WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary thermal treatment

  1. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  3. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  4. Thermal treatment of recycled concrete aggegate for general use in concrete. A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermally treating recycled concrete aggregate for genera) use in concrete are presented. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various

  5. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities

  6. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  7. Preliminary laboratory investigation of thermally treated recycled concrete aggregate for general use in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermal treatment methods to improve the quality of recycled concrete aggregate. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various thermal treatments at

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  9. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  10. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  11. Preliminary thermal expansion screening data for tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1980-03-01

    A major variable in evaluating the potential of silicic tuffs for use in geologic disposal of heat-producing nuclear wastes is thermal expansion. Results of ambient-pressure linear expansion measurements on a group of tuffs that vary treatly in porosity and mineralogy are presente here. Thermal expansion of devitrified welded tuffs is generally linear with increasing temperature and independent of both porosity and heating rate. Mineralogic factors affecting behavior of these tuffs are limited to the presence or absence of cristobalite and altered biotite. The presence of cristobalite results in markedly nonlinear expansion above 200 0 C. If biotite in biotite-hearing rocks alters even slightly to expandable clays, the behavior of these tuffs near the boiling point of water can be dominated by contraction of the expandable phase. Expansion of both high- and low-porosity tuffs containing hydrated silicic glass and/or expandable clays is complex. The behavior of these rocks appears to be completely dominated by dehydration of hydrous phases and, hence, should be critically dependent on fluid pressure. Valid extrapolation of the ambient-pressure results presented here to depths of interest for construction of a nuclear-waste repository will depend on a good understanding of the interaction of dehydration rates and fluid pressures, and of the effects of both micro- and macrofractures on the response of tuff masss

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  13. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hugh

    1991-01-01

    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  14. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  15. Effect of preliminary thermal treatment of EhP-56 on resistivity to cold cracks formation in the joint heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.G.; Shubin, V.I.; Belov, Yu.M.

    1975-01-01

    Data are given on the influence of the conditions of prior heat treatment on the resistance of steel EP56 to cold cracking in the joint heat affected zone /HAZ/. Other things being equal, the resistance of steel EP56 to cold cracking in the HAZ increases with reduction of hardness and increase of austenite content. Conditions for welding steel EP56, preventing cracking in the HAZ, have been determined

  16. Preliminary thermal architecture of the X-IFU instrument dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Ivan; Daniel, Christophe; André, Jérome; Duband, Lionel; Duval, Jean-Marc; den Hartog, Roland; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shinozaki, Keisuke; van Weers, Henk; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2016-07-01

    The ESA Athena mission will implement 2 instruments to study the hot and energetic universe. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) will provide spatially resolved high resolution spectroscopy. This high energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 7 keV could be achieved thanks to TES (Transition Edge Sensor) detectors that need to be cooled to very low temperature. To obtain the required 50 mK temperature level, a careful design of the cryostat and of the cooling chain including different technologies in cascade is needed. The preliminary cryogenic architecture of the X-IFU instrument that fulfils the TES detector thermal requirements is described. In particular, the thermal design of the detector focal plane assembly (FPA), that uses three temperature stages (from 2 K to 50 mK) to limit the thermal loads on the lowest temperature stage, is described. The baseline cooling chain is based on European and Japanese mechanical coolers (Stirling, Pulse tube and Joule Thomson coolers) that precool a sub Kelvin cooler made of a 3He sorption cooler coupled with a small ADR (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator). Preliminary thermal budgets of the X-IFU cryostat are presented and discussed regarding cooling chain performances.

  17. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects

  18. Preliminary development of thermal nuclear cell homogenization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Z.; Shafii, M. A.; Yudha, S. P.; Waris, A.; Rijal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cell homogenization for thermal reactors usually include three main parts, i.e., fast energy resonance part which usually adopt narrow resonance approximation to treat the resonance, low (intermediate) energy region in which the resonance can not be treated accurately using NR approximation and therefore we should use intermediate resonance treatment, and thermal energy region (very low) in which the effect of thermal must be treated properly. In n this study the application of the intermediate resonance approximation treatment for low energy nuclear resonance is discussed. The method is iterative based. As a sample the method is applied in U-235 low lying resonance and the result is presented and discussed.

  19. Preliminary design of the thermal protection system for solar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Loomis, W. C.; Heightland, C. N.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design of the thermal protection system for the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft is presented. As presently conceived, the spacecraft will be launched by the Space Shuttle on a Jovian swing-by trajectory and at perihelion approach to three solar radii of the surface of the Earth's sun. The system design satisfies maximum envelope, structural integrity, equipotential, and mass loss/contamination requirements by employing lightweight carbon-carbon emissive shields. The primary shield is a thin shell, 15.5-deg half-angle cone which absorbs direct solar flux at up to 10-deg off-nadir spacecraft pointing angles. Secondary shields of sandwich construction and low thickness-direction thermal conductivity are used to reduce the primary shield infrared radiation to the spacecraft payload.

  20. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Urban, A.I.; Bilitewski, B. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    One effect of the enactment of the new Law on Recycling and Waste Management, in conjunction with the lowering of emission limit values, has been to bring thermal water treatment more and more into the focus of the discussion on optimal water utilisation. The present volume discusses the consequences of changing waste arisings and composition for various process combinations. [Deutsch] Durch das Inkrafttreten des neuen Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes und strengeren Emissionsgrenzwerten rueckt immer mehr die thermische Abfallbehandlung in den Vordergrund der Diskussionen um die optimale Abfallverwertung. Die Folgen der sich veraendernden Abfallmengen und -zusammensetzungen im Hinblick auf Anlagenauslastung, Feuerungstechnik, Rueckstaende und Kosten werden eroertert. Es werden verschiedene Verfahrenskombinationen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Verschiedene Moeglichkeiten der Klaerschlammbehandlung und der Einsatz der Reststoffe Asche und Schlacke in der Bauindustrie werden behandelt. (ABI)

  1. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  2. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr)

  3. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  4. Thermal treatment of moroccan phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Issiouy S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is produced as a by-product during treatment of phosphate rock with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid according to the following simplified reaction: Ca10(PO26F2+10H2SO4 + 20H2O →70 à 80°C 6H3PO4 + 2HF + 10(CaSO4.2H2O$Ca_{10} (PO_2 _6 F_2 + 10H_2 SO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}20H_2 O{m{ }}uildrel {70{m{ }}`a {m{ }}80^circ C} over longrightarrow {m{ }}6H_3 PO_4 {m{ }} + {m{ }}2HF{m{ }} + {m{ }}10(CaSO_4 .2H_2 O$ Minerai Phosphogypse PG is mainly CaSO4·2H2O but also contains impurities such as free phosphoric acid, phosphates, fluorides and organic matter that adhere to the surface of the gypsum crystals. Phosphogypsum is discharged directly to the Sea or into the natural evaporation ponds. Previous studies have focused on reducing impurity levels in PG. Phosphogypsum impurities can be removed by simple techniques. Washing with water removes the soluble impurities. By cons, other contaminants (radioactive elements, heavy metals ... a specific treatment method required a complex technique where the treatment is likely to be expensive. In this study, we studied purification of phosphogypsum using water and the thermal behavior of the natural gypsum and Moroccan phosphogypsum to calculation of parameters for drying and dehydration reactions. Also, the effects of different heating temperature on the course of dehydration are investigated.

  5. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  6. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  7. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment

  8. Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    With contributions from: Gorm Heron, Ralph Baker, and Gregory Crisp (TerraTherm) Greg Smith (Thermal Remediation Services, Inc.) Phil La Mori...vapor is generated by boiling, and leaves the volume, carrying contaminant vapors H O H O2 2( )1 1c cw w w g w g d M C dM C dt dt   rate of change

  9. Thermal treatment for TRU waste sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    A thermal treatment that can automatically unpack TRU waste and remove hazardous materials has been developed to reduce the risk of radiation exposure and save operation cost. The thermal treatment is a process of removing plastic wrapping and hazardous material from TRU waste by heating waste at 500 to 700degC. Plastic wrappings of simulated wastes were removed using a laboratory scale thermal treatment system. Celluloses and isoprene rubbers that must be removed from waste for disposal were pyrolyzed by the treatment. Although the thermal treatment can separate lead and aluminum from the waste, a further technical development is needed to separate lead and aluminum. A demonstration scale thermal treatment system that comprises a rotary kiln with a jacket water cooler and a rotating inner cage for lead and aluminum separation is discussed. A clogging prevention system against zinc chloride, a lead and aluminum accumulation system, and a detection system for spray cans that possibly cause explosion and fire are also discussed. Future technology development subjects for the TRU waste thermal treatment system are summarized. (author)

  10. Thermal treatment: The old and the new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyfantis, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Burning of wastes as a treatment method has been with us since the beginning of time. Our ancestors, however ancient they may be, used thermal processing primarily for volume reduction with very little regard, if any, for the secondary impacts created. Our contemporaries apply the various thermal treatment methods with strong consideration of the secondary impacts. Incineration is perhaps the best known form of thermal treatment and is a method which is frequently applied in the municipal waste management arena. Volume reduction is the primary purpose of most of these systems, but energy recovery (production) is a frequent secondary useful by-product of some systems. Incineration technologies have been widely applied to treatment of hazardous wastes and soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Incineration has been quite successful in the destruction of these chemicals. This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of different incineration technologies which are currently available. Initial data requirements are described which aid in the selection of a thermal treatment technology. Costs and secondary impacts of these technologies are also presented. New thermal treatment technologies and new applications of old technologies are being developed. The author provides a brief introduction and evaluation of new technologies such as pyrolysis, low temperature thermal desorption, and plasma arc. The advantages and disadvantages and the availability for application to today's problems are discussed

  11. Enhancing composite durability : using thermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; W. Ramsay Smith

    2007-01-01

    The use of thermal treatments to enhance the moisture resistance and aboveground durability of solid wood materials has been studied for years. Much work was done at the Forest Products Laboratory in the last 15 years on the fundamental process of both short-and long-term exposure to heat on wood materials and its interaction with various treatment chemicals. This work...

  12. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  13. Preliminary research on virtual thermal comfort of automobile occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobet, Tiberiu; Danca, Paul; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation of climate conditions in automotive industry for the study of thermal comfort had become more and more prominent in the last years compared with the classical approach which consists in wind tunnel measurements and field testing, the main advantages being the reduction of vehicle development time and costs. The study presented in this paper is a part of a project intended to evaluate different strategies of cabin ventilation for improving the thermal comfort inside vehicles. A virtual thermal manikin consisting of 24 parts was introduced on the driver seat in a vehicle. A heat load calculated for summer condition in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania was imposed as boundary condition. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a virtual thermal manikin suitable for our research, introduction of the manikin inside the vehicle and to examine his influence inside the automobile. The thermal comfort of the virtual manikin was evaluated in terms of temperature and air velocity.

  14. Preliminary thermal and stress analysis of the SINQ window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, G.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of a finite element analysis for the SINQ proton beam window are presented. Temperatures and stresses are calculated in an axisymmetric model. As a result of these calculations, the H 2 O-cooled window (safety window) could be redesigned in such a way that plastic deformation resulting from excessive stress in some areas is avoided. (author)

  15. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, S.J.; Hamza, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author) [pt

  16. Preliminary experiments on wastes degradation by thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota S, G.; Pacheco S, J.; Segovia R, A.; Pena E, R.; Merlo S, L.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the fundamental aspects involved in the installation and start up of an experimental equipment for the hazardous wastes degradation using the thermal plasma technology. It is mentioned about the form in which the thermal plasma is generated and the characteristics that its make to be an appropriate technology for the hazardous wastes degradation. Just as the installed structures for to realize the experiments and results of the first studies on degradation, using nylon as problem sample. (Author)

  17. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1975-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  18. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  19. Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2008-01-01

    Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150°C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in...

  20. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lee A. Underwood; Frances L.L. Dailey; Carrie Merino; Yolanda Crump

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP) in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1) to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilize...

  1. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  2. Preliminary interpretation of thermal data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from 60 wells in and around the Nevada Test Site, including 16 in the Yucca Mountain area, indicates a thermal regime characterized by large vertical and lateral gradients in heat flow. Estimates of heat flow indicate considerable variation on both regional and local scales. The variations are attributable primarily to hydrologic processes involving interbasin flow with a vertical component of (seepage) velocity (volume flux) of a few mm/yr. Apart from indicating a general downward movement of water at a few mm/yr, the reults from Yucca Mountain are as yet inconclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the suitability of the area for proposed repository sites

  3. Preliminary thermal analysis of grids for twin source extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ravi; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    The TWIN (Two driver based Indigenously built Negative ion source) source provides a bridge between the operational single driver based negative ion source test facility, ROBIN in IPR and an ITER-type multi driver based ion source. The source is designed to be operated in CW mode with 180kW, 1MHz, 5s ON/600s OFF duty cycle and also in 5Hz modulation mode with 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle for 3 such cycle. TWIN source comprises of ion source sub-assembly (consist of driver and plasma box) and extraction system sub-assembly. Extraction system consists of Plasma grid (PG), extraction grid (EG) and Ground grid (GG) sub assembly. Negative ion beams produced at plasma grid seeing the plasma side of ion source will receive moderate heat flux whereas the extraction grid and ground grid would be receiving majority of heat flux from extracted negative ion and co-extracted electron beams. Entire Co-extracted electron beam would be dumped at extraction grid via electron deflection magnetic field making the requirement of thermal and hydraulic design for extraction grid to be critical. All the three grids are made of OFHC Copper and would be actively water cooled keeping the peak temperature rise of grid surface within allowable limit with optimum uniformity. All the grids are to be made by vacuum brazing process where joint strength becomes crucial at elevated temperature. Hydraulic design must maintain the peak temperature at the brazing joint within acceptable limit

  4. Thermal exploitation of shallow aquifers. Guide for the preparation of preliminary studies of technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausseur, J.Y.; Sauty, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents the main devices aimed at exploiting surface aquifers. After an introduction to the different systems of thermal exploitation of aquifers (generalities, very low energy geothermal, sensitive heat storage, interest of thermal exploitation of aquifers, indication of possible systems), this report presents the different possible systems and analyses their characteristics and performance. These systems are: direct exploitation of groundwater bodies at their natural temperature by heat sink and with release in surface networks or by geothermal dipole, or exploitation with artificial thermal refill. Thus the report addresses the single sink device with or without storage, heat pumps on dipole in surface groundwater bodies or very low temperature geothermal, the scanning dipole system, and the dipole system with hot sink and cold sink. It discusses the choice and sizing of the exploitation system. An appendix reports a feasibility preliminary study of nine cases of thermal exploitation of surface aquifers by double drills

  5. Thermal treatment of municipal waste: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Waste generation, like a shadow accompanies all kinds of human activities. For a long time waste was ignored as of no consequence. Nevertheless in recent times the presence of Waste was felt by the adverse impact it began to have on human life. Attention was given to waste disposal. Various methods of disposal were developed. Actually a process of evolution was set in this area. Starting with Dumpsite it developed in to sanitary land fill. Adverse impact was beginning to be seen in leachate contaminating ground water, and long term emission of methane contributing to climate change. This set the thinking to seek other solutions. Waste was begun to be seen as a resource instead of a nuisance to be disposed off. Bio-methanation of waste for recovery of methane rich biogas was developed. The concept of thermal treatment of waste for disposal came in to being in order to reduce volume of disposal as only the ash will be disposed instead of the whole volume of waste when waste is subjected to thermal treatment. However, it was beset with certain pollution problems which needed to be addressed. Suitable pollution abatement systems were developed. In the meantime, with the increase in global population and lifestyle changes across the globe, demand for natural resources went up rapidly resulting in pressure on the finite resources of the earth. Emphasis shifted to recovery of value from waste while disposing. Recovery of Recyclables, and energy came in to focus. RDF technology was developed facilitating this making it possible to recover recyclables like plastics, metals etc besides generating the prepared fuel RDF for energy recovery. (Author)

  6. Preliminary design characteristics of the RB fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 'RB' is zero power heavy water critical assembly designed in 1958 in Yugoslavia. The reactor operated using natural metal uranium, 2% enriched metal uranium, and 80% enriched UO 2 fuel of Soviet origin. A study of design of fast neutron fields began in 1976 and three fast neutron fields were designed up to 1983: the external neutron converter, the experimental fuel channel and the internal neutron converter, as the first step to fast-thermal coupled system. The preliminary design characteristics of the HERBE - a new fast - thermal core at the RB reactor are shown in this paper. (author)

  7. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  8. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  9. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-07

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes.

  10. Nonthermal effects in thermal treatment applications of nonionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon

    2005-04-01

    Several non-thermal factors influence the primary and secondary effects of interstitial thermal treatments using various types of non-ionizing irradiation. Recognition and understanding of the influences of these various factors are important in choice of energy source, the configuration of the application instrument and the design of treatments.

  11. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 15 % moisture content amounting to 61.3 MJ was the optimum thermal treatment for achieving germination of 69 %. R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %. The highest germination of 79 % was obtained for ...

  12. Preliminary study on acceptability of scope of thermal discharge mixing zone for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongye; Yang Yang; Wang Liang; Chen Xiaoqiu; Liu Senlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the situation that the existing domestic temperature control standards are not performable, the preliminary study on the acceptability of the mixing zone scope of thermal discharge for nuclear power plant was conducted in this paper, taking a coastal power station SNP as a case. The following preliminary conclusions could be drawn from the results of cluster analysis of the SNP site under different results of mathematical modeling and physical model test: 1) The influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) operating condition; 2) the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable in spring under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) and SNP-2 (Unit 3 and 4) operating condition, while the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is large and the scope of mixing zone is unacceptable in autumn under the same operating condition. (authors)

  13. Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn

  14. Thermal treatment of natural goethite: Thermal transformation and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haibo [Laboratory for Nanomineralogy and Environmental Material, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology (China); School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Chen, Tianhu, E-mail: chentianhu@hfut.edu.cn [Laboratory for Nanomineralogy and Environmental Material, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology (China); Zou, Xuehua; Qing, Chengsong [Laboratory for Nanomineralogy and Environmental Material, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology (China); Frost, Ray L., E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (Australia)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • We have characterized the thermal transformation of natural goethite. • The heated products showed a topotactical relationship to the original mineral. • The N2 adsorption isotherm provided the variation of surface area and pore size distribution with temperature. • The significant increase in surface area was attributed to the formation of regularly arranged slit-shaped micropores. • The hematite derived from heating goethite has application as an adsorbent and catalyst. - Abstract: XRD (X-ray diffraction), XRF (X-ray fluorescence), TG (thermogravimetry), FT-IES (Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), TEM (transmission electron microscope) and nitrogen–adsorption–desorption analysis were used to characterize the composition and thermal evolution of the structure of natural goethite. The in situ FT-IES demonstrated the start temperature (250 °C) of the transformation of natural goethite to hematite and the thermodynamic stability of protohematite between 250 and 600 °C. The heated products showed a topotactic relationship to the original mineral based on SEM analysis. Finally, the nitrogen–adsorption–desorption isotherm provided the variation of surface area and pore size distribution as a function of temperature. The surface area displayed a remarkable increase up to 350 °C, and then decreased above this temperature. The significant increase in surface area was attributed to the formation of regularly arranged slit-shaped micropores running parallel to elongated direction of hematite microcrystal. The main pore size varied from 0.99 nm to 3.5 nm when heating temperature increases from 300 to 400 °C. The hematite derived from heating goethite possesses high surface area and favors the possible application of hematite as an adsorbent as well as catalyst carrier.

  15. Thermal treatment of natural goethite: Thermal transformation and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haibo; Chen, Tianhu; Zou, Xuehua; Qing, Chengsong; Frost, Ray L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have characterized the thermal transformation of natural goethite. • The heated products showed a topotactical relationship to the original mineral. • The N2 adsorption isotherm provided the variation of surface area and pore size distribution with temperature. • The significant increase in surface area was attributed to the formation of regularly arranged slit-shaped micropores. • The hematite derived from heating goethite has application as an adsorbent and catalyst. - Abstract: XRD (X-ray diffraction), XRF (X-ray fluorescence), TG (thermogravimetry), FT-IES (Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope), TEM (transmission electron microscope) and nitrogen–adsorption–desorption analysis were used to characterize the composition and thermal evolution of the structure of natural goethite. The in situ FT-IES demonstrated the start temperature (250 °C) of the transformation of natural goethite to hematite and the thermodynamic stability of protohematite between 250 and 600 °C. The heated products showed a topotactic relationship to the original mineral based on SEM analysis. Finally, the nitrogen–adsorption–desorption isotherm provided the variation of surface area and pore size distribution as a function of temperature. The surface area displayed a remarkable increase up to 350 °C, and then decreased above this temperature. The significant increase in surface area was attributed to the formation of regularly arranged slit-shaped micropores running parallel to elongated direction of hematite microcrystal. The main pore size varied from 0.99 nm to 3.5 nm when heating temperature increases from 300 to 400 °C. The hematite derived from heating goethite possesses high surface area and favors the possible application of hematite as an adsorbent as well as catalyst carrier

  16. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  17. Modeling and preliminary thermal analysis of the capsule for a creep test in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Sohn, Jae Min; Shin, Yoon Taeg; Park, Sung Jae; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    A creep capsule is a device to investigate the creep characteristics of nuclear materials during inpile irradiation tests. To obtain the design data of the capsule through a preliminary thermal analysis, a 2-dimensional model for the cross section of the capsule including the specimens and components is generated, and an analysis using the ANSYS program is performed. The gamma-heating rates of the materials for the HANARO power of 30MW are considered, and the effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimen is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. The temperature by increasing the position of the control rod is decreased

  18. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  19. Preliminary investigation of thermal behaviour of PCM based latent heat thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Fechete Tutunaru, Lucian; Bode, Florin; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    Solid-liquid phase change is used to accumulate and release cold in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) in order to reduce energy consumption of air cooling system in buildings. The storing capacity of the LHTES depends greatly on the exterior air temperatures during the summer nights. One approach in intensifying heat transfer is by increasing the air's velocity. A LHTES was designed to be integrated in the air cooling system of a building located in Bucharest, during the month of July. This study presents a numerical investigation concerning the impact of air inlet temperatures and air velocity on the formation of solid PCM, on the cold storing capacity and energy consumption of the LHTES. The peak amount of accumulated cold is reached at different air velocities depending on air inlet temperature. For inlet temperatures of 14°C and 15°C, an increase of air velocity above 50% will not lead to higher amounts of cold being stored. For Bucharest during the hottest night of the year, a 100 % increase in air velocity will result in 5.02% more cold being stored, at an increase in electrical energy consumption of 25.30%, when compared to the reference values.

  20. Preliminary Clinical Study On Ms Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulewicz Kazimierz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted the preliminary clinical investigation on 16 multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex patients of median disease duration 9.33 years and symptoms evaluated on Kurtzke’s scale. The patients underwent between 25 and 30 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at a pressure of 2 ata in intervals spread over a few days. The patients were qualified and classified to the treatment symptomatologically according to Fisher but the obtained results were evaluated according to the standardised Disability Status Scale by Kurtzke. During the investigations the authors carried out additional quantitative immunoglobulin and complement activity determination, lymphocyte T and B determinations as well as the usually applied clinical and laboratory investigations. Evident clinical improvement was observed in 14 patients, but in the case of one patient a deterioration was observed after 15 hyperbaric expositions (resulting in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment being stopped, whilst in another case no curative effect could be observed. By utilising the 50% haemolysis method, within the examined immunological parameters the authors observed an increase of complement fractions and its activity, white lymphocytes T and B examined qualitatively did not maintain the characteristic shift. The authors are still discussing the obtained results.

  1. Neuroendocrine brake for the treatment of morbid obesity. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Ludovico de Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the preliminary results of a newtechnique named neuroendocrine brake, for surgical treatment ofmorbid obesity. Methods: In November 2003, three patientsunderwent the neuroendocrine brake operation performed by thelaparoscopic approach. The mean age was 46.4 years; all patientswere female. Mean BMI was 42.3 kg/m2. The patients selectedpresented some relative or absolute contraindications to the useof gastrointestinal bypass techniques, including gastric ulcer anda family history of gastric malignancy(1 and chronic anemia (2.All patients had associated diseases, including type II diabetesmellitus (2, hypertension (2, obstructive sleep apnea (1,dyslipidemia (3, cholecystolithiasis (1, gastric ulcer (1 andchronic anemia (2. The laparoscopic technique consisted of anileal interposition at the proximal jejunum and longitudinalgastrectomy. Results: There was no conversion to open surgery orpostoperative complications. Sixteen months later, the meanpercentage of initial body weight loss was 44.6% and the meanBMI was 24.3 kg/m2. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levelswere normalized, and sleep apnea showed remission. Conclusion:In spite of the reduced number of patients and short term followup, the good results suggest that the neuroendocrine brake maybecome an option for surgical treatment of morbid obesity in thenear future.

  2. Varfarin in the complex treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Reshetnyak

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy and tolerance of varfarin in prophylaxis and therapy of thrombotic complications in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Methods. 20 pts with APS (5 male and 15 female received varfarin during a year. 8 of them had primary APS (PAPS and 12 -systemic lupus erythematosus with APS (SLE+APS. 2 other pts (I with SLE+APS and I with PAPS received varfarin during the last 4 years. Nobody from 9 pts with PAPS received corticosteroids (CS. In SLE+APS pts CS dose varied from 4 to 20 mg/day and was not increased during follow up. During the study prothrombine time (PT was examined with thromboplastin ( manufactured by Renam having international sensitivity index 1,2 and international normalization relation (INR. Depending on treatment scheme APS pts were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 8 pts with INR<2,0, Group 2-7 with INR >3,0, group 3 - 7 pts with INR<2,0 receiving as additional treatment thrombo ASS 100 mg/day and vasonit from 600 to 1200 mg/day. Results. Two pts with INR = 1,8 had thrombosis recurrence (due to leg thrombophlebitis. There were no recurrences in other groups. 2 from 22 pts had "large" bleedings. "Small" bleedings episodes were noted in 7 from 22 pts. Largely that were subcutaneous bleedings (in 4 pts no more than 5 cm of size. Two pts receiving varfarin with INR 1,8 and 2,4 had renal colic. Conclusion. Our preliminary results prove the necessity of inclusion of varfarin in the treatment of pts with APS and thrombosis but intensive anticoagulant effect is not always desired.

  3. Retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment scoring interaction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A retrieval/ex situ thermal treatment technology process for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory transuranic waste pits and trenches is present. A system performance score is calculated, and assumptions, requirements, and reference baseline technologies for all subelements are included.

  4. Preliminary exploitation of industrial facility for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    laboratory and pilot installation in Poland has lead to decision concerning design and construction of the industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment. Industrial demonstration facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was designed and installed in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin. This flue gas purification installation treats exhaust gases coming from a block which consists of two Benson type boilers of power 56 MWe each, supplying additional steam for heating purposes up to 40 MWth each. The 270,000 Nm 3 /h flue gases (half of produced by the blocks) is treated meet Polish regulations which are imposed since 1997. Four electron accelerators has been constructed by Nissin High Voltage, Kyoto, Japan to provide 1200 kW of total beam power with electron energy 0,8 MeV to be installed in EPS Pomorzany. Two-stage irradiation was applied as it was tested at the pilot plant. The industrial installation located at EPS Pomorzany consist of two independent reaction chambers, humidification tower with water and steam supply systems, ammonia water handling system with ammonia injection, electrostatic precipitator, by product handling system, measuring and control systems. Solid particles which are formed as salts are separated in ESP and byproduct pretreated in handling system with amount up to 700 kg/h. All systems including accelerators were tested separately to meet EPS regulations (72 h continues run) and confirm producer warranted parameters and facility design specification. Some necessary modifications including accelerators were introduced by equipment producers depends on obtained results of performed measurements. The quality of shielding properties of accelerator chamber walls was tested according to national regulation and the license on accelerator exploitation and personnel qualification were issued by polish authorities. The spatial dose distribution and dose rate measurement were carried on with electron energy 700 and 800 keV. Preliminary results

  5. The future of thermal waste treatment; Zukunft der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Tappen, I.; Weber-Wied, R. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    Contents: State of the art of energy-efficient thermal waste treatment processes and practical examples; Regional and economic aspects; Licensing problems of thermal waste treatment plants. [German] Der vorliegende Tagungsband zum 2. Stassfurter Abfall- und Energieforum beschreibt den aktuellen Stand energieeffizienter thermischer Abfallbehandlungsmethoden an praktischen Beispielen und stellt den Bezug dieser Massnahmen zum raeumlich-wirtschaftlichen Umfeld dar. Darueber hinaus werden vergaberechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht fuer die Errichtung thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen aufgezeigt und eroertert. (orig.)

  6. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Krylova; T. V. Gustova

    2017-01-01

    In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitr...

  7. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated waste streams containing fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudry, Damien; Bardez, Isabelle; Bart, Florence [CEA Marcoule DTCD/SECM/LM2C, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Deniard, Philippe; Jobic, Stephane [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Rakhmatullin, Aydar [Conditions Extremes et Materiaux: Hautes Temperatures et Irradiations, CEMHTI-CNRS, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bessada, Catherine [Conditions Extremes et Materiaux: Hautes Temperatures et Irradiations, CEMHTI-CNRS, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Faculte des Sciences, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Separating actinides from fission products (FP) by electrolytic techniques in a molten chloride medium produces high-level waste which, because of its high chlorine content, cannot be directly and quantitatively loaded in a glass matrix and therefore requires the development of new management methods. In this regard the strategy of submitting chlorinated waste streams to a preliminary treatment consists in separating the various types of FP from the solvent to minimize the ultimate high-level waste volume. Selective precipitation of the rare earth elements by NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} was investigated in a LiCl-KCl medium, and could constitute the first step in the purification process. Unlike the use of alkali orthophosphate, this method provides similar conversion factors with the simple addition of stoichiometric phosphorus (P:rare-earth = 1) and does not require excess phosphate (P:rare-earth = 5). This prevents the formation of a secondary Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} phase. Moreover, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} also allows chlorine bound to rare earth elements to be eliminated as NH{sub 4}Cl. The formation of HCl is highly probable.

  8. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  9. Preliminary applications of the new Neptune two-phase CFD solver to pressurized thermal shock investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucker, M.; Laviaville, J.; Martin, A.; Bechaud, C.; Bestion, D.; Coste, P.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to present some preliminary applications to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) investigations of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) two-phase flow solver of the new NEPTUNE thermal-hydraulics platform. In the framework of plant life extension, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) integrity is a major concern, and an important part of RPV integrity assessment is related to PTS analysis. In the case where the cold legs are partially filled with steam, it becomes a two-phase problem and new important effects occur, such as condensation due to the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) injections of sub-cooled water. Thus, an advanced prediction of RPV thermal loading during these transients requires sophisticated two-phase, local scale, 3-dimensional codes. In that purpose, a program has been set up to extend the capabilities of the NEPTUNE two-phase CFD solver. A simple set of turbulence and condensation model for free surface steam-water flow has been tested in simulation of an ECC high pressure injection representing facility, using a full 3-dimensional mesh and the new NEPTUNE solver. Encouraging results have been obtained but it should be noticed that several sources of error can compensate for one another. Nevertheless, the computation presented here allows to be reasonable confident in the use of two-phase CFD in order to carry out refined analysis of two-phase PTS scenarios within the next years

  10. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  11. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated

  12. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  13. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  14. Processing of baby food using pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and comparison with thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Ismail, Marliya; Farid, Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Currently baby food is sterilized using retort processing that gives an extended shelf life. However, this type of heat processing leads to reduction of organoleptic and nutrition value. Alternatively, the combination of pressure and heat could be used to achieve sterilization at reduced temperatures. This study investigates the potential of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) technology for baby food sterilization. Here, baby food (apple puree), inoculated with Bacillus subtilis spores was treated using PATS at different operating temperatures, pressures and times and was compared with thermal only treatment. The results revealed that the decimal reduction time of B. subtilis in PATS treatment was lower than that of thermal only treatment. At a similar spore inactivation, the retention of ascorbic acid of PATS-treated sample was higher than that of thermally treated sample. The results indicated that PATS could be a potential technology for baby food processing while minimizing quality deterioration.

