WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary theoretical framework

  1. Episodic Laryngeal Breathing Disorders: Literature Review and Proposal of Preliminary Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembel, Adrianna C; Sandage, Mary J; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review were (1) to identify and assess frameworks for clinical characterization of episodic laryngeal breathing disorders (ELBD) and their subtypes, (2) to integrate concepts from these frameworks into a novel theoretical paradigm, and (3) to provide a preliminary algorithm to classify clinical features of ELBD for future study of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This is a literature review. Peer-reviewed literature from 1983 to 2015 pertaining to models for ELBD was searched using Pubmed, Ovid, Proquest, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Theoretical models for ELBD were identified, evaluated, and integrated into a novel comprehensive framework. Consensus across three salient models provided a working definition and inclusionary criteria for ELBD within the new framework. Inconsistencies and discrepancies within the models provided an analytic platform for future research. Comparison among three conceptual models-(1) Irritable larynx syndrome, (2) Dichotomous triggers, and (3) Periodic occurrence of laryngeal obstruction-showed that the models uniformly consider ELBD to involve episodic laryngeal obstruction causing dyspnea. The models differed in their description of source of dyspnea, in their inclusion of corollary behaviors, in their inclusion of other laryngeal-based behaviors (eg, cough), and types of triggers. The proposed integrated theoretical framework for ELBD provides a preliminary systematic platform for the identification of key clinical feature patterns indicative of ELBD and associated clinical subgroups. This algorithmic paradigm should evolve with better understanding of this spectrum of disorders and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  3. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  4. The Basic Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Abraham

    Cosmology is by now a mature experimental science. We are privileged to live at a time when the story of genesis (how the Universe started and developed) can be critically explored by direct observations. Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 m in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious

  5. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  6. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...

  7. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR) technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b). This paper addresses the following questions: (1) What is the nature of Information Science? and (2) What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on ...

  8. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b. This paper addresses the following questions: (1 What is the nature of Information Science? and (2 What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on an explication of the processes of human information coordinating behavior and information feedback that facilitate the relationship between human information behavior and human interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc..

  9. An e-Learning Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Manuela; Bacao, Fernando; Oliveira, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    E-learning systems have witnessed a usage and research increase in the past decade. This article presents the e-learning concepts ecosystem. It summarizes the various scopes on e-learning studies. Here we propose an e-learning theoretical framework. This theory framework is based upon three principal dimensions: users, technology, and services…

  10. An e-Learning Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Manuela; Bacao, Fernando; Oliveira, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    E-learning systems have witnessed a usage and research increase in the past decade. This article presents the e-learning concepts ecosystem. It summarizes the various scopes on e-learning studies. Here we propose an e-learning theoretical framework. This theory framework is based upon three principal dimensions: users, technology, and services…

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...... of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work...

  12. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  13. Introduction: theoretical framework and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Zeitlin, J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the theoretical framework and research agenda of the book. It provides an overview of the three contemporaneous trends from which the book departs: the development of experimentalist governance within the EU; the EU’s efforts to extend its rules, norms, standards, and governa

  14. Theoretical framework of community education improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaúl Brizuela Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the connection between the approach selected for the analysis and development of community education and the contradictions manifested in its theoretical and practical comprehension. As a result, a comprehensive model for community education, describing the theoretical and methodological framework to improve community education, is devised. This framework is based on a conscious organizing of educative influences applied to the regular task of the community under the coordinate action of social institutions and organization that promote the transformational action of the neighborhood assuming a protagonist role in the improvement of the quality of live and morals related to the socialism updating process. The comprehensive model was proved experimentally at District 59 of San Miguel town; the transformation of the community was scientifically registered together with the information gather by means of observation and interviewing. The findings proved the pertinence and feasibility of the proposed model.

  15. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalia, Tejas; Shukla, Anuj; Bapi, Raju S

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus, attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  16. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Savalia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit versus explicit and goal-directed versus habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops ─ basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops ─ mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  17. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  18. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  19. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented.

  20. Media’s role in pro-environmental practice changes – a theoretical and methodological framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    The aim of this paper is to present the theoretical framework and some preliminary findings from a research project investigating the metabolism of meanings between public communication and socio-material practice. The project seeks to integrate media analyses with practice theory and actor...

  1. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  2. Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

  3. Assessing Two Theoretical Frameworks of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrero, Benilde; Pérez-Martínez, María Guadalupe; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Caso-Niebla, Joaquín; Díaz-López, Carlos David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test two major theoretical models: a modified version of the social capital model (Pattie, Seyd and Whiteley, 2003), and the Informed Social Engagement Model (Barr and Selman, 2014; Selman and Kwok, 2010), to explain civic participation and civic knowledge of adolescents from Chile, Colombia and Mexico,…

  4. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  5. Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Helen Elise

    2014-07-01

    To debate the definition and use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. There is a paucity of literature to help the novice researcher to understand what theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and how they should be used. This paper acknowledges the interchangeable usage of these terms and researchers' confusion about the differences between the two. It discusses how researchers have used theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about how one researcher incorporated a conceptual framework throughout a research project, the purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant conceptual model. Concepts from Abbott (1988) and Witz ( 1992 ) were used to provide a framework for research involving two case study sites. The framework was used to determine research questions and give direction to interviews and discussions to focus the research. Some research methods do not overtly use a theoretical framework or conceptual framework in their design, but this is implicit and underpins the method design, for example in grounded theory. Other qualitative methods use one or the other to frame the design of a research project or to explain the outcomes. An example is given of how a conceptual framework was used throughout a research project. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks are terms that are regularly used in research but rarely explained. Textbooks should discuss what they are and how they can be used, so novice researchers understand how they can help with research design. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks need to be more clearly understood by researchers and correct terminology used to ensure clarity for novice researchers.

  6. A New Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Stochastic Global Optimization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework by means of the absorbing Markov process theory for analyzing some stochastic global optimization algorithms. Applying the framework to the pure random search, we prove that the pure random search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has geometry distribution. We also analyze the pure adaptive search by this framework and turn out that the pure adaptive search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has Poisson distribution.

  7. Towards a theoretical framework for analysing organisational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how a theoretical framework can be build to analyse socialprocesses of transformation, making the link between macro and micro processes, inwhich this dichotomy can be overcome. The aim of this theoretical framework is toaccount for the transformation in societal...... characteristics and changes in actors' strategiesat micro level, in a way that links macro changes and micro processes - the cognitivestructures of the individual and social structures of the society. In order to build this framework, I draw from the figuration sociology of Norbert Elias, the praxeologia of...

  8. A theoretical framework to support research of health service innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amanda; Gardner, Glenn; Osborne, Sonya

    2015-02-01

    Health service managers and policy makers are increasingly concerned about the sustainability of innovations implemented in health care settings. The increasing demand on health services requires that innovations are both effective and sustainable; however, research in this field is limited, with multiple disciplines, approaches and paradigms influencing the field. These variations prevent a cohesive approach, and therefore the accumulation of research findings, in the development of a body of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough examination of the research findings and provide an appropriate theoretical framework to examine sustainability of health service innovation. This paper presents an integrative review of the literature available in relation to sustainability of health service innovation and provides the development of a theoretical framework based on integration and synthesis of the literature. A theoretical framework serves to guide research, determine variables, influence data analysis and is central to the quest for ongoing knowledge development. This research outlines the sustainability of innovation framework; a theoretical framework suitable for examining the sustainability of health service innovation. If left unaddressed, health services research will continue in an ad hoc manner, preventing full utilisation of outcomes, recommendations and knowledge for effective provision of health services. The sustainability of innovation theoretical framework provides an operational basis upon which reliable future research can be conducted.

  9. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Researching Second Language Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANGWEI HU

    2013-01-01

    V arious theories have been proposed to account for second language production and the systematic variation characteristic of such production . Most of these theories , however , constitute only partial explanations because they often fail to handle mixed empirical findings about factors held to affect second language output and underlie systematic variation . This paper proposes a new theoretical framework for posing and addressing research questions about second language production in general and systematic variation in particular . Building on influential cognitive models of second language learning and use , the theoretical framework comprises three cognitive dimensions , viz . knowledge representation , attentional focus , and processing automaticity , which interact with each other . The theoretical framework is justified by drawing on the cognitive literature and cumulative findings from second language acquisition (SLA) research . The paper also outlines possible applications of the framework to issues of interest to SLA researchers working on a number of different fronts .

  10. Preliminary Discussion on the Theoretical Framework of the Earthquake Symbology System Building%浅谈地震灾害符号体系构建的理论框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓丽; 李志强; 代博洋; 陈振拓

    2012-01-01

    The study of earthquake symbols has been an important part of earthquake emergency response. In this paper, we apply the methodology of semeiology and mass communication to analyze the semeiology connotation, main users and the information transmitted of the earthquake symbols. Then We discuss the characteristics of the earthquake symbology system and the basic principles when it is built up. We find that earthquake itself is special and destructive, which eventually leads to the specialty and temporality of the earthquake symbol. With consideration of the principles of applicability, importance and generality followed, we finally propose a kind of theoretical framework of the earthquake symbology system, which offers reference for the further development of the earthquake symbology system.%地震灾害符号的研究已经成为地震应急工作的一项重要内容,本文借助于符号学及传播学的方法论,在分析地震灾害符号的符号学内涵、使用人群和传播内容的基础上,探讨了地震灾害符号体系的特点及构建原则.地震本身的特殊性和破坏性决定了地震灾害符号体系的特殊性和时间性,本文在遵循实用性、主次性及概括性三个原则的前提下,提出了一套地震灾害符号体系构建的理论框架,可为地震灾害符号体系的构建和深入研究提供参考.

  11. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  12. Theoretical multi-tier trust framework for the geospatial domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Umuhoza, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available chain or workflow from data acquisition to knowledge discovery. The author’s present work in progress of a theoretical multi-tier trust framework for processing chain from data acquisition to knowledge discovery in geospatial domain. Holistic trust...

  13. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  14. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  15. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  16. Internet Use and Cognitive Development: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, accessing web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  17. A typology of design knowledge: a theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Roland M.; Thoring, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical approach to structure design-specific knowledge into a framework, which can be used within the context of organizational and societal development. We conducted an extensive literature review about existing definitions of design knowledge, and knowledge in general. Based o

  18. A typology of design knowledge: a theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Roland; Thoring, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical approach to structure design-specific knowledge into a framework, which can be used within the context of organizational and societal development. We conducted an extensive literature review about existing definitions of design knowledge, and knowledge in general. Based

  19. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  20. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  1. Public participation in regional health policy: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; MacKean, Gail; Vollman, Ardene; Casebeer, Ann; Weber, Myron; Maloff, Bretta; Bader, Judy

    2005-09-08

    How best to involve the public in local health policy development and decision-making is an ongoing challenge for health systems. In the current literature on this topic, there is discussion of the lack of rigorous evaluations upon which to draw generalizable conclusions about what public participation methods work best and for what kinds of outcomes. We believe that for evaluation research on public participation to build generalizable claims, some consistency in theoretical framework is needed. A major objective of the research reported on here was to develop such a theoretical framework for understanding public participation in the context of regionalized health governance. The overall research design followed the grounded theory tradition, and included five case studies of public participation initiatives in an urban regional health authority in Canada, as well as a postal survey of community organizations. This particular article describes the theoretical framework developed, with an emphasis on explaining the following major components of the framework: public participation initiatives as a process; policy making processes with a health region; social context as symbolic and political institutions; policy communities; and health of the population as the ultimate outcome of public participation. We believe that this framework is a good beginning to making more explicit the factors that may be considered when evaluating both the processes and outcomes of public participation in health policy development.

  2. 基于初始二维水权的流域水资源调控框架初析%Preliminary theoretical framework of water resources operation based on initial two-dimensional water rights in a basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗志; 张玲玲; 王银堂; 金菊良; 程亮

    2012-01-01

    The initial basin water rights assignment is not only the important premise that realize the reasonable water rights circulation and play a fundamental role in market allocation water resources, it is also the important content under the China socialist market economy condition to realize the basin water resources integrated dispatch and to alleviate water resources supply and demand contradiction. To provide technical support for promoting the construction process of China 's water rights system and implementing the most stringent water resources management system, based on existing research results of two-dimensional water rights concept and connotation, and considering the research progress of the initial water rights allocation at home and abroad, the theoretical framework is put forward including the initial two dimensional water rights allocation (simplified initial allocation) , the basin water resources optimal regulation based on the initial two-dimensional water rights (simplified as optimal regulation) and three-part real-time control, and further elaborated on the modeling process and support technology and its work relation of the above three elements.%为推动中国水权制度建设进程与落实最严格水资源管理制度提供技术支撑,基于二维水权概念与内涵等现有研究成果,结合对国内外初始水权分配相关研究进展与需求实践的系统梳理,从供水管理视角提出了包括“初始分配”、“优化调控”和“实时调控”3项内容在内的基于初始二维水权的流域水资源调控理论框架,详细阐述了各组成部分的实现途径、支撑技术、建模步骤及其之间的工作关系.

  3. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  4. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three sections: (i an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations; (ii a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks; and (iii a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.

  5. A theoretical framework for TTO valuations of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Ken; Devlin, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework, drawing on Hicks utility theory, for the Time Trade-off (TTO) method conventionally used to value health states. We briefly describe that theory and posit four distinctive TTO valuation approaches suggested by it: each of compensating variation and equivalent variation for both gains and losses in health, with valuation of health states in each case derived from trade-offs between health and length of life. Recent developments and research on TTO valuation are placed in the context of this framework.

  6. Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ By the generalized variational principle of two kinds of variables in general mechanics, it was demonstrated that two Lagrangian classical relationships can be applied to both holonomic systems and nonholonomic systems. And the restriction that two Lagrangian classical relationships cannot be applied to nonholonomic systems for a long time was overcome. Then, one important formula of similar Lagrangian classical relationship called the popularized Lagrangian classical relationship was derived. From Vakonomic model, by two Lagrangian classical relationships and the popularized Lagrangian classical relationship, the result is the same with Chetaev's model, and thus Chetaev's model and Vakonomic model were unified. Simultaneously, the Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic system was established. By some representative examples, it was validated that the Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic systems is right.

  7. Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; LiFu

    2007-01-01

    By the generalized variational principle of two kinds of variables in general mechanics, it was demonstrated that two Lagrangian classical relationships can be applied to both holonomic systems and nonholonomic systems. And the restriction that two Lagrangian classical relationships cannot be applied to nonholonomic systems for a long time was overcome. Then, one important formula of similar Lagrangian classical relationship called the popularized Lagrangian classical relationship was derived. From Vakonomic model, by two Lagrangian classical relationships and the popularized Lagrangian classical relationship, the result is the same with Chetaev's model, and thus Chetaev's model and Vakonomic model were unified. Simultaneously, the Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic system was established. By some representative examples, it was validated that the Lagrangian theoretical framework of dynamics of nonholonomic systems is right.  ……

  8. Cusps in K --> 3pi decays: a theoretical framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, Juerg; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of 6.031*10^7 K+- --> pi0 pi0 pi+- decays, the NA48/2 collaboration has recently determined the S-wave pi-pi scattering lengths a_0-a_2 with high precision. In addition, the scattering length a_2 has been independently measured, although less precisely so. The present article discusses in detail one of the theoretical frameworks used in the data analysis.

  9. 78 FR 64478 - Request for Comments on the Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... ``Framework''). The Framework will consist of standards, methodologies, procedures and processes that align policy, business, and technological approaches to address cyber risks. The preliminary Framework is... Cybersecurity Framework will consist of standards, methodologies, procedures and processes that align policy...

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Redish, E F

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the behavioral sciences is robust and observationally based. In this paper, I draw from a variety of fields ranging from neuroscience to sociolinguistics to propose an over-arching theoretical framework that allows us to both make sense of what we see in the classroom and to compare a variety of specific theoretical approaches. My synthesis is organized around an analysis of the individual's cognition and how it interacts with the environment. This leads to a two level system, a knowledge-structure level where associational patterns dominate, and a control-structure level where one can describe expectations and epistemology. For each level, I sketch some plausible startin...

  11. Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: development of an ecological theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alison; Ejikeme, Chinwe Stella; Clottey, Emmanuel Nii; Thomas, Joy Goens

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is a need for theoretical frameworks to catalyze further research and to inform the development of multi-level, context-appropriate interventions. In this commentary, we propose a preliminary ecological theoretical framework to conceptualize factors that contribute to increases in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework is based on a Causality Continuum model [Coreil et al. Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks] that considers distant, intermediate and proximate influences. The influences incorporated in the model include globalization and urbanization as distant factors; occupation, social relationships, built environment and cultural perceptions of weight as intermediate factors and caloric intake, physical inactivity and genetics as proximate factors. The model illustrates the interaction of factors along a continuum, from the individual to the global marketplace, in shaping trends in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework will be presented, each influence elucidated and implications for research and intervention development discussed. There is a tremendous need for further research on obesity in SSA. An improved evidence base will serve to validate and develop the proposed framework further.

  12. Scheduling in Desktop Grid Systems: Theoretical Evaluation of Policies & Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desktop grid systems have already established their identity in the area of distributed systems. They are well suited for High Throughput Computing especially for Bag-of-Tasks applications. In desktop grid systems, idle processing cycles and memory of millions of users (connected through internet or through any other communication mechanism can be utilized but the workers / hosts machines not under any centralized administrative control that result in high volatility. This issue is countered by applying various types of scheduling policies that not only ensure task assignments to better workers but also takes care of fault tolerance through replication and other mechanism. In this paper, we discussed leading desktop grid systems framework and performed a comparative analysis of these frameworks. We also presented a theoretical evaluation of server and client based scheduling policies and identified key performance indicators to evaluate these policies.

  13. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  14. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopelo Boitshwarelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific research that is aimed not only at developing general principles but also at improving practice in local settings. Thus, developmental research approaches become imperative and as such it becomes increasingly necessary to have models that would assist scholars to understand the learning ecologies of connectivism. This paper therefore proposes a research framework for connectivism that integrates approaches commonly used in online learning environments. The paper integrates the theories of online communities of practice, design-based research, and activity theory to construct a research framework that is characterised by a synergistic relationship between them. It demonstrates the viability of the model by using an example of how it was operationalised in one research project. The framework, whose potential strength derives from integrating already established theoretical constructs, is presented as a proposal with the intention that it will be critiqued, tried, and improved upon where necessary and ultimately become part of the menu of other tools that serve connectivism research.

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of the Theoretical and Application Value of the MD--EW Framework Based Classroom%浅析MD-EW架构课堂的理论及应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦帅

    2011-01-01

    Students and teachers always use interactive electronie whiteboard and smart mobile devices at the same time. So people think about some new teaching methods both include interactive electronic whiteboard and smart mobile devices MD-EW (Mobile Device Electronic Whiteboard)framework is increasingly feasible for us to build a new type of classroom, which has a central device- electronic whiteboard and some other interactive tools-smart mobile devices. This classroom will be an expansion of the traditional classroom,and it shows some ideas of mobile learning. Through analysis we can see that it is a good try of conjunctive use of electronic whiteboard and mobile devices.%电子白板和移动设备的使用时常发生交汇,引发了人们对新型教学应用技巧的思考。以电子白板为教学服务核心,使用移动设备作为学生端交互工具的新型课堂架构(MD-EW架构)应运而生。MD-EW架构的课堂实现了从传统课堂到微型移动课堂的扩展,体现了泛在学习和移动学习的理念,是电子白板与智能移动设备联合应用的一次有益尝试。

  16. Metabolic engineering from a cybernetic perspective. 1. Theoretical preliminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner; Ramkrishna

    1999-05-01

    The theoretical basis of a cybernetic metabolic network design and analysis framework, which has been subsequently successfully applied to predict system response to genetic alteration, is presented. This conceptual methodology consists of three main branches, namely, a model realization framework, a representation of genetic alteration, and lastly, a metabolic design component. These concepts are introduced as a series of postulates that describe the basic tenets of the approach. Each branch is discussed in turn, starting with the cybernetic representation of arbitrarily complex metabolic networks. A set of postulates is put forth that affords the modular construction of cybernetic models of metabolic networks using as a base a library of elementary pathways. This is followed by a discussion of the representation of genetic alterations within the cybernetic framework. It is postulated that the objective of the base network and the altered system are identical (at least on the time scale required for the organism to "learn" new objectives). This implies, with respect to resource allocation, that the base network and its genetically altered counterpart may still be treated as optimal systems; however, the set of competing physiological choices open to the altered network expands or contracts depending upon the nature of the genetic perturbation. Lastly, to add a predictive design aspect to the methodology, we present a set of postulates that outline the application of metabolic control analysis to cybernetic model systems. We postulate that sensitivity coefficients computed from a cybernetic model, although still local in scope, have the added benefit of a systematic representation of regulatory function as described by the cybernetic variables. Thus, information gained from sensitivity measurements stemming from a cybernetic model include the explicit input of metabolic regulation, a component that is lacking in a purely kinetic representation of metabolic function

  17. An integrative theoretical framework of acculturation and salutogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jeannette; Wiesmann, Ulrich; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    During the last two decades, the number of international migrants worldwide has constantly risen. In this context, cross-cultural dimensions of psychological disorders receive increased attention, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders among the migrant population. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework for the understanding of migrant mental health. This framework combines elements from Berry's acculturation model and Antonovsky's salutogenic theory. The former illustrates the main factors that affect an individual's adaptation in a new cultural context. The term acculturative stress denotes unresolved problems resulting from intercultural contact that cannot be overcome easily by simply adjusting or assimilating. The latter specifies the relationship between culturally associated stress and mental health more distinctive, introducing the concepts of generalized resistance resources and sense of coherence that determine mental health outcomes of migrants during acculturative stress periods. Specifically, we provide an integrative framework of acculturation and salutogenesis that helps to integrate inconsistent findings in the migrant mental health literature. The current paper focuses on the effect of resource factors for positive mental health outcomes in the migrant population and summarises some implications for future research activities.

  18. Sociomateriality: a theoretical framework for studying distributed medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Whelan, Emma; Fournier, Cathy; Wilson, Keith; Power, Gregory; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Brown, Peggy Alexiadis

    2015-11-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is a type of distance learning in which students participate in medical education from diverse geographic locations using Web conferencing, videoconferencing, e-learning, and similar tools. DME is becoming increasingly widespread in North America and around the world.Although relatively new to medical education, distance learning has a long history in the broader field of education and a related body of literature that speaks to the importance of engaging in rigorous and theoretically informed studies of distance learning. The existing DME literature is helpful, but it has been largely descriptive and lacks a critical "lens"-that is, a theoretical perspective from which to rigorously conceptualize and interrogate DME's social (relationships, people) and material (technologies, tools) aspects.The authors describe DME and theories about distance learning and show that such theories focus on social, pedagogical, and cognitive considerations without adequately taking into account material factors. They address this gap by proposing sociomateriality as a theoretical framework allowing researchers and educators to study DME and (1) understand and consider previously obscured actors, infrastructure, and other factors that, on the surface, seem unrelated and even unimportant; (2) see clearly how the social and material components of learning are intertwined in fluid, messy, and often uncertain ways; and (3) perhaps think differently, even in ways that disrupt traditional approaches, as they explore DME. The authors conclude that DME brings with it substantial investments of social and material resources, and therefore needs careful study, using approaches that embrace its complexity.

  19. Exploring the UMLS: a rough sets based theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P

    1999-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] has a unique and leading position in the evolution of thesauri and metathesauri. Features that set it apart are: its composition from more than fifty component health care vocabularies; the sophisticated UMLS ontology linking the Metathesaurus with structures such as the Semantic Network and the SPECIALIST lexicon; and the high level of social collaboration invested in its construction and growth. It is our thesis that in order to successfully harness such a complex vocabulary for text retrieval we need sophisticated methods derived from a deeper understanding of the UMLS system. Thus we propose a theoretical framework based on the theory of rough sets, that supports the systematic and exploratory investigation of the UMLS Metathesaurus for text retrieval. Our goal is to make it more feasible for individuals such as patients and health care professionals to access relevant information at the point of need.

  20. Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bitušíková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings an overview of selected transdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of urban movements and activism placed within the framework of civil society and social movements, focused on the region of Central and Eastern Europe, and seen from a social anthropological perspective. It attempts to challenge older academic writings that described civil society in Central and Eastern Europe as underdeveloped and weak, and presents research that points out a specific nature of activism in the countries of the region. It builds primarily on the concepts of civil society, social movements, urban movements and urban activism as presented by scholars both from “Western” and “Central and Eastern” European countries and demonstrates that after more than two decades since the fall of communism it is still important to take different historic, political, economic, social and cultural contexts into account when comparing urban movements and activism within Europe.

  1. A theoretical framework of tracer methods for marine sediment dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical framework of tracer methods is proposed in the present contribution, on the basis of mass conservation. This model is applicable for both artificial and natural tracers. It can be used to calculate the spatial distribution patterns of sediment transport rate, thus providing independent information and verification for the results derived from empirical formulae. For the procedures of the calculation, first, the tracer concentration and topographic maps of two times are obtained. Then, the spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and seabed elevation are calculated, and the boundary conditions required are determined by field observations (such as flow and bedform migration measurements). Finally, based upon eqs. (1) and (13), the transport rate is calculated and expressed as a function of the position over the study area. Further, appropriate modifications to the model may allow the tracer to have different densities and grain size distributions from the bulk sediment.

  2. Effective Implementation of Agile Practices - Ingenious and Organized Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerapaneni Esther Jyothi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Delivering software in traditional ways is challenged by agile software development to provide a very different approach to software development. Agile methods aim at fast, light and efficient than any other vigorous method to develop and support customers business without being chaotic. Agile software development methods claim to be people-oriented rather than process-oriented and adaptive rather than predictive. Solid Determination and Dedicated efforts are required in agile development to overcome the disadvantages of predefined set of steps and changing requirements to see the desirable outcome and to avoid the predictable results. These methods reach the target promptly by linking developers and stakeholders. The focus of this research paper is two fold. The first part is to study different agile methodologies, find out the levelheaded difficulties in agile software development and suggests possible solutions with a collaborative and innovative framework. The second part of the research paper concentrates on the importance of handling traceability in agile software development and finally proposes an ingenious and organized theoretical framework with a systematic approach to agile software development.

  3. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  4. A preliminary framework for corporate real estate sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Nurul Sahida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global warming issue has motivated corporations to go green in their business operations including transforming from conventional real estate to green features real estate. However green CRE is more complex to manage due to a building’s significant impact on environmental, social and economic aspects. Thus the need to have a best practice guide or framework as reference is crucial. Unfortunately, no best practice guidelines on CRE management have been found to be sufficient as much uncertainty still exists on the sustainable performance measurement components. This research aims to explore and then summarize the present sustainable CREM practices and components relating to sustainable performance measurement integrating a sustainable theory that balances environmental, economic and social impacts. These act as indicators to measure the outcomes of the practice in the form of a generic model on sustainability preliminary framework for CRESM. The objectives of this research include identifying corporate real estate sustainable management (CRESM practice and components of sustainable performance measurement. The research uses content analysis method to analyse data gathered from literature and previous studies. The findings will be demonstrated in the form of a framework model on CRESM that will include14 CREM strategies and 15 components derived from analysis.

  5. Theoretical background for market emergence framework. Case: Electricity distribution industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immonen, M.; Laaksonen, P.; Vilko, J.; Tahvanainen, K.; Viljainen, S.; Partanen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Both the competitive environment and the internal structure of an industrial organization are typically included in the processes which describe the strategic management processes of the firm, but less attention has been paid to the interdependence between these views. Therefore, this research focuses on explaining the particular conditions of an industry change, which lead managers to realign the firm in respect of its environment for generating competitive advantage. The research question that directs the development of the theoretical framework is: Why do firms outsource some of their functions? The three general stages of the analysis are related to the following research topics: (i) understanding forces that shape the industry, (ii) estimating the impacts of transforming customer preferences, rivalry, and changing capability bases on the relevance of existing assets and activities, and emergence of new business models, and (iii) developing optional structures for future value chains and understanding general boundaries for market emergence. The defined research setting contributes to the managerial research questions 'Why do firms reorganize their value chains?', 'Why and how are decisions made?' Combining Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Resource-Based View (RBV) within an integrated framework makes it possible to evaluate the two dimensions of a company's resources, namely the strategic value and transferability. The final decision of restructuring will be made based on an analysis of the actual business potential of the outsourcing, where benefits and risks are evaluated. The firm focuses on the risk of opportunism, hold-up problems, pricing, and opportunities to reach a complete contract, and finally on the direct benefits and risks for financial performance. The supplier analyzes the business potential of an activity outside the specific customer, the amount of customer-specific investments, the service provider

  6. A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antunes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The building construction industry faces challenges, such as increasing project complexity and scope requirements, but shorter deadlines. Additionally, economic uncertainty and rising business competition with a subsequent decrease in profit margins for the industry demands the development of new approaches to construction management. However, the building construction sector relies on practices based on intuition and experience, overlooking the dynamics of its production system. Furthermore, researchers maintain that the construction industry has no history of the application of mathematical approaches to model and manage production. Much work has been carried out on how manufacturing practices apply to construction projects, mostly lean principles. Nevertheless, there has been little research to understand the fundamental mechanisms of production in construction. This study develops an in-depth literature review to examine the existing knowledge about production models and their characteristics in order to establish a foundation for dynamic production systems management in construction. As a result, a theoretical framework is proposed, which will be instrumental in the future development of mathematical production models aimed at predicting the performance and behaviour of dynamic project-based systems in construction.

  7. Staging in bipolar disorder: from theoretical framework to clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Post, Robert; Ratheesh, Aswin; Gliddon, Emma; Singh, Ajeet; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, Andre F; Ashton, Melanie M; Berk, Lesley; Cotton, Susan M; McGorry, Patrick D; Fernandes, Brisa S; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Dodd, Seetal

    2017-10-01

    ) explore the current level of evidence supporting the descriptive staging of the syndromal pattern of bipolar disorder; b) describe preliminary attempts at validation; c) make recommendations for the direction of further studies; and d) provide a distillation of the potential clinical implications of staging in bipolar disorder within a broader transdiagnostic framework. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  8. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton’s method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course

  9. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  10. Cosmopolitanism: Extending Our Theoretical Framework for Transcultural Technical Communication Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Zsuzsanna Bacsa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of globalization on communication products and processes have resulted in document features and interactional practices that are sometimes difficult to describe within current theoretical frameworks of inter/transcultural technical communication. Although it has been recognized in our field that the old theoretical frameworks and…

  11. Using a Theoretical Framework of Institutional Culture to Analyse an Institutional Strategy Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anthea Hydi Maxine

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on a conceptual analysis of institutional culture in higher education. A theoretical framework was proposed to analyse institutional documents of two higher education institutions in the Western Cape, for the period 2002 to 2012 (Jacobs 2012). The elements of this theoretical framework are "shared values and beliefs",…

  12. Cosmopolitanism: Extending Our Theoretical Framework for Transcultural Technical Communication Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Zsuzsanna Bacsa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of globalization on communication products and processes have resulted in document features and interactional practices that are sometimes difficult to describe within current theoretical frameworks of inter/transcultural technical communication. Although it has been recognized in our field that the old theoretical frameworks and…

  13. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  14. Theoretical Framework of Researcher Knowledge Development in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorovich, Igor'

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher's decision making. The components…

  15. The confusion technique untangled: its theoretical rationale and preliminary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, A

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of Milton H. Erickson's theoretical approach to hypnosis using confusion. Review of the literature suggests that the Confusion Technique, in principle, consists of a two-stage "confusion-restructuring" process. The article also attempts to categorize several examples of confusion suggestions by seven linguistic characteristics: (1) antonyms, (2) homonyms, (3) synonyms, (4) elaboration, (5) interruption, (6) echoing, and (7) uncommon words. The Confusion Technique is an important yet little studied strategy developed by Erickson. More work is urged to investigate its nature and properties.

  16. CONTENT ANALYSIS, DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical essay aims to reflect on three models of text interpretation used in qualitative research, which is often confused in its concepts and methodologies (Content Analysis, Discourse Analysis, and Conversation Analysis. After the presentation of the concepts, the essay proposes a preliminary discussion on conceptual and theoretical methodological differences perceived between them. A review of the literature was performed to support the conceptual and theoretical methodological discussion. It could be verified that the models have differences related to the type of strategy used in the treatment of texts, the type of approach, and the appropriate theoretical position.

  17. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James; O'Connor, Denise; Michie, Susan

    2012-04-24

    An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): 'Knowledge', 'Skills', 'Social/Professional Role and Identity', 'Beliefs about Capabilities', 'Optimism', 'Beliefs about Consequences', 'Reinforcement', 'Intentions', 'Goals', 'Memory, Attention and Decision Processes', 'Environmental Context and Resources', 'Social Influences', 'Emotions', and 'Behavioural Regulation'. The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development.

  18. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  19. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination. Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’. Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  20. The Global Organic Food Market and Transformation: A Conceptual Theoretical Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    a theoretical approach as the conceptual framework to be used in comparative studies. The present study will be the foundation for the conceptual framework. It investigates contributions from various economic theories and extracts core theoretical fragments into a framework suitable for analysing the evolution...... month has been attached to the WP as research assistant. A great part of his theoretical contribution here is based on his former PhD studies on structural change and transformation related to the evolution of organic agriculture.     Aalborg in December 2007-12-21     Jan Holm Ingemann, head of WP II  ...

  1. A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Adult Cognitive Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovden, Martin; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schaefer, Sabine; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Does plasticity contribute to adult cognitive development, and if so, in what ways? The vague and overused concept of plasticity makes these controversial questions difficult to answer. In this article, we refine the notion of adult cognitive plasticity and sharpen its conceptual distinctiveness. According to our framework, adult cognitive…

  2. Mobile user experience for voice services: A theoretical framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a “Mobile User Experience Framework for Voice services.” The rapid spread of mobile cellular technology within Africa has made it a prime vehicle for accessing services and content. The challenge remains...

  3. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  4. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  5. Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; O'Connor, Denise; Curran, Janet

    2012-04-24

    Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series.In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals' behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

  6. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.

    1971-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.

  7. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  8. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific research that is aimed not only at developing general principles but also at improving practice in local settings. Thus, developmental research approaches...

  9. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  10. Minute observations and theoretical framework of Darwin's studies on climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jean-Marc; Deroin, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    The role of movement in plants was unrecognised for a long time, due to the relative slowness of such movements by comparison with those of active animals such as insects and vertebrates, and to the difficulty with which they are distinguished from mere growth processes. Given this, the pioneer work of Darwin (On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants1865) is a milestone in botany. It is always cited as the beginning of any rigorous analysis of plant movement. Such a successful approach results at once from Darwin's broad knowledge of natural history, his use of numerous direct observations and simple experiments, but also from his own talent, which compensated for technical gaps in several instances. His use of metaphorical descriptions was a response to the lack of a firm theoretical background. It facilitated a preliminary classification of plant movement and a comparison of observations. Perhaps his most fruitful metaphors were those drawn from economic concepts, such as division of labour. Darwin's legacy in plant physiology is impressive, as even the most recent biophysical interpretations of climbing plants (e.g. tendril perversion) take place inside the framework he constructed.

  11. Developing and Testing a Theoretical Framework for Computer-Mediated Transparency of Local Governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Welch, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging literature on transparency by developing and empirically testing a theoretical framework that explains the determinants of local government Web site transparency. It aims to answer the following central question: What institutional factors determine the

  12. Reading as a Group Process Phenomenon: A Theoretical Framework for Bibliotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a unifying theoretical framework for bibliotherapy, based on C. Shrodes' model of bibliotherapy and I. D. Yalom's research on therapeutic factors in group therapy. Draws research and practice implications for both individual and group therapy. (RS)

  13. 联合意图的理论框架%The Theoretical Framework of Joint Intention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新军; 王怀民; 吴刚

    2003-01-01

    The joint intention is an important concept to specify and examine the social behaviors of multi-agent system. A theoretical framework of joint intention is presented. It covers two different joint intentions to represent different social characteristics, including joint achievement intention and joint maintenance intention. The characteristicsof joint intention are investigated, the new semantics of joint intention is given, and several important properties arespecified and proved. The theoretical framework can be used to support the development of multi-agent system.

  14. Integrating environmental management into supply chains: a systematic literature review and theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, CY; Wong, CWY; Boon-Itt, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: the need to integrate environmental management into supply chains has been recognized recently. Yet, there is a lack of theoretical grounding and a conceptual framework guiding such efforts to leverage resources and capabilities across supply chain partners. Grounded on stakeholder and resource orchestration theories, this paper maps the emerging practices, develops a theoretical framework, and proposes future research for understanding an emerging best-practice called ‘green supply ...

  15. Monetary Policy in the Post Keynesian Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO HENRIQUE BITTES TERRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this contribution is to develop a Post Keynesian monetary policy model, presenting its goals, tools, and channels. The original contribution this paper develops, following (Keynes’s 1936, 1945 proposals, is the use of debt management as an instrument of monetary policy, along with the interest rate and regulation. Moreover, this paper draws its monetary policy model by broadly and strongly relying on Keynes’s original writings. A monetary policy model erected upon this basis relates itself directly to the Post Keynesian efforts to offer a monetary policy framework substantially different from the Inflation Targeting Regime of the New Macroeconomic Consensus.

  16. The Extended Likeability Framework: A Theoretical Framework for and a Practical Case of Designing Likeable Media Applications for Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vero vanden Abeele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical framework and practical case for designing likeable interactive media applications for preschoolers in the home environment are introduced. First, we elaborate on the theoretical framework. We introduce the uses and gratifications paradigm (U&G. We argue that U&G is a good approach to researching likeability of media applications. Next, we complete the U&G framework with expectancy-value (EV theory. EV theory helps us move from theoretical insights to concrete design guidelines. Together, the U&G framework and the EV model form the foundation of our extended likeability framework for the design and evaluation of interactive media applications, for preschoolers in the home environment. Finally, we demonstrate a practical case of our extended likeability framework via the research project CuTI. The CuTI project aims at revealing those particular user gratifications and design attributes that are important to support playful behaviour and fun activities of preschoolers in the home environment.

  17. [Towards a theoretical framework for rethinking cultural accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando; Cowes, Valeria González; D'Amore, Eliana

    2014-02-01

    Health services accessibility is a key health policy issue. However, few in-depth studies have addressed it theoretically. Most distinguish between availability, accessibility, and acceptability, or between geographic, financial, administrative, and cultural accessibility. We discuss and analyze the concept of accessibility as conflictive articulation between supply and demand in health. The article addresses the importance of cultural accessibility, rethinking it as a social interface, i.e., a social arena with clashing worldviews (namely, those of physicians and patients). The approach sheds light on the complex processes of grasping, translating, and reshaping knowledge and recommendations within such interaction.

  18. Intellect: a theoretical framework for personality traits related to intellectual achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    The present article develops a theoretical framework for the structure of personality traits related to intellectual achievements. We postulate a 2-dimensional model, differentiating between 2 processes (Seek and Conquer) and 3 operations (Think, Learn, and Create). The framework was operationalized by a newly developed measure, which was validated based on 2 samples. Subsequently, in 3 studies (overall N = 1,478), the 2-dimensional structure of the Intellect framework was generally supported. Additionally, subdimensions of the Intellect framework specifically predicted conceptually related criteria, including scholastic performance, vocational interest, and leisure activities. Furthermore, results from multidimensional scaling and higher order confirmatory factor analyses show that the framework allows for the incorporation of several constructs that have been proposed on different theoretical backgrounds, such as need for cognition, typical intellectual engagement, curiosity, intrinsic motivation, goal orientation, and openness to ideas. It is concluded that based on the Intellect framework, these constructs, which have been researched separately in the literature, can be meaningfully integrated.

  19. Upping the "Anti-": The Value of an Anti-Racist Theoretical Framework in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In a time that some have argued is "postracial" following the election and reelection of Barack Obama (see Wise 2010, for discussion), this paper argues that antiracism is a crucial theoretical framework for music education. I explore three areas of music education, in which such a framework can push toward change. The first area speaks…

  20. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  1. Upping the "Anti-": The Value of an Anti-Racist Theoretical Framework in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In a time that some have argued is "postracial" following the election and reelection of Barack Obama (see Wise 2010, for discussion), this paper argues that antiracism is a crucial theoretical framework for music education. I explore three areas of music education, in which such a framework can push toward change. The first area speaks…

  2. A Theoretically Grounded Framework for Integrating the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Jill K.

    2016-01-01

    SoTL scholars have written about the importance and utility of teaching from a guiding theoretical framework. In this paper, ecological theory and specifically Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, is examined as a potential framework for synthesizing SoTL research findings to inform teaching and learning scholarship at the college level. A…

  3. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  4. Theoretical Framework of Leadership in Higher Education of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Havrylyuk, Marianna; Stolyarchuk, Lesia

    2015-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of leadership in higher education of England and Wales has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the theoretical fundamentals of educational…

  5. The Importance of Theoretical Frameworks and Mathematical Constructs in Designing Digital Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The increase in availability of educational technologies over the past few decades has not only led to new practice in teaching mathematics but also to new perspectives in research, methodologies, and theoretical frameworks within mathematics education. Hence, the amalgamation of theoretical and pragmatic considerations in digital tool design…

  6. The Importance of Theoretical Frameworks and Mathematical Constructs in Designing Digital Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The increase in availability of educational technologies over the past few decades has not only led to new practice in teaching mathematics but also to new perspectives in research, methodologies, and theoretical frameworks within mathematics education. Hence, the amalgamation of theoretical and pragmatic considerations in digital tool design…

  7. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  8. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  9. A Review of Theoretical Frameworks for Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Sulaiman, Z.; Zakuan, N.

    2017-06-01

    In a world of fierce competition and business driven by speed to market, good quality and low costs, this environment requires firms to have a source of competitive advantage that is inimitable and non-substitutable. For a supply chain integration (SCI) strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantage it must be non-substitutable, inimitable, path-dependent and developed over time. Also, an integrated supply chain framework is needed to tie the whole network together in order to reduce perennial supply chain challenges such as functional silos, poor transparency of knowledge and information and the inadequate formation of appropriate customer and supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the competitive impact of a SCI strategy on firm performance using the theory of Resource-based View (RBV) and relational view.

  10. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  11. Evidence - competence - discourse: the theoretical framework of the multi-centre clinical ethics support project METAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter-Theil, Stella; Mertz, Marcel; Schürmann, Jan; Stingelin Giles, Nicola; Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we assume that 'theory' is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES. A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist in North-America and in Europe show their underlying theory more or less explicitly, with most of them referring to some kind of theoretical components including 'how-to' questions (methodology), organizational issues (implementation), problem analysis (phenomenology or typology of problems), and related ethical issues such as end-of-life decisions (major ethical topics). In order to illustrate and explain the theoretical framework that we are suggesting for our own CES project METAP, we will outline this project which has been established in a multi-centre context in several healthcare institutions. We conceptualize three 'pillars' as the major components of our theoretical framework: (1) evidence, (2) competence, and (3) discourse. As a whole, the framework is aimed at developing a foundation of our CES project METAP. We conclude that this specific integration of theoretical components is a promising model for the fruitful further development of CES. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARiHS framework: theoretical and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormack Brendan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PARiHS framework (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services has proved to be a useful practical and conceptual heuristic for many researchers and practitioners in framing their research or knowledge translation endeavours. However, as a conceptual framework it still remains untested and therefore its contribution to the overall development and testing of theory in the field of implementation science is largely unquantified. Discussion This being the case, the paper provides an integrated summary of our conceptual and theoretical thinking so far and introduces a typology (derived from social policy analysis used to distinguish between the terms conceptual framework, theory and model – important definitional and conceptual issues in trying to refine theoretical and methodological approaches to knowledge translation. Secondly, the paper describes the next phase of our work, in particular concentrating on the conceptual thinking and mapping that has led to the generation of the hypothesis that the PARiHS framework is best utilised as a two-stage process: as a preliminary (diagnostic and evaluative measure of the elements and sub-elements of evidence (E and context (C, and then using the aggregated data from these measures to determine the most appropriate facilitation method. The exact nature of the intervention is thus determined by the specific actors in the specific context at a specific time and place. In the process of refining this next phase of our work, we have had to consider the wider issues around the use of theories to inform and shape our research activity; the ongoing challenges of developing robust and sensitive measures; facilitation as an intervention for getting research into practice; and finally to note how the current debates around evidence into practice are adopting wider notions that fit innovations more generally. Summary The paper concludes by suggesting that the future

  13. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part I: theoretical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, which has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, a framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis is presented. The goal of this framework is two-fold. First, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in the BDFT literature. Second, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. It will be shown how relevant signals can be obtained from measurement, how different BDFT dynamics can be derived from them, and how these different dynamics are related. Using the framework, BDFT can be dissected into several dynamical relationships, each relevant in understanding BDFT phenomena in more detail. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part I, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. Part II, which is also published in this issue, addresses the validation of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  14. The Roy Adaptation Model: A Theoretical Framework for Nurses Providing Care to Individuals With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Karen M

    2017-08-18

    Using a nursing theoretical framework to understand, elucidate, and propose nursing research is fundamental to knowledge development. This article presents the Roy Adaptation Model as a theoretical framework to better understand individuals with anorexia nervosa during acute treatment, and the role of nursing assessments and interventions in the promotion of weight restoration. Nursing assessments and interventions situated within the Roy Adaptation Model take into consideration how weight restoration does not occur in isolation but rather reflects an adaptive process within external and internal environments, and has the potential for more holistic care.

  15. A Theoretical Framework Mapping Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Techonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Buus, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    -reviewed articles. Existing categorizations of barriers are identified and an analysis is conducted to establish a macro-meso-micro level approach as a theoretical framework representing the education system and its external environment. A second analysis identifies, maps, and analyzes the barriers in existing...... literature by using the theoretical framework. The paper manifests that the macro level’s (national) pre-set goals conflict with expectations from the meso level’s (institutional) educational technology integration. Moreover, factors at the macro and meso levels influence the micro-level (individual...

  16. Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level...

  17. An Expanded Theoretical Framework of Care Coordination Across Transitions in Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Laurel E; Castonguay, Denise; Keenan, Carolyn B; Hermann, Cherice

    2016-01-01

    For many patients, high-quality, patient-centered, and cost-effective health care requires coordination among multiple clinicians and settings. Ensuring optimal care coordination requires a clear understanding of how clinician activities and continuity during transitions affect patient-centeredness and quality outcomes. This article describes an expanded theoretical framework to better understand care coordination. The framework provides clear articulation of concepts. Examples are provided of ways to measure the concepts.

  18. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination1

    OpenAIRE

    Van Houdt, Sabine; Heyrman, Jan; Vanhaecht, Kris; Sermeus, Walter; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frame...

  19. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Van Houdt; Jan Heyrman; Kris Vanhaecht; Walter Sermeus; Jan De Lepeleire

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical fram...

  20. Theoretical Approach to the Radiance-to-Flux Conversion in the EarthCARE Mission Framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech García, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The research of the Thesis, Theoretical Approach to the Radiance-to-Flux Conversion in the EarthCARE Framework, is aimed at studying the instantaneous TOA radiance-to-flux conversion for the prospective Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR) on-board the EarthCARE (Earth Clouds Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) platform, through the development of theoretical angular distribution models based on the specific designing features of the instrument. The inversion procedure has been undertaken to obtain the a...

  1. The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework: Reflections, possible clarifications and how to move forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Hussey, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework has been offered as a conceptual basis for facilitating greater communication and cooperation between the functional/behavioural and cognitive traditions within psychology, thus leading to benefits for both scientific communities. The current article is written from the perspective of two functional researchers, who are also proponents of the functional-cognitive framework, and attended the "Building Bridges between the Functional and Cognitive Traditions" meeting at Ghent University in the summer of 2014. The article commences with a brief summary of the functional approach to theory, followed by our reflections upon the functional-cognitive framework in light of that meeting. In doing so, we offer three ways in which the framework could be clarified: (a) effective communication between the two traditions is likely to be found at the level of behavioural observations rather than effects or theory, (b) not all behavioural observations will be deemed to be of mutual interest to both traditions, and (c) observations of mutual interest will be those that serve to elaborate and extend existing theorising in the functional and/or cognitive traditions. The article concludes with a summary of what we perceive to be the strengths and weaknesses of the framework, and a suggestion that there is a need to determine if the framework is meta-theoretical or is in fact a third theoretical approach to doing psychological science.

  2. Combined use of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Presseau, Justin; Kirk, M Alexis; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Gould, Natalie J; Shea, Christopher M; Weiner, Bryan J; Francis, Jill J; Yu, Yan; Haines, Emily; Damschroder, Laura J

    2017-01-05

    Over 60 implementation frameworks exist. Using multiple frameworks may help researchers to address multiple study purposes, levels, and degrees of theoretical heritage and operationalizability; however, using multiple frameworks may result in unnecessary complexity and redundancy if doing so does not address study needs. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) are both well-operationalized, multi-level implementation determinant frameworks derived from theory. As such, the rationale for using the frameworks in combination (i.e., CFIR + TDF) is unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to elucidate the rationale for using CFIR + TDF by (1) describing studies that have used CFIR + TDF, (2) how they used CFIR + TDF, and (2) their stated rationale for using CFIR + TDF. We undertook a systematic review to identify studies that mentioned both the CFIR and the TDF, were written in English, were peer-reviewed, and reported either a protocol or results of an empirical study in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, or Google Scholar. We then abstracted data into a matrix and analyzed it qualitatively, identifying salient themes. We identified five protocols and seven completed studies that used CFIR + TDF. CFIR + TDF was applied to studies in several countries, to a range of healthcare interventions, and at multiple intervention phases; used many designs, methods, and units of analysis; and assessed a variety of outcomes. Three studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple study purposes. Six studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple conceptual levels. Four studies did not explicitly state their rationale for using CFIR + TDF. Differences in the purposes that authors of the CFIR (e.g., comprehensive set of implementation determinants) and the TDF (e.g., intervention development) propose help to justify the use of CFIR

  3. Utilisation of theoretical models and frameworks in the process of evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Christina M; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Ross-White, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review is a comprehensive enquiry or study of secondary data sources. There is a research question, an a priori articulation of methods and a set of procedures to focus the investigation. Despite these rigorous structures to guide the review, synthesising evidence is a challenging, resource intense and time consuming process. Large volumes of information complicate not only the search functions, but also the conceptualisation of the evidence needed to create the concise and integrated results. Use of a theoretical model or framework could serve as an essential element in effectively focusing the review and designing the methods to respond to the knowledge question. This scoping review sought to confirm the value of models or frameworks used by authors working within traditional methodologies for evidence synthesis. Types of participants The focus of this review was on the context of health care.Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest All studies that discussed models or frameworks used specifically to address the process of synthesis were included.Types of studies Discussion, scholarship or methodology papers and reviews were included.Types of outcome All theoretical models or frameworks were described, with specific attention to the purpose of the framework for each study, and the contribution of the framework to the process of synthesis. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilised. The databases for published material included CINAHL; Medline; EMBASE; PsycINFO; AMED; Cochrane; Biomed Central; Scirus; and Mednar. Databases for unpublished material included Dissertation Abstracts; Sociological Abstracts; Conference proceedings. The review was a focused scoping review to locate and describe the contribution of theoretical models or frameworks to the process of synthesis. The methodological quality of the discussion papers was therefore not assessed. Data was extracted from

  4. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  5. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  6. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  7. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical…

  8. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  9. The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies…

  10. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words…

  11. Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Partial Checksum Protection in Wireless Video Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.

    2012-01-01

    highly on the capability of coping with errors at the application layer. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for defining the optimal level of partial checksum protection, assuming that the bit error characteristics and the perceptual impact of bit errors appearing in the non...

  12. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  13. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  14. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  15. A general theoretical framework for decoherence in open and closed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, Mario; Fortin, Sebastian; Laura, Roberto; Lombardi, Olimpia

    2008-08-01

    A general theoretical framework for decoherence is proposed, which encompasses formalisms originally devised to deal just with open or closed systems. The conditions for decoherence are clearly stated and the relaxation and decoherence times are compared. Finally, the spin-bath model is developed in detail from the new perspective.

  16. A Theoretical Framework for Organizing the Effect of the Internet on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, navigating web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  17. Understanding the Role of Numeracy in Health: Proposed Theoretical Framework and Practical Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; Peters, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Numeracy--that is, how facile people are with mathematical concepts and their applications--is gaining importance in medical decision making and risk communication. This article proposes six critical functions of health numeracy. These functions are integrated into a theoretical framework on health numeracy that has implications for risk…

  18. The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies…

  19. A Theoretical Framework to Guide the Re-Engineering of Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd; Kellam, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Before leaders in technology education are able to identify a theoretical framework upon which a curriculum is to stand, they must first grapple with two opposing views of the purpose of technology education--education for all learners or career/technical education. Dakers (2006) identifies two opposing philosophies that can serve as a framework…

  20. A general theoretical framework for decoherence in open and closed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, Mario [CONICET, IAFE, Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fortin, Sebastian [CONICET, IAFE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laura, Roberto [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000, Rosario (Argentina); Lombardi, Olimpia [CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Crisologo Larralde 3440, 1430, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-08-07

    A general theoretical framework for decoherence is proposed, which encompasses formalisms originally devised to deal just with open or closed systems. The conditions for decoherence are clearly stated and the relaxation and decoherence times are compared. Finally, the spin-bath model is developed in detail from the new perspective.

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Building Online Communities of Practice with Social Networking Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Hermans, Mary Beth; Sanchez, Damien; Richmond, Carol; Bohley, Maribeth; Tuttle, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and…

  2. A theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence experienced by emergency responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to st

  3. A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in inter- action with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to stud

  4. Ecological Dynamics as a Theoretical Framework for Development of Sustainable Behaviours towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its…

  5. Understanding the Role of Numeracy in Health: Proposed Theoretical Framework and Practical Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; Peters, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Numeracy--that is, how facile people are with mathematical concepts and their applications--is gaining importance in medical decision making and risk communication. This article proposes six critical functions of health numeracy. These functions are integrated into a theoretical framework on health numeracy that has implications for risk…

  6. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  7. First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

  8. Developing and Testing a Theoretical Framework for Computer-Mediated Transparency of Local Governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Welch, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging literature on transparency by developing and empirically testing a theoretical framework that explains the determinants of local government Web site transparency. It aims to answer the following central question: What institutional factors determine the diffe

  9. A theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence experienced by emergency responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in interaction with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to

  10. A Theoretical Framework to Study Variations in Workplace Violence Experienced by Emergency Responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Reemst (Lisa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEmergency responders are often sent to the front line and are often confronted with aggression and violence in inter- action with citizens. According to previous studies, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. In this article, the theoretical framework to

  11. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  12. Applying the Grossman et al. Theoretical Framework: The Case of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Busse, Tracy; Heisey, Natalie; Klingelhofer, Rachel; Rimbey, Michelle; Schutz, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This article describes the application of the theoretical framework proposed by Grossman and her colleagues to a research effort focusing on text-based discussion as a context for comprehension instruction. According to Grossman and her colleagues, a useful way to consider the teaching of complex practices to candidates is to…

  13. Language Learning Strategies--The Theoretical Framework and Some Suggestions for Learner Training Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language learning indicates that proper use of language learning strategies leads to the improvement of overall Second Language (L2) or Foreign Language (FL) proficiency as well as specific language skills. This essay firstly attempts to build a theoretical framework of learning strategies theories by clarifying the…

  14. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the words…

  15. First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

  16. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  17. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  18. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  19. Ecological Dynamics as a Theoretical Framework for Development of Sustainable Behaviours towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its…

  20. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  1. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

  2. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  3. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  4. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a Theoretical Framework to Predict Smoking Relapse among Daily Smoking Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Nijhof, L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses,

  5. Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Servet BAYRAM,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS within the Software Application Examples Assoc. Prof. Dr. Servet BAYRAM Computer Education & Instructional Technologies Marmara University , TURKEY ABSTRACT EPSS provides electronic support to learners in achieving a performance objective; a feature which makes it universally and consistently available on demand any time, any place, regardless of situation, without unnecessary intermediaries involved in the process. The aim of this review is to develop a set of theoretical construct that provide descriptive power for explanation of EPSS and its roots and features within the software application examples (i.e., Microsoft SharePoint Server”v2.0” Beta 2, IBM Lotus Notes 6 & Domino 6, Oracle 9i Collaboration Suite, and Mac OS X v10.2. From the educational and training point of view, the paper visualizes a pentagon model for the interrelated domains of the theoretical framework of EPSS. These domains are: learning theories, information processing theories, developmental theories, instructional theories, and acceptance theories. This descriptive framework explains a set of descriptions as to which outcomes occur under given theoretical conditions for a given EPSS model within software examples. It summarizes some of the theoretical concepts supporting to the EPSS’ related features and explains how such concepts sharing same features with the example software programs in education and job training.

  6. Quantifying heterogeneity attributable to polythetic diagnostic criteria: theoretical framework and empirical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Gala, Gary J; Tupler, Larry A

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneity within psychiatric disorders is both theoretically and practically problematic: For many disorders, it is possible for 2 individuals to share very few or even no symptoms in common yet share the same diagnosis. Polythetic diagnostic criteria have long been recognized to contribute to this heterogeneity, yet no unified theoretical understanding of the coherence of symptom criteria sets currently exists. A general framework for analyzing the logical and mathematical structure, coherence, and diversity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic categories (DSM-5 and DSM-IV-TR) is proposed, drawing from combinatorial mathematics, set theory, and information theory. Theoretical application of this framework to 18 diagnostic categories indicates that in most categories, 2 individuals with the same diagnosis may share no symptoms in common, and that any 2 theoretically possible symptom combinations will share on average less than half their symptoms. Application of this framework to 2 large empirical datasets indicates that patients who meet symptom criteria for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder tend to share approximately three-fifths of symptoms in common. For both disorders in each of the datasets, pairs of individuals who shared no common symptoms were observed. Any 2 individuals with either diagnosis were unlikely to exhibit identical symptomatology. The theoretical and empirical results stemming from this approach have substantive implications for etiological research into, and measurement of, psychiatric disorders.

  7. Green IT Readiness: A Framework and Preliminary Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Molla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses are under increasing pressure from customers, competitors, regulators and community groups to implement sustainable business practices. Balancing economic and environmental performance to be green and competitive is therefore a key strategic issue. The information technology (IT sector is one of the pioneer sectors which started working on the sustainable development model. However, it is only lately that researchers and organisations have begun to consider the role of IT, not only in contributing to a businesses environmental footprint but also in tackling climate change problems. Usually coined as, “Green Information Technology”, the role of IT in causing and resolving ecological sustainability, in maintaining low cost IT shops, in building green reputation capital and in supporting corporate green strategies has hardly been researched. This paper identifies four main areas of Green IT capability and describes the main pillars of a G-readiness framework to help organisations evaluate their maturity for Green IT. The utility of the framework is demonstrated through a desk-based research case study of seven organisations. The paper argues that just as e-readiness has been, and continues to be, a critical capability in the digital economy, G-readiness is an equally critical capability in the low carbon digital economy. Without a clear understanding of G-readiness, organisations would approach Green IT initiatives on an ad hoc and somewhat reactive basis, which is undesirable.

  8. Innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company: A theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Good quality products or services are no longer adequate to guarantee the sustainability of a company in the present competitive business. Prior research has developed various innovation models with the hope to better understand the innovativeness of the company. Due to countless definitions, indicators, factors, parameter and approaches in the study of innovation, it is difficult to ensure which one will best suit the Malaysian-owned company innovativeness. This paper aims to provide a theoretical background to support the framework of the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned Company. The theoretical framework was based on the literature reviews, expert interviews and focus group study. The framework will be used to predict and assess the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company.

  9. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  10. Theoretical and empirical applications of petroleum production function framework for analysis of the Phenomenon of Plenty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Uzhegov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines how analysis of the Phenomenon of Plenty, paradox of economic underperformance of resource-rich nations, could benefit from theoretical and empirical application of suggested petroleum production function framework, basing on sample oil-abundant countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, in particular Russia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. Proposed approach displays capacity of oil-economy production function to shed light on larger scope of theoretical issues. Empirical testing of suggested theoretical framework exhibited ability of proxied components of devised production function, capturing main metrics of the Phenomenon of Plenty and additionally factoring in corruption, to exert a strong impact on the majority of twelve principal macroeconomic indicators monitored by CIS supra-national institutions: with most pronounced influence on gross domestic product, industrial production, capital investments, and export to CIS countries.

  11. Emergency design framework: a satellite preliminary scheme design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Hongfei; WANG Yishou; ZHANG Bao

    2007-01-01

    The emergency design of mechanical products or equipment(such as a satellite)is significant for disaster relief when the natural disasters occur.Most of us are unaware about the little information that is available in literature about emergency designs.Against the background of the preliminary scheme design of satellite payloads,emergency design was studied in the case of natural disasters.We presented some definitions about emergency design.Then,we proposed the basic ideas of how to realize the emergency design.These ideas were inspired by two aspects:1)the evolutionary algorithms,the agent,the human-computer cooperation,and the collaborative design theory;2)the emergency behaviors in ant colonies.Following the ideas,first we constructed the human-computer cooperation agents(hereinafter called the HC-Agents)that combine the human intelligence with evolutionary algorithms.These HC-Agents had specific features like the division of labor in the ant colony.Second,we developed the multiagents cooperative design system on the basis of a hybrid P2P(peer-to-peer)model.Therefore,the emergency design system has shown some capabilities,such as anti-interference,adaptation,and rapid response.

  12. Towards general information theoretical representations of database problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1997-06-01

    General database systems are described from the General Systems Theoretical (GST) framework. In this context traditional information theoretical (statistical) and general information theoretical (fuzzy measure and set theoretical, possibilistic, and random set theoretical) representations are derived. A preliminary formal framework is introduced.

  13. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  14. Field-widened Michelson interferometer for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Zhou, Yudi; Zhang, Yupeng; Duan, Lulin; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming; Shen, Yibing; Wang, Kaiwei; Bai, Jian

    2015-05-04

    A field-widened Michelson interferometer (FWMI) is developed to act as the spectral discriminator in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). This realization is motivated by the wide-angle Michelson interferometer (WAMI) which has been used broadly in the atmospheric wind and temperature detection. This paper describes an independent theoretical framework about the application of the FWMI in HSRL for the first time. In the framework, the operation principles and application requirements of the FWMI are discussed in comparison with that of the WAMI. Theoretical foundations for designing this type of interferometer are introduced based on these comparisons. Moreover, a general performance estimation model for the FWMI is established, which can provide common guidelines for the performance budget and evaluation of the FWMI in the both design and operation stages. Examples incorporating many practical imperfections or conditions that may degrade the performance of the FWMI are given to illustrate the implementation of the modeling. This theoretical framework presents a complete and powerful tool for solving most of theoretical or engineering problems encountered in the FWMI application, including the designing, parameter calibration, prior performance budget, posterior performance estimation, and so on. It will be a valuable contribution to the lidar community to develop a new generation of HSRLs based on the FWMI spectroscopic filter.

  15. New theoretical framework for designing nonionic surfactant mixtures that exhibit a desired adsorption kinetics behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorkanikkara, Srinivas Nageswaran; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2010-12-21

    How does one design a surfactant mixture using a set of available surfactants such that it exhibits a desired adsorption kinetics behavior? The traditional approach used to address this design problem involves conducting trial-and-error experiments with specific surfactant mixtures. This approach is typically time-consuming and resource-intensive and becomes increasingly challenging when the number of surfactants that can be mixed increases. In this article, we propose a new theoretical framework to identify a surfactant mixture that most closely meets a desired adsorption kinetics behavior. Specifically, the new theoretical framework involves (a) formulating the surfactant mixture design problem as an optimization problem using an adsorption kinetics model and (b) solving the optimization problem using a commercial optimization package. The proposed framework aims to identify the surfactant mixture that most closely satisfies the desired adsorption kinetics behavior subject to the predictive capabilities of the chosen adsorption kinetics model. Experiments can then be conducted at the identified surfactant mixture condition to validate the predictions. We demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed theoretical framework through a realistic case study by identifying a nonionic surfactant mixture consisting of up to four alkyl poly(ethylene oxide) surfactants (C(10)E(4), C(12)E(5), C(12)E(6), and C(10)E(8)) such that it most closely exhibits a desired dynamic surface tension (DST) profile. Specifically, we use the Mulqueen-Stebe-Blankschtein (MSB) adsorption kinetics model (Mulqueen, M.; Stebe, K. J.; Blankschtein, D. Langmuir 2001, 17, 5196-5207) to formulate the optimization problem as well as the SNOPT commercial optimization solver to identify a surfactant mixture consisting of these four surfactants that most closely exhibits the desired DST profile. Finally, we compare the experimental DST profile measured at the surfactant mixture condition

  16. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  17. System Theoretic Frameworks for Mitigating Risk Complexity in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David; Osborn, Douglas; Jones, Katherine A; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Cohn, Brian; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; DeMenno, Mercy; Thomas, Maikael A.; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Parks, Ethan Rutledge; Jeantete, Brian A

    2017-09-01

    In response to the expansion of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities -- and the associated suite of risks -- around the world, this project evaluated systems-based solutions for managing such risk complexity in multimodal and multi-jurisdictional international spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation. By better understanding systemic risks in SNF transportation, developing SNF transportation risk assessment frameworks, and evaluating these systems-based risk assessment frameworks, this research illustrated interdependency between safety, security, and safeguards risks is inherent in NFC activities and can go unidentified when each "S" is independently evaluated. Two novel system-theoretic analysis techniques -- dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) and system-theoretic process analysis (STPA) -- provide integrated "3S" analysis to address these interdependencies and the research results suggest a need -- and provide a way -- to reprioritize United States engagement efforts to reduce global nuclear risks. Lastly, this research identifies areas where Sandia National Laboratories can spearhead technical advances to reduce global nuclear dangers.

  18. Measuring instructional congruence in elementary science classrooms: Pedagogical and methodological components of a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

    2007-03-01

    This article is situated within a theoretical framework, instructional congruence, articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to classroom data. The project-developed classroom observation guideline is a series of detailed scales that produce numerical ratings based on qualitative observations of different aspects of classroom practice. The article's objectives are both pedagogical and methodological, reflecting the dual functionality of the instrument: (a) to concretize theoretical constructs articulating academic disciplines with student diversity in ways that are useful for rethinking classroom practice; and (b) to take advantage of the strengths of qualitative educational research, but within a quantitative analytical framework that may be applied across large numbers of classrooms.

  19. Theoretical frameworks informing family-based child and adolescent obesity interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alulis, Sarah; Grabowski, Dan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity trends are rising throughout the world, revealing treatment difficulties and a lack of consensus about treatment. The family system is broadly viewed as a potential setting for facilitation of behaviour change. Therefore, family-based interventions have come...... into focus. However, the use of theoretical frameworks to strengthen these interventions is rare and very uneven. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To conduct a qualitative meta-synthesis of family-based interventions for child and adolescent obesity to identify the theoretical frameworks applied, thus understanding how...... theory is used in practice. A literature review was conducted between January and March 2016. A total of 35 family-based interventions were selected for analysis. RESULTS: Eleven interventions explicitly stated that theory guided the development and were classified as theory-inspired. The social...

  20. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Pearce, Christopher; Liyanage, Harshana; Liaw, Gladys S S; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework. We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest) and Business Source Premier (EBSCO) using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM), data governance, information governance (IG) and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise. There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly 'big-data' environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle. The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  1. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw-Teng Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework.Methods We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest and Business Source Premier (EBSCO using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM, data governance, information governance (IG and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise.Findings There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly ‘big-data’ environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle.Conclusions The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  2. Are Engineering and Social Justice (In)commensurable? A Theoretical Exploration of Macro-Sociological Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Jon A. Leydens; Juan C. Lucena; Jen Schneider

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which engineering and social justice as fields of practice are (in)commensurable remains an open question. To illuminate important dimensions of that question, we explore intersections between those fields and two macro-sociological frameworks. Those theoretical frameworks—structural functionalism and social conflict—represent contrasting perspectives on how society should be organized. Specifically, we reveal conceptual alignments between structural functionalism and engineerin...

  3. An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-09

    An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing Deepak Tosh, Shamik Sengupta Dept of Computer Science and Engineering...situation. Index Terms—Cybersecurity, CYBEX, Evolutionary Game Theory, Incentive Model, Information Sharing I. INTRODUCTION A robust cybersecurity...Charles.Kamhoua.1@us.af.mil Kevin.Kwiat@us.af.mil Andrew Martin Department of Computer Science University of Oxford Andrew.Martin@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract

  4. Can the theoretical domains framework account for the implementation of clinical quality interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lipworth, Wendy; Taylor, Natalie; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background The health care quality improvement movement is a complex enterprise. Implementing clinical quality initiatives requires attitude and behaviour change on the part of clinicians, but this has proven to be difficult. In an attempt to solve this kind of behavioural challenge, the theoretical domains framework (TDF) has been developed. The TDF consists of 14 domains from psychological and organisational theory said to influence behaviour change. No systematic research has been conducte...

  5. Experiences of using the Theoretical Domains Framework across diverse clinical environments: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cameron J; Marshall, Andrea P; Chaves, Nadia J; Jankelowitz, Stacey K; Lin, Ivan B; Loy, Clement T; Rees, Gwyneth; Sakzewski, Leanne; Thomas, Susie; To, The-Phung; Wilkinson, Shelley A; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is an integrative framework developed from a synthesis of psychological theories as a vehicle to help apply theoretical approaches to interventions aimed at behavior change. This study explores experiences of TDF use by professionals from multiple disciplines across diverse clinical settings. Mixed methods were used to examine experiences, attitudes, and perspectives of health professionals in using the TDF in health care implementation projects. Individual interviews were conducted with ten health care professionals from six disciplines who used the TDF in implementation projects. Deductive content and thematic analysis were used. Three main themes and associated subthemes were identified including: 1) reasons for use of the TDF (increased confidence, broader perspective, and theoretical underpinnings); 2) challenges using the TDF (time and resources, operationalization of the TDF) and; 3) future use of the TDF. The TDF provided a useful, flexible framework for a diverse group of health professionals working across different clinical settings for the assessment of barriers and targeting resources to influence behavior change for implementation projects. The development of practical tools and training or support is likely to aid the utility of TDF.

  6. Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

    2013-09-01

    While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education.

  7. Intuitive Decision Making as the Culmination of Continuing Education: A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Leslie Karns

    2015-07-01

    The ability to make sound clinical decisions is the cornerstone of excellent nursing care and the goal of continuing nurse educators. Research has revealed that expert nurses make fewer errors in decision making; it also has shown differences in the decision-making process of expert nurses, compared with novice nurses. Specifically, expert nurses report a greater use of intuitive decision making. Accordingly, an important goal for continuing nurse educators is the development of intuitive decision making by nurses. This article proposes a pattern-based, constructivist educational framework that synthesizes Benner's novice to expert (NTE) theory, Damascio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH), and Hammond's cognitive continuum theory (CCT). This framework provides a foundation for continuing education that fosters the development of intuitive decision making in nurses. Although this framework needs further empirical validation, it is theoretically sound and applicable to all areas of nursing, and its implementation could help reduce errors in decision making by nurses, thus improving patient outcomes.

  8. A theoretical signal processing framework for linear diffusion MRI: Implications for parameter estimation and experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Divya; Haldar, Justin P

    2017-08-19

    The data measured in diffusion MRI can be modeled as the Fourier transform of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP), a probability distribution that summarizes the molecular diffusion behavior of the spins within each voxel. This Fourier relationship is potentially advantageous because of the extensive theory that has been developed to characterize the sampling requirements, accuracy, and stability of linear Fourier reconstruction methods. However, existing diffusion MRI data sampling and signal estimation methods have largely been developed and tuned without the benefit of such theory, instead relying on approximations, intuition, and extensive empirical evaluation. This paper aims to address this discrepancy by introducing a novel theoretical signal processing framework for diffusion MRI. The new framework can be used to characterize arbitrary linear diffusion estimation methods with arbitrary q-space sampling, and can be used to theoretically evaluate and compare the accuracy, resolution, and noise-resilience of different data acquisition and parameter estimation techniques. The framework is based on the EAP, and makes very limited modeling assumptions. As a result, the approach can even provide new insight into the behavior of model-based linear diffusion estimation methods in contexts where the modeling assumptions are inaccurate. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework is illustrated using both simulated and real diffusion MRI data in applications such as choosing between different parameter estimation methods and choosing between different q-space sampling schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Professionalism: A Theoretical Framework for Defining Clinical Rotation Assessment Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth

    Although widely accepted as an important graduate competence, professionalism is a challenging outcome to define and assess. Clinical rotations provide an excellent opportunity to develop student professionalism through the use of experiential learning and effective feedback, but without appropriate theoretical frameworks, clinical teachers may find it difficult to identify appropriate learning outcomes. The adage "I know it when I see it" is unhelpful in providing feedback and guidance for student improvement, and criteria that are more specifically defined would help students direct their own development. This study sought first to identify how clinical faculty in one institution currently assess professionalism, using retrospective analysis of material obtained in undergraduate teaching and faculty development sessions. Subsequently, a faculty workshop was held in which a round-table type discussion sought to develop these ideas and identify how professionalism assessment could be improved. The output of this session was a theoretical framework for teaching and assessing professionalism, providing example assessment criteria and ideas for clinical teaching. This includes categories such as client and colleague interaction, respect and trust, recognition of limitations, and understanding of different professional identities. Each category includes detailed descriptions of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors expected of students in these areas. The criteria were determined by engaging faculty in the development of the framework, and therefore they should represent a focused development of criteria already used to assess professionalism, and not a novel and unfamiliar set of assessment guidelines. The faculty-led nature of this framework is expected to facilitate implementation in clinical teaching.

  10. When the Mannequin Dies, Creation and Exploration of a Theoretical Framework Using a Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Shreepada; Miller, Karen H; Berkenbosch, John W; McKinley, Tara F; Boland, Kimberly A; Brown, Seth A; Calhoun, Aaron W

    2016-06-01

    Controversy exists in the simulation community as to the emotional and educational ramifications of mannequin death due to learner action or inaction. No theoretical framework to guide future investigations of learner actions currently exists. The purpose of our study was to generate a model of the learner experience of mannequin death using a mixed methods approach. The study consisted of an initial focus group phase composed of 11 learners who had previously experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction on the part of learners as defined by Leighton (Clin Simul Nurs. 2009;5(2):e59-e62). Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory to generate a list of relevant themes that were further organized into a theoretical framework. With the use of this framework, a survey was generated and distributed to additional learners who had experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Forty-one clinicians completed the survey. A correlation was found between the emotional experience of mannequin death and degree of presession anxiety (P framework. Using the previous approach, we created a model of the effect of mannequin death on the educational and psychological state of learners. We offer the final model as a guide to future research regarding the learner experience of mannequin death.

  11. Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E

    2011-03-01

    The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors.

  12. Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E.

    2011-03-01

    The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors.

  13. Evolution of Organic Agriculture within Theoretical Frameworks of Structural Change and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    of an institutional economic explanation. On the other side, the theoretical analysis of the process of agricultural structural change indicates a theoretical agreement concerning the result of the process. The dissertation illustrates how Veblen and Cochrane, from different theoretical apparatuses, generally agree...... the general economic structural change. This makes the idea of understanding organic agriculture by itself or even as part of agriculture inadequate. Organic agriculture must be perceived as forming part of the general social economy. We find that the Veblenian concept of the process of structural change....... Such is the objective structural economic framework in which the organic agriculture phenomenon evolves. When we analyse organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture, we get indications that organic agriculture has disadvantages in the process of agricultural structural change compared with conventional...

  14. Preliminary framework for Familiar Auditory Sensory Training (FAST) provided during coma recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Louise-Bender Pape, DrPH, MA, CCC-SLP/L; Joshua M. Rosenow, MD, FACS; Brett Harton, BS; Vijaya Patil, MD; Ann Guernon, MS; Todd Parrish, PhD; Kathleen Froehlich, OTR/L; Catherine Burress, DPT; Shane McNamee, MD; Amy A. Herrold, PhD; Bessie Weiss, RN, MS, CCNS, CCRN, CNRN; Xue Wang, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Since there remains a need to examine the nature of the neural effect and therapeutic efficacy/effectiveness of sensory stimulation provided to persons in states of seriously impaired consciousness, a passive sensory stimulation intervention, referred to as the Familiar Auditory Sensory Training (FAST) protocol, was developed for examination in an ongoing, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT). The FAST protocol is described in this article according to the preliminary framework, whic...

  15. Goal setting and action planning in the rehabilitation setting: development of a theoretically informed practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Dixon, Diane; Wyke, Sally

    2011-05-01

    Setting and achieving goals is fundamental to rehabilitation practice but has been criticized for being a-theoretical and the key components of replicable goal-setting interventions are not well established. To describe the development of a theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings and to detail its component parts. Causal modelling was used to map theories of behaviour change onto the process of setting and achieving rehabilitation goals, and to suggest the mechanisms through which patient outcomes are likely to be affected. A multidisciplinary task group developed the causal model into a practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings through iterative discussion and implementation with six patients. Four components of a goal-setting and action-planning practice framework were identified: (i) goal negotiation, (ii) goal identification, (iii) planning, and (iv) appraisal and feedback. The variables hypothesized to effect change in patient outcomes were self-efficacy and action plan attainment. A theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings is described. The framework requires further development and systematic evaluation in a range of rehabilitation settings.

  16. Parental coping in the context of having a child who is facing death: A theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Korones, David N; Norton, Sally A

    2017-07-13

    While improvements in healthcare have resulted in children with complex and life-threatening conditions living longer, a proportion of them still die. The death of a child puts parents at increased risk for anxiety, depression, and complicated grief. Increasing our understanding of the coping strategies that parents use under such extreme circumstances will enable us to best provide support to families, before and after a child's death. Our aim herein was to develop a theoretical framework of parental coping. Evidence from the literature was employed to develop a theoretical framework to describe parental coping in the context of having a child with a life-limiting illness who is declining and facing eventual death. The reasoning and argument consists of three guiding elements: (1) the importance of approach as well as avoidance (as coping strategies) in the context of managing the extreme emotions; (2) the importance of the social aspect of coping within a family, whereby parents cope for others as well as for themselves; and (3) the importance of a flexible and balanced coping profile, with parents using different coping strategies simultaneously. Central to the proposed framework is that effective coping, in terms of adjustment, is achieved by balancing coping strategies: accessing different coping strategies simultaneously or in parallel with a specific focus on (1) approach and avoidance and (2) coping aimed at self and others. Understanding of parental coping strategies is essential for health professionals in order to support parents effectively.

  17. Trajectories on the Path to Reciprocity-A Theoretical Framework for Collaborating With Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Maria; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Anglin, James P

    2017-03-16

    The importance of cultivating connection to enhance individual, relational and collective well-being is gaining attention in the current literature on building community. Although these goals are being increasingly considered, the concept of reciprocity has been less prominent than may be warranted in the field of psychology. This article presents a theoretical framework on the dynamics of reciprocity which resulted from grounded theory (GT) research involving 2 complementary studies. The first study involved 22 participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds engaged in "reflecting-team with appreciative audiences" sessions (Madsen, 2007) in Portugal. The second study involved participant observation of 15 community programs recognized as good-practices in collaboration with socioeconomically disadvantaged participants, at national and international levels, across 9 countries. The theoretical framework emphasizes the centrality of building reciprocity for the development of individuals, families, communities, and programs. It integrates the trajectories of reciprocity; quadrants reflecting the standpoints assumed according to socioeconomic and cultural positions; basic social-psychological processes inherent to the process of building reciprocity; and characterizes different types of programs. The resulting framework is analyzed in relation to prior literature for a broader understanding of synergies and challenges, and the article concludes by suggesting implications for further research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A theoretical framework for holistic hospital management in the Japanese healthcare context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for performance measurement as a pilot study on holistic hospital management in the Japanese healthcare context. We primarily used two data sources as well as expert statements obtained through interviews: a systematic review of literature and a questionnaire survey to healthcare experts. The systematic survey searched PubMed and PubMed Central, and 24 relevant papers were elicited. The expert questionnaire asked respondents to rate the degree of "usefulness" for each of 66 indicators on a three-point scale. Applying the theoretical framework, a minimum set of performance indicators was selected for holistic hospital management, which well fit the healthcare context in Japan. This indicator set comprised 35 individual indicators and several factors measured through questionnaire surveys. The indicators were confirmed by expert judgments from viewpoints of face, content and construct validities as well as their usefulness. A theoretical framework of performance measurement was established from primary healthcare stakeholders' perspectives. Performance indicators were largely divided into healthcare outcomes and performance shaping factors. Indicators in the former category may be applied for the detection of operational problems, while their latent causes can be effectively addressed by the latter category in terms of process, structure and culture/climate within the organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data.

  20. Towards culturally relevant classroom science: a theoretical framework focusing on traditional plant healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate local culture in science classrooms. A multi-focal approach is adopted because the integration of indigenous knowledge and modern classroom science is complex. The central argument in this paper is that a multi-focal lens accommodates the multifaceted nature of integrating indigenous knowledge and western oriented classroom science. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to construct a theoretical framework that can be used to guide and inform the integration of indigenous knowledge and western science at classroom science level. The traditional plant healing form of indigenous knowledge is used as a case study. The paper is important for raising the complexities, tensions and dilemmas inherent in the design and implementation of indigenous knowledge-science integrated curricula. An understanding of the issues raised will pave the way towards achieving culturally relevant classroom science.

  1. Where is the theory? Evaluating the theoretical frameworks described in decision support technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Stiel, Mareike; Boivin, Jacky; Elwyn, Glyn

    2008-04-01

    To identify and describe the extent to which theory or theoretical frameworks informed the development and evaluation of decision support technologies (DSTs). The analysis was based on the decision technologies used in studies included in the Cochrane systematic review of patient decision aids for people facing health screening or treatment decisions. The assumption was made that DSTs evaluated by randomized controlled trials, and therefore included in the updated Cochrane review have been the most rigorously developed. Of the 50 DSTs evaluated only 17 (34%) were based on a theoretical framework. Amongst these, 11 decision-making theories were described but the extent to which theory informed the development, field-testing and evaluation of these interventions was highly variable between DSTs. The majority of the 17 DSTs that relied on a theory was not explicit about how theory had guided their design and evaluation. Many had superficial descriptions of the theory or theories involved. Furthermore, based on the analysis of those 17 DSTs, none had reported field-testing prior to evaluation. The use of decision-making theory in DST development is rare and poorly described. The lack of theoretical underpinning to the design and development of DSTs most likely reflects the early development stage of the DST field. The findings clearly indicate the need to give more attention to how the most important decision-making theories could be better used to guide the design of key decision support components and their modes of action.

  2. Acceptability of healthcare interventions: an overview of reviews and development of a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Mandeep; Cartwright, Martin; Francis, Jill J

    2017-01-26

    It is increasingly acknowledged that 'acceptability' should be considered when designing, evaluating and implementing healthcare interventions. However, the published literature offers little guidance on how to define or assess acceptability. The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-construct theoretical framework of acceptability of healthcare interventions that can be applied to assess prospective (i.e. anticipated) and retrospective (i.e. experienced) acceptability from the perspective of intervention delivers and recipients. Two methods were used to select the component constructs of acceptability. 1) An overview of reviews was conducted to identify systematic reviews that claim to define, theorise or measure acceptability of healthcare interventions. 2) Principles of inductive and deductive reasoning were applied to theorise the concept of acceptability and develop a theoretical framework. Steps included (1) defining acceptability; (2) describing its properties and scope and (3) identifying component constructs and empirical indicators. From the 43 reviews included in the overview, none explicitly theorised or defined acceptability. Measures used to assess acceptability focused on behaviour (e.g. dropout rates) (23 reviews), affect (i.e. feelings) (5 reviews), cognition (i.e. perceptions) (7 reviews) or a combination of these (8 reviews). From the methods described above we propose a definition: Acceptability is a multi-faceted construct that reflects the extent to which people delivering or receiving a healthcare intervention consider it to be appropriate, based on anticipated or experienced cognitive and emotional responses to the intervention. The theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA) consists of seven component constructs: affective attitude, burden, perceived effectiveness, ethicality, intervention coherence, opportunity costs, and self-efficacy. Despite frequent claims that healthcare interventions have assessed acceptability, it is

  3. Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Kim, Hyoungryoul; Zaldivar, Frank; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

    2014-03-06

    Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call "cardiovascular strain". The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters.

  4. A unified theoretical framework for mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2016-11-28

    We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.

  5. Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level games focused on building or modifying the game and on social interactions around it. Each layer casts gameplay as a co-construction of the game and the player, and contains three dynamical feedback loops: an exploratory learning loop, an intrinsic motivation loop, and an identity loop.

  6. A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

  7. A Theoretical Framework for Soft-Information-Based Synchronization in Iterative (Turbo Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottici Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers turbo synchronization, that is to say, the use of soft data information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency, or timing offsets of a modulated signal within an iterative data demodulator. In turbo synchronization, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide a reliable estimate of some signal parameters. The aim of our paper is to show that such "turbo-estimation" approach can be regarded as a special case of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization that allows to derive parameter estimation procedures for carrier phase and frequency offset, as well as for timing offset and signal amplitude. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulation results reported for the particular case of carrier phase and frequency offsets estimation of a turbo-coded 16-QAM signal.

  8. An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toates, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a "route map" in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different academic perspectives on understanding sexuality. It is suggested that both excitation and inhibition of sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior act at various levels in a hierarchical structure, and much confusion can be avoided by distinguishing these levels. The model integrates information from different branches of psychology: biological, evolutionary, clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social. It describes interactions between sexual behavior and anxiety, attachment, aggression, and drug taking; and it is applied to gender differences, evolutionary psychology, sexual deviancy, sexual addiction, and the biological bases of sexuality.

  9. New theoretical framework for OFDM/CDMA systems with peak-limited nonlinearities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for the evaluation of the in-band nonlinear distortion effects on the performance of OFDM systems is presented. In contrast to previous works that approximate the nonlinear noise as a Gaussian additive random process, the new framework is based on the properties of the large deviations of a stationary Gaussian process and shot noise theories, which can evaluate the performance of the OFDM system with high accuracy, especially at realistic scenarios where the Gaussian approximation of the nonlinear noise is no longer valid. The approach can be used to evaluate many communication systems with peak-limited nonlinearities and high PAPR, such as the downlink performance analysis of large capacity DS-CDMA systems.

  10. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Mapping Models for the Multi-State Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1- dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitations. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.

  11. A theoretical framework for negotiating the path of emergency management multi-agency coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnin, Steven; Owen, Christine; Paton, Douglas; Brooks, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Multi-agency coordination represents a significant challenge in emergency management. The need for liaison officers working in strategic level emergency operations centres to play organizational boundary spanning roles within multi-agency coordination arrangements that are enacted in complex and dynamic emergency response scenarios creates significant research and practical challenges. The aim of the paper is to address a gap in the literature regarding the concept of multi-agency coordination from a human-environment interaction perspective. We present a theoretical framework for facilitating multi-agency coordination in emergency management that is grounded in human factors and ergonomics using the methodology of core-task analysis. As a result we believe the framework will enable liaison officers to cope more efficiently within the work domain. In addition, we provide suggestions for extending the theory of core-task analysis to an alternate high reliability environment.

  12. Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

  13. Dealing with the multidimensionality of sustainability through the use of multiple perspectives - a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-05-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the multidimensionality of sustainability challenges through the use of multiple perspectives. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed that describes perspectives in terms of a set of general characteristics, as well as a number of ways in which students can develop and reflect on perspectives. Development of the framework was supported by a qualitative content analysis of transcripts from interviews with undergraduate engineering students in Sweden.

  14. A single theoretical framework for circular features processing in humans: orientation and direction of motion compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetomir eTzvetanov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common computational principles underly processing of various visual features in the cortex. They are considered to create similar patterns of contextual modulations in behavioral studies for different features as orientation and direction of motion. Here, I studied the possibility that a single theoretical framework, implemented in different visual areas, of circular feature coding and processing could explain these similarities in observations. Stimuli were created that allowed direct comparison of the contextual effects on orientation and motion direction with two different psychophysical probes: changes in weak and strong signal perception. One unique simplified theoretical model of circular feature coding including only inhibitory interactions, and decoding through standard vector average, successfully predicted the similarities in the two domains, while different feature population characteristics explained well the differences in modulation on both experimental probes. These results demonstrate how a single computational principle underlies processing of various features across the cortices.

  15. Theoretical and experimental analysis of H2 binding in a prototypical metal-organic framework material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Cooper, Valentino R.; Nijem, Nour; Li, Kunhao; Li, Jing; Chabal, Yves J.; Langreth, David C.

    2009-02-01

    Hydrogen adsorption by the metal-organic framework (MOF) structure Zn2(BDC)2(TED) is investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. By using the nonempirical van der Waals density-functional approach, it is found that the locus of deepest H2 binding positions lies within two types of narrow channel. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms and heat of adsorption data. Calculations of the shift of the H-H stretch frequency when adsorbed in the MOF give a value of approximately -30cm-1 at the strongest binding point in each of the two channels. Ambient temperature infrared-absorption spectroscopy measurements give a hydrogen peak centered at 4120cm-1 , implying a shift consistent with the theoretical calculations.

  16. A theoretical framework for a virtual diabetes self-management community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M

    2014-10-01

    Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support).

  17. Extending the theoretical framework for curriculum integration in pre-clinical medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergel, John; Stentoft, Diana; Montoya, Juny

    2017-01-01

    at Aalborg University. We observed various learning activities focused on pre-clinical education. Inspired by grounded theory, we analyzed the information we gathered. RESULTS: The following theoretical constructs emerged after the inductive analysis: 1) curriculum integration complexity is embedded......: These constructs provide a framework for analyzing curriculum integration in the context in which it is meant to appear, which may assist educationalists to gain a more specific understanding of the term. This may enable effective curriculum integration since contextual issues are addressed in addition...

  18. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie

    2015-01-01

    tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate...... how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world...

  19. The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2013-07-01

    We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies for two of our guided student modules that are built around sequences of primary sources and are intended for learning core curricular material, one on logical implication, the other on the concept of a group. Additionally, we propose some conclusions about the advantages and challenges of using primary sources in teaching mathematics.

  20. Beyond the SCS-CN method: A theoretical framework for spatially lumped rainfall-runoff response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Parolari, A. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Porporato, A.

    2016-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1954, the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method has become the standard tool, in practice, for estimating an event-based rainfall-runoff response. However, because of its empirical origins, the SCS-CN method is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Moreover, it does not describe the spatial variability of runoff. To move beyond these limitations, we present a new theoretical framework for spatially lumped, event-based rainfall-runoff modeling. In this framework, we describe the spatially lumped runoff model as a point description of runoff that is upscaled to a watershed area based on probability distributions that are representative of watershed heterogeneities. The framework accommodates different runoff concepts and distributions of heterogeneities, and in doing so, it provides an implicit spatial description of runoff variability. Heterogeneity in storage capacity and soil moisture are the basis for upscaling a point runoff response and linking ecohydrological processes to runoff modeling. For the framework, we consider two different runoff responses for fractions of the watershed area: "prethreshold" and "threshold-excess" runoff. These occur before and after infiltration exceeds a storage capacity threshold. Our application of the framework results in a new model (called SCS-CNx) that extends the SCS-CN method with the prethreshold and threshold-excess runoff mechanisms and an implicit spatial description of runoff. We show proof of concept in four forested watersheds and further that the resulting model may better represent geographic regions and site types that previously have been beyond the scope of the traditional SCS-CN method.

  1. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B; Fresco, David M; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A; Fulwiler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy.

  2. Exploring Occupational and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity in Firefighters: A Theoretical Framework and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BongKyoo Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US. However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  3. Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

    2011-12-01

    Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  4. Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Elizabeth A; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2015-06-17

    Behavioural theory can be used to better understand the effects of behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professional behaviour to improve quality of care. However, the explicit use of theory is rarely reported despite interventions inevitably involving at least an implicit idea of what factors to target to implement change. There is a quality of care gap in the post-fracture investigation (bone mineral density (BMD) scanning) and management (bisphosphonate prescription) of patients at risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) within a systematic review of interventions to improve quality of care in post-fracture investigation. Our objectives were to explore which theoretical factors the interventions in the review may have been targeting and how this might be related to the size of the effect on rates of BMD scanning and osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonate medication. A behavioural scientist and a clinician independently coded TDF domains in intervention and control groups. Quantitative analyses explored the relationship between intervention effect size and total number of domains targeted, and as number of different domains targeted. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (10 interventions) were analysed. The five theoretical domains most frequently coded as being targeted by the interventions in the review included "memory, attention and decision processes", "knowledge", "environmental context and resources", "social influences" and "beliefs about consequences". Each intervention targeted a combination of at least four of these five domains. Analyses identified an inverse relationship between both number of times and number of different domains coded and the effect size for BMD scanning but not for bisphosphonate prescription, suggesting that the more domains the intervention targeted, the lower the observed effect size. When explicit use of theory to inform interventions is absent, it is possible to

  5. An algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of aerosols: 1. Development of theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weizhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Han, Dong

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the first part of a series of investigations to develop algorithms for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol parameters and surface reflectance from a newly developed hyperspectral instrument, the GEOstationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GEO-TASO), by taking full advantage of available hyperspectral measurement information in the visible bands. We describe the theoretical framework of an inversion algorithm for the hyperspectral remote sensing of the aerosol optical properties, in which major principal components (PCs) for surface reflectance is assumed known, and the spectrally dependent aerosol refractive indices are assumed to follow a power-law approximation with four unknown parameters (two for real and two for imaginary part of refractive index). New capabilities for computing the Jacobians of four Stokes parameters of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere with respect to these unknown aerosol parameters and the weighting coefficients for each PC of surface reflectance are added into the UNified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM), which in turn facilitates the optimization in the inversion process. Theoretical derivations of the formulas for these new capabilities are provided, and the analytical solutions of Jacobians are validated against the finite-difference calculations with relative error less than 0.2%. Finally, self-consistency check of the inversion algorithm is conducted for the idealized green-vegetation and rangeland surfaces that were spectrally characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey digital spectral library. It shows that the first six PCs can yield the reconstruction of spectral surface reflectance with errors less than 1%. Assuming that aerosol properties can be accurately characterized, the inversion yields a retrieval of hyperspectral surface reflectance with an uncertainty of 2% (and root-mean-square error of less than 0.003), which suggests self-consistency in the

  6. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  7. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  8. A Framework for the Game-theoretic Analysis of Censorship Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahi Tariq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a game-theoretic analysis of optimal solutions for interactions between censors and censorship resistance systems (CRSs by focusing on the data channel used by the CRS to smuggle clients’ data past the censors. This analysis leverages the inherent errors (false positives and negatives made by the censor when trying to classify traffic as either non-circumvention traffic or as CRS traffic, as well as the underlying rate of CRS traffic. We identify Nash equilibrium solutions for several simple censorship scenarios and then extend those findings to more complex scenarios where we find that the deployment of a censorship apparatus does not qualitatively change the equilibrium solutions, but rather only affects the amount of traffic a CRS can support before being blocked. By leveraging these findings, we describe a general framework for exploring and identifying optimal strategies for the censorship circumventor, in order to maximize the amount of CRS traffic not blocked by the censor. We use this framework to analyze several scenarios with multiple data-channel protocols used as cover for the CRS. We show that it is possible to gain insights through this framework even without perfect knowledge of the censor’s (secret values for the parameters in their utility function.

  9. Theoretical Framework of Organizational Intelligence: A Managerial Approach to Promote Renewable Energy in Rural Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The companies involved in the energy sector must reinvent themselves to be innovative and adaptable to contemporary environmental changes. The promotion of renewable energy in rural communities is a great challenge for these companies. They should focus on improving the environment scanning actions and the knowledge management (KM system and enhancing the collective intelligence to avoid the loss of information, to foster innovation, and to maintain a competitive advantage. To achieve these goals, energy companies require appropriate management tools and practices. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework of organizational intelligence (OI supported by a cross-perspective analysis of various aspects: economic intelligence (EI and KM practices, entropy processes, and organizational enablers. A pilot investigation for testing the framework in the case of Transelectrica S.A. has been elaborated. The findings reveal that the elements of the OI framework are embedded in Transelectrica’s system and they need to be further developed. As an intelligent company acting in the Romanian energy market, Transelectrica has a higher potential to promote projects in the renewable energy sector. The main conclusion highlights that OI is a multidimensional construct that provides the organization the ability to deal with environmental challenges in a “new economy”.

  10. A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for least squares methods of estimation in diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Chang, Lin-Ching; Carew, John D; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J

    2006-09-01

    A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for diffusion tensor estimation is presented. Theoretical connections among the least squares (LS) methods, (linear least squares (LLS), weighted linear least squares (WLLS), nonlinear least squares (NLS) and their constrained counterparts), are established through their respective objective functions, and higher order derivatives of these objective functions, i.e., Hessian matrices. These theoretical connections provide new insights in designing efficient algorithms for NLS and constrained NLS (CNLS) estimation. Here, we propose novel algorithms of full Newton-type for the NLS and CNLS estimations, which are evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the commonly used Levenberg-Marquardt method. The proposed methods have a lower percent of relative error in estimating the trace and lower reduced chi2 value than those of the Levenberg-Marquardt method. These results also demonstrate that the accuracy of an estimate, particularly in a nonlinear estimation problem, is greatly affected by the Hessian matrix. In other words, the accuracy of a nonlinear estimation is algorithm-dependent. Further, this study shows that the noise variance in diffusion weighted signals is orientation dependent when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low (

  11. Theoretical Framework of Leadership in Higher Education of England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical framework of leadership in higher education of England and Wales has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the theoretical fundamentals of educational leadership, and presentation of classification of leadership models in educational sphere. Leadership in higher education has been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: methodology of comparative education (C. Bargh, N. Bidyuk, N. Mukan, A. Sbruyeva; continuous professional education (J. Barge, A. Kuzminskyy, N. Nychkalo, P. Lorange; leadership in education (J. Bareham, L. Danylenko, L. Karamushka, N. Kolominskyy, O. Marmaza; leaders’ training (A. Borysova, V. Ilromovyy etc. In Ukraine this problem has not been studied yet. The research methodology comprises theoretical (comparative and historical method, logical method, analysis and synthesis, and applied (conversations and dialogues methods. The research results have been presented: the comprehensive integration of leadership theories in the sphere of philosophy, sociology, psychology, pedagogy, management has been justified; the definition of leadership and distributed leadership, and their characteristic have been provided; the leadership models in higher education of England and Wales have been determined.

  12. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  13. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  14. Theoretical model estimation of guest diffusion in Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2015-08-11

    Characterizing molecule diffusion in nanoporous matrices is critical to understanding the novel chemical and physical properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this paper, we developed a theoretical model to fastly and accurately compute the diffusion rate of guest molecules in a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). The ideal gas or equilibrium solution diffusion model was modified to contain the effect of periodical media via introducing the possibility of guests passing through the framework gate. The only input in our model is the energy barrier of guests passing through the MOF’s gate. Molecular dynamics (MD) methods were employed to gather the guest density profile, which then was used to deduce the energy barrier values. This produced reliable results that require a simulation time of 5 picoseconds, which is much shorter when using pure MD methods (in the billisecond scale) . Also, we used density functional theory (DFT) methods to obtain the energy profile of guests passing through gates, as this does not require specification of a force field for the MOF degrees of freedom. In the DFT calculation, we only considered one gate of MOFs each time; as this greatly reduced the computational cost. Based on the obtained energy barrier values we computed the diffusion rate of alkane and alcohol in ZIF-8 using our model, which was in good agreement with experimental test results and the calculation values from standard MD model. Our model shows the advantage of obtaining accurate diffusion rates for guests in MOFs for a lower computational cost and shorter calculation time. Thus, our analytic model calculation is especially attractive for high-throughput computational screening of the dynamic performance of guests in a framework.

  15. Fair shares: a preliminary framework and case analyzing the ethics of offshoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cameron; Zimmerman, Alan

    2010-06-01

    Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that "in the long run" that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its "rightness" or "wrongness?" Little analysis of the ethics of offshoring has been completed thus far. This paper develops a preliminary framework for analyzing the ethics of offshoring and then applies this framework to basic case study of offshoring in the U.S. The paper following discusses the definition of offshoring; shifts to the basic philosophical grounding of the ethical concepts; develops a template for conducting an ethics analysis of offshoring; applies this template using basic data for offshoring in the United States; and conducts a preliminary ethical analysis of the phenomenon in that country, using a form of utilitarianism as an analytical baseline. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research.

  16. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  17. Are Engineering and Social Justice (Incommensurable? A Theoretical Exploration of Macro-Sociological Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon A. Leydens

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which engineering and social justice as fields of practice are (incommensurable remains an open question. To illuminate important dimensions of that question, we explore intersections between those fields and two macro-sociological frameworks. Those theoretical frameworks—structural functionalism and social conflict—represent contrasting perspectives on how society should be organized. Specifically, we reveal conceptual alignments between structural functionalism and engineering/engineering education and between social conflict and social justice. Those alignments suggest some salient potential catalysts for tensions between engineering and social justice and provide a useful ideological mirror for reflection by all who are committed to the engineering profession and/or to social justice.

  18. Dynamic capabilities-based strategy innovation: a theoretical framework and empirical studies in Chinese firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景江; 陈劲; 许庆瑞

    2002-01-01

    Based on investigations of 112 Chinese firms and studies on foreign leading eorporafiorm, a theo-retical framework of dynamic capabilities-based strategy innovation (SI) is put forward. Several large firms in China winning through SI were studied empirically. This paper complements previous publications on the theories of innovation and strategy. This work' s findings will be useful for managers interested in our approach,which highlights the importance of SI and focuses on and points out the major pitfalls in the innovation processes. Implementing the dynamic capabilities-based strategy innovation can effectively cultivate and develop core eompetences of eorporations. It is eoncluded that implementing SI is the only path for Chinese enterprise growth in the intensified competition in the knowledge economy.

  19. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-09-07

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  20. Surviving Grounded Theory Research Method in an Academic World: Proposal Writing and Theoretical Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory research students are frequently faced with the challenge of writing a research proposal and using a theoretical framework as part of the academic requirements for a degree programme. Drawing from personal experiences of two PhD graduates who used classic grounded theory in two different universities, this paper highlights key lessons learnt which may help future students who are setting out to use grounded theory method. It identifies key discussion points that students may find useful when engaging with critical audiences, and defending their grounded theory thesis at final examination. Key discussion points included are: the difference between inductive and deductive inquiry; how grounded theory method of data gathering and analysis provide researchers with a viable means of generating new theory; the primacy of the questions used in data gathering and data analysis; and, the research-theory link as opposed to the theory-research link.

  1. Theoretical Framework and Model Design for Beautiful Countryside Construction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiang-qun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of China today, the process of beautiful countryside construction mainly imitates the patterns of‘urbanization’construction. However, this approach leads to the loss of countryside characteristics and the separation of agricultural culture. Therefore, it's urgent to carry out research of the theoretical framework and model design for beautiful countryside construction. In this paper, based on the analysis of the beautiful countryside construction connotation, the basic theory of beautiful countryside construction was summarized in three aspects: rural complex ecosystem model, multi-functionality of rural model and sustainable development evaluation model. The basic idea of the beautiful countryside construction mode was studied. The design method of beautiful countryside construction mode was proposed in three levels: planning, scheming and evaluating. The research results might offer scientific reference for improving the scientific and operational nature of beautiful countryside construction.

  2. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.

  3. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  4. Experiences of using the Theoretical Domains Framework across diverse clinical environments: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips CJ

    2015-03-01

    Framework (TDF is an integrative framework developed from a synthesis of psychological theories as a vehicle to help apply theoretical approaches to interventions aimed at behavior change. Purpose: This study explores experiences of TDF use by professionals from multiple disciplines across diverse clinical settings. Methods: Mixed methods were used to examine experiences, attitudes, and perspectives of health professionals in using the TDF in health care implementation projects. Individual interviews were conducted with ten health care professionals from six disciplines who used the TDF in implementation projects. Deductive content and thematic analysis were used. Results: Three main themes and associated subthemes were identified including: 1 reasons for use of the TDF (increased confidence, broader perspective, and theoretical underpinnings; 2 challenges using the TDF (time and resources, operationalization of the TDF and; 3 future use of the TDF. Conclusion: The TDF provided a useful, flexible framework for a diverse group of health professionals working across different clinical settings for the assessment of barriers and targeting resources to influence behavior change for implementation projects. The development of practical tools and training or support is likely to aid the utility of TDF. Keywords: barriers and enablers, behavioral change, evidence-based practice, implementation, health care, Theoretical Domains Framework

  5. Using Bourdieu's Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon

    2015-12-25

    To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.

  6. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  7. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  8. Matching Adherence Interventions to Patient Determinants Using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Samuel S; Nieuwlaat, Robby; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Hersberger, Kurt E; Arnet, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite much research, interventions to improve medication adherence report disappointing and inconsistent results. Tailored approaches that match interventions and patient determinants of non-adherence were seldom used in clinical trials. The presence of a multitude of theoretical frameworks and models to categorize interventions and patient determinants complicated the development of common categories shared by interventions and determinants. We retrieved potential interventions and patient determinants from published literature on medication adherence, matched them like locks and keys, and categorized them according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Methods: We identified the most relevant literature reviews on interventions and determinants in a pragmatic literature search, extracted all interventions and determinants, grouped similar concepts to umbrella terms and assigned them to TDF categories. All steps were finalized in consensus discussion between the authors. Results: Sixteen articles (5 with determinants, 11 with interventions) were included for analysis. We extracted 103 interventions and 42 determinants that we divided in 26 modifiable and 16 unmodifiable determinants. All interventions and modifiable determinants were matched within 11 categories (Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, Attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; Social influences; Emotion; and Behavioral regulation). Conclusion: In published trials on medication adherence, the congruence between interventions and determinants can be assessed with matching interventions to determinants. To be successful, interventions in medication adherence should target current modifiable determinants and be tailored to the unmodifiable determinants. Modifiable and unmodifiable determinants need to be assessed at inclusion of intervention studies to

  9. Matching adherence interventions to patient determinants using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sebastian Allemann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite much research, interventions to improve medication adherence report disappointing and inconsistent results. Tailored approaches that match interventions and patient determinants of non-adherence were seldom used in clinical trials. The presence of a multitude of theoretical frameworks and models to categorize interventions and patient determinants complicated the development of common categories shared by interventions and determinants. We retrieved potential interventions and patient determinants from published literature on medication adherence, matched them like locks and keys, and categorized them according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF.MethodsWe identified the most relevant literature reviews on interventions and determinants in a pragmatic literature search, extracted all interventions and determinants, grouped similar concepts to umbrella terms and assigned them to TDF categories. All steps were finalized in consensus discussion between the authors.ResultsSixteen articles (5 with determinants, 11 with interventions were included for analysis. We extracted 103 interventions and 42 determinants that we divided in 26 modifiable and 16 unmodifiable determinants. All interventions and modifiable determinants were matched within 11 categories (Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, Attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; Social influences; Emotion; and Behavioral regulation.ConclusionIn published trials on medication adherence, the congruence between interventions and determinants can be assessed with matching interventions to determinants. To be successful, interventions in medication adherence should target current modifiable determinants and be tailored to the unmodifiable determinants. Modifiable and unmodifiable determinants need to be assessed at inclusion of intervention studies to

  10. Leader Charisma, Employee Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Change: A Proposed Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kahtani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, change is demanding the employees to be better prepared, open, and flexible in managing their daily tasks at work. For example, the issue of globalization, the issues of knowledge worker (K-workers, and knowledge economy (K-economy are among the examples that change should always be taken into consideration by managers. However, bringing about change in organization is not an easy task. How to make employees bring about change in an organization has been of interest to researchers. In Saudi Arabia, change is a very important aspect that not only people, but also the Saudi government have raised awareness to. King Abdullah himself gave a remarkable speech to the Majlis al-Shura, the formal advisory body to the Saudi monarchy in Riyadh and stated that in 2013, women would be allowed to serve on the 150- member body. He added that by the beginning in 2015, they would also be permitted to vote and run for office in municipal council elections. This conceptual paper proposes a model that shows commitment to organization and leader charisma as antecedents to organizational change. In other words, this theoretical framework proposes that the more committed to the organization the employees are, the more they bring about change for sake of such organization well-being. It also shows that the leader plays an important role in making such employees more committed.The proposed theoretical framework serves as an insight to educational institutions and businesses in Saudi Arabia and spread awareness that enables them be more prepared to cope with change.

  11. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  12. A Framework for the Corporate Governance of Data – Theoretical Background and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Dahlberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a modern organization, IT and digital data have transformed from being functional resources to integral elements of business strategy. Against this background, our article addresses corporate governance of digital data in general and that of aging societies in particular. To describe the role of executives and managers in data governance, we first review the corporate and IT governance literature. We then propose a theoretical framework for the governance of data: a novel construct. We apply the framework to the governance of aging societies related data, that is, to answer the question of how best to manage the provision of services to citizens with digital data enablement and support. We also disclose the results from two recent surveys, with 212 and 68 respondents respectively, on the business significance of data governance. The survey results reveal that good governance of data is considered critical to organizations. As concluding remarks, we discuss the significance of our results, our contributions to research, the limitations of our study and its managerial implications.

  13. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process.

  14. A theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digernes, Ingrid; Bjørnerud, Atle; Vatnehol, Svein Are S; Løvland, Grete; Courivaud, Frédéric; Vik-Mo, Einar; Meling, Torstein R; Emblem, Kyrre E

    2017-06-01

    Mapping the complex heterogeneity of vascular tissue in the brain is important for understanding cerebrovascular disease. In this translational study, we build on previous work using vessel architectural imaging (VAI) and present a theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our tissue model covers realistic structural architectures for vessel branching and orientations, as well as a range of hemodynamic scenarios for blood flow, capillary transit times and oxygenation. In a typical image voxel, our findings show that the apparent MRI relaxation rates are independent of the mean vessel orientation and that the vortex area, a VAI-based parameter, is determined by the relative oxygen saturation level and the vessel branching of the tissue. Finally, in both simulated and patient data, we show that the relative distributions of the vortex area parameter as a function of capillary transit times show unique characteristics in normal-appearing white and gray matter tissue, whereas tumour-voxels in comparison display a heterogeneous distribution. Collectively, our study presents a comprehensive framework that may serve as a roadmap for in vivo and per-voxel determination of vascular status and heterogeneity in cerebral tissue.

  15. A theoretical framework for early human studies: uncertainty, intervention ensembles, and boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmelman Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical development of novel therapeutics begins with a coordinated sequence of early phase clinical trials. Such early human studies confront a series of methodological and ethical challenges. In what follows, I propose a theoretical framework for early human studies aimed at informing the negotiation of these challenges. At the outset of clinical development, researchers confront a virtually undifferentiated landscape of uncertainty with respect to three variables: outcomes, their probability of occurrence, and operation dimensions needed to effectuate favorable outcomes. Early human trials transform this uncertain landscape into one where there are grounds for belief about risk and benefit for various combined operation dimensions. To accomplish this, studies set out with two aims. First, they identify a set of operation dimensions that, when combined as a package (intervention ensemble, elicits a reasonable probability of a target outcome. Second, they define the boundaries of dimension values within an intervention ensemble. This latter aim entails exposing at least some volunteers in early studies to treatments that are inactive or excessive. I provide examples that illustrate the way early human studies discover and delimit intervention ensembles, and close by offering some implications of this framework for ethics, methodology, and efficiency in clinical development of new interventions.

  16. Theoretical Base for Multidimensional Classification of Learning Outcomes In Reforming Qualifications Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile Dzelalija

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides analysis and a reflection on basic measurable properties of qualifications, modules, units and other groups of learning outcomes, as a theoretical base for their multidimensional classifications in emerging reforming qualifications frameworks. Learning outcomes, as the main elements of a qualification, are written and organised within units of learning outcomes and different groups, giving a transparent structure to the qualification from the user's point of view (students, employers, teachers, etc.. Units of learning outcomes, modules and qualifications have a set of basic measurable properties, for example: reference level, volume of workload, academic or professional profile and quality. Reference level denotes the depth and the complexity of the acquired learning outcomes, while volume denotes the total amount of workload in ideal conditions, and profiles the field of work and study associated with this. Quality denotes the reliability of the specified reference level, volume and profile of learning outcomes. It is particularly important to take account of these reflections when considering the impact of the implementation of reforming qualifications frameworks, quality assurance, validation of non-formal and informal learning, recognition of learning outcomes and qualifications, and other European tools in qualifications systems.

  17. A Multiagent Dynamic Interaction Testbed:Theoretic Framework,System Architecture and Experimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学军; 石纯一

    1997-01-01

    Recent research on Distributed Artificial Intelligence(DAI)has focused upon agents' interaction in Multiagent System.sThis paper presents a text understanding oriented multiagent dynamic interaction testbed(TUMIT);the theoretic framework based upon game theory,the free-market-like system marchitecture,and experimentation on TUMIT.Unlike other DAI testbeds,TUMIT views different text understanding(TU)methods as different“computational resources”,and makes agents choose different TU paths and computational resources according to the resouce information on the bulletins in their hostcomputer.Therefore,in TUMIT,task allocation is wholly distributed.This makes TUMIT work like a “free market”.In such a system,agents'choices and resource load may oscillate.It is shown theoretically and experimentally that if agents use multi-level of “history information”,their behavior will tend to converge to a Nash equilibrium situation;and that if agents use “fecall-forget” strategy on “history information”,the convergence can be accelerated and the agents can acclimate themselves to changed environment.Compared with other DAI testbeds,TUMIT is more distributed,and the agents in TUMIT are more adaptive to the dynamic environment.

  18. Multi-Nucleon Short-Range Correlation Model for Nuclear Spectral Functions: I. Theoretical Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Artiles, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energy based on the multi-nucleon short-range correlation~(SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon SRC with center of mass motion we derived also the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short range NN interactions. This approach allowed us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contribution to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on the two theoretical frameworks in evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Fe...

  19. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  20. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL as Sociolinguistic and Sociological Conception: Possibilities and Limits of Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Rubtcova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining possibilities and limits of Systemic functional linguistics theoretical framework. Ideologically SFL concept was associated with the ideas of social justice and equality, the building of the society of equal opportunities through the educational system. The most interesting ideas arose when the SFL representatives thought about the development of English as a native language and were connected with the overcoming of class distinctions. The current version - genre-based approach – has serious limits. The desire of a genre-based approach to the systematization of genres carries a risk of cultural contradictions and conflict of cultures. However, the basic theoretical SFL principles are still in the stage of formation, as SFL researchers seek to avoid some rigidity of the classical institutional (genre approach, which is in contradiction with the principles of diversity. The founder M. Halliday offered ideas for the organization of a flexible approach based on International English that may become World Englishes, developing in order to adapt to the meanings of other cultures.  Therefore, an SFL approach still needs some alterations to spread outside the Western world and conform to the new culture for it. Besides, we can think about proposals of Halliday’s supporters to develop the own version of English for non-Western countries, considering its culture and mentality.

  1. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  2. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness.Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care.Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making.Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  3. Inhibition of return: A phenomenon in search of a definition and a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukewich, Kristie R; Klein, Raymond M

    2015-07-01

    In a study of scientific nomenclature, we explore the diversity of perspectives researchers endorse for the phenomenon of inhibition of return (IOR). IOR is often described as an effect whereby people are slower to respond to a target presented at a recently stimulated or inspected location as compared to a target presented at a new location. Since its discovery, scores of papers have been published on IOR, and researchers have proposed, accepted and rejected a variety of potential causes, mechanisms, effects and components for the phenomenon. Experts in IOR were surveyed about their opinions regarding various aspects of IOR and the literature exploring it. We found variety both between and within experts surveyed, suggesting that most researchers hold implicit, and often quite unique assumptions about IOR. These widely varied assumptions may be hindering the creation or acceptance of a central theoretical framework regarding IOR; and this variety may portend that what has been given the label "IOR" may be more than one phenomenon requiring more than one theoretical explanation. We wonder whether scientific progress in domains other than IOR might be affected by too broad (or perhaps too narrow) a range of phenomena to which our nomenclature is applied.

  4. A conceptual framework related to ICT-AT competence development: The theoretical foundations of ENTELIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrou, Katerina; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Kärki, Anne; Sallinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the construction of a conceptual framework regarding ICT-Assistive Technology (ICT-AT) competence development, designed to gain awareness of the elements involved and to facilitate the understanding and exchange among stakeholders of the ENTELIS (European Network for Technology Enhanced Learning in an Inclusive Society) project. The framework was designed based on the basic principles of Activity Theory, which however have been adapted and adjusted to the project's objectives. Hence, it includes a map of actors and other parameters functioning in a person surrounding "ecosystem", and it allows us to understand and map roles, expectations, barriers, as well as to devise solutions to tackle digital divide. Taking as a starting and central point the person and his/her wish to self-determination and fulfilment (quality of life) and the related needs, it provides a map of how the various concepts and variables interact within the theoretical and methodological perspective of the collection, description and assessment of experiences in ICT-AT education and competences development of persons with disabilities (PwD) of all ages. The conceptual framework represents two interacting learning activity systems: (a) the internal system of the end-user, which includes the end-user and his/her needs, the setting where learning takes place and the other actors involved, and (b) the external system, which embraces the internal system but also wider issues of policy and practice and experiences and 'actors' that contribute to the development and use of ICT and ICT-AT skills in all areas of life. The elements of these systems and their interaction provide the basis for analysing experiences and advancing knowledge relevant for bridging the digital divide.

  5. A modified theoretical framework to assess implementation fidelity of adaptive public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Zabala, Maríadel Carmen; Castro, Marta; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2016-07-08

    One of the major debates in implementation research turns around fidelity and adaptation. Fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is implemented as intended by its developers. It is meant to ensure that the intervention maintains its intended effects. Adaptation is the process of implementers or users bringing changes to the original design of an intervention. Depending on the nature of the modifications brought, adaptation could either be potentially positive or could carry the risk of threatening the theoretical basis of the intervention, resulting in a negative effect on expected outcomes. Adaptive interventions are those for which adaptation is allowed or even encouraged. Classical fidelity dimensions and conceptual frameworks do not address the issue of how to adapt an intervention while still maintaining its effectiveness. We support the idea that fidelity and adaptation co-exist and that adaptations can impact either positively or negatively on the intervention's effectiveness. For adaptive interventions, research should answer the question how an adequate fidelity-adaptation balance can be reached. One way to address this issue is by looking systematically at the aspects of an intervention that are being adapted. We conducted fidelity research on the implementation of an empowerment strategy for dengue prevention in Cuba. In view of the adaptive nature of the strategy, we anticipated that the classical fidelity dimensions would be of limited use for assessing adaptations. The typology we used in the assessment-implemented, not-implemented, modified, or added components of the strategy-also had limitations. It did not allow us to answer the question which of the modifications introduced in the strategy contributed to or distracted from outcomes. We confronted our empirical research with existing literature on fidelity, and as a result, considered that the framework for implementation fidelity proposed by Carroll et al. in 2007 could potentially meet

  6. Employment impacts of selected solar and conventional energy systems: a framework for comparisons and preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeltzer, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary comprehensive analyses of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of selected solar and conventional energy systems are presented. It proposes a framework for analyzing the direct, indirect, induced, displacement, disposable income, and qualitative employment effects of alternative energy systems. The analyses examine current research findings on these effects for a variety of solar and conventional energy sources and compare expected employment impacts. In general, solar energy systems have higher direct and indirect employment requirements than do conventional energy systems. In addition, employment displaced from conventional sources and employment effects due to changes in consumers' disposable income are highly significant variables in net employment comparisons. Analyses of the size and location of projected energy developments suggest that dispersed solar energy systems have a more beneficial impact on host communities than do large conventional facilities, regardless of the relative magnitude of employment per unit of energy output.

  7. The Role of social media discourses on stakeholder crises awareness and perception – A meta-theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper provides a meta-theoretical framework to examine social media communications and crisis communication in these social media through the lens of communicative constitution of reality. Our claim is that discourse and online conversations are significant in shaping publics’ opinions...... of critical situations. When publics are aware, online conversations further serve as a mechanism for publics to discursively shape and construct their own opinions. This paper concludes with the presentation and discussion of two propositions that are based on the proposed meta-theoretical framework that can...

  8. A Framework for Preliminary Design of Aircraft Structures Based on Process Information. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses the general framework and development of a computational tool for preliminary design of aircraft structures based on process information. The described methodology is suitable for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) activities associated with integrated product and process development (IPPD). The framework consists of three parts: (1) product and process definitions; (2) engineering synthesis, and (3) optimization. The product and process definitions are part of input information provided by the design team. The backbone of the system is its ability to analyze a given structural design for performance as well as manufacturability and cost assessment. The system uses a database on material systems and manufacturing processes. Based on the identified set of design variables and an objective function, the system is capable of performing optimization subject to manufacturability, cost, and performance constraints. The accuracy of the manufacturability measures and cost models discussed here depend largely on the available data on specific methods of manufacture and assembly and associated labor requirements. As such, our focus in this research has been on the methodology itself and not so much on its accurate implementation in an industrial setting. A three-tier approach is presented for an IPPD-MDO based design of aircraft structures. The variable-complexity cost estimation methodology and an approach for integrating manufacturing cost assessment into design process are also discussed. This report is presented in two parts. In the first part, the design methodology is presented, and the computational design tool is described. In the second part, a prototype model of the preliminary design Tool for Aircraft Structures based on Process Information (TASPI) is described. Part two also contains an example problem that applies the methodology described here for evaluation of six different design concepts for a wing spar.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of a local coronary heart disease treatment pathway: practical implications and theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Lena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a common medical problem in general practice. Due to its chronic character, shared care of the patient between general practitioner (GP and cardiologist (C is required. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists for patients with CHD, a local treatment pathway was developed. The objective of this study was first to evaluate GPs’ opinions regarding the pathway and its practical implications, and secondly to suggest a theoretical framework of the findings by feeding the identified key factors influencing the pathway implementation into a multi-dimensional model. Methods The evaluation of the pathway was conducted in a qualitative design on a sample of 12 pathway developers (8 GPs and 4 cardiologists and 4 pathway users (GPs. Face-to face interviews, which were aligned with previously conducted studies of the department and assumptions of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, were performed following a semi-structured interview guideline. These were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed according to the standards of qualitative content analysis. Results We identified 10 frequently mentioned key factors having an impact on the implementation success of the CHD treatment pathway. We thereby differentiated between pathway related (pathway content, effort, individual flexibility, ownership, behaviour related (previous behaviour, support, interaction related (patient, shared care/colleagues, and system related factors (context, health care system. The overall evaluation of the CHD pathway was positive, but did not automatically lead to a change of clinical behaviour as some GPs felt to have already acted as the pathway recommends. Conclusions By providing an account of our experience creating and implementing an intersectoral care pathway for CHD, this study contributes to our knowledge of factors that may influence physicians’ decisions regarding the use

  10. Integrated Modeling in Earth and Space Sciences: An Information Theoretic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Kalnay, E.

    2011-12-01

    Most natural phenomena exhibit multiscale behavior, which is an underlying reason for the challenges in modeling them. The recognition that the key problems, such as extreme events, natural hazards and climate change, require multi-disciplinary approaches to develop models that integrate many natural and anthropogenic phenomena, demand new approaches in the modeling of such systems. Information theory, which emphasizes the inherent features in observational data independent of modeling assumptions, can be used to develop a framework for multi-disciplinary models by integrating the data of the leading processes in multiple systems. An important measure of the inter-relationship among the different phenomena is the lead time among them. The widely used quantities such as the cross-correlation function represent the linear dependence among the variables and are limited in their ability to describe complex driven systems which are essentially nonlinear. The mutual information function, which represents the expectation of the average degree of dependence incorporating all orders of nonlinearity, provides the characteristic times inherent in the data and can be used as the first step to the development of integrated models. This function is used in two systems with widely separated time scales. The first case is the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction and the correlated data yield ~ 5 hr as the inherent time scale for the magnetospheric processes. The second case is a study of the inter-relationship between natural and anthropogenic phenomena and the mutual information functions were computed from the data of the global gross product, temperature and population. These functions show a time delay of ~15 yrs between the changes in global temperature and population as well as gross product, thus providing a measure of the interdependency among the variables underlying climate change. The results from studies of extreme events and an information theoretic modeling

  11. Application of a theoretical framework to foster a cardiac-diabetes self-management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-J Jo; