate the difference in repeated measurements of considered indexes at T 0 and T 1 (1 year) in both groups. A total of 606 sites were taken into account in the test group (TG) and 144 in the CG. PD mean variation in the TG was 2.66 mm ± 1.07, while mean PD variation in the CG was 0.94 ± 1.13 mm. Paired t testing of the variation in PD in CG and TG revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.0001). A reduction of pathological sites from 89 % (T 0) to 14.35 % (T 1) was achieved in the TG, while reduction obtained in the CG was from 75.69 % (T 0) to 50 % (T 1); BoP scores at time T 1 had fallen below 5 % in the TG and decreased to 59.7 %, in the CG. Within the limitations of this study, diode laser seems to be an additional valuable tool for peri-implant disease treatment.

  1. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  2. Coblation nasal septal swell body reduction for treatment of nasal obstruction: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jeong; Kim, Hee Tae; Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon; Bae, Jung Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of coblation nasal septal swell body (NSB) reduction for the treatment of nasal obstruction in patients with abnormally thickened NSB. The study design was a retrospective clinical series conducted at a single tertiary medical center. Eight patients underwent coblation NSB reduction. Pre-operative and post-operative nasal functions were evaluated by acoustic rhinometry and subjective symptom scales. We also analyzed pre-operative CT scan images and nasal endoscopic findings. The mean maximal NSB width was 16.4 ± 2.2 mm on pre-operative coronal CT scan images. The mean visual analog scale score for nasal obstruction was decreased from preoperative 7.63 ± 0.99 points to 3.88 ± 0.92 points (postoperative 3 months), 4.16 ± 0.78 points (postoperative 6 months), and 4.63 ± 0.69 points (postoperative 1 year). Six out of the eight patients were satisfied with the clinical outcome at 1 year after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, coblation NSB reduction has not yet been reported in the medical literature. Our results show that it can be an effective treatment modality for nasal valve narrowing in patients with abnormally thickened NSB.

  3. Effects of early spasticity treatment on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare motor and functional performance of two groups of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP. Only the study group (SG received early treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BXT-A. Methods Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, functional performance (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI, range of movement, gait pattern (Physician Rating Scale - PRS and the speed of hand movements were considered. Results The SG, composed of 11 HCP (45.64±6.3 months, was assessed in relation to the comparison group, composed of 13 HCP (45.92±6.4 months. SG showed higher scores in four of the five GMFM dimensions, which included scores that were statistically significant for dimension B, and higher scores in five of the six areas evaluated in the PEDI. Active wrist extension, the speed of hand movements and PRS score were higher in the SG. Conclusion Children who received early BXT-A treatment for spasticity showed higher scores in motor and functional performance.

  4. Preliminary Studies on Oleochemical Wastewater Treatment using Submerged Bed Biofilm Reactor (SBBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Z.; Mahmood, N. A. N.; Ghafar, U. S. A.; Umor, N. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater discharge from the industry into water sources is one of the main reason for water pollution. The oleochemicals industry effluent produces high content of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with value between 6000-20,000 ppm. Effective treatment is required before wastewater effluent is discharged to environment. The aim of the study is to develop submerged bed biofilm reactor (SBBR) with packing materials in the cosmoball® carrier. Water quality such as chemical oxygen demands (COD), turbidity and pH were analysed. The result shows that the initial COD of 6000 ppm was reduced below 200 ppm. The optimum conditions for SBBR were obtained when green sponges used as packing material in cosmoball® effluent flowrate set at 100 mL/min; 1:1 ratio of cosmoball® volume to reactor volume and 1:1 ratio of active sludge (mixed culture) volume to reactor volume. Turbidity and pH were recorded with 9.0 NTU and 7.0 respectively, which indicated that SBBR is feasible as an alternative for conventional biological treatment in oleochemical industry.

  5. Effects of early spasticity treatment on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Marise Bueno; Bruck, Isac; Puppi, Marilene; Muzzolon, Sandra; Neto, Arnolfo de Carvalho; Coutinho dos Santos, Lúcia Helena

    2013-07-01

    To compare motor and functional performance of two groups of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). Only the study group (SG) received early treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BXT-A). Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), functional performance (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI), range of movement, gait pattern (Physician Rating Scale - PRS) and the speed of hand movements were considered. The SG, composed of 11 HCP (45.64±6.3 months), was assessed in relation to the comparison group, composed of 13 HCP (45.92±6.4 months). SG showed higher scores in four of the five GMFM dimensions, which included scores that were statistically significant for dimension B, and higher scores in five of the six areas evaluated in the PEDI. Active wrist extension, the speed of hand movements and PRS score were higher in the SG. Children who received early BXT-A treatment for spasticity showed higher scores in motor and functional performance.

  6. Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments.

  7. [Preliminary study on clinical application of robotic sacral hysteropexy in treatment of uterine prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Zhou, Ning; Yang, Yizhuo; Liu, Zhongyu; Yao, Yuanqing

    2014-06-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of robotic sacral hysteropexy in treatment of uterine prolapse. From January 2012 to December 2013, 3 patients undergoing robotic sacral hysteropexy in treatment of uterine prolapse in General Hospital of People's Liberation Army were studied retrospectively. Operation time, blood loss and postoperative recovery exhaust time and pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) staging were evaluated. Three patients were treated by robotic sacral hysteropexy successfully. The mean operation time was 221 minutes (210-240 minutes), mean blood loss was 45 ml. One case with II degree perineal laceration patients simultaneously perineal repair, neither intra-nor post-operative complications occurred. The mean postoperative recovery exhaust time was 16 hours. At three months of follow-up, all 3 patients got satisfaction. Although one patient at the first six months of postoperation had leakage of urine when coughing, instruct exercise pelvic floor muscle function and acupuncture one month their symptoms disappear. Robotic sacral hysteropexy pave the way for an effective option in the management of uterine prolapse.

  8. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code (MITI 4): Rationale, Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B; Rowell, Lauren N; Manuel, Jennifer K; Ernst, Denise; Houck, Jon M

    2016-06-01

    The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity code has been revised to address new evidence-based elements of motivational interviewing (MI). This new version (MITI 4) includes new global ratings to assess clinician's attention to client language, increased rigor in assessing autonomy support and client choice, and items to evaluate the use of persuasion when giving information and advice. Four undergraduate, non-professional raters were trained in the MITI and used it to review 50 audiotapes of clinicians conducting MI in actual treatments sessions. Both kappa and intraclass correlation indices were calculated for all coders, for the best rater pair and for a 20% randomly selected sample from the best rater pair. Reliability across raters, with the exception of Emphasize Autonomy and % Complex Reflections, were in the good to excellent range. Reliability estimates decrease when smaller samples are used and when fewer raters contribute. The advantages and drawbacks of this revision are discussed including implications for research and clinical applications. The MITI 4.0 represents a reliable method for assessing the integrity of MI including both the technical and relational components of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  10. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T.; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO₂ after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  11. Surface Pre-treatment for Thermally Sprayed ZnAl15 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Pre-treatment of substrates is an important step in thermal spraying. It is widely accepted that mechanical interlocking is the dominant adhesion mechanism for most substrate-coating combinations. To prevent premature failure, minimum coating adhesion strength, surface preparation grades, and roughness parameters are often specified. For corrosion-protection coatings for offshore wind turbines, an adhesion strength ≥ 5 MPa is commonly assumed to ensure adhesion over service lifetime. In order to fulfill this requirement, Rz > 80 µm and a preparation grade of Sa3 are common specifications. In this study, the necessity of these requirements is investigated using the widely used combination of twin-wire arc-sprayed ZnAl15 on S355J2 + N as a test case. By using different blasting media and parameters, the correlation between coating adhesion and roughness parameters is analyzed. The adhesion strength of these systems is measured using a test method allowing measurements on real parts. The results are compared to DIN EN 582:1993, the European equivalent of ASTM-C633. In another series of experiments, the influence of surface pre-treatment grades Sa2.5 and Sa3 is considered. By combining the results of these three sets of experiments, a guideline for surface pre-treatment and adhesion testing on real parts is proposed for the considered system.

  12. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order B

  13. Reduction of hole doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene by photoresist selection and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Onejae; Kim, Kyumin; Choi, Eunseok; Kil, Joonpyo; Park, Wanjun; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-12-01

    The doping effect on graphene by photoresists were studied in this article. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the usual choice for graphene transfer, but it is known to leave a significant amount of residue. PMMA results in strong hole doping and reduction of mobility of the graphene devices. Not only PMMA, but photoresists also leave residues during the lithographic steps and dope the graphene in strong hole-doping states along with water and oxygen molecules. In this article, we tested three types of photoresists for their effects on graphene’s electrical properties. It was found that a specific photoresist can significantly reduce the amount of hole-doping of the graphene transistor more than other photoresists. The use of hydrophobic substrates and additional thermal treatment can help reducing the hole-doping further.

  14. Simple Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by a Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Goodarz Naseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline, magnetic, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP as a capping agent by a thermal treatment followed by calcination at various temperatures from 673 to 923 K. The structural characteristics of the calcined samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A completed crystallization occurred at 823 and 923 K, as shown by the absence of organic absorption bands in the FT-IR spectrum. Magnetization measurements were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behaviors.

  15. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, Thomas R., E-mail: bieler@egr.msu.edu; Kang, Di, E-mail: kangdi@msu.edu; Baars, Derek C., E-mail: baarsder@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1226, US (United States); Chandrasekaran, Saravan, E-mail: saravan@fnal.gov [Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1226, US (United States); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606, US (United States); Mapar, Aboozar, E-mail: maparabo@egr.msu.edu; Wright, Neil T., E-mail: ntwright@egr.msu.edu [Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1226, US (United States); Ciovati, Gianluigi, E-mail: gciovati@jlab.org; Myneni, Ganapati Rao, E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606, US (United States); Pourboghrat, Farhang, E-mail: pourboghrat.2@osu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, US (United States); Murphy, James E., E-mail: jim@unr.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno NV, 89557, US (United States); Compton, Chris C., E-mail: compton@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1226, US (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  16. The resolution of thermal oedema at various temperatures under coumarin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, N B

    1975-02-01

    The treatment of thermal oedema with coumarin (a benzopyrone) has been found to be most effect when fast moving air of 20 degrees was blown over the burnt animals. Coumarin has two main effects: one is to cause vascular injury thus allowing extra protein and fluid into the tissues; the other is to stimulate phagocytosis, enzyme production and thus proteolysis and a subsequent removal of protein and fluid from the injured tissues. At lower temperatures the injurious nature of coumarin is prominent. At medium range temperatures the proteolytic actions of coumarin outweigh its injurious nature. Resolution thus proceeds much more rapidly. At high temperatures resolution is slowed. This is a consequence of the antioxidant effect of coumarin on adrenaline and ambient temperature on peripheral dilatation. The results obtained tie in well with those obtained by workers using water of equivalent temperature.