  15. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses for pre-moderator of cold moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-08-01

    A light-water cooled pre-moderator with a thin-walled structure made of aluminum alloy is installed around a liquid hydrogen moderator in order to enhance the neutron performance of a MW-scale spallation target system which is being developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Since the pre-moderator is needed to be located close to a target working as a neutron source, it is indispensable to remove nuclear heat deposition in the pre-moderator effectively by means of smooth water flow without flow stagnation. Also, the structural integrity of the thin-walled structure should be kept against the water pressure. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analytical results showed that the water temperature rise could be suppressed less than 1degC while keeping the smooth water flow, which would assure the expected neutron performance. As for the structural integrity, several measures to meet allowable stress conditions of aluminum alloy were proposed on the basis of the preliminary structural strength analyses. (author)

  16. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  18. Thermal treatment of the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Ceva, Horacio; Perazzo, R. P.

    2002-03-01

    We study a cost function for the aggregate behavior of all the agents involved in the minority game (MG) or the bar attendance model (BAM). The cost function allows us to define a deterministic, synchronous dynamic that yields results that have the main relevant features than those of the probabilistic, sequential dynamics used for the MG or the BAM. We define a temperature through a Langevin approach in terms of the fluctuations of the average attendance. We prove that the cost function is an extensive quantity that can play the role of an internal energy of the many-agent system while the temperature so defined is an intensive parameter. We compare the results of the thermal perturbation to the deterministic dynamics and prove that they agree with those obtained with the MG or BAM in the limit of very low temperature.

  19. Thermal power sludge – properties, treatment, utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a knowledge about properties of thermal power sludge from coal combustion in smelting boilers is presented. The physical and technological properties of slag – granularity, density, specific, volume and pouring weight, hardness and decoupling – together with chemical properties influence its exploitation. The possibility of concentrating the Fe component by the mineral processing technologies (wet low-intenzity magnetic separation is verified. An industrial use of the slag in civil engineering, e.g. road construction, was realised. The slag-fly ashes are directly utilized in the cement production as a substitute of a part of natural raw materials. For the use of slag as the stoneware in the road construction, all the criteria are fulfilled.

  20. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  1. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART. 8 refs., 4 tabs (Author)

  2. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART. 8 refs., 4 tabs (Author)

  3. Development of a preliminary PIRT(Phenomena Indentification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku

    1997-01-01

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraluic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the expert's knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierachy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental test needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART

  4. Equivalent Energy Density concept: A preliminary reexamination of a technique for equating thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-08-01

    Historical and projected inventories of spent fuel from commercial light-water nuclear reactors exhibit diverse decay characteristics and ages. This report summarizes a preliminary reexamination of a method for determining equivalent thermal loads for the range of spent fuel expected at a potential underground repository. The method, known at the Equivalent Energy Density (EED) concept, bases its equivalence criteria on the assumption that a given waste will produce worst-case thermomechanical effects equal to worst-case thermomechanical effects produced by a baseline waste, provided that the thermal energy deposited in the host rock over a specified deposition period is the same for both waste descriptions. To test this assumption, temperature histories at representative locations within the host rock were calculated using layouts defined by the EED concept and four deposition periods (20, 50, 100, and 300 years). It was found that the peak temperatures at near-field locations were best matched by the shorter deposition periods of 20 and 50 years. However, due to the sensitivity of the near-field environment to short-term canister-to-canister interactions, caution,should be used when choosing a near-field deposition period. At the location chosen to represent the far-field, a 300-year deposition period provided reasonable correspondence of peak temperature responses for all waste descriptions examined

  5. Preliminary design and thermal analysis of device for finish cooling Jaffa biscuits in a.d. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper preliminary design of device for finish cooling chocolate topping of biscuits in A.D. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka was done. The proposed preliminary design followed by the required technological process of finish cooling biscuits and required parameters of process which was supposed to get and which represented part of project task. Thermal analysis was made and obtained percentage error between surface contact of the air and chocolate topping, obtained from heat balance and geometrical over proposed preliminary design, wasn't more than 0.67%. This is a preliminary design completely justified because using required length of belt conveyor receive required temperature of chocolate topping at the end of the cooling process.

  6. Role of grain refinement in hardening of structural steels at preliminary thermomechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhvalov, A.B.; Grigor'eva, E.V.; Davydova, L.S.; Degtyarev, M.V.; Levit, V.I.; Smirnova, N.A.; Smirnov, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The hardening mechanism during preliminary thermomechanical treatment with deformation by cold rolling or hydroextrusion is studied on structural 37KhN3M1 and 38KhN3MFA steels. Specimens have been tested on static tension, impact strength and fracture toughness. It is shown that hydroextrusion application instead of rolling does not change the hardening effect of preliminary thermomechanical treatment (PTMT). It is established that the increase of preliminary deformation degree and the use of accelerated short term hardening heating provides a bett er grain refinement and the increase of PTMT hardening effect [ru

  7. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  8. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  9. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  10. Treatment of hazardous wastes by DC thermal plasma arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Iwao; Yafang, Liu; Furuta, N.; Tsuginori, Inaba

    2001-01-01

    The temperature of the DC thermal plasma arc discharge is discussed, and examples of the waste treatment for the inorganic compounds such as fly ash, asbestos, and for the organic compounds such as the toxic dioxines and TBT by using the DC plasma arc discharge are shown. In addition, the plasma treatment by using a radiant power emitted from the DC plasma arc discharge is also shown as another new kind of ones. (authors)

  11. Thermal treatment of radioactive wastes by the PLASMARC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Haefeli, V.; Fuenfschilling, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma plant for the thermal treatment of radioactive wastes to be supplied to ZWILAG is briefly described and the results of experiments with simulated waste are provided. The experiments led to the conclusion that the plant is well suited for handling low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Thermal treatment technology at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillary, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent surveys of mixed wastes in interim storage throughout the 30-site Department of Energy complex indicate that only 12 of those sites account for 98% of such wastes by volume. Current inventories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) account for 38% of total DOE wastes in interim storage, the largest of any single site. For a large percentage of these waste volumes, as well as the substantial amounts of buried and currently generated wastes, thermal treatment processes have been designated as the technologies of choice. Current facilities and a number of proposed strategies exist for thermal treatment of wastes of this nature at the INEL. High-level radioactive waste is solidified in the Waste Calciner Facility at the Idaho Central Processing Plant. Low-level solid wastes until recently have been processed at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), a compaction, size reduction, and controlled air incineration facility. WERF is currently undergoing process upgrading and RCRA Part B permitting. Recent systems studies have defined effective strategies, in the form of thermal process sequences, for treatment of wastes of the complex and heterogeneous nature in the INEL inventory. This presentation reviews the current status of operating facilities, active studies in this area, and proposed strategies for thermal treatment of INEL wastes

  13. Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of substrate type, dopant and thermal treatment on physicochemical properties of TiO2–SnO2 sol–gel films. I STAMBOLOVA. ∗. , V BLASKOV, S VASSILEV†, M SHIPOCHKA and A LOUKANOV‡. Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, †Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, BAS,. Acad. G. Bonchev ...

  14. Preliminary analysis of K-DEMO thermal hydraulic system using MELCOR; Parametric study of hydrogen explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Lim, Soo Min; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) is future reactor for the commercializing the fusion power generation. The Design of K-DEMO is similar to that of ITER but the fusion energy generation is much bigger because ITER is experimental reactor. For this reason, K-DEMO uses more fusion reaction with bigger amount of tritium. Higher fusion power means more neutron generation that can irradiate the structure around fusion plasma. Fusion reactor can produce many kinds of radioactive material in the accident. Because of this hazard, preliminary safety analysis is mandatory before its construction. Concern for safety problem of accident of fusion/fission reactor has been growing after Fukushima accident which is severe accident from unexpected disaster. To model the primary heat transfer system, in this study, MARS-KS thermal hydraulic analysis is referred. Lee et al. and Kim et al. conducted thermal hydraulic analysis using MARS-KS and multiple module simulation to deal with the phenomena of first wall corrosion for each plasma pulse. This study shows the relationship between vacuum vessel rupture area and source term leakage after hydrogen explosion. For the conservative study, first wall heating is not terminated because the heating inside the vacuum vessel increase the pressure inside VV. Pressurizer, steam generator and turbine is not damaged. 6.69 kg of tritiated water (HTO) and 1 ton of dust is modeled which is ITER guideline. The entire system of K-DEMO is smaller than that of ITER. For this reason, lots of aerosol is release into environment although the safety system like DS is maintained. This result shows that the safety system of K-DEMO should use much more safety system.

  15. Thermal dosimetry for bladder hyperthermia treatment. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveldt, Gerben; Bakker, Akke; Balidemaj, Edmond; Chopra, Rajiv; Crezee, Johannes; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Hartmann, Josefin; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kok, H Petra; Paulides, Margarethus M; Sousa-Escandon, Alejandro; Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F

    2016-06-01

    The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause artefacts for most non-invasive thermometry methods, and require additional efforts in planning accurate thermal treatment of bladder cancer. We give an overview of the thermometry methods currently used and investigated for hyperthermia treatments of bladder cancer, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages within the context of the specific disease (muscle-invasive or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) and the heating technique used. The role of treatment simulation to determine the thermal dose delivered is also discussed. Generally speaking, invasive measurement methods are more accurate than non-invasive methods, but provide more limited spatial information; therefore, a combination of both is desirable, preferably supplemented by simulations. Current efforts at research and clinical centres continue to improve non-invasive thermometry methods and the reliability of treatment planning and control software. Due to the challenges in measuring temperature across the non-stationary bladder wall and surrounding tissues, more research is needed to increase our knowledge about the penetration depth and typical heating pattern of the various hyperthermia devices, in order to further improve treatments. The ability to better determine the delivered thermal dose will enable clinicians to investigate the optimal treatment parameters, and consequentially, to give better controlled, thus even more reliable and effective, thermal treatments.

  16. Preliminary treatment of MSW fly ash as a way of improving electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current work electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was applied to remove heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash, a hazardous waste collected during flue gas treatment. Tests were conducted to evaluate if EDR could be improved by introducing a preliminary treatment in which very...... soluble salts were removed. Three different preliminary treatments were conducted with different L:S ratios and pH. Treatment in which metal release and L/S ratio were lower was selected for EDR. Electrodialytic remediation was performed at a constant current of 38 mA, for 14 days, using gluconate...... as a solubilisation enhancement agent. Conductivity and pH were monitored and electrolyte samples were collected every 4 days to evaluate metal release over time. It was found that the preliminary treatment reduces fouling of the ion-exchange membranes used in EDR and drastically increases the removal of metals...

  17. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  18. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios

  19. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  20. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation.

  1. Preliminary stop of the TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, M. M.; Kruse, Arnold-Jan; Kooreman, L. F. S.; zur Hausen, Axel; Hopman, Anton H N; Sep, S. J. S.; Van Gorp, T.; Slangen, B. F. M.; van Beekhuizen, H. J.; de Sande, Michiel A. J. van; Gerestein, Cornelis G.; Nijman, H. W.; Kruitwagen, R. F. M. P.

    2017-01-01

    The "TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (TOPIC) trial was stopped preliminary, due to lagging inclusions. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy and clinical applicability of imiquimod 5% cream in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

  2. Perspective of Micro Process Engineering for Thermal Food Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Micro process engineering as a process synthesis and intensification tool enables an ultra-short thermal treatment of foods within milliseconds (ms) using very high surface-area-to-volume ratios. The innovative application of ultra-short pasteurization and sterilization at high temperatures, but with holding times within the range of ms would allow the preservation of liquid foods with higher qualities, thereby avoiding many unwanted reactions with different temperature-time characteristics. Process challenges, such as fouling, clogging, and potential temperature gradients during such conditions need to be assessed on a case by case basis and optimized accordingly. Owing to the modularity, flexibility, and continuous operation of micro process engineering, thermal processes from the lab to the pilot and industrial scales can be more effectively upscaled. A case study on thermal inactivation demonstrated the feasibility of transferring lab results to the pilot scale. It was shown that micro process engineering applications in thermal food treatment may be relevant to both research and industrial operations. Scaling of micro structured devices is made possible through the use of numbering-up approaches; however, reduced investment costs and a hygienic design must be assured.

  3. Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Ga, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

  4. Radon in thermal waters and radon risk in chosen thermal water spas in V4 countries - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Blahusiak, P.; Muellerova, M.; Grzadziel, D.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Kovacs, T.; Nagy, E.; Shahrokhi, A.; Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2014-01-01

    The territory of V4 countries is rich in thermal springs. Some boreholes reach a depth of 2000 m and temperatures up to 70 grad C. 222 Rn concentrations in some thermal waters can exceed 1000 Bq/l, however this concentration is not constant. In V4 countries, there is a long tradition in using thermal waters in spa care. In thermal spas, radon is released from the water, and is transported along with its decay products into human respiratory tract, which is potentially harmful to human health. Thus, controlling the levels of radon concentration in thermal waters, homes and workplaces of spas is justified. The aim of this project is the study of radon 222 Rn concentration in thermal waters and in thermal spas in V4 countries. The measurements are carried out a few times during at least one year in order to observe seasonal variability. The obtained results will serve to determine annual effective doses for employees who spend ca. 8 hours a day inside spa buildings. It will be also possible to assess the effective doses for patients (users) of the pools with the highest registered radon concentrations. We carry out measurements in 3 existing thermal water spas in each of the countries: Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, and in 1 thermal water spas in the Czech Republic,according to choice of partners. (authors)

  5. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  6. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  7. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bientinesi, M.; Petarca, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste

  9. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  10. Preliminary study of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yukuan; Chen Hanwei; Li Kaifang; Jiang Zaibo; Ma Zhuang; Liu Huanling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value and methods of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy. Methods: Two different methods were used in the interventional treatment of 18 patients with tubal pregnancy, which were transvaginal tubal intra-gestational methotrexate (MTX) injection and intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion. The former was selected for the treatment of 8 patients and the latter for 10 patients. Cook-fallopian tube catheterization set and the general angiographic catheters of 4.1 Fr Cobra were used. After the treatment, conditions of the patients, β-HCG level and ultrasound changes of the pregnant bladder were the main indexes for monitoring the therapeutic effect in this study. Results: The successful rate, cure rate, embryo killing rate reached 100%, 88.9%(16/18) and 94.4% (17/18) respectively. Two cases of intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion treatment failed, β-HCG was reduced to normal level with an average of 11.2 +- 11.6 d (3-28 d). In 10 cases, the ultrasound showed that the pregnancy bladder disappeared in 2-3 weeks, accounting for 76.9% (10/13). The longest time was 60 days. The range of menstruation recovery was 37 +- 9 d (21-50 d). Conclusions: Interventional treatment of tubal pregnancy is effective, reliable and easy for operation. It will be especially effective by arterial procedure. Interventional treatment will be a important method for terminating tubal pregnancy

  11. Argon laser in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (Preliminary communication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, P.I.; Simonova, K.K.; Belyaeva, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    The complications observed in the photocoagulation treatment of diabetic angiopathy and retinopathy include the following conditions: tractional retinal detachment, accelerated development of proliferating retinitis and massive hemmorrhaging into the vitreous body. (V.A.P.)

  12. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  13. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  15. Unvented thermal process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    An Unvented Thermal Process is being developed that does not release gases during the thermal treatment operation. The main unit in the process is a fluidized-bed processor containing a bed of calcined limestone (CaO), which reacts with gases given off during oxidation of organic materials. Gases that will react with CaO include CO 2 , SO 2 , HCI, HBr, and other acid gases. Water vapor formed during the oxidation process is carried off with the fluidizing gas and is removed in a condenser. Oxygen is added to the remaining gas (mainly nitrogen), which is recirculated to the oxidizer. The most flexible arrangement of equipment involves separating the processor into two units: An oxidizer, which may be any of a variety of types including standard incinerators, and a carbon dioxide sorber

  16. 40 CFR 265.383 - Interim status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... status thermal treatment devices burning particular hazardous waste. (a) Owners or operators of thermal treatment devices subject to this subpart may burn EPA Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, or... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim status thermal treatment...

  17. Studying Treatment Intensity: Lessons from Two Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Nicole; Jones, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Determining how best to meet the needs of learners with Down syndrome requires an approach to intervention delivered at some level of intensity. How treatment intensity affects learner acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of skills can help optimize the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of interventions. There is a growing body of research…

  18. Profiles of Juvenile Male Incest Perpetrators: Preliminary Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundappa, G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated the effects on participants' self-image of sexual offenses they had committed. Subjects (N=6) were male adolescents convicted of child molestation in a residential treatment and care facility. Results suggested subjects (who were themselves victims of family violence) perceived an above average self-image and handled their problems by…

  19. Preliminary observations on the use of dry urea treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw unprocessed jackbean contains 28 - 30% crude protein but also contains toxic elements that limit its use as feed ingredient for nionogastric animals. A 21 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dry urea treatment prior to toasting on its nutritive value for young broiler chicks. One of two batches of raw ...

  20. A Preliminary Evaluation of Fast ForWord-Language as an Adjuvant Treatment in Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Popescu, Mihai; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) is designed to enhance children's processing of auditory-verbal signals and, thus, their ability to learn language. As a preliminary evaluation of this claim, we examined the effects of a 5-week course of FFW-L as an adjuvant treatment with a subsequent 5-week conventional narrative-based language…

  1. Biofeedback treatment for Tourette syndrome: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoko; Cavanna, Andrea E; Critchley, Hugo D; Stern, Jeremy J; Robertson, Mary M; Joyce, Eileen M

    2014-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness of biofeedback treatment in reducing tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Despite advances in the pharmacologic treatment of patients with Tourette syndrome, many remain troubled by their tics, which may be resistant to multiple medications at tolerable doses. Electrodermal biofeedback is a noninvasive biobehavioral intervention that can be useful in managing neuropsychiatric and neurologic conditions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of electrodermal biofeedback training in 21 patients with Tourette syndrome. After training the patients for 3 sessions a week over 4 weeks, we observed a significant reduction in tic frequency and improved indices of subjective well-being in both the active-biofeedback and sham-feedback (control) groups, but there was no difference between the groups in these measurements. Furthermore, the active-treatment group did not demonstrably learn to reduce their sympathetic electrodermal tone using biofeedback. Our findings indicate that this form of biofeedback training was unable to produce a clinical effect greater than placebo. The main confounding factor appeared to be the 30-minute duration of the training sessions, which made it difficult for patients to sustain a reduction in sympathetic tone when their tics themselves were generating competing phasic electrodermal arousal responses. Despite a negative finding in this study, electrodermal biofeedback training may have a role in managing tics if optimal training schedules can be identified.

  2. HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.

  3. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems

  4. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  5. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  6. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  7. Endovascular stenting for treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms: preliminary outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qinghai; Liu Jianmin; Xu Yi; Hong Bo; Zhao Wenyuan; Zhou Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the technique and efficiency of combined endovascular stenting and Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) packing for the treatment of intracranial wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms and recanalized aneurysms. Methods: The coronary stents were implanted across the necks of 5 intracranial wide-necked aneurysms (two at bifurcation of ICA, one at basilar artery and two recanalized PcoA aneurysms). The porous stents covered the ostia of vital side branches and perforating vessels in three cases. Microcatheters were introduced into the aneurysmal sac through the stent mesh and then followed by GDCs embolizing the aneurysms. Results: The stents were deployed in parent artery in all cases. Total occlusion was obtained in 4 cases, while more than 90% in one case with patency of the parent arteries and vital perforating arteries. Follow-up angiography performed in all patients 3-6 months later revealed no intrastent stenosis. All the patients recovered well except III nerve palsy in one patient which diminished 3 months later. Conclusion: Endovaseular therapy combined stent implantation and microcoil placement maybe a valid alteration for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms and recanalized aneurysms, which shows promise clinical application in the future. The ostia of vital side branches covered with stents showed no effect on hemodynamics. (authors)

  8. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  9. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C; Convertti, A; Rovatti, M [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R; Cozzani, V; Tognotti, L [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  10. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C.; Convertti, A.; Rovatti, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R.; Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  11. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  12. Numerical treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drymonitou, M.A.; Geroyannis, V.S.; Goudas, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a suitable numerical method for the treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem for flows past an infinite porous flat plate, the motion of which is governed by a general time-dependent law, under the influence of a transverse externally set magnetic field. The normal velocity of suction/injection at the plate is also assumed to be time-dependent. The results obtained on the basis of numerical approximations seem to compare favourably with earlier results (Pande et al., 1976; Tokis, 1978). Analytical approximations are given for the cases of a plate (i) generally accelerated and (ii) harmonically oscillating. The direct numerical treatment is obviously advantageous since it allows handling of cases where the known methods for analytical approximations are not applicable. This problem is closely related to the motions and heat transfer occurring locally on the surfaces of stars. (orig.)

  13. F/H Effluent Treatment Facility. Preliminary engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently proposing to construct the F/H ETF to process wastewater from the Separations Areas and replace the existing seepage basins. Reasons for seepage basin closure are two-fold. First, nonradioactive hazardous materials routinely discharged to the seepage basins may have adversely impacted the quality of the groundwater in the vicinity of the basins. Second, amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were approved in 1984, prohibiting the discharge of hazardous wastes to unlined seepage basins after November, 1988. The F/H ETF will consist of wastewater storage facilities and a treatment plant discharging treated effluent to Upper Three Runs Creek. Seepage basin use in F and H Areas wil be discontinued after startup, allowing timely closure of these basins. 3 refs

  14. Oil sludge treatment using thermal and ash vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohyiza Baan; Sharifah Aishah, S.A.K.; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of crude oil sludge terminal for volume reduction and radionuclide stability was treated by using integrated thermal treatment system. The pre-thermal treatment of oil sludge was carried out in fluidized bed combustor at temperature 500 degree Celsius, and then the ash produced from that process was vitrified in high temperature furnace at temperature above 1000 degree Celsius. The main contents of oil sludge are composed of 80% carbon, 11% sulphur, 50% volatile matter and 30% ash. The high heating value was 35,722 kJ/ kg. Analysis by gamma spectrometer was showed the radionuclide as Ra-226 (52.23 Bq/ kg), Ra-228 (47.48 Bq/ kg), K-40 (172.55 Bq/ kg), whereas analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) for U (0.5 μg/ g) and Th (0.5 μg/ g) was present in low concentration. Trace elements as Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Al, Zn, Ni was determine by using ICPMS. Thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG and DTA curves. The concentration of radionuclide in ash from fluidized bed combustor process was increased for Ra-226 (264.27 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (253.77 Bq/ kg). The slag was produced from ash vitrification process was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and showed that silica oxide and potassium oxide were found. The slag characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that slag composed of crystalline. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test showed that the slag resulted in very low leachability of heavy metals. Most of the toxic metals are fixed in the vitrification process and the leachate values meet the standard level of Malaysian Department of Environmental (DOE) of hazardous materials. The average concentration of each element varied between 1.5-14.0 mg/ kg. (author)

  15. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS

  16. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge—comparison of thermal pretreatments with thermal inter-stage treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment methods for improved anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge were evaluated. Pretreatments at moderate thermal (water bath at 80 °C), high thermal (loop autoclave at 130–170 °C) and thermo-chemical (170 °C/pH 10) conditions prior to AD in batch vials (40 days/37 °....... CONCLUSION: Thermal treatment of waste activated sludge for improved anaerobic digestion seems more effective when applied as an inter-stage treatment rather than a pretreatment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  17. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  18. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development-I. Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-18

    The results of a conceptual and preliminary design study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) closed loop ammonia power system modules performed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) are presented. This design study is the second of 3 tasks in Phase I of the Power System Development-I Project. The Task 2 objectives were to develop: 1) conceptual designs for a 40 to 50-MW(e) closed cycle ammonia commercial plant size power module whose heat exchangers are immersed in seawater and whose ancillary equipments are in a shirt sleeve environment; preliminary designs for a modular application power system sized at 10-MW(e) whose design, construction and material selection is analogous to the 50 MW(e) module, except that titanium tubes are to be used in the heat exchangers; and 3) preliminary designs for heat exchanger test articles (evaporator and condenser) representative of the 50-MW(e) heat exchangers using aluminum alloy, suitable for seawater service, for testing on OTEC-1. The reference ocean platform was specified by DOE as a surface vessel with the heat exchanger immersed in seawater to a design depth of 0 to 20 ft measured from the top of the heat exchanger. For the 50-MW(e) module, the OTEC 400-MW(e) Plant Ship, defined in the Platform Configuration and Integration study, was used as the reference platform. System design, performance, and cost are presented. (WHK)

  1. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis; Martinez Montes, Jose Luis; Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean (±SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 ± 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  2. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan@ono.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Martinez Montes, Jose Luis [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean ({+-}SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 {+-} 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  3. Preliminary thermal/hydraulic sizing calculations for duplex tube evaporator/superheater (interchangeable units). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waszink, R.P.; Hwang, J.Y.; Efferding, L.E.

    1974-06-01

    This is a preliminry thermal/hydraulic report reflecting work under Subtask 6.2 of Ref. 1.1. This report is an extension of the previous thermal/hydraulic design report. Parts of this report have been transmitted to GE. The detailed design basis, listed by source, is given. Additional details are discussed

  4. Response to "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2014-01-01

    Last November, the European Journal of Psychotraumatology published an interesting paper entitled "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study". This article

  5. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  6. Effect of germination and thermal treatments on folates in rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Myllymäki, Olavi; Vahteristo, Liisa; Kaukovirta-Norja, Anu; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-12-13

    Effects of germination conditions and thermal processes on folate contents of rye were investigated. Total folate contents were determined microbiologically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism, and individual folates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after affinity chromatographic purification. Germination increased the folate content by 1.7-3.8-fold, depending on germination temperature, with a maximum content of 250 micro g/100 g dry matter. Hypocotylar roots with their notably high folate concentrations (600-1180 micro g/100 g dry matter) contributed 30-50% of the folate contents of germinated grains. Germination altered the proportions of folates, increasing the proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and decreasing the proportion of formylated folate compounds. Thermal treatments (extrusion, autoclaving and puffing, and IR and toasting) resulted in significant folate losses. However, folate levels in grains that were germinated and then were heat processed were higher than for native (nongerminated) grains. Opportunities to optimize rye processing to enhance folate levels in rye-based foods are discussed.

  7. In situ vitrification: An innovative thermal treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product. A square array of four electrodes are inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth. Because the soil is not electrically conductive once the moisture has been driven off, a conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed among the electrodes to act as the starter path. An electrical potential is applied to the electrodes, which establishes an electrical current in the starter path. The resultant power heats the starter path and surrounding soil up to 3600 0 F, well above the initial melting temperature or fusion temperature of soils. The normal fusion temperature of soil ranges between 2000 and 2500 0 F. The graphite starter path is eventually consumed by oxidation, and the current is transferred to the molten soil, which is now electrically conductive. As the vitrified zone grows, it incorporates nonvolatile elements and destroys organic components by pyrolysis. The pyrolyzed byproducts migrate to the surface of the vitrified zone, where they combust in the presence of oxygen. A hood placed over the processing area provides confinement for the combustion gases, and the gases are drawn into the off-gas treatment system

  8. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  9. A preliminary study on the thermal conductivity and flammability of WPC based on some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Chua, P.H.; Lee, E.E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Selected local woods and their wood-polymer combinations or composites (WPC) were tested for their thermal conductivity and their fire resistance. WPC were prepared by polymerizing monomers 'in situ' in oven dried woods by gamma radiation. The monomers included acrylonitrile (AN), 60% styrene-40% acrylonitrile (STAN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 95% methyl methacrylate-5% dioxane (MD), and vinylidene chloride (VDC). A reduction in thermal conductivity was exhibited by all the composites prepared. W-PAN showed the greatest reduction in thermal conductivity and W-PSTAN in general showed the least. An explanation is suggested for this behaviour. The polymers PMMA and PMD were found to enhance flammability of the woods while PVDC, PAN, and PSTAN imparted fire resistance to the woods. Of the six local woods studied, Ramin-and-Keruing-polymer composites showed the highest flammable tendencies obtained. The correlation of thermal conductivity to flammability is discussed. (author)

  10. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  11. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  12. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Preliminary Design Hazard Analysis Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.R.; Meichle, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  14. Temperature simulation of thermal plasma melting furnace for disposal of radioactive waste and preliminary research of vitrification formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Peng; Lu Yonghong; Xiang Wenyuan; Chen Mingzhou; Liu Xiajie; Qin Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment techniques currently used in nuclear power plant increase the volume greatly and bring much pressure on final disposal; Thermal plasma treatment as a crucial technique to reduce the waste volume is introduced. How to improve the efficiency of the plasma energy is the limiting factor of concern. In this paper, the temperature field of thermal plasma melting furnace is simulated, the maximal temperature of fixed bed melting furnace is calculated (about 1445 ℃). According to the optional fire-resistant materials, the feasibility of furnace fabrication is discussed. Vitrification formulas for three typical radioactive wastes are tested with their feasibilities being analyzed then. Finally, the prospect of thermal plasma techniques of radioactive waste is discussed, and issues for future study are raised. (authors)

  15. Preliminary heat treatment of 4KhM2Fch die steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, V.M.; Berezkin, Y.A.; Nikitenko, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    To improve the machinability and preparation of the structure for hardening, die steels are given a preliminary treatment which provides a reduction in hardness as a result of separation in the structure of the carbide and ferrite phases, coagulation of the carbides, and acquisition by them of a granular form and also the obtaining of fine grains and a uniform distribution of the structural constituents. The microstructure was evaluated after etching in 4% nital on an MIM-8M microscope. The 4KhM2Fch steel was given a preliminary heat treatment of normalize and anneal. It was concluded that for 4KhM2Fch steel a preliminary heat treatment of normalizing from 950 0 C with a hold of 1.5-2 h, annealing at 750-760 0 C with a hold of 2-3 h, cooling to the isothermal temperature of 670-680 0 C with a hold of 3-4 h, and further air cooling is recommended. The structure after such a heat is granular pearlite with a rating 1-2 and a hardness of 220-250 HB

  16. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  17. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endurance with partnership: a preliminary conceptual framework for couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liying; Wu, Lai Har; Wu, Xiangli; Shu, Jing; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Infertility affects both women and men in the physical, emotional, existential, and interpersonal realms. When couples seek in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, they further suffer from the difficulties of the treatment and the uncertainty of its outcome. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for couples undergoing IVF treatment to give health professionals a better understanding of the experiences of such couples, and to guide the development of an intervention. The process of identifying frameworks adopted in intervention studies confirmed that there is no established framework for infertile couples undergoing IVF treatment. A skeletal framework identified from previous studies provides an internal structure for the proposed framework for couples undergoing IVF treatment, filled out with concepts drawn from a concept analysis and a qualitative study, knitting the structure together. This preliminary framework is the Endurance with Partnership Conceptual Framework (P-EPCF). It consists of four domains: the impacts of infertility and stressors, dyadic mediators, dyadic moderators and dyadic outcomes. According to the P-EPCF, the impacts of infertility and IVF treatment can be mediated by the couples' partnership and dyadic coping. Improvements in the psychological well-being and marital functioning of IVF couples can then be expected. The P-EPCF would be potentially valuable in guiding the development of a complex, couple-based intervention, which could focus on enhancing the partnership of couples and their coping strategies.

  19. Role of the preliminary heat treatment in anisothermic eutectoid change of the cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szykowny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary heat treatment, preceding continuous cooling of the iron casting, assumed in the research, complies with the applied in prac- tice single normalization, double normalization or normalization with slow cooling. In each of these cases continuous cast iron cooling has been begun from the same temperature 925°C. CCT diagrams have been made with use of metallographic method. The mechanism, kinet- ics and the final structure of eutectoid change of the cast iron after such treatment have been traced.

  20. Preliminary design study for a carbide LEU-nuclear thermal rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, P.F.; Kim, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear space propulsion is a requirement for the successful exploration of the solar system. It offers the possibility of having both a high specific impulse and a relatively high thrust, allowing rapid transit times with a minimum usage of fuel. This paper proposes a nuclear thermal rocket design based on heritage NERVA rockets that makes use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The Carbide LEU Nuclear Thermal Rocket (C-LEU-NTR) is designed to fulfill the rocket requirements as set forth in the NASA 2009 Mars Mission Design Reference Architecture 5.0, that is provide 25,000 lbf of thrust, operate at full power condition for at least two hours, and have a specific impulse close to 900 s. The neutronics analysis was done using MCNP5 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron library. The thermal hydraulic calculations and size optimization were completed with a finite difference code being developed at the Center for Space Nuclear Research. (authors)

  1. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  3. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Power system development. Preliminary design report, final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The preliminary design of the 10 MWe OTEC power module and the 200 kWe test articles is given in detail. System operation and performance; power system cost estimates; 10 MWe heat exchangers; 200 kWe heat exchanger articles; biofouling control;ammonia leak detection, and leak repair; rotating machinery; support subsystem; instrumentation and control; electrical subsystem; installation approach; net energy and resource analysis; and operability, maintainability, and safety are discussed. The conceptual design of the 40 MWe electrical power system includes four or five 10 MWe modules as designed for the 10 MWe pilot plant. (WHK)

  4. Preliminary experimental study of post-combustion carbon capture integrated with solar thermal collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Hailong; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar assisted chemical absorption pilot system with two types of collectors (parabolic trough and linear Fresnel reflector) has been constructed. • Performance of two types of solar collectors has been investigated and compared at steady and transient states. • The operations of the pilot system with and without solar assisted have been tested. • The pilot system responds to the temperature of the heat transfer fluid regularly. - Abstract: The amine-based chemical absorption for CO_2 capture normally needs to extract steam from the steam turbine cycle for solvent regeneration. Integrating solar thermal energy enables the reduction of steam extraction and therefore, can reduce the energy penalty caused by CO_2 capture. In this paper, a pilot system of the solar thermal energy assisted chemical absorption was built to investigate the system performance. Two types of solar thermal energy collectors, parabolic trough and linear Fresnel reflector, were tested. It was found that the values of operation parameters can meet the requirements of designed setting parameters, and the solar collectors can provide the thermal energy required by the reboiler, while its contribution was mainly determined by solar irradiation. The solvent regeneration was investigated by varying the heat input. The results show that the response time of the reboiler heat duty is longer than those of the reboiler temperature and desorber pressure. This work provides a better understanding about the overall operation and control of the system.

  5. Preliminary market analysis for customer side of the meter thermal-energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-31

    An examination is made of the potential market size for thermal energy storage space heating, water heating, and air conditioning in the residential and commercial sector. It is concluded that a significant market for TES could develop over the next 20 years; the analysis considers the electric utility perspective, the perspective, and the expected market in detail. (MCW)

  6. 75 FR 77831 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ..., (2) thermal active coating, (3) top coating, (4) basis weight, (5) maximum optical density units, (6...) of the Act. Citing Stainless Steel Bar from India,\\6\\ and Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From... Cement and Clinker From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 58 FR 25803...

  7. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  8. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  9. Preliminary data on Pemphigus vulgaris treatment by a proteomics-defined peptide: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelman Abraham

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although described by Hippocrates in 400 B.C., pemphigus disease still needs a safe therapeutical approach, given that the currently used therapies (i.e. corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs often provoke collateral effects. Here we present preliminary data on the possible use of a proteomics derived desmoglein peptide which appears promising in halting disease progression without adverse effects. Methods The low-similarity Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide was topically applied for 1 wk onto a lesion in a patient with a late-stage Pemphigus vulgaris (PV complicated by diabetes and cataract disease. The peptide was applied as an adjuvant in combination with the standard corticosteroid-based immunosuppressive treatment. Results After 1 wk, the treated PV eroded lesion appeared dimensionally reduced and with an increased rate of re-epithelization when compared to adjacent non-treated lesions. Short-term benefits were: decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer and reduction of the corticosteroid dosage. Long-term benefits: after two years following the unique 1-wk topical treatment, the decrease of anti-Dsg antibody titer persists. The patient is still at the low cortisone dosage. Adverse effects: no adverse effect could be monitored. Conclusion With the limits inherent to any preliminary study, this case report indicates that topical treatment with Dsg349–60REWVKFAKPCRE peptide may represent a feasible first step in the search for a simple, effective and safe treatment of PV.

  10. The effectiveness of tipi in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bosi Ferraz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a common painful inflammatory condition occurring mainly in the later half of life. Hipe and knee are the joints mostly affected. Petiveria alliacea (tipi popularly known as an anti-rheumatic medicine, has been used by OA patients to relief pain. This one-week cross-over double-blind trial has preliminary evaluated the analgesic effect of tipi tea in 14 patients with hip and knee OA. Imperata exaltata (sape was used as the Placebo tea. The pain assessments that were made at baseline and before the start of the second treatment period by treatment groups were comparable. While taking tipi or placebo tea patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain on motion and pain at night. The comparison between the improvements reported while on tipi and placebo tea, however, did not disclose any statistically significant difference. At the conclusion of the study 7 patients preferred tipi tea and 6 preferred placebo tea (NS. Two patients reported insomnia, one durign placebo treatment and the other during tipi treatment. In this preliminary report both teas succeeded in the aim of relieving pain.

  11. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  12. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  13. Thermal waste treatment in China; Die thermische Abfallbehandlung in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa [Zhejiang Univ. (China). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Vehlow, Juergen [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2011-08-15

    Increasing industrialisation and urbanisation as well as fast changing consumption habits in China entail a dramatic increase in waste generation. This development goes along with a severe lack in landfill sites, especially in densely populated areas. In combination with today's growing demand for aftercare free disposal the Chinese government decided to focus on thermal treatment, preferentially with energy recovery, of all types of waste as the only environmentally compatible pre-treatment option prior to final disposal. This principle is followed by the authorities despite entailing costs and recently in few places emerging public concern over this technology. The first incineration plant for municipal solid waste in China using imported technology was commissioned in 1988. Further such plants built during the following years had severe problems with the low calorific value of Chinese waste and failed often to achieve acceptable burnout. This fact and the high costs initiated at the end of the last century the development of a circulating fluidised bed incinerator at the University of Zhejiang which burns residential waste with an addition of 20 % of coal to increase its heating value. This strategy enables a well controlled combustion with burnout as well as emission figures, including those for dioxins, which easily comply with the actual Chinese air emission limits. These are to a great extent comparable with those of the EU Incineration Directive. This technology has successfully entered the market between 2000 and 2010 and will most likely, together with a similar type developed by the Tsinghua University, become the backbone of Chinese waste incineration in future due to its moderate costs and excellent performance. (orig.)

  14. Final treatment of spent batteries by thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Anelise Leal Vieira; Machado, Marina de Medeiros; Machado, Marília de Medeiros; Dutra, Ana Regina de Aguiar; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Fiedler, Haidi D; Bueno, Priscila

    2015-08-15

    The growth in the use of wireless devices, notebooks and other electronic products has led to an ever increasing demand for batteries, leading to these products being commonly found in inappropriate locations, with adverse effects on the environment and human health. Due to political pressure and according to the environmental legislation which regulates the destination of spent batteries, in several countries the application of reverse logistics to hazardous waste is required. Thus, some processes have been developed with the aim of providing an appropriate destination for these products. In this context, a method for the treatment of spent batteries using thermal plasma technology is proposed herein. The efficiency of the method was tested through the determination of parameters, such as total organic carbon, moisture content and density, as well as analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence using samples before and after inertization. The value obtained for the density was 19.15%. The TOC results indicated 8.05% of C in the batteries prior to pyrolisis and according to the XRF analysis Fe, S, Mn and Zn were the most stable elements in the samples (highest peaks). The efficiency of the paste inertization was 97% for zinc and 99.74% for manganese. The results also showed that the most efficient reactor was that with the DC transferred arc plasma torch and quartzite sand positively influenced by the vitrification during the pyrolysis of the electrolyte paste obtain from batteries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Influence of thermal treatment on OSL regeneration in potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majgier, Renata; Biernacka, Magdalena; Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of pure analytical potassium chloride (KCl) prepared in two different forms (crystals and pellets) was studied. The occurrence of regeneration effect (self-renewal of the OSL signal) in the material was examined. The experiments using the variable delay OSL (VD-OSL) method were carried out. Performed measurements allowed to determine time scale of the phenomenon, as well as quantitative changes of regeneration depending on thermal treatment before and after irradiation. Significant increase of the OSL regeneration was noticeable for pellets after the application of the annealing before irradiation, while for crystals a substantial decrease of regeneration was observed. Preheating applied after irradiation caused that self-renewal of OSL signal was drastically reduced or completely suppressed depending on the form of KCl samples. - Highlights: • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of potassium chloride (KCl) was studied. • The measurements were performed using the variable delay OSL method (VD-OSL). • It was found that regeneration of OSL intensity in KCl could be as high as 2000%. • Annealing caused reduction of OSL renewal for crystals and its increase for pellets. • Preheating after irradiation removed or significantly reduced the OSL regeneration.

  16. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for 330MWt SMART integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Sim, S. K.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. C.

    1997-09-01

    The work reported in this document identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in a 330 MWt SMART integral reactor which is under development at KAERI. The result of this efforts is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by the consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this report is intended for use to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed and thermal-hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART integral reactor. (author). 7 refs., 21 tabs., 22 figs.

  17. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application.

  18. Repository thermal response: A preliminary evaluation of the effects of modeled waste stream resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Dunn, E.

    1995-09-01

    One of the primary factors that influences our predictions of host-rock thermal response within a high level waste repository is how the waste stream's represented in the models. In the context of thermal modeling, waste stream refers to an itemized listing of the type (pressurized-water or boiling-water reactor), age, burnup, and enrichment of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies entering the repository over the 25-year emplacement phase. The effect of package-by-package variations in spent fuel characteristics on predicted repository thermal response is the focus of this report. A three-year portion of the emplacement period was modeled using three approaches to waste stream resolution. The first assumes that each package type emplaced in a given year is adequately represented by average characteristics. For comparison, two models that explicitly account for each waste package's individual characteristics were run; the first assuming a random selection of packages and the second an ordered approach aimed at locating the higher power output packages toward the center of the emplacement area. Results indicate that the explicit representation of packages results in hot and cold spots that could have performance assessment and design implications. Furthermore, questions are raised regarding the representativeness of average characteristics with respect to integrated energy output and the possible implications of a mass-based repository loading approach

  19. Preliminary tests of a model of cooling-pond thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.; Wesely, M.L.; Wilczek, J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments performed during recent years at the cooling pond complex at the Dresden nuclear power station have been designed to improve our understanding of the fundamental properties of thermal exchange at a warm-water surface. To a considerable extent, the field studies have been successful in that they have shown that modern micrometeorological techniques can be successfully applied to the demanding circumstances of an industrial cooling lake at temperature of at least 40 0 C. The intent of these studies has been to create a set of parameterization schemes good enough to allow simulation of the performance of the Dresden cooling lake without adjustment of numerical constants. An obvious extension of these studies, and one of the goals of the cooling-pond research program as presently stated, is to obtain an accurate numerical simulation of thermal performance of ponds with use of the improved formulations that have resulted from the experimental work at the Dresden lake. The computer model is divided into two sections and can be used to test the sensitivity of predicted performance to variations in procedures for determining the thermal transfer from the surface

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC Effluent Discharge Options on Global OTEC Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Nihous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple algorithm previously used to evaluate steady-state global Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC resources is extended to probe the effect of various effluent discharge methodologies. It is found that separate evaporator and condenser discharges potentially increase OTEC net power limits by about 60% over a comparable mixed discharge scenario. This stems from a relatively less severe degradation of the thermal resource at given OTEC seawater flow rates, which corresponds to a smaller heat input into the ocean. Next, the most practical case of a mixed discharge into the mixed layer is found to correspond to only 80% of the so-called baseline case (mixed discharge at a water depth of initial neutral buoyancy. In general, locating effluent discharges at initial neutral-buoyancy depths appears to be nearly optimal in terms of OTEC net power production limits. The depth selected for the OTEC condenser effluent discharge, however, has by far the greatest impact. Clearly, these results are preliminary and should be investigated in more complex ocean general circulation models.

  1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Luo, X; Li, Q; Yin, N; Fu, X; Zhang, H; Qi, H

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery. Enrolled into this study between September 2011 and September 2013 were 12 patients who had been diagnosed with placenta accreta following vaginal delivery and who had stable vital signs. All patients were treated using an ultrasound-guided HIFU treatment system. As indication of the effectiveness of the treatment we considered decreased vascular index on color Doppler imaging, decrease in size of residual placenta compared with pretreatment size on assessment by three-dimensional ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis, reduced signal intensity and degree of enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging and avoidance of hysterectomy following treatment. To assess the safety of HIFU treatment, we recorded side effects, hemorrhage, infection, sex steroid levels, return of menses and subsequent pregnancy. Patients were followed up in this preliminary study until December 2013. The 12 patients receiving HIFU treatment had an average postpartum hospital stay of 6.8 days and an average period of residual placental involution of 36.9 days. HIFU treatment did not apparently increase the risk of infection or hemorrhage and no patient required hysterectomy. In all patients menstruation recommenced after an average of 80.2 days, and sex steroid levels during the middle luteal phase of the second menstrual cycle were normal. Two patients became pregnant again during the follow-up period. This preliminary study suggests that ultrasound-guided HIFU is a safe and effective non-invasive method to treat placenta accreta patients after vaginal delivery who have stable vital signs and desire to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Semantic Feature Training for the Treatment of Anomia in Alzheimer Disease: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kieran J; Copland, David A; van Hees, Sophia; Byrne, Gerard J; Angwin, Anthony J

    2016-03-01

    This is a preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of semantic feature training for the treatment of anomia in Alzheimer disease (AD). Anomia is a common clinical characteristic of AD. It is widely held that anomia in AD is caused by the combination of cognitive deficits and progressive loss of semantic feature information. Therapy that aims to help participants relearn or retain semantic features should, therefore, help treat anomia in AD. Two men with AD and one man with progressive nonfluent aphasia received 10 treatment sessions focused on relearning the names of 20 animals and 20 fruits. Within each category, half of the items were of high and half were of low typicality. We individualized treatment items to each participant, using items that each had not named correctly at baseline. Treatment sessions consisted of naming, category sorting, and semantic feature verification tasks. Both participants with AD showed post-treatment improvements in naming, and one maintained the treatment effects at 6-week follow-up. The semantic category of the treatment items influenced post-treatment outcomes, but typicality did not. In contrast to the participants with AD, the man with progressive nonfluent aphasia had no improvement in naming ability. Our results suggest the potential viability of semantic feature training to treat anomia in AD and, therefore, the need for further research.

  4. Efficacy of Argentum-Quartz Solution in the Treatment of Perianal Fistulas: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasello Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Nowadays, an optimal and effective medical surgery remains the gold standard for perianal fistulas. Hereby we reported preliminary results in favor of using Argentum-quartz solution for both primary and recurrent perianal fistulas. Methods: Three patients with intersphincteric and extrasphincteric fistulas were enrolled. Argentum-quartz solution was administrated twice a week for a period of 4 weeks, followed by a pause of 8 days and then another 4 weeks of treatment, totally 16 administrations. After treatment, all patients were monitored for a 4-month follow-up. Results: Complete closures of 2 extrasphincteric fistulas and a partial closure with absence of inflammation and superative phenomena in the intrasphincteric fistula were both manifested. Conclusion: Selective treatment of perianal fistulas with an argentum-quartz solution is safe and effective, and may represent a reliable alternative.

  5. Preliminary fluid channel design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of glow discharge cleaning permanent electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lijun, E-mail: cailj@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lin, Tao; Wang, Yingqiao; Wang, Mingxu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Maruyama, So; Yang, Yu; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The plasma facing closure cap has to survive after 30,000 thermal heat load cycles. • 0.35 MW/m2 radiation heat load plus nuclear heat load are very challenging for stainless steel. • Multilayer structure has been designed by using advanced welding and drilling technology to solve the neutron heating problem. • Accurate volumetric load application in analysis model by CFX has been mastered. - Abstract: Glow discharge cleaning (GDC) shall be used on ITER device to reduce and control impurity and hydrogenic fuel out-gassing from in-vessel plasma facing components. After first plasma, permanent electrode (PE) will be used to replace Temporary Electrode (TE) for subsequent operation. Two fundamental scenarios i.e., GDC and Plasma Operation State (POS) should be considered for electrode design, which requires the heat load caused by plasma radiation and neutron heating must be taken away by cooling water flowing inside the electrode. In this paper, multilayer cooling channels inside PE are preliminarily designed, and snakelike route in each layer is adopted to improve the heat exchange. Detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses have been done to validate the design feasibility or rationality. The analysis results show that during GDC the cooling water inlet and outlet temperature difference is far less than the allowable temperature rise under water flow rate 0.15 kg/s compromised by many factors. For POS, the temperature rise and pressure drop are within the design goals, but high thermal stress occurs on the front surface of closure cap of electrode. After several iterations of optimization of the closure cap, the equivalent strain range after 30,000 loading cycles for POS is well below 0.3% design goals.

  6. Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1980-07-01

    Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m 0 C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed

  7. Electricity in lieu of nautral gas and oil for industrial thermal energy: a preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-02-01

    In 1974, industrial processors accounted for nearly 50% of the nation's natural gas consumption and nearly 20% of its consumption of petroleum. This report is a preliminary assessment of the potential capability of the process industries to substitute utility-generated electricity for these scarce fuels. It is tacitly assumed that virtually all public utilities will soon be relying on coal or nuclear fission for primary energy. It was concluded that the existing technology will permit substitution of electricity for approximately 75% of the natural gas and petroleum now being consumed by industrial processors, which is equivalent to an annual usage of 800 million barrels of oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of gas at 1974 levels. Process steam generation, used throughout industry and representing 40% of its energy usage, offers the best near-term potential for conversion to electricity. Electric boilers and energy costs for steam are briefly discussed. Electrically driven heat pumps are considered as a possible method to save additional low-grade energy. Electrical reheating at high temperatures in the primary metals sector will be an effective way to conserve gas and oil. A wholesale shift by industry to electricity to replace gas and oil will produce impacts on the public utilities and, perhaps, those of a more general socio-economic nature. The principal bar to large-scale electrical substitution is economics, not technology. 174 references.

  8. A preliminary assessment of thorium as a fuel for thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.; Halsall, M.J.

    1965-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary survey of the contributing factors to total fuel cost, for a variety of potentially economic fuel cycles. U 238 and Th 232 are considered as fertile materials with enrichments of U 235 , U 233 and plutonium. The total fuel cost comprises: (a) a fuel supply cost which is derived from a manufacturing cost and the fuel burnup, (b) as spent fuel credit, and (c) inventory charges. The interrelation of these three factors and their dependence on reactor flux, fuel burnup, the heat rating of the fuel and the interest rate are considered for each combination of fertile and fissile material. Results show inventory charges, spent fuel credit (hence processing costs) and fabrication costs have an important effect on the fuelling cost. In addition, using highly rated thorium-based fuels will affect reactor capital costs. Further, more detailed studies of reactor design, fuel design and fuel management schemes are now required to verify the attraction of using thorium as a reactor fuel. (author)

  9. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  10. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility

  11. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis of China DFLL-TBM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi, E-mail: wxtian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Jiao, Hong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Bai, Yunqing; Chen, Hongli [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Yican, E-mail: yican.Wu@Fds.Org.Cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis on DFLL-TBM system is performed. • The TBM FW maximum temperature is 541 °C under steady state condition. • The TBM FW maximum temperature does not exceed the melt point of CLAM steel 1500 °C. • Neither the VV pressurization nor vault pressure build-up goes beyond 0.2 MPa. -- Abstract: China has proposed the dual-functional lithium-lead (DFLL) tritium breeding blanket concept for testing in ITER as a test blanket module (TBM), to demonstrate the technologies of tritium self-sufficiency, high-grade heat extraction and efficient electricity production which are needed for DEMO and fusion power plant. Safety assessment of the TBM and its auxiliary system should be conducted to deal with ITER safety issues directly caused by the TBM system failure during the design process. In this work, three potential initial events (PIEs) – in-vessel loss of helium (He) coolant and ex-vessel loss of He coolant and loss of flow without scram (LOFWS) – were analyzed for the TBM system with a modified version of the RELAP5/MOD3 code containing liquid lithium-lead eutectic (LiPb). The code also comprised an empirical expression for MHD pressure drop relevant to three-dimensional (3D) effect, the Lubarsky–Kaufman convective heat transfer correlation for LiPb flow and the Gnielinski convective heat transfer correlation for He flow. Since both LiPb and He serve as TBM coolants, the LiPb and He ancillary cooling systems were modeled to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristic of the TBM system and its influence on ITER safety under those accident conditions. The TBM components and the coolants flow within the TBM were simulated with one-dimensional heat structures and their associated hydrodynamic components. ITER enclosures including vacuum vessel (VV), port cell and TCWS vault were also covered in the model for accident analyses. Through this best estimate approach, the calculation indicated that the current

  12. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and histological evaluation of thermal injury thresholds in human teeth: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Catapano, S; Scotti, R

    1997-11-01

    The effect on healthy dental pulp of thermal increases ranging from 8.9 to 14.7 degrees C was evaluated. These temperature increases correspond approximately to those caused by certain restorative procedures, such as tooth preparation with high-speed instruments and the fabrication of direct provisional crowns. Two criteria of evaluation have been used in conjunction, a clinical (symptomatic) and a histological one, to assert with greater precision potential damage to the pulp. The results suggest a low susceptibility of cells to heat, which does not appear to be a major factor of injury, at least in the short term. The main cause of postoperative inflammation or necrosis of the pulp is probably the injury of the dentine, a tissue in direct functional and physiological connection with the pulp.

  14. Preliminary results of thermal igniter experiments in H2-air-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal igniters (glow plugs), proposed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for intentional ignition of hydrogen in nuclear reactor containment, have been tested for functionability in mixtures of air, hydrogen, and steam. Test environments included 6% to 16% hydrogen concentrations in air, and 8%, 10%, and 12% hydrogen in mixtures with 30% and 40% steam fractions. All were conducted in a 10.6 ft 3 insulated pressure vessel. For all of these tests the glow plug successfully initiated combustion. Dry air/hydrogen tests exhibited a distinct tendency for complete combustion at hydrogen concentrations between 8% and 9%. Steam suppressed both peak pressures and completeness of combustion. No combustion could be initiated at or above a 50% steam fraction. Circulation of the mixture with a fan increased the completeness of combustion. The glow plug showed no evidence of performance degradation throughout the program

  15. Preliminary Thermal Characterization of a Fully-Passive Wireless Backscattering Neuro-Recording Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, H. N.; Xu, W.; Shekhar, S.; Chae, J.; Miranda, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present analytical and experimental thermal characteristics of a battery-less, fully-passive wireless backscattering microsystem for recording of neuropotentials. A major challenge for cortically implantable microsystems involves minimizing the heat dissipated by on-chip circuitry, which can lead to permanent brain damage. Therefore, knowledge of temperature changes induced by implantable microsystems while in operation is of utmost importance. In this work, a discrete diode appended to the neuro-recording microsystem has been used to indirectly monitor the aforesaid temperature changes. Using this technique, the maximum temperature rise measured for the microsystem while in operation was 0.15 +/- 0.1 C, which is significantly less than current safety guidelines. Specific absorption ratio (SAR) due to the microsystem was also computed to further demonstrate fully-passive functionality of the neuro-recording microsystem.

  16. Measurement of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by neutrons near thermal point (preliminary results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo; vich, S.N.; Andreev, M.F.; Bol`shakov, Y.M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been carried out of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by thermal neutrons. The isotope {sup 238}Np was built up through the reaction {sup 238}U(p,n) on an electrostatic accelerator. Extraction and cleaning of the sample were done by ion-exchange chromatography. Fast neutrons were generated on the electrostatic accelerator through the reaction {sup 9}Be(d,n); a polyethylene block was used to slow down neutrons. Registration of fission fragments was performed with dielectric track detectors. Suggesting that the behavior of {sup 238}Np and {sup 238}U. Westscott`s factors are indentical the fission cross-section of {sup 238}Np was obtained: {sigma}{sub fo}=2110 {plus_minus} 75 barn.

  17. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    1979-10-01

    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  18. Thermal stability of chemically denatured green fluorescent protein (GFP) A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Attila; Malnasi-Csizmadia, Andras; Somogyi, Bela; Lorinczy, Denes

    2004-02-09

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The protein consist of 238 amino acids and produces green fluorescent light ({lambda}{sub max}=508 nm), when irradiated with near ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser{sup 65}-Tyr{sup 66}-Gly{sup 67}-, which buried into {beta}-barrel. GFP is extremely compact and heat stable molecule. In this work, we present data for the effect of chemical denaturing agent on the thermal stability of GFP. When denaturing agent is applied, global thermal stability and the melting point of the molecule is decreases, that can be monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicate, that in 1-6 M range of GuHCl the melting temperature is decreasing continuously from 83 to 38 deg. C. Interesting finding, that the calculated calorimetric enthalpy decreases with GuHCl concentration up to 3 M (5.6-0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}), but at 4 M it jumps to 8.4 and at greater concentration it is falling down to 1.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. First phenomena, i.e. the decrease of melting point with increasing GuHCl concentration can be easily explained by the effect of the extended chemical denaturation, when less and less amount of heat required to diminish the remaining hydrogen bonds in {beta}-barrel. The surprising increase of calorimetric enthalpy at 4 M concentration of GuHCl could be the consequence of a dimerization or a formation of stable complex between GFP and denaturing agent as well as a precipitation at an extreme GuHCl concentration. We are planning further experiments to elucidate fluorescent consequence of these processes.

  19. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Solid lipid nanoparticles by coacervation loaded with a methotrexate prodrug: preliminary study for glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Chirio, Daniela; Peira, Elena; Annovazzi, Laura; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris Chiara; Lanotte, Michele; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Valazza, Alberto; Biasibetti, Elena; Gallarate, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Methotrexate-loaded biocompatible nanoparticles were tested for preliminary efficacy in glioma treatment. Behenic acid nanoparticles, prepared by the coacervation method, were loaded with the ester prodrug didodecylmethotrexate, which was previously tested in vitro against glioblastoma human primary cultures. Nanoparticle conjugation with an ApoE mimicking chimera peptide was performed to obtain active targeting to the brain. Biodistribution studies in healthy rats assessed the superiority of ApoE-conjugated formulation, which was tested on an F98/Fischer glioma model. Differences were observed in tumor growth rate (measured by MRI) between control and treated rats. In vitro tests on F98 cultured cells assessed their susceptibility to treatment, with consequent apoptosis, and allowed us to explain the apoptosis observed in glioma models.

  1. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW th power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H 2 corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the preliminary design

  2. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the

  3. Preliminary LOCA analysis of the westinghouse small modular reactor using the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N.; Nguyen, L.; Frepoli, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (> 225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with all primary components, including the steam generator and the pressurizer located inside the reactor vessel. The reactor core is based on a partial-height 17x17 fuel assembly design used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor core. The Westinghouse SMR utilizes passive safety systems and proven components from the AP1000 plant design with a compact containment that houses the integral reactor vessel and the passive safety systems. A preliminary loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analysis of the Westinghouse SMR has been performed using the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 code, simulating a transient caused by a double ended guillotine (DEG) break in the direct vessel injection (DVI) line. WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 is a new generation Westinghouse LOCA thermal-hydraulics code evolving from the US NRC licensed WCOBRA/TRAC code. It is designed to simulate PWR LOCA events from the smallest break size to the largest break size (DEG cold leg). A significant number of fluid dynamics models and heat transfer models were developed or improved in WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2. A large number of separate effects and integral effects tests were performed for a rigorous code assessment and validation. WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 was introduced into the Westinghouse SMR design phase to assist a quick and robust passive cooling system design and to identify thermal-hydraulic phenomena for the development of the SMR Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT). The LOCA analysis of the Westinghouse SMR demonstrates that the DEG DVI break LOCA is mitigated by the injection and venting from the Westinghouse SMR passive safety systems without core heat up, achieving long term core cooling. (authors)

  4. The Preliminary GAMMA Code Thermal hydraulic Analysis for the Steady State of HTR-10 Initial Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Su; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis of HTR-10 steady state full power initial core to provide a benchmark calculation of VHTGR(Very High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) safety analysis code of GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis). The input data of GAMMA code are produced for the models of fluid block, wall block, radiation heat transfer and each component material properties in HTR-10 reactor. The temperature and flow distributions of HTR-10 steady state 10 MW{sub th} full power initial core are calculated by GAMMA code with boundary conditions of total reactor inlet flow rate of 4.32 kg/s, inlet temperature of 250 .deg. C, inlet pressure of 3 MPa, outlet pressure of 2.992 MPa and the fixed temperature at RCCS water cooling tube of 50 .deg C. The calculation results are compared with the measured solid material temperatures at 22 fixed instrumentation positions in HTR-10. The wall temperature distribution in pebble bed core shows that the minimum temperature of 358 .deg. C is located at upper core, a higher temperature zone than 829 .deg. C is located at the inner region of 0.45 m radius at the bottom of core centre, and the maximum wall temperature is 897 .deg. C. The wall temperatures linearly decreases at radially and axially farther side from the bottom of core centre. The maximum temperature of RPV is 230 .deg. C, and the maximum values of fuel average temperature and TRISO centreline temperature are 907 .deg. C and 929 .deg. C, respectively and they are much lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 .deg. C. The comparsion between the GAMMA code predictions and the measured temperature data shows that the calculation results are very close to the measured values in top and side reflector region, but a great difference is appeared in bottom reflector region. Some measured data are abnormally high in bottom reflector region, and so the confirmation of data is necessary in future. Fifteen of twenty two data have a

  5. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  6. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field

  7. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  8. Preliminary study of rabbit model with corneal neovascularization after thermal burn under the constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the suitable conditions in rapid model of corneal neovascularization(CNVafter thermal burn under different constant temperature in rabbit. METHODS: Total 45 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into five groups(A, B, C, D, E. A groups: 100℃(n=10, B groups: 200℃(n=10, C groups: 300℃(n=10, D groups: 400℃(n=10, and E groups: control group(n=5. All left eyes of rabbits in A,B,C,D groups were induced corneal neovascularization by constant temperature burning device. The growth of CNV was observed by slit lamp microscope and the area of CNV were recorded on 4 th, 7 th, 14th, 30th days postoperatively. SPSS 19.0 statistical package was used for data analysis, and the data was recorded by mean±standard deviation. Comparison by analysis of variance was made by repeated measures in the area of neovascularization at each time point in groups. Statistical tests were considered significantly when P values were less than 0.05. RESULTS: On postoperative 4th, 7th, 14th, 30th days: no neovascularization was found after corneal thermal burn in A group, but only a few nebula left(n=2; the area of CNV were(9.16±1.45mm2,(37.73±5.49mm2,(62.44±7.54mm2,(40.28±7.39mm2 in B group respectively; and(11.45±1.04mm2,(44.51±4.64mm2,(66.13±4.13mm2,(43.04±2.33mm2 in C group respectively; and(13.23±0.86mm2,(47.26±4.59mm2,(67.57±4.56mm2,(45.59±4.44mm2 in D group respectively, and part corneal carbide(n=4was observed as well as corneal perforation(n=6were found on 3d in D group. No neovascularization was found in normal control group. Comparison of the areas of CNV at each time point between groups was statistically different, PPCOCLUSION: In 4 to 7d, the higher the temperature is, the more the neovascularization area of CNV are. It has no significant difference in 14 to 30d. But corneal carbide and corneal perforation are often found in 400℃ group, so its modeling failure rate is high. It is between 200℃ and 300℃ that

  9. Preliminary thermal design of a pressurized water reactor containment for handling severe accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.M.; Karameldin, A.

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for a 4250 MW(th) Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor containment analysis following a severe accident. The cooling process of the composite containment-steel shell and concrete shield- is achievable by natural circulation of atmospheric air. However, for purpose of gettering higher degrees of safety margin, the present study undertakes two objectives: (1) Installment of a diesel engine-driven air blower to force air through the annular space between the steel shell and concrete shield. The engine can be remotely operated to be effective in case of station blackout. (ii) Fixing longitudinally plate fins on the circumference of the inside and outside containment steel shell. These fins increase the heat transfer areas and hence the rate of heat removal from the containment atmosphere. In view of its importance - from the safety viewpoint - the long term behaviour of the containment which is a quasi-steady state problem, is formulated through a system of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations which describe the thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic behaviour of the double shell containment. The calculated results revealed the following: (i) the passively air cooled containment can remove maximum heat load of 11.5 MW without failure, (ii) the effect of finned surface in the air passage tends to decrease the containment pressure by 20 to 30%, depending on the heat load, (iii) the effect of condensing fins is negligible for the proposed fin dimensions and material. However, by reducing the fin width, increasing their thickness, doubling their number, and using a higher conductive metal than the steel, it is expected that the containment pressure can be further reduced by 10% or more, (iv) the fins' dimensions and their number must be optimized via maximizing the difference or the ratio between the heat removed and pressure drop to get maximum heat flow rate

  10. Hand Robotics Rehabilitation: Feasibility and Preliminary Results of a Robotic Treatment in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Sale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria. Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions of robotic treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week. Each session lasted for 40 minutes. The exercises were carried out as follows: passive modality (5 minutes, passive/plus modality (5 minutes, assisted therapy (10 minutes, and balloon (10 minutes. The following impairment and functional evaluations, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM, Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles (MRC, Motricity Index (MI, and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (AS, were performed at the beginning (T0, after 10 sessions (T1, and at the end of the treatment (T2. The strength hand flexion and extension performed by Robot were assessed at T0 and T2. The Barthel Index and COMP (performance and satisfaction subscale were assessed at T0 and T2. Results. Clinical improvements were found in all patients. No dropouts were recorded during the treatment and all subjects fulfilled the protocol. Evidence of a significant improvement was demonstrated by the Friedman test for the MRC (P<0.0123. Evidence of an improvement was demonstrated for AS, FM, and MI. Conclusions. This original rehabilitation treatment could contribute to increase the hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. The simplicity of the treatment, the lack of side effects, and the first positive results in acute stroke patients support the recommendations to extend the clinical trial of this

  11. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, Omid, E-mail: omid.akbarzadeh63@gmail.com; Abdullah, Bawadi, E-mail: bawadi-abdullah@petronas.com.my; Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  12. Thermal Epiphysiodesis Made with RFA. A New Treatment for LLD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    equalization. Current techniques involve opening cortical windows, usage of staples or tension devices, and destruction with curettes or drills. Complications such as breaching of the cortex, damage to the metaphysis, and vascular or nerve injury have potentially serious consequences. Therefore, RFA may...... be a method which neutralizes these complications. RFA involves the application of energy in the radio wave frequency resulting in local thermal coagulative necrosis. It has been shown to be a reliable technique for creating thermally induced coagulation necrosis. The experience with this technique has been...

  13. Preliminary study of infiltration gallery for water treatment towards Universal Access 2019 in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritha Nilam Kusuma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration gallery is a method of water treatment through soil filtration. The mechanism is the filtering or absorption of contaminants in the river that flows through the soil. This method uses soil to remove contaminants. This method has three kinds of screening processes, ie physically, chemically and biologically. This process depends on moisture content, temperature, porosity, specific gravity, the saturated degree and hydraulic conductivity in the soil. Now a days, the cost of clean water production in the province of East Java, Indonesia requires a lot of cost, because the consumption of coagulant is very high; It is necessary to have a preliminary processing that helps the performance of water treatment in East Java, Indonesia. Natural water purification method using soil called infiltration gallery can be one solution in processing river water or as preliminary processing for water treatment in East Java. The purpose of this research is to know soil characteristics in soil samples in each region and its ability to removel TSS and Total Coliform. The second objective is to find good soil composition for removel TSS and total Coliform. The location of soil sampling is in Surabaya, Lumajang, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Sidoarjo and Gresik, East Java province, Indonesia. The method of analysis used gravimetry, method 9223 B, the comparison between mass and specific gravity, constant head permeameter and wet grain. The results showed that the soil samples from each region were not able to remove the TSS and total coliform, so that the engineering of soil composition was required. Appropriate soil composition is sand and clay, 85% and 15%, with the percentage of TSS and total coliform removal of 63.50% and 99.67%.

  14. Use of the KineSpring system in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Vincenzo; Condello, Vincenzo; Piovan, Gianluca; Screpis, Daniele; Zorzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    the purpose of this study was to analyze our preliminary results obtained with the KineSpring system in patients suffering from medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). between September 2012 and May 2014, 53 patients underwent treatment with the KineSpring system. Patient self-assessment was performed pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and included the KOOS, Tegner activity score, Lysholm functional knee score, VAS knee pain score, and IKDC score. Device- and procedure-related adverse events were recorded. mean KOOS subscales, except for the Sport/Recreation subscale at six months, improved over time. Mean WOMAC Pain and Function domains, Lysholm score, IKDC score and VAS knee pain score improved over the follow-up period and were significantly improved at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively compared to baseline. Mean Tegner score improved slightly over time. In 5 of the 53 (9.4%) patients re-operation was necessary. In 3 patients the device was removed due to infection (one case) or persistent knee pain (two cases). Surgical arthrolysis was performed in two patients. in our preliminary experience, the KineSpring system gave good short-term clinical results. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  15. EFFECTS OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments was completed to investigate abiotic degradation and reaction product formation of trichloroethylene (TCE) when heated. A quartz-tube apparatus was used to study short residence time and high temperature conditions that are thought to occur during thermal ...

  16. The effectiveness of tipi in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, M B; Pereira, R B; Coelho Andrade, L E; Atra, E

    1991-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful inflammatory condition occurring mainly in the later half of life. Hip and knee are the joints mostly affected. Petiveria alliacea (tipi) popularly known as an anti-rheumatic medicine, has been used by OA patients to relief pain. This one-week cross-over double-blind trial has preliminary evaluated the analgesic effect of tipi tea in 14 patients with hip and knee OA. Imperata exaltata (sape) was used as the Placebo tea. The pain assessments that were made at baseline and before the start of the second treatment period by treatment groups were comparable. While taking tipi or placebo tea patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain on motion and pain at night. The comparison between the improvements reported while on tipi and placebo tea, however, did not disclose any statistically significant difference. At the conclusion of the study 7 patients preferred tipi tea and 6 preferred placebo tea (NS). Two patients reported insomnia, one during placebo treatment and the other during tipi treatment.

  17. Hand robotics rehabilitation: feasibility and preliminary results of a robotic treatment in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Patrizio; Lombardi, Valentina; Franceschini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria). Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions of robotic treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). Each session lasted for 40 minutes. The exercises were carried out as follows: passive modality (5 minutes), passive/plus modality (5 minutes), assisted therapy (10 minutes), and balloon (10 minutes). The following impairment and functional evaluations, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI), and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (AS), were performed at the beginning (T0), after 10 sessions (T1), and at the end of the treatment (T2). The strength hand flexion and extension performed by Robot were assessed at T0 and T2. The Barthel Index and COMP (performance and satisfaction subscale) were assessed at T0 and T2. Results. Clinical improvements were found in all patients. No dropouts were recorded during the treatment and all subjects fulfilled the protocol. Evidence of a significant improvement was demonstrated by the Friedman test for the MRC (P hand motor recovery in acute stroke patients. The simplicity of the treatment, the lack of side effects, and the first positive results in acute stroke patients support the recommendations to extend the clinical trial of this treatment, in association with physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy.

  18. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salerno, Kilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  19. Hot-Dip Aluminizing on AISI F55–UNS S32760 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Properties: Effect of Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of super duplex stainless steels AISI F55-UNS S32760 in hot-dip aluminizing process has been studied, investigating the influence of cold working and of different initial microstructures obtained through a preliminary thermal treatment. The microstructural features examined are the secondary austenite precipitation, the static recovery of ferrite and the thermal dissolution of austenite within ferritic matrix. The hot-dip aluminizing temperature has been optimized through sessile drop tests. The treatment has been performed at 1100 °C for 300 s, 900 s and 2700 s. A strong chemical interaction occurs, generating intermetallic compounds at the interface. Molten aluminum interacts exclusively with the ferritic phase due to its much higher diffusivity in this phase coupled with its marked ferrite-stabilizer behavior. Thus, the influence of cold working is not remarkable, since the strains are mainly allocated by austenitic phase. The diffusivity of aluminum increases due to lattice defects thermally generated and, mainly, to influence given by grain boundaries, multiplied by secondary austenite precipitation, which act as short-circuit diffusion paths. Ni and Cr contents in the ferritic matrix have an influence but not highly relevant. Then, the best starting condition of the super duplex stainless steel substrates, to obtain a thick interfacial layer, are the thermal annealing at 1080 °C for 360 s/mm after a solution thermal treatment at 1300 °C for 60 s/mm.

  20. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, T.H.; Gehner, P.D.; Stegen, Gary; Hymas, Jay; Pajunen, A.L.; Sexton, Rich; Ramsey, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  1. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  2. Prognostic factors for the success of thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M. Y.; Mol, B. W. J.; Brölmann, H. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive factors that will ensure successful menorrhagia treatment using hot fluid balloon endometrial ablation. METHODS: This is a prospective study on patients referred for menorrhagia and treated with hot fluid thermal balloon ablation. Potential prognostic factors for

  3. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C-S; Ju, K-C; Cheng, T-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Lin, W-L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (T tgt ), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time

  4. Preliminary results of ecotoxicological assessment of an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) passive treatment system testing water quality of depurated lixiviates

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Sarmiento, Aguasanta; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Valls Casillas, Tomás Ángel del

    2017-01-01

    The current work reports on the preliminary results of a toxicity test using screening experiments to check the efficiency of an innovative passive treatment plant designed for acid mine drainage purification. Bioassays took place with water samples before and after the treatment system and in the river, once treated water is discharged. Due to the high toxicity of the water collected at the mouth of the mine (before the treatment plant), the bioassay was designed and developed with respect t...

  5. Study of arsenic and molybdenum distribution in the body during thermal springs treatments, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannou, B.

    1987-06-01

    At La Bourboule City, the arsenic and molybdenum elements are contained in great concentration in the watering place. So, thermal neutron activation analysis was applied to measure arsenic and molybdenum amplitudes after the treatments in some organs. Their variations are determined for the first time in blood versus time. Contamination by experimental materials used are reduced as possible or evaluated to take them into account in the results. It appears that rabbits are better standards than rats to make preliminary studies with animals. These experiments have been completed with studies on man. After drinking, there is a specific accumulation of arsenic in breaths while after aerotherapeutics it happens in trachea. The measures indicate minima in blood concentrations of arsenic and molybdenum at the tenth day of thermal spring treatment; there are maxima in urines at the same time. The overall radiochemical neutron activation analysis and gamma ray high resolution spectrometry appear as a unique and powerful procedure to resolve the difficult biomedical problems [fr

  6. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  7. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  8. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  9. Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, Mark D.; Kaplan, Irving D.; Hansen, Jorgen L.; Prokopios-Davos, Savina; Topulos, George P.; Wishnow, Kenneth; Manola, Judith; Bornstein, Bruce A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although hyperthermia has been used for more than two decades in the treatment of pelvic tumors, little is known about the potential impact of heat on rectal toxicity when combined with other treatment modalities. Because rectal toxicity is a concern with radiation and may be exacerbated by hyperthermia, definition of the association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity is important. In this report, we correlate rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters for patients treated with hyperthermia and radiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with T2b-T3b disease (1992 American Joint Committee On Cancer criteria) enrolled in a Phase II study of external beam radiation ± androgen-suppressive therapy with two transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia treatments were assessed for rectal toxicity. Prostatic and anterior rectal wall temperatures were monitored for all treatments. Rectal wall temperatures were limited to 40 deg. C in 19 patients, 41 deg. C in 3 patients, and 42 deg. C in 8 patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate the log hazard of developing National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 toxicity based on temperature parameters. The following were calculated: hazard ratios, 95% confidence intervals, p values for statistical significance of each parameter, and proportion of variability explained for each parameter. Results: Gastrointestinal toxicity was limited to Grade 2. The rate of acute Grade 2 proctitis was greater for patients with an allowable rectal wall temperature of >40 deg. C. In this group, 7 of 11 patients experienced acute Grade 2 proctitis, as opposed to 3 of 19 patients in the group with rectal wall temperatures limited to 40 deg. C (p=0.004). Preliminary assessment of long-term toxicity revealed no differences in toxicity. Hazard ratios for acute Grade 2 proctitis for allowable rectal wall temperature, average rectal wall Tmax, and average prostate Tmax were 9.33 (p=0.01), 3

  10. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  11. Biodegradable biliary stent implantation in the treatment of benign bilioplastic-refractory biliary strictures: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Giovanni; Michelozzi, Caterina; Melchiorre, Fabio; Poretti, Dario; Tramarin, Marco; Pedicini, Vittorio; Solbiati, Luigi; Cornalba, Gianpaolo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate feasibility, safety, and outcome of patients treated with biodegradable biliary stents for benign biliary stenosis refractory to other treatments. Between March 2011 and September 2012, ten patients (seven men, three women; age 59 ± 7 years) with recurrent cholangitis due to postsurgical biliary stricture, previous multiple unsuccessful (two to five) bilioplasties, and unsuitability for surgical/endoscopic repair underwent percutaneous implantation of a biodegradable biliary stent. Patients were followed-up clinically and with ultrasound at 1, 3 and 6 months, and then at 6-month intervals. Stent implantation was always feasible. No immediate major or minor complications occurred. In all patients, 48-h cholangiographic control demonstrated optimal stent positioning and stenosis resolution. In a median follow-up time of 16.5 months (25th-75th percentiles = 11-20.25 months) no further invasive treatment was needed. Three patients experienced transient episodes of cholangitis. Neither re-stenosis nor dilatation of the biliary tree was documented during follow-up. No stent was visible at the 6-month follow-up. Percutaneous placement of biodegradable biliary stents represents a new option in treating benign biliary stenoses refractory to treatment with bilioplasty. This technique seems to be feasible, effective and free from major complications. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our preliminary results.

  12. Durability of treatment response to zolpidem with three different maintenance regimens: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Michael; Grandner, Michael; Zee, Jarcy; Bremer, Erin; Whinnery, Julia; Barilla, Holly; Andalia, Priscilla; Gehrman, Phil; Morales, Knashawn; Thase, Michael; Bootzin, Richard; Ader, Robert

    2015-09-01

    At present, there is no consensus regarding how to medically manage chronic insomnia in the long term. The unstated standard of practice is for patients to use hypnotics intermittently. The present study aimed to compare a partial reinforcement strategy with nightly and intermittent dosing strategies for its potential as a maintenance therapy. A mixed model was used in the study. One between-subjects factor: group (n = 4). One repeated-measures factor: time (12 weekly assessments). A total of 74 subjects with chronic Insomnia were treated with 10 mg zolpidem for 4 weeks. Treatment respondents were randomized to nightly dosing with 10 mg or 5 mg (QHS-10 and QHS-5), intermittent dosing with 10 mg (IDS-10 [3-5 days weekly]), or partial reinforcement dosing with 10 mg (PRS-10 [nightly pill use with 50% active medication and 50% placebos]) for 12 weeks. It was found, in compliant subjects (n = 55), that all four strategies evaluated maintained treatment response over time (ie, prevented or delayed relapse). For the subjects that remained in remission, the subjects in the intermittent dosing group (IDS-10) group exhibited poorer sleep continuity. While best considered a preliminary study, the present findings suggest that the partial reinforcement strategy may be a viable means toward maintaining treatment gains over time with less active medication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Intradermal therapy (mesotherapy) for the treatment of acute pain in carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Giorgio; Capone, Loredana; Corra, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common cause of severe hand pain. In this study we treated acute pain in CTS patients by means of local intradermal injections of anti-inflammatory drugs (mesotherapy). In twenty-five patients (forty-five hands), CTS diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and neurophysiological examination prior to mesotherapy. A mixture containing lidocaine 10 mg, ketoprophen lysine-acetylsalycilate 80 mg, xantinol nicotinate 100 mg, cyanocobalamine 1,000 mcg plus injectable water was used. Sites of injection were three parallel lines above the transverse carpal ligament and two v-shaped lines, one at the base of the thenar eminence, and the other at the base of the hypothenar eminence. The day after the treatment, all but four patients reported a significant reduction in pain and paresthesias. After 12 months, 17 patients had a complete pain relief, eight patients reported recurrence of pain and sensory symptoms and four out of them underwent surgical treatment. With the obvious limits of a small-size open-label study, our results suggest that mesotherapy can temporary relieve pain and paresthesias in most CTS patients and in some cases its effect seems to be long-lasting. Further controlled studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings and to compare mesotherapy to conventional approaches for the treatment of CTS.

  14. Preliminary study of Conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the preliminary efficacy of conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration(wAMD.METHODS:Seventeen wAMD patients(18 eyeswere selected to receive conbercept injection. All patients were given a single conbercept injection every month, 3 times. Before and after 1, 2, 3mo of the injection, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, intraocular pressure(IOP, measured by Non-contact tonometer, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, indocyanine green angiography(ICG, optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination and the complications incidence were compared.RESULTS:Three months after conbercept injection, the BCVA improved in 15 eyes(83%, stable in 3 eyes(17%. Before treatment, the average central macular thickness was 421.72±54.43μm, at 1 and 2 and 3mo after treatment, the average central macular thickness was 337.89±25.88μm, 293.56±26.87μm, 266.89±19.10μm respectively. There were significant differences compared with before and after injection(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal injection conbercept for wAMD can significantly improve the visual function, reduce the macular edema and the leakage with higher safety and less complications. However the prolonged efficacy needs further observation.

  15. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [Fondazione TERA, Via Puccini 1, 1-28100 Novara (Italy); Cirio, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-01-15

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  16. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape

  17. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Luparia, A.; Marchette, F.; Peroni, C.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  18. Preliminary study for treatment methodology establishment of liquid waste containing uranium in refining facility lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Ahn, Byung Gil; Shim, Joon Bo

    1999-12-01

    The preliminary study which establishes the treatment methodology of the sludge waste containing uranium in the conversion facility lagoon was performed. The property of lagoon liquid waste such as the initial water content, the density including radiochemical analysis results were obtained using the samples taken from the lagoon. The objective of this study is to provide some basically needed materials for selection of the most proper lagoon waste treatment methodology by reviewing the effective processes and methods for minimizing the secondary waste resulting from the treatment and disposition of large amount of radioactive liquid waste according to the facility closing. The lagoon waste can be classified into two sorts, such as supernatant and precipitate. The supernatants contain uranium less than 5 ppm and their water content are about 35 percent. Therefore, supernatants are solutions composed of mainly salt components. However, the precipitates have lots of uranium compound contained in the coagulation matrix, and are formed as two kinds of crystalline structures. The most proper method minimizing the secondary waste would be direct drying and solidification of the supernatants and precipitates after separation of them by filtering. (author)

  19. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  20. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  1. Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms and Cognitive Performance: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Elisabeth; Böhm, Christina; Lürding, Ralf; Schödel, Petra; Bele, Sylvia; Hochreiter, Andreas; Scheitzach, Judith; Zeman, Florian; Brawanski, Alexander; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) on cognitive function. Neuropsychological assessment after UIA treatment is underreported, and prospective trials have repeatedly been demanded. In 2014, we conducted a prospective controlled study to evaluate the differences in cognitive processing caused by the treatment of anterior circulation UIAs. Thirty patients were enrolled until September 2015. Ten patients received endovascular aneurysm occlusion (EV), 10 patients were treated microsurgically (MS), and 10 patients with surgically treated degenerative lumbar spine disease (LD) served as control. All patients underwent extended standardized neuropsychological assessment before (t 1 ) and 6 weeks after treatment (t 2 ). Tests included verbal, visual, and visuospatial memory, psychomotor functioning, executive functioning, and its subdomains verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility. We statistically evaluated intragroup and intergroup changes. Intragroup comparisons and group-rate analysis showed no significant impairment in overall neuropsychological performance, either postinterventionally or postoperatively. However, the postoperative performance in cognitive processing speed, cognitive flexibility, and executive functioning was significantly worse in the MS group than in the EV (P = 0.038) and LD group (P = 0.02). Compared with the EV group, patients with MS showed significant postoperative impairment in a subtest for auditory-verbal memory (Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition, Logical Memory II; MS vs. EV P = 0.011). The MS group trended toward posttreatment impairment in subtests for verbal fluency and semantic memory (Regensburg Word Fluency Test; MS vs. EV P = 0.083) and in auditory-verbal memory (Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition, Logical Memory II; MS vs. LD P = 0.06). Our preliminary data showed no effect of anterior circulation UIA treatment on overall neuropsychological function but impaired

  2. Thermal infrared sounding observations of lower atmospheric variances at Mars and their implications for gravity wave activity: a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  3. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain physico-chemical properties including viscoelasticity, crystallinity and maltose content of corn depends on the gelatinization of starch under different treatments. Three different treatments were performed; boiling in water, steam heating, and germination. The effects of gelatinization on viscoelastic property of corn ...

  4. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragossnig, A.M.

    2001-05-01

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  5. Preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment influence on radiation-catalytic activity of zirconium during water decomposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Aliyev, A.G.; Agayev, T.N.; Aliyev, S.M.; Velibekova, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The study of physical-chemical processes proceeding in contact of metal constructional materials nuclear reactors with water at simultaneous influence of temperature and radiation represents the large interest at the decision of problems material authority and safety of work of nuclear -power installations [1-2]. One of the widely widespread materials of active zone nuclear reactors is metal zirconium and its alloys. The influence of preliminary radiation processing on radiation, radiation -thermal and thermal processes of accumulation of molecular hydrogen and oxidation zirconium in contact with water is investigated at T=673 K and ρ=5mg/sm 3 [3-4]. Initial samples zirconium previously has been exposed by an irradiation in medium H 2 O 2 at D=20-410 kGy. The contribution of radiation processes in these contacts in process thermo-radiation decomposition of water and oxidation of materials of zirconium is revealed. It is established that the interaction of Zr metal, preliminary treated by radiation, with water at radiation -heterogeneous processes leads to passivity of a surface. The rate meanings of thermal, radiation -thermal processes and radiation-chemical yields of hydrogen are determined. It is revealed, that at radiation-heterogeneous processes in system Zr +H 2 O (ρ =5mg/sm 3 T=673 K) the increase of the absorbed doze up to 123 kGy results to reduction of a radiation -chemical yield of molecular hydrogen. The further increase of the absorbed doze results to increase of a radiation -chemical yield of hydrogen. The observable effect at the preliminary radiation of zirconium is connected to formation of oxide phase on a surface. The mechanism of radiation -heterogeneous processes proceeding in system Zr+H 2 O is suggested. (author)

  6. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  7. A Preliminary Version of Heavy Ion Treatment Planning System at IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinguo; Dai Zhongying; Ye Fei; Wu Qingfeng; Li Ping; Li Qiang; Jin Xiaodong; Du Xiaogang; WangYangping; Dang Jianwu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL/HIRFL-CSR), clinical trials of heavy ion radiotherapy are being conducted at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, where two-dimensional(2D) layer-stacking conformal irradiation method in a passive beam delivery system was applied. To make better use of the biophysical advantages of heavy ion beams and ensure success of the clinical trials, a preliminary version of heavy ion treatment planning system (TPS) has been developed at IMP. The TPS was designed in a manner to adapt to the 2D layer-stacking conformal irradiation method. The architecture and function of the TPS software and the implementation of dose calculation algorithm in the TPS were introduced in this paper.The deviation between the doses planned by the TPS and measured through an anthropomorphous phantom was verified to be less than 5%. Finally,the pending issues for developing a sophisticated treatment planning system at IMP were discussed. (authors)

  8. Thermal Epiphysiodesis Made with RFA. A New Treatment for LLD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    at two ablation sites (lateral and medial) identified using a C-arm. Under general anesthesia, a probe was inserted and the ablation performed. T1, T2 and water content MR images were obtained right after the procedure; 12 weeks later for 6 animals, and 6 months later for the last 2 ones. The length......Thermal Epiphysiodesis Made with Radio Frequency Ablation, RFA in a Porcine Model Shiguetomi-Medina JM, Rahbek O, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Møller-Madsen B Introduction Anisomelia is often treated with epiphysiodesis. Epiphysiodesis has become the most commonly used procedure for leg length...... methods. These results show that this technique can arrest growth in a safe and effective way. However, studies must be performed to obtain more evidence of both the safety and effectiveness of the procedure....

  9. Thermal Epiphysiodesis Made with RFA. A New Treatment for LLD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    and the ablation performed. T1, T2 and water content MR images were performed right after the procedure, 12 weeks later for 6 animals, and 6 months later for the last 2 ones. The length of both tibiae was measured immediately after the ablation and at the end of the study. Results Both legs were equal...... of the growth plate to inhibit growth. Epiphysiodesis has become the most commonly used procedure for leg length equalization. Current techniques involve opening cortical windows, usage of staples or tension devices, and destruction with curettes or drills. Complications such as breaching of the cortex, damage...... to the metaphysis, and vascular or nerve injury have potentially serious consequences. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable and precise procedure which overcomes the complications. Radiofrequency ablation involves the application of energy in the radio wave frequency resulting in local thermal coagulative...

  10. ACAMPROSATE AND BACLOFEN WERE NOT EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING: PRELIMINARY BLIND RATER COMPARISON STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pinhas N Dannon; Pinhas N Dannon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Pathological gambling (PG) is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, Baclofen and Acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Materials & Methods: 17 male gamblers were randomly ...

  11. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  12. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Roth, Yiftach; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; Dannon, Pinhas

    2011-02-09

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel) ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session) to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS) as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2%) and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%). In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096).

  13. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangen Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Patients and methods Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. Results This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2% and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. Trial registration This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096.

  14. Effects of thermal treatments and germination on physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (8), pp. 994-999, 16 April 2007 ... viscoelastic property of corn starch were measured and the morphological changes of corn after different treatments were determined by ... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe the morphological changes of corn after different.

  15. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  16. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  17. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  19. Nanoparticles in treatment of thermal injured rats: Is it safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, P S; Ferreira, I R; Marcato, P D; Paula, L B de; Duran, N; Alves, O L; Huber, S C; Almeida, A B A; Torsoni, S; Seabra, A B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether thermal trauma induced oxidative stress altered the balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems in the blood of burn wound rats in the absence and presence of silver nanoparticles and S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO. Free silver nanoparticles, free GSNO and silver nanoparticles + GSNO had no cytotoxic effects. Under anesthesia, the shaved dorsum of the rats was exposed to 90 0 C (burn group) water bath. Studied compounds were administered topically immediately and at 28 days after the burn injury, four times a day. Silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles + GSNO were no toxic in vitro and in vivo. There were no significant differences in the levels of urea, creatinine, aminotransferases and hematological parameters, in control-burn groups (free silver nanoparticles) and treated-burn groups (free GSNO or silver nanoparticles + GSNO). There were no differences in lipid peroxidation and in the levels of protein carbonyls and glutathione, used as oxidative stress markers. A little inflammatory cell response, papillary dermis vascularization, fibroblasts differentiated into contractile myofibroblasts and the presence of a large amount of extracellular matrix were evidenced in treated groups following skin injury. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles and GSNO may provide an effective action on wound healing.

  20. Peculiarities of Thermal Treatment of Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchin, V. N.; Shilonosova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    A mathematical program has been developed that allows one to determine the parameters of heat treatment of monolithic structures. One of the quality indicators of monolithic reinforced concrete structures is the level of temperature stresses arising in the process of heat treatment and further operation of structures. In winter at heat treatment the distribution of temperatures along the cross-section of the structure is uneven. A favorable thermo-stressed state in a concrete massif occurs when using the preheating method, providing the concrete temperature in the center of the structure is greater than at the periphery. In this case, after the strength is set and the temperature is later equalized along the cross-section, the central part of the structure tends to decrease its dimensions more but the extreme zones prevent it. Therefore, the center is in a state of tension, and the extreme zones on the periphery are compressed. In compressed concrete there is a lesser chance of cracks or defects. The temperature gradient over the section of the structure, the stress in the concrete and its strength are determined. When calculating the temperature and strength fields, the stress level was determined - a value equal to the ratio of the tensile stresses in the section under consideration to the tensile strength of the concrete in this section at the same time. The nature of the change in stress level is determined by the massive structure and power of the formwork heaters. It is shown that under unfavorable conditions the stress level is close to the critical value. The greatest temperature gradient occurs in the outer layers adjacent to the heating formwork. A technology for concrete conditioning is proposed which makes it possible to reduce the temperature stresses along the cross-section of the structure. The time for concrete conditioning in the formwork is reduced. In its turn, it further reduces labor costs and the cost of concrete work along with the cost of

  1. Examining implementation and preliminary performance indicators of veterans treatment courts: The Kentucky experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Birdwhistell, Shira; Hulbig, Shelia K; Jones, Afton Jackson; Newell, Jennifer; Payne, Connie

    2017-08-01

    Veterans' Treatment Courts (VTCs) are posited as a solution to offer rehabilitation for veterans involved in the criminal justice system. Despite the pervasive implementation of VTCs, there is little research focused specifically on VTC implementation and outcomes, which are based on other problem-solving court models such as drug court. The current study presents qualitative process evaluation data from key stakeholders (n=21) and veteran participants (n=4) to show accomplishments, challenges, and lessons learned during first-year implementation at two VTC sites. Quantitative performance data is also presented on veteran participants (n=19) served during the first year to show: types of services, monitoring, judicial interaction, sanctions/therapeutic responses, and rewards, as well as preliminary data on recidivism. Qualitative data, from both key stakeholders and veteran participants, suggests that offering rehabilitation via various program components, services/referrals, and accountability are critical to the success of the VTC. Data also provides valuable lessons learned for VTC implementation including communication, collaboration, information/protocols, and resources. Performance data shows that a variety of services are utilized and that frequent judicial interaction, drug testing, and sanctions are cornerstones of the VTC. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated combined endovascular therapy with milrinone and nimodipine for the treatment of severe vasospasm: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Camillo; Wambacher, Bernhard; Loyoddin, Michel; Karaic, Radenko; Krafft, Peter; Valentin, Andreas; Tscholakoff, Dimiter; Kleinpeter, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    Delayed vasospasm (VSP) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains a major source of morbidity. Milrinone was recently suggested as an invasive VSP treatment option. It is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with vasodilating and additional positive inotrope and anti-inflammatory effects. In this preliminary series, we included patients with severe VSP and unsuccessful maximum conservative therapy. Inclusion criteria were (1) transcranial Doppler (TCD) mean >180 cm/s; (2) increase of >50 % of TCD mean values within 6 h to values >150 cm/s; and/or (3) neurological deterioration (after exclusion of hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and other systemic reasons). Patients received endovascular therapy with nimodipine 2 mg followed by milrinone 4-8 mg. Reinterventions were indicated aggressively in cases of persistent neurological deficits or persistent high mean TCD >180 cm/s. Of 121 consecutive aSAH patients, 16 (13.2 %) received endovascular VSP therapy. Of these, 11 patients (68.5 %) received ≥ 3 interventions (median 4; maximum 9); 14 (87.5 %) showed postinterventional angiographic improvement of vessel diameters; and 11 (68.5 %) showed improvement of their neurological deficits after a mean follow-up time of 4.5 months. No cardiovascular adverse events attributed to milrinone were observed. Milrinone may be a useful supplementary substance for endovascular VSP therapy. Aggressive reintervention indications did not cause additional adverse events.

  3. Preliminary thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan's Conceptual Design for a repository containing horizontally emplaced waste packages at the Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, N.Y.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design for horizontal package emplacement at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The repository was divided into three geometric regions. Then two-dimensional finite-element models were set up to approximate the three-dimensional nature of each region. Thermal and quasistatic thermomechanical finite-element analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal/thermomechanical responses of the three regions. The exponential-time creep law was used to represent the creep behavior of salt rock. The repository design was evaluated by comparing the thermal/thermomechanical responses obtained for the three regions with interim performance constraints. The preliminary results show that all the performance constraints are met except for those of the waste package. The following factors were considered in interpreting these results: (1) the qualitative description of the analytical responses; (2) the limitations of the analyses; and (3) either the conclusions based on overall evaluation of limitations and analytical results or the conclusions based on the fact that the repository design may be evaluated only after further analyses. Furthermore, a parametric analysis was performed to estimate the effect of material parameters on the predicted thermal/thermomechanical response. 23 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW

  5. Kinetic Monte Carlo study on the evolution of silicon surface roughness under hydrogen thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Yu, Linwei; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The KMC method is adopted to investigate the relationships between surface evolution and hydrogen thermal treatment conditions. • The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages at relatively low temperatures, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the time. • The optimized surface structure can be obtained by precisely adjusting thermal treatment temperatures and hydrogen pressures. - Abstract: The evolution of a two-dimensional silicon surface under hydrogen thermal treatment is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the dependence of the migration behaviors of surface atoms on both the temperature and hydrogen pressure. We adopt different activation energies to analyze the influence of hydrogen pressure on the evolution of surface morphology at high temperatures. The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the equilibrium time. Our results indicate that a high hydrogen pressure is conducive to obtaining optimized surfaces, as a strategy in the applications of three-dimensional devices.

  6. Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report

  7. Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity with topical ketorolac tromethamine: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafferata Maria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP is a common retinal neovascular disorder of premature infants. It is of variable severity, usually heals with mild or no sequelae, but may progress to blindness from retinal detachments or severe retinal scar formation. This is a preliminary report of the effectiveness and safety of a new and original use of topical ketorolac in preterm newborn to prevent the progression of ROP to the more severe forms of this disease. Methods From January 2001 to December 2002, all fifty nine preterm newborns with birthweight less than 1250 grams or gestational age less than 30 weeks of gestational age admitted to neonatal intensive care were eligible for treatment with topical ketorolac (0.25 milligrams every 8 hours in each eye. The historical comparison group included all 53 preterm newborns, with the same inclusion criteria, admitted between January 1999 and December 2000. Results Groups were comparable in terms of weight distribution, Apgar score at 5 minutes, incidence of sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. The duration of oxygen therapy was significantly longer in the control group. In the ketorolac group, among 43 children that were alive at discharge, one (2.3% developed threshold ROP and cryotherapy was necessary. In the comparison group 35 children survived, and six child (17% needed cryotherapy (Relative Risk 0.14, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80, p = 0.041. Adjusting by duration of oxygen therapy did not significantly change these results. Adverse effects attributable to ketorolac were not detected. Conclusions This preliminary report suggests that ketorolac in the form of an ophthalmic solution can reduce the risk of developing severe ROP in very preterm newborns, without producing significant adverse side effects. These results, although promising, should be interpreted with caution because of the weakness of the study design. This is an inexpensive and simple intervention that

  8. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Aryanti, N., E-mail: nita.aryanti@gmail.com; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H. [Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto Street, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024)7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  11. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  12. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusworo, T. D.; Aryanti, N.; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second

  13. Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Released from Thermal Treatment and Open Burning of E-Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Feng; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2018-04-17

    Primitive processing of e-waste potentially releases abundant organic contaminants to the environment, but the magnitudes and mechanisms remain to be adequately addressed. We conducted thermal treatment and open burning of typical e-wastes, that is, plastics and printed circuit boards. Emission factors of the sum of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑ 39 PBDE) were 817-1.60 × 10 5 ng g -1 in thermal treatment and nondetected-9.14 × 10 4 ng g -1 , in open burning. Airborne particles (87%) were the main carriers of PBDEs, followed by residual ashes (13%) and gaseous constituents (0.3%), in thermal treatment, while they were 30%, 43% and 27% in open burning. The output-input mass ratios of ∑ 39 PBDE were 0.12-3.76 in thermal treatment and 0-0.16 in open burning. All PBDEs were largely affiliated with fine particles, with geometric mean diameters at 0.61-0.83 μm in thermal degradation and 0.57-1.16 μm in open burning from plastic casings, and 0.44-0.56 and nondetected- 0.55 μm, from printed circuit boards. Evaporation and reabsorption may be the main emission mechanisms for lightly brominated BDEs, but heavily brominated BDEs tend to affiliate with particles from heating or combustion. The different size distributions of particulate PBDEs in emission sources and adjacent air implicated a noteworthy redisposition process during atmospheric dispersal.

  14. Analysis of the irradiation and thermal treatment combined effect in the quality of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Marcel Wilke

    2009-01-01

    In this research the effect of the hydrothermal treatment and irradiation as a combined method of food conservation and disinfestation was studied, searching to optimize the impact over the final product desired characteristics. Tommy Atkins mangoes from Brazil were submitted to a combined treatment: thermal treatment (46 deg C, 70 min and 52 deg C, 5 min) and gamma irradiation treatment (doses 0,3 and 0,75 kGy). The fruits were stored at 11 deg C during 14 days and kept at an environmental condition for more 12 days, where their physical chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. As predicted by Oliveira (1998) the combined method of irradiation and thermal treatment showed better results then the individual methods in increasing the shelf-life. (author)

  15. DOE evaluates nine alternative thermal technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In June 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development commissioned a study to evaluate 19 thermal technologies for treating DOE's mixed waste. The study was divided into two phases: Phase I evaluated ten conventional incineration techniques (primarily rotary kiln), and Phase II looked at nine innovative, alternative thermal treatment technologies. The treatment processes were evaluated as part of an integrated waste treatment system, which would include all of the facilities, equipment, and methods required to treat and dispose DOE mixed waste. The relative merits and life-cycle costs were then developed for each of the 19 waste treatment systems evaluated. The study also identified the additional research and development, demonstration, and testing/evaluation steps that would be necessary for the waste treatment systems to successfully treat DOE mixed waste. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  16. Thermal treatment technology study and data base for Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Steverson, E.M.; Balo, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a wide variety of waste streams that must be treated to meet various regulations before final disposal. One category of technologies for treating many of these waste streams is thermal treatment. A study of known thermal treatment technologies was conducted to aid DOE in the development of strategies to meet its waste management needs. The study was specifically addressed to mixed waste, but it is also applicable to hazardous and radioactive wastes. The data collected in the study, along with other waste management data, are being included in a comprehensive data base that DOE is developing. 3 refs., 1 fig

  17. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Chahal, M. S.; Bowen, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  18. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Chahal, M S; Bowen, J W [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AY, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  19. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  20. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  1. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications

  2. Local thermal property analysis by scanning thermal microscopy of an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.A. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China) and Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: guofuan@yahoo.com; JI, Y.L. [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metals Processing Technology, No. 200 Shenxu Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215021 (China); Trannoy, N. [Unite de Thermique et d' Analyse Physique, Laboratoire d' Energetique et d' Optique, Universite de Reims, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Lu, J. [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, Troyes 10010 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) was used to map thermal conductivity images in an ultrafine-grained copper surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). It is found that the deformed surface layer shows different thermal conductivities that strongly depend on the grain size of the microstructure: the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured surface layer decreases obviously when compared with that of the coarse-grained matrix of the sample. The role of the grain boundaries in thermal conduction is analyzed in correlation with the heat conduction mechanism in pure metal. A theoretical approach, based on this investigation, was used to calculate the heat flow from the probe tip to the sample and then estimate the thermal conductivities at different scanning positions. Experimental results and theoretical calculation demonstrate that SThM can be used as a tool for the thermal property and microstructural analysis of ultrafine-grained microstructures.

  3. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    The authors discuss their successful preliminary experience with 36 cases of cervical spondylotic disease by performing facetal distraction using specially designed Goel cervical facet spacers. The clinical and radiological results of treatment are analyzed. The mechanism of action of the proposed spacers and the rationale for their use are evaluated. Between 2006 and February 2010, 36 patients were treated using the proposed technique. Of these patients, 18 had multilevel and 18 had single-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. The average follow-up period was 17 months with a minimum of 6 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association classification system, visual analog scale (neck pain and radiculopathy), and Odom criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patient. The patients were prospectively analyzed. The technique of surgery involved wide opening of the facet joints, denuding of articular cartilage, distraction of facets, and forced impaction of Goel cervical facet spacers into the articular cavity. Additionally, the interspinous process ligaments were resected, and corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest was placed and was stabilized over the adjoining laminae and facets after adequately preparing the host bone. Eighteen patients underwent single-level, 6 patients underwent 2-level, and 12 patients underwent 3-level treatment. The alterations in the physical architecture of spine and canal dimensions were evaluated before and after the placement of intrafacet joint spacers and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Analysis of radiological features suggested that the distraction of facets with the spacers resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal dimension (mean 2.2 mm), an increase in the height of the intervertebral disc space (range 0.4-1.2 mm), and an increase in the interspinous distance (mean 2

  4. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  5. Implementation of transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders in residential eating disorder programs: A preliminary pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boswell, James F; Espel-Huynh, Hallie; Brooks, Gayle; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-03-19

    Data are lacking from empirically supported therapies implemented in residential programs for eating disorders (EDs). Common elements treatments may be well-suited to address the complex implementation and treatment challenges that characterize these settings. This study assessed the preliminary effect of implementing a common elements therapy on clinician treatment delivery and patient (N = 616) symptom outcomes in two residential ED programs. The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders was adapted to address ED and co-occurring psychopathology and implemented across sites. Therapists' treatment fidelity was rated independently to assess implementation success. Additionally, longitudinal (pre-post) design compared treatment outcomes among patients treated before and after implementation. Patient outcomes included ED and depressive symptoms, experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness. Following training and implementation, clinicians demonstrated adequate to good fidelity. Relative to pre-implementation, post-implementation patients showed significantly greater improvements in experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness at discharge (ps ≤ .04) and more favorable outcomes on ED symptom severity, depression, and experiential avoidance at 6-month follow up (ps ≤ .0001). Preliminary pilot data support the feasibility of implementing transdiagnostic common elements therapy in residential ED treatment, and suggest that implementation may benefit transdiagnostic outcomes for patients.

  6. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  8. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  9. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  11. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  12. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  13. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  14. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag Zaied, S.E.A.; Aziz, N.H.; Ali, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  15. FORMING OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUGS OF TITANIC ALLOY BT23 AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе changings of the initial plate structure of alloy BT23 at running of high-temperature thermal treatment of large-sized slugs with heating up to 650- 950 eC and cooling on air and in water and their influence on forming of complex of mechanical characteristics are examined.

  16. Acceleration of Intended Pozzolanic Reaction under Initial Thermal Treatment for Developing Cementless Fly Ash Based Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hee Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C for 3 days. A series of experiments consisting of mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, X-ray diffraction, and measurements of the heat of hydration, pore structure, and shrinkage were conducted. These tests show that this new fly ash-based mortar has a compressive strength of 15 MPa at 91 days without any silica fume addition or initial thermal treatment. The strength increased to over 50 MPa based on the acceleration of the intensified pozzolanic reaction from the silica fume addition and initial thermal treatment. This is explained by a significant synergistic effect induced by the silica fume. It intensifies the pozzolanic reaction under thermal treatment and provides a space filling effect. This improved material performance can open a new pathway to utilize the industrial by-product of fly ash in cementless construction materials.

  17. Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Oil via Hydrodeoxygenation and Thermal Treatment: Effects of Catalytic Glycerol Pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Tymchyshyn, M.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Albion, K.; van Rossum, G.; Xu, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of stabilizing fast pyrolysis oil (PO) with glycerol via catalytic glycerol pretreatment on upgrading via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) or thermal treatment (TT) were studied. Nonstabilized (original) fast pyrolysis oil was also upgraded via HDO or TT to obtain benchmarks. Generally, HDO

  18. Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and chemical ... carrot, spinach, pepper, tomato, onion and cooked food samples (rice, yam, beans, ... on the growth rate and toxin elaboration of E. coli, K. aerogenes, C. freundii, ...

  19. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Thermal Stability of the Cured Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic treatment on thermal stability of binary systems containing epoxy and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were utilized. The mixing of epoxy and Cloisite 30B nanocomposites was performed by mechanical stirring, followed by 1 or 3-hour ultrasonic treatment, and polyetheramine as the curing agent. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. The d0 spacings for silicate in cured sample prepared at 1- and 3-hour duration of ultrasonic treatment were about 21 and 18 Å, respectively. This shows that shorter duration or ultrasonic treatment may be preferable to achieve higher d0 spacing of clay. This may be attributed to the increase in viscosity as homopolymerization process occurred, which restricts silicate dispersion. The 1-hour sonicated samples seem to be more thermally stable during the glass transition, but less stable during thermal decomposition process.

  1. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  2. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Latifa; Marsiglia, Hugo; Matute, Raúl; Usychkin, Sergey; Marrone, Immacolata; Puebla, Fernando; Mínguez, Cristina; García, Rafael; García, Graciela; Beltrán, César

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT) provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%), abdomen (17%) and thorax (6%). The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients), neuroblastoma (9 patients) and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients). A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72%) were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy). In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6%) of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6%) had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases) were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more), whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of acute toxicity that we have seen in this highly

  3. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; McMain, Shelley F.; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Ayaz, Hasan; Links, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, 29 actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after 7 months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after 7 months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial PFC and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right DLPFC even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the PFC underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT. PMID:27242484

  4. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Charles Ruocco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT. While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, twenty-nine actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after seven months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after seven months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.

  5. Predicting Treatment Outcomes from Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Self-Harming Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Rodrigo, Achala H; McMain, Shelley F; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Ayaz, Hasan; Links, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Self-harm is a potentially lethal symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often improves with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). While DBT is effective for reducing self-harm in many patients with BPD, a small but significant number of patients either does not improve in treatment or ends treatment prematurely. Accordingly, it is crucial to identify factors that may prospectively predict which patients are most likely to benefit from and remain in treatment. In the present preliminary study, 29 actively self-harming patients with BPD completed brain-imaging procedures probing activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during impulse control prior to beginning DBT and after 7 months of treatment. Patients that reduced their frequency of self-harm the most over treatment displayed lower levels of neural activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to beginning treatment, and they showed the greatest increases in activity within this region after 7 months of treatment. Prior to starting DBT, treatment non-completers demonstrated greater activation than treatment-completers in the medial PFC and right inferior frontal gyrus. Reductions in self-harm over the treatment period were associated with increases in activity in right DLPFC even after accounting for improvements in depression, mania, and BPD symptom severity. These findings suggest that pre-treatment patterns of activation in the PFC underlying impulse control may be prospectively associated with improvements in self-harm and treatment attrition for patients with BPD treated with DBT.

  6. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of the Long-Term Outcome of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Jacqueline R.; Fortune, Meghan R.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary examination of long-term outcomes on a broad range of affective disorder symptoms treated with a newly developed intervention: The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). Method Maintenance of treatment gains at long-term follow-up (LTFU) were explored in patients (n = 15, mean age = 32.27; 60% female) who completed a clinical trial of the UP. Results Treatment gains observed at 6-month follow-up (6MFU) on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning were largely maintained 12 months later (at an average of 18 months posttreatment), and any significant changes from 6MFU to LTFU reflected small increases in symptoms that remained, on average, in the subclinical range. Conclusions These findings provide the first initial support for the durability of broad treatment gains following transdiagnostic treatment. PMID:25113056

  8. Real-time temperature feedback for nanoparticles based tumor thermal treatment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Tamir, Gil; Gannot, Israel

    2017-02-01

    Systemic hyperthermia therapy exploits the fact that cancer cells are more sensitive to elevated temperatures than healthy tissue. Systemic application of hyperthermia externally usually leads to low efficiency treatment. Recently, our group and others have proposed an antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) approach to overcome the limitation of systemic hyperthermia. MNPs can bind specifically to the tumor sites, thus delivering internal highly effective targeted hyperthermia. However, such internal mechanism requires more complicated controls and monitoring. This current work presents a deep tissue temperature monitoring method to control hyperthermia effectiveness and minimize collateral damage to surrounding tissues. A low-frequency narrowband modulation of the RF field used for MNP heating leads to the generation of diffused thermal waves which propagate to the tissue surface and captured by a thermal camera. A Fourier domain, analytical heat transfer model is used for temperature monitoring algorithm. The ill-posed thermal inverse problem is solved efficiently by iterating over the source power until both the amplitude and phase match the recorded thermal image sequence. The narrow bandwidth thermal stimulation enables acquiring deep signals with high SNR. We show that thermal transverse resolution improves as the stimulation frequency increases even slightly above DC, enabling better heat source transverse separation and margin identification in the case of distributed tumors. These results can be used as a part of an overall image and treat system for efficient detection of tumors, manipulation of MNPs and monitoring MNP based hyperthermia.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the potential for thermally-induced rock fracture around high-level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The major results are: the development of parametric formulations relating the potential for thermally induced fracturing in the high-level radioactive waste repository concept to the elastic and thermal properties of the site rock and the depth of the excavation, and the recognition of a need to determine the actual ''failure envelope'' for any potential site rock in the laboratory and adjust the parametric relations appropriately. Analysis of five rock types indicated that none would experience elastic/brittle failure due to the thermal stresses induced by the introduction of a 5 kW heat source. However, the rock strengths and elastic properties are laboratory values and not in situ values

  10. Outcomes of Thermal Pulsation Treatment for Dry Eye Syndrome in Patients With Sjogren Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Morgan R; Stinnett, Sandra S; Gupta, Preeya K

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of thermal pulsation treatment in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye secondary to Sjogren disease. Twenty-four eyes from 13 patients with previously diagnosed Sjogren disease who presented to our institution with dry eye symptoms and had thermal pulsation treatment were prospectively followed up. Patients underwent comprehensive slit-lamp examination, including MGD grading, gland oil flow, corneal and conjunctival staining scores, and tear break-up time (TBUT). Tear osmolarity was tested before and after treatment. The average patient age was 62.4 years (range, 31-78 yrs); 12 were women and 1 a man. The average meibomian gland oil flow score showed an increase from pretreatment 0.71 to 1.75 at 1 year posttreatment (range 9-15 months) (P = 0.001). The average corneal staining score decreased from a pretreatment grade of 1.04 to a posttreatment grade of 0.36 (P dry eye disease in patients with Sjogren disease and should not be overlooked when considering treatment options. Thermal pulsation is a therapeutic option for patients with Sjogren disease who have MGD and dry eye symptoms. After a single treatment, patients exhibited increased oil flow and tear break-up time with an associated decrease in corneal and conjunctival staining.

  11. High-performance polyamide thin-film composite nanofiltration membrane: Role of thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baicang; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Pingju; Liang, Heng; Zhang, Wen; Crittenden, John

    2018-03-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have many excellent applications (e.g., removing multivalent ions and pretreating water before reverse osmosis, RO), but their relatively high cost limits their application. Especially in recent years, researchers have paid substantial attention to reducing the cost of NF membranes. In this paper, high-performance NF membranes were fabricated using interfacial polymerization (IP) methods. The polymer concentration, IP solution concentration, and thermal treatment conditions were varied. The synthesized membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), a contact angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and performance tests. The results show that water flux was significantly improved using a hot-water thermal treatment method. Our fabricated thermal-treated NF membrane had an approximately 15% higher water permeability with a value of 13.6 L/(m2 h bar) than that of the commercially available GE HL membrane with a value of 11.8 L/(m2 h bar). Our membranes had the same MgSO4 rejection as that of the GE HL membrane. We found that the thermal treatment causes the NF membrane surface to be smoother and have a high crosslinking degree.

  12. Thermal and Hydrothermal Treatment of Silica Gels as Solid Stationary Phases in Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel was prepared and treated thermally and hydrothermally and was characterized as solid stationary phase in gas chromatography. The characteristics have been evaluated in terms of polarity, selectivity, and separation efficiencies. These parameters were used to assess the outer silica surface contributions and the degree of surface deactivation brought about by different treatment techniques. The parent silica elutes the paraffinic hydrocarbons with high efficiency of separation and elutes aromatic hydrocarbons with nearly good separation and has bad separation of alcohols. The calcined silica at 500°C and 1000°C has a pronounced effect on the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons compared with the parent silica and hydrothermal treatment of silica. With respect to alcohols separation, the obtained bad separations using treated and untreated silica reflect the little effect of the thermal and hydrothermal treatment on the silica surface deactivation.

  13. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues

  14. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000. °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal...... changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16. weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying. >. composting. >. pyrolysis. >. combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would....... Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms....

  15. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal properties of fibers from pineapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Rafael I.M.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Carvalho, Kelly C.C.; Conejo, Luiza dos Santos; Voorwald, Herman J.C.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the effect of the chemical modification of natural fibres from of pineapple fibres with alkaline solution was studied. After modification the in nature and modified fibres were analyzed by XRD diffractometry and thermogravimetry with objective to evaluate influence chemical treatment in surface and in the thermal properties fibres. With the obtained results it was possible to verify an increase of 10.4 % in the crystallinity index of fibres beyond the increase around 4.5% in the degradation temperature, what it indicates an increase in the stability thermal of the fibres. (author)

  16. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  17. Effect of preliminary heat treatment on phase transformations and properties of the Kh15N5D2T (VNS-2) steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madyanov, S.A.; Voronenko, B.I.; Makhnev, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that preliminary heat treatment has a significant effect on the α→γ transformation kinetics, the quantity of residual austenite, the grain size and mechanical properties of the Kh15N5D2T steel after final heat treatment. The preliminary heat treatment regimes leading to the increase of the quantity of residual austenite and to grain refining increase the work of crack propagation in the finally strengthened state. The optimum properties were obtained after threefold preliminary tempering for 1h at 650 deg C. An approximately constant relation of α- and γ-phases (approximately 50%) is observed at 625 deg C irrespective of the investigated regimes of preliminary heat treatment

  18. Heavy metals dispersion during thermal treatment of plastic bags and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ohidul; Wang, Sijia; Lu, Wentao

    2018-04-15

    One of the main worries for thermal treatment of plastic bag (PB) is the air pollution resulting from heavy metal (HM) evaporation and emission. The quest of the study was to investigate their fate during thermal treatment varying with temperature and atmosphere to explore the appropriate treatment technology. Four commonly consumed polymer bags such as PE, HDPE, LDPE and PVC were selected for the analysis. The elemental compositions, heating values and total metal contents of the samples were measured by an elemental analyzer, a sulphur/halogen analyzer, a bomb calorimeter and an ICP-OES, respectively. Thermal treatments of the samples were conducted in a tube furnace at 350, 550, 650, 750, and 850 °C with 1 L/min air or N 2 gas flow, respectively. 5% HNO 3 /10% H 2 O 2 solution was used for absorbing metals from gas phase, and then HM distributions both in flue gas and bottom ash were determined. Results revealed that the lower heating values of HDPE, LDPE, PVC and PE bags were 33.32, 34.28, 24.82 and 36.7 MJ/kg, respectively indicating energy recovery potential. Thermal treatment showed the maximum mass reduction (>90%) of PB at 850 °C. The higher percentage of metals was distributed in ash at initial temperature that promoted to gas with rise of temperature. The used absorption solution exhibited tremendous quantity of metals recovery. However, there was no significant difference between using air and N 2 gas flow during treatment of PB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of siloxanes in sewage sludge by thermal treatment with gas stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Omori, Keigo; Takaoka, Masaki; Mizuno, Tadao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new treatment of sewage sludge were studied to reduce siloxanes in biogas. • D5 of cyclic siloxane concentrations were the highest in sewage sludge. • Under optimal conditions, most of siloxanes in the sludge were removed previously. • By this treatment, CH 4 was 1.6-fold larger and siloxane in biogas 95% lower. - Abstract: In this study, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sewage sludge before anaerobic digestion to reduce siloxanes in the sludge and accelerate the anaerobic digestion was studied experimentally. Regarding siloxanes in the sludge, D5 concentrations were the highest. Siloxane concentrations in the digested sludge were decreased, versus those in thickened sludge, because siloxanes in the sludge are moved to the biogas during the anaerobic digestion. Thermal treatment and gas stripping experiments were conducted. The optimum conditions for siloxane removal from sludge were found to be thermal treatment with gas stripping at 80 °C with 0.5 L/min of air flow for 48 h. Under these conditions, approximately 90% of all siloxanes in the sludge were removed. Next, anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted with the optimally treated sludge and untreated sludge. The biogas volume of the optimally treated sludge was 1.6-fold larger than that of the untreated sludge. Furthermore, D5 contents in biogas from the optimally treated sludge were 95% lower than in biogas from untreated sludge. Thus, thermal treatment with gas stripping of sludge before anaerobic digestion was effective in increasing biogas amounts, decreasing siloxane concentrations in the biogas, and reducing the need for a siloxane removal process from the biogas

  20. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  1. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, J.A.; Crowe, R.D.; Apthorpe, R.; Plys, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  2. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  3. Structural changes in quantum dots core-shell CdSe/ZnS by thermal treatment and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.G.; Sortica, M.A.; Grande, P.L.; Debastiani, R.; Dias, J.F.; Hentz, A.; Radtke, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Compound quantum-dots (QDs) are promising materials used in many fields of technological development. In spite of that, the accurate knowledge of their compositional depth-profiling is still a technological challenge. Recently, we used the MEIS (medium energy ion-scattering) technique, combined with PIXE and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) to characterize core-shell nanostructures of CdSe/ZnS [1]. In this work, we use the same characterization methods to survey the changes of elemental distribution in the the core and shell regions of these QDs, when submitted to a range of thermal treatments and proton irradiation conditions. Our preliminary results show that for temperatures below the melting point of the bulk CdSe compound, there is already a decrease in the amount of cadmium, accompanied by an overall decrease in the diameter of the CdSe QD nuclei. [1] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, C. Radtke, L. Almeida, R. Debastiani, J. F. Dias, A. Hentz, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (2012)023110. (author)

  4. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PLYWOOD PRODUCED WITH PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke VENEERS MODIFIED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Medeiros Arruda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this preliminary research was to study the effects of thermo-mechanical modification in veneers of Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke to improve plywood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties. The amount of 24 veneers was used with the dimensions 25 x 25 cm, that were compressed under different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes at 150°C and pressure at 1 N.mm-2, constituting three treatments and one untreated. Plywood were bonded with resorcinol-formaldehyde, glue consumption of 360 g.m-2 at ambient temperature and pressure of 1 N.mm-2 for 10 hours. The samples were evaluated by colorimetric analysis and physical and mechanical properties. Colorimetric analysis showed that there was a darkening of the wood toward the increase of treatment time. The treatment was not efficient in reducing swelling, only reducing absorption of water. The mechanical properties were not significantly affected by the treatment.

  5. Effect of electrical pulse treatment on the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic compacted graphite cast iron processed in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Su, Hang; Yang, Chunyan; Cheng, Jingyan; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Luquan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrical pulse treatment can reduce cracks on bionic units before thermal fatigue tests. ► Electrical pulse treatment can reduce crack sources during thermal fatigue tests. ► Thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units processed in water is enhanced. ► Thermal fatigue resistance of bionic CGI processed in water is improved. -- Abstract: In order to further enhance the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic compacted graphite cast iron (CGI) which is processed by laser in water, the electrical pulse treatment is applied to improve the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units. The results show that the electrical pulse treatment causes the supersaturated carbon atoms located in the lattice of austenite to react with the iron atoms to form the Fe 3 C. The microstructures of the bionic units processed in water are refined by the electrical pulse treatment. The cracks on the bionic units are reduced by the electrical pulse treatment before the thermal fatigue tests; and during the tests, the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic units is therefore enhanced by reducing the crack sources. By this way, the thermal fatigue resistance of bionic CGI processed in water is improved.

  6. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence; Oswald, Donald; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint,…

  7. Posterior perineal support as treatment for anal fissures--preliminary results with a new toilet seat device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis; Hai, Chew Heng; Thye, Gan Kok

    2009-03-01

    Anal fissures can cause morbidity in an otherwise healthy young patient. The process of evacuation results in stretching and descent of the anoderm and perineum especially posteriorly. Posterior perineal support may provide counter pressure at the posterior aspect of the pelvic floor, balancing the pressure exerted by the faeces on the anal wall, thus improving evacuation and reducing the trauma associated with it, and reducing symptoms of anal fissures. Symptoms of constipation may also be reduced secondarily. We report the preliminary results with a novel, simple and noninvasive method of treatment provided by a toilet seat device. A prospective study was performed in 32 patients. The study was designed mainly to investigate the patients' subjective perceptions of their symptoms related to anal fissures and constipation. Questionnaires were provided to patients before, during and after treatment. The study revealed statistically significant improvement in pain, bleeding, symptoms of constipation and abdominal discomfort after 3 months usage of the device. The odds of patients perceiving an improvement in symptoms were also significantly increased after 3 months of treatment compared to 2 weeks of treatment. This preliminary study revealed that a posterior perineal support device can bring about significant improvement in the symptoms of patients with anal fissures. There may also be secondary benefits of a reduction in the symptoms of constipation. Although not conclusive, these results should serve as a springboard for further research into this area.

  8. A two-step approach for the preliminary evaluation of the thermal-hydraulics and safety of the ELSY open square core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Paride; Bandini, Giacomino; Polidori, Massimiliano; Cervone, Antonio; Manservisi, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Several innovative solutions for a liquid metal fast reactor design have been investigated in the EURATOM Sixth Framework Programme and an open-assembly core design for the ELSY (European Lead-cooled System) reactor has been proposed by ENEA. The development of this new reactor, based on innovative neutronic and safety considerations, requires a new approach to the thermal-hydraulic (T/H) core design. In this paper a new two-step approach of the T/H analysis for this open-assembly core is presented and, in particular is used for the evaluation of the preliminary core design of a 1500 MW lead fast reactor with open square lattice and three fuel radial zones with different levels of enrichment. In the first step a preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety evaluation of the core neutronic design is investigated by using a one-dimensional RELAP5 model for independent channel analysis. Then two and three-dimensional effects are taken into account by using a dedicated tool for the evaluation of assembly mixing effects. The RELAP5 model, based on pressure loss and heat transfer correlations available for heavy liquid metal flows in rod bundle, consists of completely independent assemblies and therefore it can be used for a conservative evaluation of the thermal-hydraulics of the core reactor. Due to the open-lattice configuration, the two and three-dimensional effects are important and they are taken into account by using a simplified three-dimensional numerical model of an open square lattice reactor core, developed with the purpose of analyzing the whole core behavior. The numerical simulation is performed at assembly length level taking into account the local fluctuations of turbulent viscosity and energy exchange coefficients at sub-channel level through transfer operators based on parametric coefficients. A preliminary evaluation of the mixing effects between assembly flows on the temperature field has been performed by using an average assembly turbulent viscosity

  9. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Lee, H.T.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are 239 Pu, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 99 Tc, and 90 Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermal inactivation and injury of Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Mostafa, S.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores which received preliminary irradiation doses were more sensitive to subsequent heating than non-irradiated spores. The thermal inactivation increased by increasing any of exposure temperature, thermal exposure time or preliminary irradiation dose. The thermal (D T -) value was much higher for non-irradiated spores than the D TR value for the pre-thermal irradiated spores. The radiosensitizing effect was directly proportional to the preliminary irradiation dose. The pre-thermal irradiation treatment of B. subtilis spores resulted in a synergistic effect in spore deactivation. This synergistic effect increased gradually by increasing the preliminary irradiation dose and/or the thermal temperature from 60 to 80 0 C, but decreased for 90 0 C and for the longer exposure periods at any of the examined temperature. Thermal injury of B. subtilis spores was more for the non-irradiated than for the irradiated spores

  11. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600 degrees C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 μg/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450 degrees C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process

  12. The effect of thermal treatment on the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.; Elliott, C.S.; Hwang, I.S.; Prybylowski, J.

    1993-05-01

    Alloy X-750 is a high strength, age hardenable nickel-base alloy used in light water nuclear reactors. The excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength of alloy X-750 make it suitable for use in a variety of structure components in both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. These applications involve exposure of highly stressed material to aqueous media. Operational stresses are subject to low frequency thermally induced fluctuations and high frequency flow induced fluctuations. In general, alloy X-750 has performed well in light water reactors. However, an economically significant number of components have failed unexpectedly due to localized forms of attack such as corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Thermal processing history is known to play a significant role in the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments. While thermal treatments have been developed recently to improve performance, in many cases the reason for improved performance remains unclear. Therefore, identification of the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of fracture properties in aqueous environments is necessary. As a corollary it is necessary to achieve an understanding of how thermal treatment influences microstructure and, in turn, how microstructure influences fracture properties in aqueous environments. This report discusses five thermal treatments which were studied: (1) SA-1 hr at 1093 degree C, (2) AH - 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (3) HTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (4) AHTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, and (5) HOA - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 100 hrs at 760 degree C. Microstructural characterization of these materials was accomplished through the use of optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy,scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry

  13. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.B. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)]. E-mail: ibsingh58@yahoo.com; Chaturvedi, K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Morchhale, R.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Yegneswaran, A.H. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2007-03-06

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 deg. C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 deg. C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 deg. C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  14. A Novel, Aqueous Surface Treatment To Thermally Stabilize High Resolution Positive Photoresist Images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, John J.; Spencer, Allen C.

    1986-07-01

    The paper describes a new approach to thermally stabilize the already imaged profile of high resolution positive photoresists such as ULTRAMAC" PR-914. ***XD-4000, an aqueous emulsion of a blend of fluorine-bearing compounds is spun on top of the developed, positive photoresist-imaged wafer, and baked. This allows the photoresist to withstand temperatures up to at least 175 deg. C. while essentially maintaining vertical edge profiles. Also, adverse effects of "outgassing" in harsh environments, ie., plasma and ion implant are greatly minimized by allowing the high resolution imaged photoresist to be post-baked at "elevated" temperatures. Another type of product that accomplishes the same effect is ***XD-4005, an aqueous emulsion of a high temperature-resistant polymer. While the exact mechanism is yet to be identified, it is postulated that absorption of the "polymeric" species into the "skin" of the imaged resist forms a temperature resistant "envelope", thereby allowing high resolution photoresists to also serve in a "high temperature" mode, without reticulation, or other adverse effects due to thermal degradation. SEM's are presented showing imaged ULTRAMAC" PR-914 and ULTRAMAC" **EPA-914 geometries coated with XD-4000 or XD-4005 and followed by plasma etched oxide,polysilicon and aluminum. Selectivity ratios are compared with and without the novel treatment and are shown to be significantly better with the treatment. The surface-treated photoresist for thermal resistance remains easily strippable in solvent-based or plasma media, unlike photoresists that have undergone "PRIST" or other gaseous thermal stabilization methods.

  15. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juravskij, J [Centre for Science, Technology and Industrial Applications, ` ` Tokema` ` , Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-02-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl`s nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravskij, J.

    1997-01-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl's nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

    1980-06-01

    Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are

  18. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  19. Effect of thermal treatment on electrical properties and varistors degradation of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, E.R.; Cerri, J.A.; Longo, E.; Catao, P.S.P.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    ZnO varistors obstained by conventional processing was heat treated and their electrical properties and degradation was analyzed. Infra-red spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and current-voltage curves were used to analize the properties with type of thermal cycle. The results showed that heat treatment promote stabilization against degradation and that exist a linear dependence of leakage current with square root of time. (author) [pt

  20. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  1. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    11. Khokhlova, V.A., et al., Effects of nonlinear propagation, cavitation , and boiling in lesion formation by high intensity focused ultrasound in...intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Concepts, Seattle, WA) operating at its fundamental frequency (1.1 MHz) or its third harmonics (3.3 MHz). The ultrasound imaging system was a 5/7

  2. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  3. Treatment of off-gas evolved from thermal decomposition of sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doo-Seong Hwang; Yun-Dong Choi; Gyeong-Hwan Jeong; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of a uranium conversion plant. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of sludge waste are nitrate salts and uranium. The sludge waste is denitrated by thermal decomposition. The treatment of off-gas evolved from the thermal decomposition of nitrate salts in the sludge waste is investigated. The nitrate salts in the sludge were decomposed in two steps: the first decomposition is due to the ammonium nitrate, and the second is due to the sodium and calcium nitrate and calcium carbonate. The components of off-gas from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at low temperature are NH 3 , N 2 O, NO 2 , and NO. In addition, the components from the decomposition of sodium and calcium nitrate at high temperature are NO 2 and NO. Off-gas from the thermal decomposition is treated by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Ammonia is converted into nitrogen oxides through the oxidation catalyst and all nitrogen oxides are removed by SCR treatment besides nitrous oxide, which is greenhouse gas. An additional process is needed to remove nitrous oxide, and the feeding rate of ammonia in SCR should be controlled properly for evolved nitrogen oxides. (author)

  4. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, CH-1015 Switzerland (Switzerland); Janolin, P.-E. [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, UMR CNRS-École Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Yamada, T. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  5. Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria trifasciata fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyati, Steven, Rizkiansyah, Raden Reza; Senoaji, A.; Suratman, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Sansevieria trifasciata fibers were treated by NaOH with concentration 1%,3%, and 5wt% at 100°C for 2 hours. Chesson-Datta methods was used to determine the lignocellulose content of raw sansevieria fibers and to investigate effect of alkali treatment on lignin content of the fiber. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of treated and untreated fibers were measured by means of tensile testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The cellulose and lignin contents of raw sansevieria fiber obtained from Chesson-Datta method were 56% and 6% respectively. Mechanical testing of fibers showed the increase of tensile strength from 647 MPa for raw fibers to 902 MPa for 5wt% NaOH treated fibers. TGA result showed the alkali treatment increase the thermal resistance of fibers from 288°C for raw fibers to 307°C for 5% NaOH treated fiber. It was found that alkali treatment affect the mechanical properties and thermal properties of sansevieria fibers.

  6. Thermal treatment to enhance saturation magnetization of superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles while maintaining low coercive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Yatsugi, Kenichi; Akedo, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles capped by insulators have the potential to decrease eddy current and hysteresis losses. However, the saturation magnetization ( M s) decreases significantly with decreasing the particle size. In this study, superparamagnetic Ni nanoparticles having the mean size of 11.6 ± 1.8 nm were synthesized from the reduction of Ni(II) acetylacetonate in oleylamine with the addition of trioctylphosphine, indicating the coercive force ( H c) less than 1 Oe. Thermal treatments of the Ni nanoparticles were investigated as a method to enhance the M s. The results indicated that the M s was enhanced by an increase of the Ni mass ratio with increasing thermal treatment temperature. However, the decomposition behavior of the capping layers indicated that their alkyl chains actively decomposed at temperatures above 523 K to form Ni3P via reaction between Ni and P, resulting in particle growth with a significant increase in the H c. Therefore, the optimal temperature was determined to be 473 K, which increased the Ni ratio without formation of Ni3P while maintaining particle sizes with superparamagnetic properties. Further, the M s could be improved by 22% (relative to the as-synthesized Ni nanoparticles) after thermal treatment at 473 K while maintaining the H c to be less than 1 Oe.

  7. Effects of γ-irradiation and thermal treatment of crystallinity of drawn HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanjun; Silverman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of absorbed dose irradiated in vacuum and air on the crystallinity of drawn HDPE was studied. Experimental results show that up to 250 kGy of absorbed dose when irradiated in vacuum, the crystallinity of drawn HDPE is decreased from about 75% to about 71%, and then the increase of absorbed dose until 1000 kGy has no further effect in lowering the crystallinity; when irradiated in air, an absorbed dose of 1000 kGy has no effect on the crystallinity of drawn HDPE. The effect of temperature of thermal treatment on the crystallinity of unirradiated drawn HDPE was also investigated. At first, the crystallinity is increased with the increase of temperature of thermal treatment, at about 120 degree C, it reaches the maximum value, and then it is rapidly lowered with the further increase of temperature of thermal treatment. Based on the existence of a lot of voids and lattice defects inside the drawn HDPE, the above experimental results were explained

  8. Effects of thermal treatment on the anodic growth of tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y., E-mail: yqchai85@gmail.com; Tam, C.W.; Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-08-03

    This work reports the investigation of the effects of thermal treatment on anodic growth tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). The increase of the thermal treatment temperature above 400 °C significantly influences WO{sub 3} film where high porosity structure reduces to more compact film. As-grown film is amorphous, which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic phase upon annealing at 300–600 °C. With the reducing of porous structure, preferential growth of (002) plane shifts to (020) plane at 600 °C with more than twentyfold increase of peak's intensity compared to the film annealed at 500 °C. Films annealed at low thermal treatment show better ion intercalation and reversibility during electrochemical measurements; however, it has larger optical band gap. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals that film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the best photocatalytic performance among the films annealed at 300–600 °C. - Highlights: • Porosity of the WO{sub 3} reduces as annealing temperature increases above 400 °C. • As-grown film is amorphous which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic upon annealing. • As-grown film shows better ion intercalation in electrochemical process. • Optical band gap of WO{sub 3} reduces as the annealing temperature increases. • Film annealed at 400 °C exhibits best photocatalytic performance.

  9. The preliminary results of the thermal annealing processes performed on the RPVs NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L; Brezina, M; Beno, P [Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1994-12-31

    Samples of weld and base metal above and below the weld were taken from RPV material in the V-230 type NPP V-1 in Bohunice; hardness measurements were carried out across the weld on the external surface of the RPV under the thermal shielding, before and after annealing. Results are presented and the annealing procedure efficiency is discussed. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Evaluation of thermal and radiation treatment on microstructure of low-alloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    1998-09-01

    Eighth different types of reactor pressure vessel steels used in Eastern and Western Nuclear Power Plants were studied for their microstructural changes due to thermal-, irradiation- and postirradiation heat treatment. Methods used were positron annihilation spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron spectroscopy. Clear differences between Eastern- and Western reactor pressure vessel types were observed not only due to different chemical composition but also due to differences in the preparation and treatment of the investigated steels. Detailed results are presented in tables and figures. (author)

  11. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  12. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszek, Sylwia; Grabda, Mariusz; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is

  13. Effects of mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behaviour of a niobium stabilized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of microstructural variables controlled by mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behavior of DIN-Werkstoff Nr. 1,4981 stainless steel a material candidate for use as cladding of fast breeder reactor fuel elements, was studied. The effect of the solution treatment, predeformation, predeformation plus aging and cycles of predeformation-aging, on the creep results obtained at 990 K, for applied stresses in the range 70 MPa - 310 MPa, are analysed. The results show: this material presents a creep strength superior to that show by AISI 316 stainless steel; a transition on the creep behavior is observed at a certain stress; the mechanical-thermal treatments were seen to be ineffective on the improvement of the creep strength; the pre-deformation and pre-deformation plus aging treatments were seen to induce material embrittlement whereas the cyclic treatments induced increased ductility. Transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction of extracted precipitates, and microanalysis were use to characterize the microstructure of this material. (author)

  14. An assessment of off-gas treatment technologies for application to thermal treatment of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Gillins, R.L.; Harris, T.L.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe available air pollution control technologies for pollutants generated by thermal treatment of DOE wastes. A basic process for selecting air pollution control devices is summarized. Types of air pollutants generated by thermal treatment units are described, as well as the factors that influence the types and quantities of pollutants generated. This report also reviews applicable regulatory emission requirements. A listing of available and emerging air pollution control technologies and a brief introduction to the basic engineering principles involved in collecting each of the pollutants are presented. Section 7 of this report contains two types of evaluations for air pollution control devices. First, comparative evaluations of individual technologies are presented, based upon criteria generally relevant to DOE facilities. Using this evaluation system, the spray dryer absorber received the highest rating for acid-gas removal; high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters received the highest rating for particulate removal; activated carbon adsorption received the highest rating for the removal of both toxic metals and residual hydrocarbons; and selective catalytic reduction received the highest rating for nitrogen oxide abatement. Also evaluated in Sect. 7 is the expected performance of different types of pollution control systems on two hypothetical waste streams. The waste streams were defined based upon typical DOE wastes and thermal treatment technologies. Section 8 presents conclusions for this report. Two appendixes are included with this report. The first appendix contains a brief description of all the technologies evaluated and the second lists of some of the vendors for each of the technologies that was evaluated

  15. Thermal treatments effect on the austenite-ferrite equilibrium in a duplex stainless steel weld beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkessa, Brahim; Badji, Riad; Bettahar, Kheireddine; Maza, Halim

    2006-01-01

    Heat treatments in the temperature range between 800 to 1200 C, with a keeping at high temperature of 60 min, followed by a water quenching at 20 C, have been carried out on austeno-ferritic stainless steel welds (of type SAF 2205-UNS S31803). The heat treatments carried out at temperatures below 1000 C have modified the structure of the duplex stainless steel 2205 in inducing the formation of precipitates, identified by X-ray diffraction as being the intermetallic compound σ and the chromium carbides M 23 C 6 . The treatments applied to temperatures superior to 1000 C shift the δ-γ equilibrium towards the δ phase. Indeed, the increase of the ferrite rate with the treatment temperature is approximately linear. The ferrite rates are higher in the heat-affected zone, which has been submitted to a ferritizing due to the welding thermal effects. (O.M.)

  16. Investigations of the thermal treatment effect on the generation of cadmium sulfide clusters in polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, Anca; Socol, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the last years a special interest has been paid to the field of nanometer-sized semiconductor compound crystalline clusters synthesized in different matrix (inorganic or organic), due to their special physical and chemical properties intermediate between the molecular and bulk limits. To obtain the thin film samples of CdS particles embedded in a polymeric transparent matrix, as bisphenol A polycarbonate, we followed a process containing three important steps: preparation of the so-called 'mother solution', film deposition and thermal treatment. The samples obtained after the first two steps were heat treated at different temperatures (90 deg. C and 150 deg. C) for 0.5 h, 1 h and 1.5 h, and we have analyzed the influence of these parameters on the film quality using UV-VIS spectrophotometric methods. This paper presents a study of the influence of the thermal treatment on the CdS clusters' generation process and film quality and homogeneity. The parameters of the processing procedure of the polymeric film, as the cooling rate, have a great influence on the rate of germination and development of the crystalline phase. A slow cooling rate is a more favorable process for CdS clusters' formation, indicated .by structured features of the fundamental absorption situated between 350-450 nm. When the temperature for thermal treatment increases to 90 deg. C a sharp rise and a shift to shorter wavelengths of the absorption onset edge was observed. This shift proves the existence of a weak quantum confinement effects. We concluded that these two parameters have some equivalent effects on the CdS clusters' generation in polymeric matrix. Varying the treatment duration with a fixed temperature produces similar results as the fixed duration, varied temperature treatment. (authors)

  17. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary Study of the Onset of Nucleate Boiling (ONB) for the Thermal-hydraulic Design of HANARO Irradiation non-instrumented Capsule during the Natural Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The HANARO reactor is an open-tank-in-pool type for easy access, and the capsules are being utilized for the irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel in HANARO. The concept of the capsule is the direct contact with the coolant to cool the temperature of specimen down. To successfully accomplish the irradiation test, it is essential that the capsule should be designed considering the thermal margin such as the margin to Onset of Nucleate Boiling (ONB), the margin to Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB). In this paper, the preliminary study was performed by focusing on the ONB and the capsule design will be performed using the heat flux and temperature at ONB condition calculated in this paper. In this paper, the temperature and heat flux under ONB condition are simply calculated for the thermal design of fuel capsule for irradiation test. These values will be considered to design the non-instrumented capsule for natural circulation. To confirm the calculated value, detailed calculation will be performed using the one dimensional and multi-dimensional codes.

  20. Feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of measurement-based care depression treatment for HIV patients in Bamenda, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian W; Gaynes, Bradley N; Atashili, Julius; O'Donnell, Julie K; Kats, Dmitry; Whetten, Kathryn; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Mbu, Tabenyang; Kefie, Charles; Asanji, Shantal; Ndumbe, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Depression affects 18-30 % of HIV-infected patients in Africa and is associated with greater stigma, lower antiretroviral adherence, and faster disease progression. However, the region's health system capacity to effectively identify and treat depression is limited. Task-shifting models may help address this large mental health treatment gap. Measurement-Based Care (MBC) is a task-shifting model in which a Depression Care Manager guides a non-psychiatric (e.g., HIV) provider in prescribing and managing antidepressant treatment. We adapted MBC for depressed HIV-infected patients in Cameroon and completed a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. We enrolled 55 participants; all started amitriptyline 25-50 mg daily at baseline. By 12 weeks, most remained at 50 mg daily (range 25-125 mg). Median (interquartile range) PHQ-9 depressive severity scores declined from 13 (12-16) (baseline) to 2 (0-3) (week 12); 87 % achieved depression remission (PHQ-9 feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in this uncontrolled pilot study. Further research should assess whether MBC could improve adherence and HIV outcomes in this setting.

  1. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  2. Preliminary studies on the use of irradiation for decontaminating water and sludge in wastewater treatment plants in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Loreto; Schrader, Rosemarie

    1999-01-01

    This work describes the activities carried out to date by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, CCHEN, in prospecting the application of gamma and electron beam irradiation to the decontamination of sewage water and sludge in the country. Sludge, in particular, will become a relevant environmental problem in the coming years, because of the large amounts that will be generated, due to the construction of many wastewater treatment plants in the country. The main study consisted of experimental gamma irradiation tests on representative samples of digested sludge from two pilot wastewater treatment plants operating in Santiago. This study showed the technical feasibility of using low irradiation doses, of around 2-3 kGy to significantly reduce the pathogen content in this sludge. Preliminary tests were also carried out to determine that the disinfected sludge was fit for agricultural use due to its nutrient content. A preliminary technical and economic evaluation is being prepared on the use of gamma irradiation for sludge disinfection, as a complement to the experimental studies. With this evaluation a feasible process has been outlined for using gamma irradiation in conjunction with conventional processes for the sludge disinfection or hygienization in domestic wastewater treatment plants, in order to produce a useful material for agricultural use that meets the demanding EPA standards when classified as class A sludge, which permits agricultural use without sanitary restrictions. Several evaluations have been made to determine the potential use of irradiation for water and industrial wastewater effluents decontamination, considering normative standards as well as technical and economic aspects. One of these has been the preliminary evaluation of using electron beam irradiation for disinfecting drinking water, which has the technical advantage of preventing the formation of trihalomethanes, that occur in water chlorination due to the presence of natural humic

  3. Thermal treatment and competing technologies for remediation of MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1995-01-01

    More than 1,500 MGP (manufactured gas plant) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced ''town gas'' from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas, as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund cleanups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via ground water migration. This paper describes recent experience with high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste. It also reviews competing non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  4. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Tosi, Daniele; Saccomandi, Paola; Lewis, Elfed; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation) have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C), sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings), and frequency response (hundreds of kHz), are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors) is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures. PMID:27455273

  5. Effect of thermal annealing treatment with titanium chelate on buffer layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning_wang@outlook.com [School of Electrical and Electronic and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University 639798 (Singapore); Fu, Yan, E-mail: 1060945062@qq.com [College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The TIPD layer as electron extraction layer and instead of Ca or LiF. • Impact of the work function of TIPD layer by thermal annealing treatment. • Importance of TIPD layer as electron extraction layer for work function and potential barrier. - Abstract: The solution processable electron extraction layer (EEL) is crucial for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we investigated titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an EEL and fabricated inverted PSCs with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) acting as the photoactive layer, with a structure of ITO/TIPD/P3HT:ICBA/MoO{sub 3}/Ag. After thermal annealing treatment at 150 °C for 15 min, the PSC performances increased from 3.85% to 6.84% and they achieve stable power conversion efficiency (PCE), with a similar PCE compared with TiO{sub 2} as an EEL by the vacuum evaporated method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirmed that the TIPD decomposed and formed the Ti=O bond, and the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital increased. The space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements further confirmed the improvement in electron collection and the transport ability using TIPD as the EEL and thermal annealing.

  6. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of Grinding on Chrysotile, Amosite and Crocidolite and Implications for Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bloise

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, its inertization is one of the most important issues of waste risk management. Based on the research line of mechano-chemical and thermal treatment of asbestos containing materials, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of dry grinding on the structure, temperature stability and fibre size of chrysotile from Balangero (Italy, as well as standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control amosite and standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control crocidolite. Dry grinding was accomplished in an eccentric vibration mill by varying the grinding time (30 s, 5 and 10 min. Results show a decrease in crystallinity, the formation of lattice defects and size reduction with progressive formation of agglomerates in the samples after the mechanical treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results show that the final product obtained after 10 min of grinding is composed of non-crystalline particles and a minor residue of crystalline fibres that are not regulated because they do not meet the size criteria for a regulated fibre. Grinding results in a decrease of temperature and enthalpy of dehydroxylation (ΔHdehy of chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite. This permits us to completely destroy these fibres in thermal inertization processes using a lower net thermal energy than that used for the raw samples.

  8. Thermal Treatment of Mercury Mine Wastes Using a Rotary Solar Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal desorption, by a rotary kiln of mercury contaminated soil and mine wastes, has been used in order to volatilize mercury from the contaminated medium. Solar thermal desorption is an innovative treatment that uses solar energy to increase the volatility of contaminants, which are removed from a solid matrix by a controlled air flow system. Samples of soils and mine wastes used in the experiments were collected in the abandoned Valle del Azogue mine (SE, Spain, where a complex ore, composed mainly of cinnabar, arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment and stibnite, was mined. The results showed that thermal treatment at temperatures >400 °C successfully lowered the Hg content (2070–116 ppm to <15 mg kg−1. The lowest values of mercury in treated samples were obtained at a higher temperature and exposition time. The samples that showed a high removal efficiency (>99% were associated with the presence of significant contents of cinnabar and an equivalent diameter above 0.8 mm.

  9. Fiber Optic Sensors for Temperature Monitoring during Thermal Treatments: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Schena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, minimally invasive thermal treatments (i.e., Radiofrequency ablation, Laser ablation, Microwave ablation, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation, and Cryo-ablation have gained widespread recognition in the field of tumor removal. These techniques induce a localized temperature increase or decrease to remove the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue remains intact. An accurate measurement of tissue temperature may be particularly beneficial to improve treatment outcomes, because it can be used as a clear end-point to achieve complete tumor ablation and minimize recurrence. Among the several thermometric techniques used in this field, fiber optic sensors (FOSs have several attractive features: high flexibility and small size of both sensor and cabling, allowing insertion of FOSs within deep-seated tissue; metrological characteristics, such as accuracy (better than 1 °C, sensitivity (e.g., 10 pm·°C−1 for Fiber Bragg Gratings, and frequency response (hundreds of kHz, are adequate for this application; immunity to electromagnetic interference allows the use of FOSs during Magnetic Resonance- or Computed Tomography-guided thermal procedures. In this review the current status of the most used FOSs for temperature monitoring during thermal procedure (e.g., fiber Bragg Grating sensors; fluoroptic sensors is presented, with emphasis placed on their working principles and metrological characteristics. The essential physics of the common ablation techniques are included to explain the advantages of using FOSs during these procedures.

  10. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Panduro, E.; Bravo Cabrejos, J.

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  11. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, E. Chavez; Cabrejos, J. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100°C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000°C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe3 + sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the “camel back” curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  12. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Panduro, E., E-mail: 04130127@unmsm.edu.pe; Bravo Cabrejos, J., E-mail: jbravoc@unmsm.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2010-01-15

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  13. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  14. Influence of surface modification adopting thermal treatments on dispersion of detonation nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangyang; Yu Zhiming; Zhu Yongwei; Wang Baichun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of detonation nanodiamonds (ND) in aqueous and non-aqueous media, a series of thermal treatments have been conducted in air ambient to modify ND surface. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were introduced to observe the primary size of ND. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were adopted to analyze the structure, bonds at surfaces of the treated ND. Malvern instrument Zetasizer3000HS was used for measuring the surface electric potential and the size distribution of ND. As thermal treatments can cause graphitization and oxidization of functional groups at the surface, ND treated at high temperature is correspondingly more negatively charged in an aqueous medium, and the increased absolute value of zeta potential ensures the electrostatic stability of ND particles. Specially, after being treated at a temperature more than 850K, ND can be well dispersed in various media

  15. Patterns of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis in Thermal Laser Acupuncture Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA manifests with pain, joint stiffness, and limited function. In traditional Chinese medicine, knee OA is differentiated into three patterns: yang deficiency and cold coagulation, kidney deficiency, and blood stasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether yang deficiency cold coagulation patients respond better to thermal laser acupuncture treatment than do non-yang deficient patients. Fifty-two patients with OA were allocated to group A (yang deficient, n=26 or B (non-yang deficient, n=26. All patients received a 20-min thermal laser acupuncture treatment at acupoint Dubi (ST 35 three times a week for two weeks and twice a week for another four weeks. Outcome assessments were performed immediately after the first treatment, and at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Group A function scores were significantly better than those of Group B at weeks 2 (P=0.049, 6 (P=0.046, and 10 (P=0.042, but no significant differences were found between the two groups in pain and stiffness scores at any time point. No significant adverse effect was observed. The combined 10.6 μm–650 nm laser treatment might be most beneficial to yang deficiency cold coagulation knee OA patients, particularly in improving function.

  16. Microwave-induced titanate nanotubes and the corresponding behaviour after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, H H; Lo, S L; Liou, Y H

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the influence of microwave irradiation on the characterizations of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment (M-H treatment). Based on the performance of specific surface areas determined by the classic Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (S BET ), TNTs synthesized at 130 deg. C for 1.5 h with and without 400 W irradiation presented S BET values of 256 and 76 m 2 g -1 , respectively. The result indicates that the formation kinetics of TNTs is significantly enhanced by M-H treatment. The microwave-induced TNTs are preferentially assigned for Na x H 2-x Ti 3 O 7 structure and the Na/H ratio appreciably increases with higher irradiation power. Regarding the behaviour of TNTs after thermal treatment, TNTs synthesized under 70 W presented anatase phase at 500 deg. C through rearrangement and restacking of [TiO 6 ]. Anatase-to-rutile transformation subsequently occurred at 700 deg. C. TNTs synthesized under 400 and 700 W presented a rod shape at 700 deg. C. The rod shape mainly comprise of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 of which the (Ti 3 O 7 ) 2- layers with the topotactical connection proceed to form (Ti 6 O 13 ) 2- along the [110] direction during the thermal process

  17. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  18. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  19. [Mineral trioxide aggragate pulpotomy for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a preliminary clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chufang; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the preliminary clinical effect of mineral trioxide aggragate (MTA) pulpotomy on immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Twenty-six immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis were recuited from Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. These teeth were treated with partial or full pulpotomy according to the condition of pulp bleeding. MTA was used as pulp capping material. Patients were recalled periodically after the treatment. Clinical and radiographic effects were evaluated. At one year follow-up, 20 teeth were evaluated as healed or healing, 2 teeth were evaluated as failure and 4 teeth were dropped out. The success rate was considered 91% (20/22). A dentinal bridge was radiographcally observed underneath the pulpotomy site in 13 teeth(65%, 13/20). MTA pulpotomy is an effective method for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. But further research with longer follow up period is required.

  20. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and personality disorders (PDs are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive (N=14 with the non-adaptive patients (N=24 as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results: We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  1. Study of thermal treatments and irradiation on natural amethyst by optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotto, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal treatment effects on the samples of amethyst from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The effects of cobalt 60 gama ray radiation on the amethyst from Minas Gerais through optical absorption measurements, are studied. The optical absorption spectra shows a basic line and bands in 10,500 cm -1 (k), in 18,300 cm -1 (θ) and in 28,000 cm -1 (ζ). The correlation between thermal treatment effects and radiation effects shows that the θ and ζ bands belongs to a same center and the k band to another center. The basic line vanishes by thermal treatments at 270 0 C. The analyses of the isothermal treatment decay and dose-curve reveal a complex kinetics, suggesting that the kinetic mechanisms involve the electron (s) and hole (s) migration in the lattice. The amethyst from Minas Gerais after being discolored at 470 0 C and irradiated again shows that the optical absorption bands don't recover the original absorbance, suggesting the existence of iron diffusion mechanisms in the lattice. After being isothermally annealed the amethyst from Rio Grande do Sul above 400 0 C temperature yield a yellow-brown color, probably due to the formation of Fe 2 O 3 precipitate. We suggest the this formation is due to iron diffusion and pre-existent oxygen vacancies. This model is reinforced through the observation the amethyst from Minas Gerais, isothermally treated at 470 0 C in highly reducing, also gets a yellow-brown color. (author) [pt

  2. Decreasing the Thermal Load on the Environment with the Help of Thermal Pumps in the Sewage Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovetskii, V. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Cherkina, V. M.; Ivanchuk, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We propose designs for practical use of residual heat of sewage by means of thermal-pump transformation of thermal energy in plants operating on inverse Rankine and Lorentz cycles, as well as a method for sewage heat removal in drainage canals of water removal systems based on the application of double-pipe heat exchangers known as Field tubes.

  3. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongxin [ORNL; Bhat, Vinay V [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  4. Thermal decomposition of nitrate salts liquid waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition property of nitrate salts liquid waste which is produced in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Thermal decomposition property was analyzed by TG/DTA and XRD. Most ammonium nitrate in the nitrate salts liquid waste was decomposed at 250 .deg. C and calcium nitrate was decomposed and converted into calcium oxide at 550 .deg. C. Sodium nitrate was decomposed at 700 .deg. C and converted into sodium oxide which reacts with water easily. But sodium oxide was able to convert into a stable compound by adding alumina. Therefore, nitrate salts liquid waste can be treated by two steps as follows. First, ammonium nitrate is decomposed at 250 .deg. C. Second, alumina is added in residual solid sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate and these are decomposed at 900 .deg. C. Final residue consists of calcium oxide and Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 and can be stored stably

  5. Improved electrical stability of CdS thin film transistors through Hydrogen-based thermal treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Salas Villaseñor, Ana L.

    2014-06-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated using a photolithography process with chemically bath deposited (CBD) cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as the active channel. Thermal annealing in hydrogen was used to improve electrical stability and performance of the resulting CdS TFTs. Hydrogen thermal treatments results in significant V T instability (V T shift) improvement while increasing the I on/I off ratio without degrading carrier mobility. It is demonstrated that after annealing V T shift and I on/I off improves from 10 V to 4.6 V and from 105 to 10 9, respectively. Carrier mobility remains in the order of 14.5 cm2 V s-1. The reduced V T shift and performance is attributed to a reduction in oxygen species in the CdS after hydrogen annealing, as evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Improved electrical stability of CdS thin film transistors through Hydrogen-based thermal treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Salas Villaseñ or, Ana L.; Mejia, Israel I.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mé rida; Guo, Zaibing; Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated using a photolithography process with chemically bath deposited (CBD) cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as the active channel. Thermal annealing in hydrogen was used to improve electrical stability and performance of the resulting CdS TFTs. Hydrogen thermal treatments results in significant V T instability (V T shift) improvement while increasing the I on/I off ratio without degrading carrier mobility. It is demonstrated that after annealing V T shift and I on/I off improves from 10 V to 4.6 V and from 105 to 10 9, respectively. Carrier mobility remains in the order of 14.5 cm2 V s-1. The reduced V T shift and performance is attributed to a reduction in oxygen species in the CdS after hydrogen annealing, as evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Biological Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina Liana; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Voicu, Georgeta; Vasile, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Predoi, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and morphological properties of silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with a silver concentration x Ag = 0.5 before and after being thermal treated at 600 and 1000 °C. The results obtained by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the structure of the samples changes gradually, from hydroxyapatite (AgHAp_40) to a predominant β-TCP structure (AgHAp_1000), achieved when the thermal treatment temperature is 1000 °C. In the AgHAp_600 sample, the presence of two phases, HAp and β-TCP, was highlighted. Also, scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the shape and dimension of the nanoparticles begin to change when the temperature increases. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was evaluated against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains.

  8. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field and thermal treatments on a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Estela, C; Giner, J; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martin, O

    2002-01-01

    Milk and dairy products may contain microorganisms capable of secreting lipases that cause sensory defects and technological problems in the dairy industry. In this study, the effects of thermal and high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments on an extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, suspended in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF) have been evaluated. Heat treatments applied were up to 30 min from 50 to 90 degrees C. HIPEF treatments were carried out using pilot plant facilities in a batch or continuous flow mode, where treatment chambers consisted of parallel and coaxial configuration, respectively. Samples were subjected to up to 80 pulses at electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 37.3 kV/cm. This resulted in a lipase that was quite resistant to heat and also to HIPEF. High (75 degrees C-15 s) and low pasteurization treatments (63 degrees C-30 min) led to inactivations of 5 and 20%, respectively. Using the batch-mode HIPEF equipment, a 62.1% maximum activity depletion was achieved after 80 pulses at 27.4 kV/cm. However, when HIPEF treatments were applied in the continuous flow mode, an inactivation rate of just 13% was achieved, after applying 80 pulses at 37.3 kV/cm and 3.5 Hz. The results of both heat and HIPEF treatments on enzyme inactivation were adjusted with good agreement to a first-order kinetic model (R2 > 62.3%).

  9. Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism. Preliminary Findings in Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neurophysiological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; van Schie, Hein T.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of neurofeedback treatment were investigated in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixty percent of the participants in the treatment group successfully reduced excessive theta power during neurofeedback treatment. Reduction of theta power was confirmed by pre- and post-QEEG measures. Parents of participants in the…

  10. Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Schie, H.T. van; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of neurofeedback treatment were investigated in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixty percent of the participants in the treatment group successfully reduced excessive theta power during neurofeedback treatment. Reduction of theta power was confirmed by pre- and post-QEEG

  11. Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Schie, H.T. van; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of neurofeedback treatment were investigated in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixty percent of the participants in the treatment group successfully reduced excessive theta power during neurofeedback treatment. Reduction of theta power was confirmed by pre- and post-QEEG

  12. Review on effect of chemical, thermal, additive treatment on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naman; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Sakshi

    2017-12-01

    Basalt fiber is emerging out the new reinforcing material for composites. To overcome some of the disadvantages of fibers such as poor bonding to polymers, low thermal stability and high moisture absorption fiber characteristics are modified with chemical, thermal and additive treatments. Chemical treatment corrosive resistance to alkali and acid were investigated which were used to clean and modify the surface of fiber for higher bonding with resins. To improve the thermal stability and reduce moisture uptake thermal treatment such as plasma and non thermal plasma were used which increased the surface roughness and change the chemical composition of surface of basalt fiber. Additive treatment is used to improve the mechanical properties of fibers, in basalt fiber additive treatment was done with SiO2 additive because of its chemical composition which contains major content of SiO2. In present investigation review on the effect of different treatment such as chemical, thermal and additive were studied. Effect of these treatment on chemical composition of the surface of basalt fiber and corrosion to acidic and alkali solution were studied with their effect on mechanical properties of basalt fiber and their composite.

  13. Preliminary thermal and thermomechanical modeling for the near surface test facility heater experiments at Hanford. Volume II: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Remer, J.S.

    1978-12-01

    Appendix D is a complete set of figures illustrating the detailed calculations necessary for designing the heater experiments at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Hanford, Washington. The discussion of the thermal and thermomechanical modeling that yielded these calculations is presented in Volume 1. A summary of the figures and the models they illustrate is given in table D1. The most important figures have also been included in the discussion in Volume 1, and Table D2 lists the figure numbers in this volume that correspond to figure numbers used there

  14. Proposal of a model for multidisciplinary treatment program of chronic migraine with medication overuse: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzi, L; Prunesti, A; Bussone, G

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse is challenging in clinical practice; different strategies of treatment have been recently developed, multidisciplinary treatment approaches have been developed in academic headache centers. Education and support of patients are necessary to improve patients' adherence to pharmacological treatments as well as to non-pharmacological therapies. This study reports a clinical experience conducted at our Headache center with a group of female patients, suffering from chronic migraine complicated by medication overuse, treated by a multidisciplinary approach and followed for a period of 1 year after withdrawal. Results confirm the efficacy of a multifaceted treatment to manage this problematic category of patients.

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... analytical and environmental techniques. Ferrihydrite was formed initially but transformed upon thermal treatment to more stable and crystalline iron oxides (maghemite and hematite). For some metals leaching studies showed more substantial binding after thermal treatment, while other metals either....... Thermal treatment of the stabilized residues produced structures with an inherently better iron oxide stability. However, the concentration of metals in the leachate generally increased as a consequence of the decreased solubility of metals in the more stable iron oxide structure....

  16. Developing strategies for thermal treatment technology R and D in MIREC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2004-01-01

    The degree of the solid waste management problem in Malaysia is very crucial, needing immediate solutions. The estimated amount of MSW generated is 16,000 ton/day with the initial cost of the entire activity is estimated to worth RM35 billions. However, Malaysia is still negotiating for the best strategies to manage her MSW in the best manner - politically, economically and environmentally. A National Solid Waste Strategic Plan has been established, advocating and adopting the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (IWMS). However, choosing the right mix of the waste management hierarchy is not simple. The 3-R concept with an effective and consistent role by the society at large is still not well taken up despite of various efforts taken by the government. The role of biological treatment such as composting and bio-gasification (AD), is slowly gaining momentum, however, needed much more effort and understanding when applied to local waste and market conditions. The vigor to introduce the-state-of-the-art thermal treatment process has been done as early as in 2000, but the project has faced a severe set back with regard to public acceptance, lingering around the dioxin issues, and the resulting political consequences caused delays in implementation. Finally, there seems to be a more practical and sensible solution nationally to build more Sanitary Landfills (SLF) in various states and municipalities due to economic reasons as well as for final disposal of waste. It is therefore seen that the Mechanical / 3 -R and Biological Treatment (MBT) methods play a better role as a pretreatment process prior to landfills, environmentally speaking. In case the economics does not permit the above practice, direct land filling of the MSW should entails with the Land Fill Gas (LFG) extraction and utilization. Despite of the general trends to import foreign technologies to circumvent the unavailability of local solutions, the needs for local input cannot be denied. Hence, the R

  17. Preliminary assessment of the thermal effects of an annular air space surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Modeling results have previously shown that the presence of a large air space (e.g., a repository room) within a nuclear waste repository is expected to cause a waste canister's temperature to remain cooler than it would otherwise be. Results presented herein show that an annular air space surrounding the waste canisters can have similar cooling effects under certain prescribable conditions; for a 16 ft x 1 ft diameter canister containing 650 PWR rods which initially generate a total of 4.61 kw, analysis will show that annular air spaces greater than 11 in will permit the canister surface to attain peak temperatures lower than that which would result from a zero-gap/perfect thermal contact. It was determined that the peak radial temperature gradient in the salt varies in proportion to the inverse of the drill hole radius. Thermal radiation is shown to be the dominant mode of heat transfer across an annular air space during the first two years after emplacement. Finally, a methodology is presented which will allow investigators to easily model radiation and convection heat transfer through air spaces by treating the space as a conduction element that possesses non-linear temperature dependent conductivity

  18. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  19. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  20. Polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm resists repeated intravaginal antiseptic treatment in a subset of women with bacterial vaginosis: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Verstraelen, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept). In case of treatment failure or relapse within 6 months, patients were re-treated with a 28-day course of octenidine. In case of recurrence within 6 months after the second treatment course, patients were treated again with a 28-day course followed by weekly applications for 2 months. Treatment effect was evaluated by assessment of the presence of the biofilm on voided vaginal epithelial cells through fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The initial cure rate following a 7-day course of octenidine was as high as 87.5%. The 6-month relapse rate was, however, as high as 66.6%. Repeated treatment for 28 days led to an overall cure rate of 75.0%; however, it was also associated with emergence of complete resistance to octenidine in a subset of women. The overall cure rate after three treatment courses with 1-year follow-up was 62.5 %, with 37.5 % of the patients showing complete resistance to octenidine. Our preliminary results showed that octenidine dihydrochloride was initially highly effective, but the efficacy of repeated and prolonged treatment dropped quickly as challenge with the antiseptic rapidly led to bacterial resistance in a considerable subset of women.

  1. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  2. Characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloys after a thermal treatment for high wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagna, C.; Spriano, S.; Faga, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloys are characterized by a high resistance to wear and corrosion, as well as good mechanical properties, allowing their use in the substitution of hip and knee joints. Five alloys were used as substrates for a coating deposition by a thermal treatment in molten salts, as reported elsewhere, in order to form a tantalum‐rich coating on the sample surface, able to improve the biocompatibility and wear resistance of the materials. However, the temperature (970 °C), reached during this process, is considered critical for the phase transformation of the Co-based alloys. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature effects on the structure, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the considered substrates, after the removal of the coating by polishing. The substrates are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and profilometry. The mechanical behavior is evaluated by the macro- and micro-hardness and bending tests, whereas the tribological properties are analyzed through a ball on disc test. A comparison between the as-received alloys and thermal treated substrates is reported. The biocompatibility feature is not reported in this work. The substrate crystalline structure changed during the heat treatment, inducing the formation of the hexagonal cobalt phase and the decrement of the cubic one. This crystallographic modification does not seem to influence the tribological behavior of the substrates. On the contrary, it affects the strength and ductility of the substrates. - Highlights: ► Effect of a thermal treatment on different CoCrMo alloys suitable for hip and knee joint substitution. ► The temperature induced an increment in the amount of hexagonal phase and a change in the grain size. ► The increment of the hexagonal phase decreases the hardness of the substrates but not the tribological properties.

  3. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Abbie N.; Marsden, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA) graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400–1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700–800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000–1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput. PMID:28793326

  4. Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite: A large scale waste treatment option.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Theodosiou

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the laboratory scale thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite, as a proof-of-concept for the treatment and decommissioning of reactor cores on a larger industrial scale. If showed to be effective, this technology could have promising international significance with a considerable impact on the nuclear waste management problem currently facing many countries worldwide. The use of thermal treatment of such graphite waste is seen as advantageous since it will decouple the need for an operational Geological Disposal Facility (GDF. Particulate samples of Magnox Reactor Pile Grade-A (PGA graphite, were oxidised in both air and 60% O2, over the temperature range 400-1200°C. Oxidation rates were found to increase with temperature, with a particular rise between 700-800°C, suggesting a change in oxidation mechanism. A second increase in oxidation rate was observed between 1000-1200°C and was found to correspond to a large increase in the CO/CO2 ratio, as confirmed through gas analysis. Increasing the oxidant flow rate gave a linear increase in oxidation rate, up to a certain point, and maximum rates of 23.3 and 69.6 mg / min for air and 60% O2 respectively were achieved at a flow of 250 ml / min and temperature of 1000°C. These promising results show that large-scale thermal treatment could be a potential option for the decommissioning of graphite cores, although the design of the plant would need careful consideration in order to achieve optimum efficiency and throughput.

  5. Pediatric Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment, a Revolutionary Technique to Adopt in Children with Pilonidal Sinus Fistulas: Our Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Ciro; Izzo, Serena; Turrà, Francesco; Cerulo, Mariapina; Severino, Giovanni; Settimi, Alessandro; Iannazzone, Marta; Masieri, Lorenzo; Cortese, Giuseppe; Escolino, Maria

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to report our preliminary experience with pediatric endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (PEPSiT). We retrospectively reviewed the reports of 15 patients, 6 girls and 9 boys, with an average age of 16 years (range 13-18) with noninfected pilonidal sinus disease who underwent PEPSiT in our institution over an 18-month period. Four cases were redo-procedures, for recurrence of disease after open excision repair. Surgical outcomes of sinus healing, recurrence of disease, postoperative pain, hospital stay, analgesic requirements, and patient satisfaction levels were evaluated and a comparison analysis with classic open repair was performed. All procedures were performed under subarachnoid spinal anesthesia. We always adopted a fistuloscope, an endoscopic forceps, and a monopolar electrode to remove the hairs and to heal the fistula. The average length of surgery was 28.5 minutes (range 26-41). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported. The average pain score evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scale during the first 48 postoperative hours was 3.2 (range 2-5). The average analgesic requirement was 22 hours (range 16-28). The average hospital stay length was 28 hours (range 22-48). They changed dressing daily, by applying a topical solution of eosin 2% and a silver sulfadiazine spray. At 1 month postoperatively, the external openings were closed in all patients and no recurrence was recorded at a mean follow-up of 6 month. PEPSiT was associated with a significantly shorter, painless, and better outcome compared to open technique. On the basis of our preliminary experience, we believe that PEPSiT is a promising technique for surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus in children. It is technically easy and quick to perform, with a short and painless hospital stay, without recurrences in our series. It allows operated patients an early return to full daily activities without restrictions that happen for the classic treatment.

  6. The effect of thermal treatment on radiation-induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, I.P.; Ishchenko, S.S.; Baran, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on the radiation-induced EPR spectrum of tooth enamel was studied. Annealing before sample irradiation was found to increase enamel radiation sensitivity by more than 40%. Depending on the annealing conditions the EPR signals of three supplementary radiation radicals were observed in addition to the main signal caused by CO 2 - radicals. It was found that the presence of these signals in the enamel EPR spectra provides evidence of sample annealing. The possibility of obtaining information about sample history by studying the additional EPR signals is discussed. It can be important to EPR dating and EPR dosimetry

  7. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wood, Rick A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Westover, Tyler L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (± 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton

  8. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  9. Development of fluidized-bed furnace for thermal treatment of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, U C; Anuradha, M; Meena, R [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India)

    1994-06-01

    At present the ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) route is developed at a scale of 10 kg/day of UO{sub 2}. This UO{sub 2} is directly compactible and sinterable to densities of 10.55-10.65 gm/cc. The equipment developed include precipitation tank with filtration and methanol washing and fluidized bed furnaces for thermal treatment of AUC and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. During the design and development of these furnaces many experiments were conducted to study fluidization of AUC powder. In this paper the findings of these studies are presented. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  11. The thermal waste treatment: A technology for the environment; Termodistruzione dei rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-09-01

    The present report is divided into three parts: the first describes the combustion technology and energy recovery process, analyses the most efficient devices to reduce exhaust emissions, examines the environmental effects of emissions and reports economical considerations on the technology. The second part describes the commercial, pre commercial and experimental devices and their appliance sectors. The third part analyses the Italian situation taking into account separately industrial and municipal solid wastes. The aim of the distinction is to define for each stream the problems connected to the diffusion of the thermal waste treatment and the obstacles encountered to obtain information about the existent plant.

  12. Accumulation and release of implanted hydrogen from blisters in Si during the thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, P.A.; Baranova, E.K.; Baranova, I.V.; Budaragin, V.V.; Litvinov, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    The processes of accumulation of ion implanted hydrogen in blisters in silicon and its release during the thermal treatment at 350-1020 deg C have been studied by optical techniques. It is established that accumulation of gaseous hydrogen inside blisters takes place at temperatures lower than ∼ 450-500 deg C and is accompanied by the growth of blisters thickness and deformation of their caps. At higher temperatures hydrogen leaves cavities and dissolves in silicon. Due to internal pressure dropping the elasticity deformed top layer partially relaxes, and the blister thickness decreases. Etching of the surface layer reveals the agglomerations of small voids ( [ru

  13. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  14. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  15. Enhancement of discharge performance of Li/CF x cell by thermal treatment of CF x cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Foster, Donald; Read, Jeffrey

    In this work we demonstrate that the thermal treatment of CF x cathode material just below the decomposition temperature can enhance discharge performance of Li/CF x cells. The performance enhancement becomes more effective when heating a mixture of CF x and citric acid (CA) since CA serves as an extra carbon source. Discharge experiments show that the thermal treatment not only reduces initial voltage delay, but also raises discharge voltage. Whereas the measurement of powder impedance indicates the thermal treatment does not increase electronic conductivity of CF x material. Based on these facts, we propose that the thermal treatment results in a limited decomposition of CF x, which yields a subfluorinated carbon (CF x- δ), instead of a highly conductive carbon. In the case of CF x/AC mixture, the AC provides extra carbon that reacts with F 2 and fluorocarbon radicals generated by the thermal decomposition of CF x to form subfluorinated carbon. The process of thermal treatment is studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction, and the effect of treatment conditions such as heating temperature, heating time and CF x/CA ratio on the discharge performance of CF x cathode is discussed. As an example, a Li/CF x cell using CF x treated with CA at 500 °C under nitrogen for 2 h achieved theretical specific capacity when being discharged at C/5. Impedance analysis indicates that the enhanced performance is attributed to a significant reduction in the cell reaction resistance.

  16. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m 3 /MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m 3 /MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  17. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Analysis of nuclear reaction products and materials; Preliminary treatment of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo.

    1976-01-01

    Pre-treatment of samples is necessary to be done in order to achieve the efficient steps and accurate results of uranium analysis. The pre-treatment is particularly affected by the type of sample, the uranium concentration predicated in the sample, and the uranium analytical method which will be applied. A brief discussion about the pre-treatment of uranium analysis in the uranium ore processing and the reprocessing of spent fuel is given. (author)

  19. Influence of preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in conditions of action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A. A.; Aliyev, A. G.; Agayev, T. N.; Velibekova, G. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today mainly water-cooled nuclear reactors predominate in atomic energetics. For safe work of nuclear reactors detection of accumulation process of explosives, formed during radiation and temperature influence on heat-carriers in contact with materials of nuclear reactors in normal and emergency regimes of work is of great importance. The main sources of molecular hydrogen formation in normal and emergency regimes are the processes of liquid and vaporous water in vapo metallic reaction [1-5]. At the result of these processes molecular hydrogen concentration in heat-carrier composition always exceeds theoretically expected concentration. One of the main ways to solve the problem of water-cooled reactors safety is detection of possibilities to raise material resistance of fuel elements and heat carrier to joint action of ionizing radiation and temperature. The second way is inhibition of radiation-catalytic activity of construction materials' surface during the process of water decomposition. It's been established, that one of the ways to raise resistance of zirconium materials to the influence of ionizing radiation is formation of thin oxide film on the surface of metals. In the given work the influence of preliminary oxidizing treatment of zirconium surface on its radiation-catalytic activity during the process of water decomposition. With this aim zirconium is exposed to preliminary influence of gamma-quantum in contact with hydrogen peroxide at different meanings of absorbed radiation dose

  20. Preliminary results of fast neutron treatments in carcinoma of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahbauer, R.; Koh, K. Y.; Rodriguez-Antunez, A.; Jelden, G. L.; Turco, R. F.; Horton, J.; Bukowski, R.; Reimer, R.; Blue, J.; Roberts, W.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 30 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas including some patients with very advanced disease, were treated with the so-called mixed beam modality employing photon treatments three times per week and neutron treatments twice a week. Two hundred Rads or equivalent Rads (RBE 3.3) were given in daily fractions aiming at a total dose of 6000 Rads in 6 to 8 weeks. The treatments were well tolerated and significant palliation was achieved in 26 to 30 cases. Twelve months survival was 33 percent with a median survival of 7 months or 210 days. Treatment techniques and localization procedures are discussed.

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development (PSD) II. Preliminary design report. Appendix II: supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    The trade studies, calculations, and reports which provide the rationale for design conclusions for the 10 MWe OTEC power system are presented in this volume. These appendices include: (1) system design and optimization model; (2) system off-design performance computer model; (3) seawater system dynamics; (4) system mechanical design studies; (5) electrical design studies; (6) structural design studies; (7) tube cleaner design report and proposed brush test program; (8) heat exchangers: mechanical design; (9) heat exchangers: thermal hydraulic computer model; (10) heat exchangers: manufacturing flow plan; (11) heat exchangers: installation and removal procedures; (12) heat exchangers: stainless steel conceptual design; (13) heat exchangers: cost studies; (14)heat exchangers: materials selection and corrosion; and (15) heat exchangers: quality assurance. (WHK)

  2. Phase I/II study of proton beam irradiation for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: treatment techniques and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemoto, Leslie T.; Slater, Jerry D.; Friedrichsen, Eric J.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Ing, Jeffrey; Archambeau, John O.; Teichman, Sandra; Moyers, Michael F.; Blacharski, Paul A.; Slater, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration is the prevalent etiology of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The only effective treatment is laser photocoagulation, which is associated with decreased visual acuity following treatment in most patients. This study assessed both the response of subfoveal CNV to proton beam irradiation and treatment-related morbidity. We evaluated preliminary results in patients treated with an initial dose of 8 Cobalt Gray Equivalents (CGE) using a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with subfoveal CNV received proton irradiation to the central macula with a single fraction of 8 CGE; 19 were eligible for evaluation. Treatment-related morbidity was based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria; response was evaluated by Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) guidelines. Fluorescein angiography was performed; visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading speed were measured at study entry and at 3-month intervals after treatment. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 15 months. Results: No measurable treatment-related morbidity was seen during or after treatment. Of 19 patients evaluated at 6 months, fluorescein angiography demonstrated treatment response in 10 (53%); 14 (74%) patients had improved or stable visual acuity. With a mean follow-up of 11.6 months, 11 (58%) patients have demonstrated improved or stable visual acuity. Conclusion: A macular dose of 8 CGE yielded no measurable treatment morbidity in patients studied. Fluorescein nagiography demonstrated that regressed or stabilized lesions were associated with improved visual acuity as compared with MPS results. In the next phase, a dose of 14 CGE in a single fraction will be used to further define the optimal dose fractionation schedule

  3. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  4. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager - Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  5. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal t...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre...

  6. Effects of Heating Rate on the Dynamic Tensile Mechanical Properties of Coal Sandstone during Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coal layered combustion and the heat injection rate on adjacent rock were examined in the process of underground coal gasification and coal-bed methane mining. Dynamic Brazilian disk tests were conducted on coal sandstone at 800°C and slow cooling from different heating rates by means of a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB test system. It was discovered that thermal conditions had significant effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the sandstone including longitudinal wave velocity, density, and dynamic linear tensile strength; as the heating rates increased, the thermal expansion of the sandstone was enhanced and the damage degree increased. Compared with sandstone at ambient temperature, the fracture process of heat-treated sandstone was more complicated. After thermal treatment, the specimen had a large crack in the center and cracks on both sides caused by loading; the original cracks grew and mineral particle cracks, internal pore geometry, and other defects gradually appeared. With increasing heating rates, the microscopic fracture mode transformed from ductile fracture to subbrittle fracture. It was concluded that changes in the macroscopic mechanical properties of the sandstone were result from changes in the composition and microstructure.

  7. Influence of Thermal Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Dental Silicate Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Voicu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sol-gel process was used to synthesize a precursor mixture for the preparation of silicate cement, also called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA cement. This mixture was thermally treated under two different conditions (1400 °C/2 h and 1450 °C/3 h followed by rapid cooling in air. The resulted material (clinker was ground for one hour in a laboratory planetary mill (v = 150 rot/min, in order to obtain the MTA cements. The setting time and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF and cytocompatibility of the MTA cements were assessed in this study. The hardening processes, nature of the reaction products and the microstructural characteristics were also investigated. The anhydrous and hydrated cements were characterized by different techniques e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and thermal analysis (DTA-DTG-TG. The setting time of the MTA cement obtained by thermal treatment at 1400 °C/2 h (MTA1 was 55 min and 15 min for the MTA cement obtained at 1450 °C/3 h (MTA2. The compressive strength values were 18.5 MPa (MTA1 and 22.9 MPa (MTA2. Both MTA cements showed good bioactivity (assessed by an in vitro test, good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of cells.

  8. Comparison of the thermal neutron scattering treatment in MCNP6 and GEANT4 codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H. N.; Marchix, A.; Letourneau, A.; Darpentigny, J.; Menelle, A.; Ott, F.; Schwindling, J.; Chauvin, N.

    2018-06-01

    To ensure the reliability of simulation tools, verification and comparison should be made regularly. This paper describes the work performed in order to compare the neutron transport treatment in MCNP6.1 and GEANT4-10.3 in the thermal energy range. This work focuses on the thermal neutron scattering processes for several potential materials which would be involved in the neutron source designs of Compact Accelerator-based Neutrons Sources (CANS), such as beryllium metal, beryllium oxide, polyethylene, graphite, para-hydrogen, light water, heavy water, aluminium and iron. Both thermal scattering law and free gas model, coming from the evaluated data library ENDF/B-VII, were considered. It was observed that the GEANT4.10.03-patch2 version was not able to account properly the coherent elastic process occurring in crystal lattice. This bug is treated in this work and it should be included in the next release of the code. Cross section sampling and integral tests have been performed for both simulation codes showing a fair agreement between the two codes for most of the materials except for iron and aluminium.

  9. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms among men in residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity between eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is of particular concern given the high rates of mortality, relapse and poor treatment outcomes associated with both disorders. As a result, there has been a growing impetus within the field to elucidate factors that might influence and aid treatment for this comorbidity. One such factor is dispositional mindfulness, as past literature has demonstrated a significant relationship between mindfulness and both EDs and SUDs. However, we are unaware of any research that has examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and ED symptoms in a sample of men in residential treatment for SUDs. Medical records from 152 men were included in the current study. Alcohol and drug use and problems, ED symptoms, and dispositional mindfulness were assessed with self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that dispositional mindfulness was inversely related to ED symptoms after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age. Although results are preliminary and continued research in this area is needed, our findings suggest that there may be potential usefulness in targeting and enhancing mindfulness among patients in residential treatment for SUDs with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., EDs).

  10. Childhood cancer in El Salvador: A preliminary exploration of parental concerns in the abandonment of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy--a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perceived their child's cancer and treatment, and what led them to stop bringing their child for chemotherapy. In in-depth interviews, parents of six children who abandoned their child's cancer treatment discussed sickness and life circumstances during the course of treatment. Poverty, effects of treatment, mistrust, emotions and religious convictions all figured in the parents' explanation of their actions. However, each family weighed these concerns differently. It was the interaction of the concerns, and not the concern per se, that represented the explanatory frameworks the families used to explain stopping their child's treatment. This finding illustrates the parents' navigation among a collection of variable concerns, rather than exposing one fixed cause for their behavior. For example, poverty affects a parent's worldview as well as concrete living conditions, and therefore has a complex relationship with abandonment of treatment. Thus, it follows that strategies to reduce treatment abandonment (and increase a child's chance for survival) must be multidimensional. Qualitative studies of how families perceive childhood cancer and treatment can illuminate the processes and relationships involved in abandonment of treatment. This approach can also show how families' living circumstances frame their perceptions and inform strategies to improve how medical services are provided, thus reducing abandonment of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  12. A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

    The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

  13. Preliminary observations of heat treatment to control Phytophthora ramorum in infected wood species: an extended abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Tubajika; R. Singh; Shelly J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of appropriate phytosanitary treatments that can be used for certifying solid wood packing material movement from areas infested or threatened by actionable plant pests and pathogens into uninfested areas is mportant. Heat treatment has been used on commodities to control fungal diseases and insect infestations for many years. The restricted use of...

  14. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  15. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  16. Pediatric Thermal Burns and Treatment: A Review of Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a devastating critical care problem. In children, burns continue to be a major epidemiologic problem around the globe resulting in significant morbidity and death. Apparently, treating these burn injuries in children and adults remains similar, but there are significant physiological and psychological differences. The dermal layer of the skin is generally thinner in neonates, infants, and children than in adults. Enhanced evaporative loss and need for isotonic fluids increases the risk of hypothermia in the pediatric population. The pain management of the children with major burns challenges the skills of the personnel of every unit. Managing these wounds requires intensive therapeutic treatment for multi-organ dysfunction, and surgical treatment to prevent sepsis and other complications that further delay wound closure. Alternatives to the practice of donor site harvest and autografting for the treatment of severe burns and other complex skin defects are urgently needed for both adult and pediatric populations. This review article focuses on thermal burn pathophysiology and pain management and provides an overview of currently approved products used for the treatment of pediatric burn wounds. A new promising approach has been presented as a first-line therapy in the treatment of burns to reduce surgical autografting in pediatric patients.

  17. A new water treatment scheme for thermal development : the SIBE process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedenaud, P.; Dang, F. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The production of extra heavy oil or bitumen through thermal methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) involves the generation and injection into the reservoir of large quantities of steam which is recirculated with the produced bitumen. It is expected that maximizing the recycling of the produced water into steam will be mandatory, because of the need to minimize fresh water consumption and the possibility of increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The SAGD water treatment scheme is complex. It depends on the water characteristics, the steam generator type selected, and the decision to completely eliminate waste water disposal or use other waste handling and disposal methods. Other challenges such as the high silica content in the produced water, are encountered with SAGD water treatment. This paper presented an overview of the current water treatment process options for SAGD, as well as a new patented process called silica inhibition and blowdown evaporation (SIBE). The paper also presented an estimate of the economic benefit of the new SIBE process relative to conventional process schemes. Treatment objectives and water characteristics and the steps involved in conventional water treatment were first outlined. It was concluded that the silica and hardness removal scheme combined with the boiler blowdown evaporator were less economical because of higher investment cost due to the evaporation unit. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Successful treatment of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing - treatment protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfel, Lea; Eppler, Bruno; Storf, Magdalena; Schnöbel-Müller, Elizabeth; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2018-02-13

    Methotrexate (MTX), commonly used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), frequently has to be discontinued due to intolerance with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychological method where dysfunctional experiences and memories are reprocessed by recall combined with bilateral eye movements. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of EMDR for treatment of MTX intolerance in JIA patients. We performed an open prospective study on consecutive JIA patients with MTX intolerance. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire prior to treatment, directly after treatment and after four months. Health-related quality of life was determined using the PedsQL prior to and four months after treatment. Patients were treated according to an institutional EMDR protocol with 8 sessions over two weeks. Changes in MISS and PedsQL were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. Eighteen patients with MTX intolerance (median MISS at inclusion 16.5, IQR = 11.75-20.25) were included. Directly after treatment, MTX intolerance symptoms were significantly improved (median MISS 1 (IQR = 0-2). After four months, median MISS score was at 6.5 (IQR = 2.75-12.25, p = 0.001), with 9/18 patients showing MISS scores ≥6. Median PedsQL after 4 months improved significantly from 77.6% to 85.3% (p = 0.008). MTX intolerance in children with JIA was effectively treated using an EMDR protocol, with lasting effect over a period of 4 months. EMDR treatment can potentially increase quality of life of affected patients and enable continued MTX treatment.

  19. A portable thermal imaging device as a feedback system for breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Oshrit A.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Katz, Eyal; Sholomov, Meny; Kelson, Itzhak; Gannot, Israel

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in the Western world. Currently, no imaging technique assesses tumor heat generation and vasculature changes during radiotherapy in viable tumor and as adjuvant therapy. Thermography is a non-ionizing, non-invasive, portable and low-cost imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of thermography in cancer treatment monitoring for feedback purposes. Six stage-IV breast cancer patients with viable breast tumor and 8 patients (9 breasts) who underwent tumor resection were monitored by a thermal camera prior to radiotherapy sessions over several weeks of radiation treatment. The thermal changes over the treated breast were calculated and analyzed for comparison with healthy surrounded breast tissue or contralateral breast. A model of a breast with a tumor was created. The COMSOL FEM software was used to carry out the analysis. The effects of tumor metabolism and breast tissue perfusion on the temperature difference were analyzed. All patients with active tumors exhibited drops in maximal temperature of the tumor during radiation therapy. The patients who underwent radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment exhibited a rise in maximal temperature over the treated breast in correlation with skin erythema during radiation. This difference between the groups was statistically significant (P=0.001). The simulated human breast cancer models analysis showed that tumor aggressiveness reduction causes decrease in the tumor temperature. Inflammation causes vasodilatation and increases tissue perfusion, resulted in an increase in breast tissue temperature. A correlation was demonstrated between the clinical outcome and the simulation. We report a method for monitoring cancer response to radiation therapy, which measures the physiological response along with clinical response. These anticipatory efficacy evaluations of radiotherapy during treatment may further promote changes in treatment regimen

  20. Decreases in smoking during treatment for methamphetamine-use disorders: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Orr, Michael; Lederhos, Crystal; McDonell, Michael; Leickly, Emily; Hirchak, Katherine; Oluwoye, Oladunni A; Murphy, Sean M; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John M

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of smoking (70-90%) and the severely negative impact of smoking on physical and mental health, only 12% of individuals receiving stimulant-use disorder treatment also receive smoking-cessation treatment. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting methamphetamine (MA) use on cigarette smoking. Sixty-one adults with MA-use disorders who were smokers were assigned to CM or standard psychosocial treatment. Rates of smoking-negative breath samples (carbon monoxide <3 ppm) were compared between the two groups while controlling for baseline carbon monoxide level, marijuana use, MA use, and time. This subgroup of mostly male (59%) participants included 44 participants in the CM group and 17 participants in the standard psychosocial treatment. Tobacco smoking participants who received CM targeting MA use were 140% (odds ratio: 2.395; 95% confidence interval: 1.073-5.346) more likely to submit a smoking-negative breath sample relative to standard psychosocial treatment during the treatment period, holding constant several other prespecified covariates. This study provides evidence that a behavioral treatment for MA use results in reductions in cigarette smoking in adults with MA-use disorder.

  1. Novel hyperthermia applicator system allows adaptive treatment planning: Preliminary clinical results in tumour-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, S; Gosselin, M-C; Capstick, M H; Carrasco, E; Weyland, M S; Scheidegger, S; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N; Bodis, S; Rohrer Bley, C

    2017-09-11

    Hyperthermia (HT) as an adjuvant to radiation therapy (RT) is a multimodality treatment method to enhance therapeutic efficacy in different tumours. High demands are placed on the hardware and treatment planning software to guarantee adequately planned and applied HT treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the novel HT system in tumour-bearing dogs and cats in terms of local response and toxicity as well as to compare planned with actual achieved data during heating. A novel applicator with a flexible number of elements and integrated closed-loop temperature feedback control system, and a tool for patient-specific treatment planning were used in a combined thermoradiotherapy protocol. Good agreement between predictions from planning and clinical outcome was found in 7 of 8 cases. Effective HT treatments were planned and verified with the novel system and provided improved quality of life in all but 1 patient. This individualized treatment planning and controlled heat exposure allows adaptive, flexible and safe HT treatments in palliatively treated animal patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of metacognitive therapy vs. cognitive behavioral therapy vs. waiting list in the treatment of adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kvistedal, Draco Jon Torstein

    2011-01-01

    Forty two participants with generalized anxiety disorder were treated with either Metacognitive therapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, in a randomized controlled study comparing the relative effect of the two treatments. A wait list condition comprised the control group. Statistical analysis proved MCT superior to CBT, and CBT proved superior to no treatment. Because this is a preliminary study it has some limitations, such as no follow-up data or treatment adherence control. Thus at the cu...

  3. Formation of PCDD and PCDF in the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marcelo; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Masotti, Leonardo; Martins, Celso Brisolara; Ritter, Diego Elias; Wenzel, Bruno München

    2009-08-15

    The leather waste generated by the footwear industry is considered dangerous due to the presence of trivalent chromium, derived from the salt utilized to tan hides. In Brazil, the majority of this waste is disposed on landfills and only about 3% are recycled. The thermal treatment is an alternative method for purification of such residues. By using this technique it is possible to generate energy and recover the chromium present in the ash for the production of basic chromium sulfate (tanning industry), high carbon ferrochromium or carbon-free ferrochromium (steel industry). In the last 10 years, the gasification and combustion of footwear leather waste have been intensively studied at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The research experiment for characterization of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were carried out in a semi-pilot unit (350 kW(th)). From new investments the thermal capacity of the unit will increase to 600 kW(th). The unit will produce power from the heat generated in the combustion. The experimental results indicated that during the thermal treatment of footwear leather wastes, the formation mechanism of PCDD/F is the de novo synthesis. Most of PCDD/F were found in the particulate phase (>95%). A kinetic model was used for discussion of the achieved experimental results. The model is based in the carbon gasification, PCDD/F formation, desorption and degradation. From the conclusions obtained in this work will be possible minimize the PCDD/F formation in process of combustion of footwear leather wastes.

  4. Fuzzy control of the iron ore pellets thermal treatment on a conveying car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Йосипович Лобов

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem of fuzzy control of iron ore pellets thermal treatment on a conveyor roasting machine, to build an automated control system of conveyor roasting machine and perform simulation and to present the results of research. According to the structural scheme of the fuzzy control an automated control system is proposed for being modelled. This is done by using the software MATLAB. The use of atomic emission spectroscopy determines the percentage of the major elements in iron ore pellets considering the main process parameters. This article uses an automated system of fuzzy control of iron ore pellets firing on a conveyor roasting machine with the introduction of atomic emission spectroscopy of the pellets. Development and practical implementation of fuzzy control will improve their quality by taking into account the basic parameters of thermal treatment of pellets such as speed of movement of the grate trucks, gas flow rate, the height of the layer of pellets and the venting speed of the pellets layer with gas-air flow, humidity, average diameter, the basicity and the iron composition in the pellets. The expediency of the developed method of using automated fuzzy control system of iron ore pellets firing on a conveyor roasting car has been proved. The system with fuzzy controller provides a reduction on average 2 m3/h, which is 0,3% of natural gas consumption as compared to the existing systems. This provides more uniform gas permeability of the layer of pellets, which leads to filtration rate increase of the gas flow and to heat exchange intensification in the layer of pellets. It makes it possible to introduce the atomic emission spectroscopy of non-burned pellets and to increase the productivity of conveyor roasting machine by 2,5%. At the same time the resistance of technological equipment (pallets increases, due to more uniform distribution of the thermal field

  5. Immobilization of Co2+ and Cs+ in zeolites by thermal treatment and by combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez T, R.; Bulbulian G, S.

    2005-01-01

    The radioactive waste, either those that take place in the 235 U fission or those that are used in the radiochemical laboratories, are dangerous for the human being and for the one environment. The liquid radioactive wastes are of those that present bigger problem. It has intended to retain by the ion exchange method the radioactive ions of the liquids using, for example, zeolites. In this work so much synthetic zeolites was used (A and X) like a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Its were put in contact with cobalt or cesium solutions to simulate radioactive solutions. A part of the zeolite cations were exchanged with cobalt or cesium cations, eliminating them by this way of the solution. However, in extreme conditions these cations can be leached of the solids. To immobilize the cobalt or cesium cations in the zeolites net its are usually carried out thermal treatments to such temperatures that the structure is destroyed and that the contaminating ions are trapped in a solid often vitreous. The exchanged zeolites with cobalt or cesium, on one hand, its were thermally treated to different temperatures during three hours and by the other one, according to the treatment method by combustion, to different temperatures during five minutes in presence of urea, later its were put in contact with a solution of NaCl to measure the leaching of the interest cations. These solutions were analyzed by neutron activation. In general it was found that as the treatment temperature increases (in both methods) the so much immobility of the cesium like of the cobalt it increases. The grade of crystallinity of the samples before and after the treatments it was determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  6. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  7. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ladies Finger Natural Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present research, natural fiber obtained from ladies finger plant was chemically treated separately using alkali (2% NaOH, chromium sulfate (4% , and chromium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate (4% . Both raw and chemically treated fibers were subsequently characterized using mechanical (tensile, structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and thermal (thermogravimetric analysis. Fourier analysis showed the presence of (−OH group in the ladies plant fiber. Scanning electron micrographs revealed rougher surface in case of alkali treated fiber, while thin coating layer was formed on the fiber surface during other two treatments. Tensile test on ladies finger single fiber was carried out by varying span length. The tensile strength and Young's modulus values were found to be increased after chemical treatment. For both raw and chemically treated fibers, Young's modulus increased and tensile strength decreased with increase in span length. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the same level of thermal stability for both raw and treated ladies finger fibers.

  8. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  9. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  10. Investigation of Mode I fracture toughness of red Verona marble after thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Scorza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to assess the effect of freeze/thaw cycles on fracture behaviour of a natural stone: the red Verona marble. A wide variety of specimen types and methods to determine Mode I fracture toughness of natural stones are available in the literature and, in this context, the model originally proposed for plain concrete, i.e. the Two-Parameter Model (TPM, is adopted. Such a method is able to take into account the slow nonlinear crack growth occurring before the peak load, typical of quasi-brittle materials, with the advantage of easy specimen preparation and simple test configuration. In the present paper, the atmospheric ageing is simulated by means of thermal pre-treatments consisting of freeze/thaw cycles. Experimental tests are carried out using three-point bending Single-Edge Notched (SEN specimens, according to the TPM procedure. The effects of thermal treatment on both mechanical and fracture parameters are examined in terms of elastic modulus and fracture toughness, respectively

  11. Study of Cd Te recrystallization by hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, C.; Albor A, M. L.; Galarza G, U.; Aguilar H, J. R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez T, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Flores M, J. M. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia y Materiales, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez O, D. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, SEPI, Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    Cd Te thin films solar cells are currently produced using a layer sequence of glass/FTO/CdS/Cd Te/metal contact (Cu/Ag), these films are deposited by two different techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space vapour transport (CSVT). In order to reach reasonable conversion efficiencies, the device has to be thermally treated in a hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} atmosphere. This study was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, Sem-EDS, four probe method and Sims profiling of Cd Te. These analyses confirm the presence of hydrated CdCl{sub 2} and Cd Te phases on Cd Te surface and shown a good recrystallization morphology helping to the carriers mobility along the structure. Using the thermal treatment was possible to reduce the resistivity of Cd Te thin film; it is a result to the Cl migration along the Cd Te solar cell structure, reducing the defects between CdS and Cd Te thin films. A strong Cd Te thin film recrystallization was observed by the implementation of a hydrated-CdCl{sub 2} treatment doing to this a good candidate to Cd Te solar cells process. (Author)

  12. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution

  13. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nakanishi, Takafumi

    1985-01-01

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10 B chlorpromazine compounds and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA) as tumor-seeking 10 B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10 B 1 -BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Study of Cd Te recrystallization by hydrated-CdCl_2 thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Albor A, M. L.; Galarza G, U.; Aguilar H, J. R.; Gonzalez T, M. A.; Flores M, J. M.; Jimenez O, D.

    2017-01-01

    Cd Te thin films solar cells are currently produced using a layer sequence of glass/FTO/CdS/Cd Te/metal contact (Cu/Ag), these films are deposited by two different techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space vapour transport (CSVT). In order to reach reasonable conversion efficiencies, the device has to be thermally treated in a hydrated-CdCl_2 atmosphere. This study was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, Sem-EDS, four probe method and Sims profiling of Cd Te. These analyses confirm the presence of hydrated CdCl_2 and Cd Te phases on Cd Te surface and shown a good recrystallization morphology helping to the carriers mobility along the structure. Using the thermal treatment was possible to reduce the resistivity of Cd Te thin film; it is a result to the Cl migration along the Cd Te solar cell structure, reducing the defects between CdS and Cd Te thin films. A strong Cd Te thin film recrystallization was observed by the implementation of a hydrated-CdCl_2 treatment doing to this a good candidate to Cd Te solar cells process. (Author)

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  16. Non-surgical periodontal treatment of peri-implant diseases with the adjunctive use of diode laser: preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerario, Francesco; Roncati, Marisa; Gariffo, Annalisa; Attorresi, Enrica; Lucchese, Alessandra; Galanakis, Alexandros; Palaia, Gaspare; Romeo, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant diseases present in two forms: peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The prevalence of peri-implant complications is significantly rising. The aim of this study was to compare conventional treatment of inflamed peri-implant tissues with conventional treatment together with diode laser application. Twenty-seven patients (age 36 to 67, 15 women and 12 men, 12 smokers and 15 non-smokers) requiring treatment for mucositis or peri-implantitis were taken into account for this preliminary study. Plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD), and bleeding on probing (BoP) were recorded at baseline evaluation. Patients in control group (CG) received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment. Patients in test group received conventional non-surgical periodontal treatment together with diode laser application (810 nm, 30 s, 1 W, 50 Hz, t on = 100 ms, t off = 100 ms, energy density = 24.87 J/cm(2)). Paired t test was used to evaluate the difference in repeated measurements of considered indexes at T 0 and T 1 (1 year) in both groups. A total of 606 sites were taken into account in the test group (TG) and 144 in the CG. PD mean variation in the TG was 2.66 mm ± 1.07, while mean PD variation in the CG was 0.94 ± 1.13 mm. Paired t testing of the variation in PD in CG and TG revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p diode laser seems to be an additional valuable tool for peri-implant disease treatment.

  17. Validation of radiosterilization dose of human skin dressings for burnt treatment: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Due to the need for better materials to treat burnt patients, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) and the Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo Tissue Bank are collaborating for developing human skin dressings. Skin was procured from living donors, who surgically were performed a dermolipectomy. Exclusion criteria, stated by the Peruvian Organization for Transplant and Donation were observed. Glycerolized human skin dressings were processed at the tissue bank and sent to IPEN, where the gamma irradiation sterilizing dose was determined. The purpose of this work is to validate the radiation sterilization dose delivered to human skin dressings using the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A batch of human skin dressings was tested. Average values of bioburden present in ten samples was 30 UFC/item, obtaining a sub-sterilization dose of 4 kGy. Irradiations were performed in the GammacellExcel 220. Sterility tests performed fulfilled the requirements established by the Code, achieving a validated dose value of 19.7 kGy. This preliminary study, that should be repeated in two other batches of processed human skin, allows to diminish 25 kGy the sterilizing dose to the stated above dose value, in a frame of a quality assurance system that also comprises the processes held at tissue banks previous irradiation. It also permit the availability of these materials in Peruvian hospitals. (Author)

  18. Thermal and hydraulic properties of the concrete used in the ILW repository of El Cabril (Spain). Preliminary laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Maria Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the understanding of the behaviour of concrete barriers in surface (low and intermediate-level) waste disposal facilities, in particular in the Spanish disposal facility of El Cabril, where the waste containers are placed inside concrete cells. The durability of concrete and its mechanical properties are intrinsically bound to moisture transport effects, especially when it is subjected to repeated wetting and drying regimes, and that is why a detailed thermo-hydraulic characterisation is necessary to model its behaviour. The concrete used in this experimental work has a characteristic strength of 350 kp/cm 2 and uses ordinary Portland cement, resistant to sulphates and seawater, with a water/cement ratio of 0.43. Its average pore size is 0.03 micrometer. In addition to the determination of the thermal conductivity of concrete as a function of water content, a hydraulic characterisation - including determination of saturated permeability, permeability to gas for different degrees of saturation and water retention curves - has been performed

  19. Luminescence properties of Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F10 nanophosphor and thermal treatment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Laércio; Linhares, Horácio Marconi da Silva M.D.; Ichikawa, Rodrigo Uchida; Martinez, Luis Gallego; Ranieri, Izilda Marcia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the spectroscopic properties of KY 3 F 10 (KY3F) nanocrystals activated with thulium and codoped with ytterbium and neodymium ions. The most important processes that lead to the thulium upconversion emissions in the blue region were identified. A time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy technique was employed to measure the luminescence decays and to determine the most important mechanisms involved in the upconversion process that populates 1 G 4 (Tm 3+ ) excited states. Analysis of the energy-transfer processes dynamics using selective pulsed-laser excitations in Yb:Nd:Tm, Nd:KY3F nanocrystals shows that the direct energy transfer from Nd 3+ to Tm 3+ ions is the mechanism responsible for the 78% of the blue upconversion luminescence in the Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F when compared with the Yb:Nd:Tm:KY3F bulk crystal for an laser excitation at 802 nm. An investigation of the 1 G 4 level luminescence kinetic of Tm 3+ in Yb/Nd/Tm system revealed that the luminescence efficiency ( 1 G 4 ) starts with a very low value (0.38%) for the synthesized nanocrystal (as grown) and strongly increases to 97% after thermal treatment at 550 °C for 6 h under argon flow. As a consequence of the thermal treatment at T=550 °C, the contributions of the (Nd×Tm) (Up 1 ) and (Nd×Yb×Tm) (Up 2 ) upconversion processes to the 1 G 4 luminescence are 33% (Up 1 ) and 67% for Up 2 . Up 2 process represented by Nd 3+ ( 4 F 3/2 )→Yb 3+ ( 2 F 7/2 ) followed by Yb 3+ ( 2 F 5/2 )→Tm ( 3 H 4 )→Tm 3+ ( 1 G 4 ) was previously reported as the main mechanism to produce the blue luminescence in Yb:Nd:Tm:YLiF 4 and KY 3 F 10 bulk crystals. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis of nanopowder using the Rietveld method reveled that crystallite sizes remain unchanged (12–14 nm) after thermal treatments with T≤400 °C, while the 1 G 4 luminescence efficiency strongly increases from 0.38% (T=25 °C) to 12% (T=400 °C). Results shown that the Nd 3+ ions distribution has a concentration

  20. Proton therapy for pediatric cranial tumors: preliminary report on treatment and disease-related morbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Bruce; Archambeau, John O.; Nguyen, M. Connie; Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia; Schulte, Reinhard; Alvarez, Ofelia; Bedros, Antranik A.; Kaleita, Thomas; Moyers, Michael; Miller, Daniel; Slater, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated protons were used in an attempt to limit treatment-related morbidity in children with tumors in or near the developing brain, by reducing the integral dose to adjacent normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Children treated with protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center between August 1991 and December 1994 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-eight children, aged 1 to 18 years, were identified as at risk for brain injury from treatment. Medical records, physical examinations, and correspondence with patients, their parents, and referring physicians were analyzed. The investigators tabulated post-treatment changes in pre-treatment signs and symptoms and made judgments as to whether improvement, no change, or worsening related to disease or treatment had supervened. Magnetic resonance images were correlated with clinical findings and radiographic impressions were tabulated. Results: Follow-up ranged from 7 to 49 months (median 25 months). Four instances of treatment-related morbidity were identified. Forty-one instances of site-specific, disease-related morbidity were identified: 15 improved or resolved and 26 remained unchanged after treatment. Four patients had radiographic evidence of local failure. Three of these patients, including two with high-grade glioma, have died. Conclusion: Early treatment-related morbidity associated with proton therapy is low. Tumor progression remains a problem when treating certain histologies such as high-grade glioma. Escalating the dose delivered to target volumes may benefit children with tumors associated with poor rates of local control. Long-term follow-up, including neurocognitive testing, is in progress to assess integral-dose effects on cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes in children with cranial tumors

  1. ACAMPROSATE AND BACLOFEN WERE NOT EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING: PRELIMINARY BLIND RATER COMPARISON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinhas N Dannon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pathological gambling (PG is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, Baclofen and Acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Materials & Methods: 17 male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the six months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. Results: None of the 17 patients reached the six months abstinence. One patient receiving Baclofen sustained abstinence for 4 months. 14 patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1-3 months. 2 patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Conclusion: Baclofen and Acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers.

  2. Acamprosate and Baclofen were Not Effective in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Preliminary Blind Rater Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Rosenberg, Oded; Schoenfeld, Netta; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a highly prevalent and disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychopharmacological options are available for the treatment of PG, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid receptor antagonists, anti-addiction drugs, and mood stabilizers. In our preliminary study, we examined the efficacy of two anti-addiction drugs, baclofen and acamprosate, in the treatment of PG. Seventeen male gamblers were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received one of the two drugs without being blind to treatment. All patients underwent a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and completed a series of semi-structured interviews. During the 6-months of study, monthly evaluations were carried out to assess improvement and relapses. Relapse was defined as recurrent gambling behavior. None of the 17 patients reached the 6-months abstinence. One patient receiving baclofen sustained abstinence for 4 months. Fourteen patients succeeded in sustaining abstinence for 1-3 months. Two patients stopped attending monthly evaluations. Baclofen and acamprosate did not prove efficient in treating pathological gamblers.

  3. Thermal acclimation and thyroxine treatment modify the electric organ discharge frequency in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, K D; Ragazzi, M A

    2015-11-01

    In ectotherms, the rate of many neural processes is determined externally, by the influence of the thermal environment on body temperature, and internally, by hormones secreted from the thyroid gland. Through thermal acclimation, animals can buffer the influence of the thermal environment by adjusting their physiology to stabilize certain processes in the face of environmental temperature change. The electric organ discharge (EOD) used by weak electric fish for electrocommunication and electrolocation is highly temperature sensitive. In some temperate species that naturally experience large seasonal fluctuations in environmental temperature, the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of the EOD shifts after long-term temperature change. We examined thermal acclimation of EOD frequency in a tropical electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus that naturally experiences much less temperature change. We transferred fish between thermal environments (25.3 and 27.8 °C) and measured EOD frequency and its thermal sensitivity (Q10) over 11 d. After 6d, fish exhibited thermal acclimation to both warming and cooling, adjusting the thermal dependence of EOD frequency to partially compensate for the small change (2.5 °C) in water temperature. In addition, we evaluated the thyroid influence on EOD frequency by treating fish with thyroxine or the anti-thyroid compound propylthiouricil (PTU) to stimulate or inhibit thyroid activity, respectively. Thyroxine treatment significantly increased EOD frequency, but PTU had no effect. Neither thyroxine nor PTU treatment influenced the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of EOD frequency during acute temperature change. Thus, the EOD of Apteronotus shows significant thermal acclimation and responds to elevated thyroxine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Acupuncture and Auriculotherapy in Burning Mouth Syndrome Treatment: A Preliminary Single-Arm Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Faraína Rodrigues Vasconcelos; Castro, Luciano Alberto; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane Faria

    2017-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain disorder that is difficult to diagnose and refractory to treatment; it is more prevalent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Acupuncture and auriculotherapy have been suggested as options for the treatment of pain because they promote analgesia and allow for the reduction of symptoms with lower doses of drugs; this leads to greater patient compliance with treatment and has a positive effect on quality of life. Clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of BMS are scarce in the literature. To investigate the effect of combined acupuncture and auriculotherapy on pain management and quality of life in patients with BMS. Sixty patients with BMS were subjected to a thorough differential diagnosis. Of these, 12 met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. Eight patients completed treatment with acupuncture and auriculotherapy using a previously established protocol. The outcome variables were analyzed before and after treatment: pain/burning (visual analog scale; VAS), salivary flow (unstimulated sialometry), and quality of life (Short-Form Oral Health Impact Profile [OHIP-14]). Two-year follow-up was carried out by assessing VAS and OHIP-14. The intensity of pain/burning decreased significantly after the first treatment sessions, as shown by low values on the VAS (0-2) and a subjective indicator of quality of life (mean = 5.37 ± 3.50). There was no relationship between salivary flow and the intensity of pain/burning. At 2-year follow-up, no statistically significant difference was observed for VAS, but improvement on OHIP-14 was seen. Combined acupuncture/auriculotherapy was effective in reducing the intensity of burning and improving quality of life. There was no relationship between salivary flow and the intensity of burning mouth. Patients' status improved after acupuncture and auriculotherapy at 2-year follow-up.

  5. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  6. Comparison of attention training and cognitive therapy in the treatment of social phobia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Juliet; Abbott, Maree J; Smith, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.

  7. Preliminary Turkish study of psychiatric in-patients' competence to make treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Er, Rahime; Sehiralti, Mine; Aker, Ahmet Tamer

    2013-03-01

    Competence is a prerequisite for informed consent. Patients who are found to be competent are entitled to accept or refuse the proposed treatment. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in studies examining competence for treatment in psychiatric patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the decision-making competencies of inpatients with a range of psychiatric diseases. This study was carried out at the psychiatry clinic of Kocaeli University Hospital in Turkey from June 2007 to February 2008. Decision-making competence was assessed in 83 patients using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T). The study groups consisted of patients with mood (39.8%), psychotic (27.7%) and anxiety disorders (18.1%), and alcohol/substance addiction (14.5%). There was a significant relation between decision-making competence and demographic and clinical characteristics. Appreciation of the given information was more impaired in psychotic disorder patients than in other patients, but understanding and reasoning of the given information was similar in all groups. These results reveal the importance of evaluating decision-making competencies of psychiatric patients before any treatment or intervention is carried out to ascertain their ability to give informed consent to treatment. Institutional and national policies need to be determined and put into practice relating to the assessment and management of competence in patients with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  9. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  10. [Preliminary study on detox in outpatient care units with 18 alcoholic patients in Directly Observed Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns Martínez, Ramón; Calatayud Francés, María; Morales Gallús, Esperanza; Añó Cervera, Consol; Adriá Caballero, Librada

    2008-01-01

    Directly Observed Treatment (TOD-DOT) has been tested in different conditions. The objective of this work is to check whether a UCA-CAB (Centre for Addictive Behaviour) can achieve detox and reduce the risk of early relapse (up to 12 weeks) in alcoholic patients. All patients had an established organic addiction and serious withdrawal syndrome, and had undergone multiple previous treatments. Furthermore, they had not managed to abstain for a 3-month consecutive period over the previous 2 years. The aim of the Directly Observed Treatment was to attain detox and reduce relapse by following a multi-method approach: medical, psychological and personal care, based on a brief daily consultation and pharmacological supervision. The results were as follows: Of the 18 patients included in the study, after 12 weeks, 13 (72 %) were still abstinent and 4 (22 %) had relapsed. Thus, 17 (94 %) were still following the treatment, with just one drop-out. We analysed the profiles of the patients abstaining, of those who relapsed (4) and of the one who dropped out. The average CIWA-Ar was 27.05 (21-36). Any value over 20 is considered to indicate serious withdrawal syndrome, though there were no negative events leading to hospitalization. Level of adherence to the treatment (94 %) meant that the most seriously affected patients and those with fewest financial resources could benefit, not only from any auxiliary social schemes, but also from basic health services, permitting them to improve the quality of their everyday life.

  11. Preliminary results of the global audit of treatment of refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlisi, M; Hocker, S; Grade, M; Trinka, E; Shorvon, S

    2015-08-01

    The treatment of refractory and super refractory status epilepticus is a "terra incognita" from the point of view of evidence-based medicine. As randomized or controlled studies that are sufficiently powered are not feasible in relation to the many therapies and treatment approaches available, we carried out an online multinational audit (registry) in which neurologists or intensivists caring for patients with status epilepticus may prospectively enter patients who required general anesthesia to control the status epilepticus (SE). To date, 488 cases from 44 different countries have been collected. Most of the patients had no history of epilepsy and had a cryptogenic etiology. First-line treatment was delayed and not in line with current guidelines. The most widely used anesthetic of first choice was midazolam (59%), followed by propofol and barbiturates. Ketamine was used in most severe cases. Other therapies were administered in 35% of the cases, mainly steroids and immunotherapy. Seizure control was achieved in 74% of the patients. Twenty-two percent of patients died during treatment, and four percent had treatment actively withdrawn because of an anticipated poor outcome. The neurological outcome was good in 36% and poor in 39.3% of cases, while 25% died during hospitalization. Factors that positively influenced outcome were younger age, history of epilepsy, and low number of different anesthetics tried. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effect of thermal treatment on the quality of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfenbauer, Gottfried; Kinner, Mathias; Gössinger, Manfred; Schönlechner, Regine; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2006-07-26

    Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.

  13. Demulsification based on the thermal treatment (cooling and heating of W/O emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković Vladana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An important step in waste water treatment is the removal of oil from an O/W emulsion and the separation of oil and water into two phases, a process usually called demulsification. Modern methods of oil removal from waste water were described in the present study. Typical demulsification techniques include thermal, electrical, chemical, acoustic, or mechanical methods of emulsion treatment. The freeze/thaw process was found to be very effective for demulsification. In the freeze/thaw process, water removal from the W/O emulsion depends on the initial oil content, freezing temperature, freezing time, thawing rate and temperature. The described method is a non-destructive and physical method of emulsion treatment and because there is no addition of chemical agents there is no problem of further waste water treatment, which usually exists when chemicals are applied for demulsification. Different methods for oil content determination in the O/W emulsion were also applied and compared in this study (gravimetric, volumetric, measurement of oxygen consumption and emulsion pH, IR analysis of the emulsion, electro analytical measurement.

  14. Transition phases of zeolite Faujasite type to Sodalite by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia K. Kaminishikawahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The zeolites can have several functions as catalysts (biofuel production and molecular sieves (treatment of contaminated areas. This study aims to characterize the zeolites obtained in the transition of a Faujasite like zeolite into a Sodalite, when submitted to different thermal treatment times. The synthesized zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction where the crystalline phases were identified: Faujasite, Sodalite, SiO2 and amorphous material. The 4 hours heat treatment produces zeolite crystal structure similar to Faujasite, having basic sites, surface area of 552.7 m2 g-1 , and pore volume of 0.3391 cm3 g-1. With increasing time of heat treatment was observed the transition to the Sodalite phase witch containing 0.277 mmol g-1 of basic active sites with surface area of 11.38 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.0651 cm3 g-1. By the Rietveld method was identified and quantified the presence of Sodalite and Hidrossodalite in samples with 24 and 30 hours of reaction times.

  15. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of glutaraldehyde crosslinked bovine pericardium followed by glutamic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Goissis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Major problems with valve bioprostheses are associated with progressive structural deterioration and calcification, directly associated with the use of glutaraldehyde (GA. This work describes the effects of GA processing and borate/glutamic acid buffer treatment on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of 0.5% GA crosslinked bovine pericardium (BP. The results showed that while the treatment of 0.5% GA crosslinked BP with borate/glutamic acid significantly improves the mechanical properties, it had no visible effect on surface morphology. Better surface preservation was only achieved for BP pre-treated with a lower GA concentration followed by the conventional treatment (0.5% GA. Improvements in mechanical properties probably arises from structural changes probably involving the depolymerization of polymeric GA crosslinks and an increase electrostatic interaction due to covalent binding of glutamic acid to free carbonyl groups (Schiff base.The results indicate that the treatment GA crosslinked BP with borate/glutamic acid buffer may be an attractive procedure for the manufacture of heart valve bioprostheses.

  16. Improvement of Polytetrafluoroethylene Surface Energy by Repetitive Pulse Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoqing; Zhang Guanjun; Zhang Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy by non-thermal plasma treatment is presented, using a nanosecond-positive-edge repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge generator in atmospheric air. The electrical parameters including discharging power, peak and density of micro-discharge current were calculated, and the electron energy was estimated. Surface treatment experiments of polytetrafluoroethylene films were conducted for both different applied voltages and different treating durations. Results show that the surface energy of polytetrafluoroethylene film could be improved to 40 mJ/m 2 or more by plasma treatment. Surface roughness measurement and surface X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are chemical etching and implantation of polar oxygen groups in the sample surface treating process, resulting in the improvement of the sample surface energy. Compared with an AC source of 50 Hz, the dielectric barrier discharges generated by a repetitive pulsed source could provide higher peak power, lower mean power, larger micro-discharge current density and higher electron energy. Therefore, with the same applied peak voltage and treating duration, the improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy using repetitive pulsed plasma is more effective, and the plasma treatment process based on repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in air is thus feasible and applicable.

  17. Formula to estimate the thermal enhancement ratio of a single simultaneous hyperthermia and radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental model composed of a C 3 H mammary carcinoma and its surrounding skin has been exposed to simultaneous radiation and hyperthermia given with different combinations of the heating time and temperature. Based on the thermal enhancement ratio (TER) values obtained in the temperature range 41.5 to 43.5 0 C, a linear relationship between TER and the heating time was achieved at each temperature. The slopes of the curves drawn at each temperature were found to have a log-linear relationship with the treatment temperature. With these relationships it was possible to make a formula expressing the TER as a function of treatment temperature and time. This formula gives a crude but probably acceptable estimate of the TER following a single simultaneous radiation and heat treatment. Although subject to several limitations, the formula represents an attempt to describe a heat dose concept for the radiosensitizing effect of hyperthermia. This may be useful to establish the tolerance level of a given radiation treatment when combined with hyperthermia. (Auth.)

  18. Substance Abuse Counselors’ Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors’ personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Results Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients’ struggles. Discussion Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors’ recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments. PMID:28626597

  19. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  20. Preliminary Report : The Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms of Opium Addicts with Vitamin " E " in Ten Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davidian

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of addiction to opiates, apart from psychological and social problems, has presented up to now a therapeutic prohlem. Various methods are used and each has its disadvantages. Residual symptoms of abstinence from opiates are present in all methods and there is a prolonged period of convalescence which seems to be one of the causes of relapses to addiction. Vitamin E however- has given remarkable results in aiding recovery from the withdrawal symptoms. With vitamin E the period of treatment is shortened, abstinence symptoms are bearable and the convalescent period is eliminated. Patients treated with vitamin E solely are in good health and spirits and appear contented. This treatment also seems to reduce 1he number of relapses. The administration of vitamin E after a complete withdrawal from opium probably compensates Some of the opium's effects on the nervous system, and remedies the hypoxia of the tissues, thus restoring the patient to a normal physiological state.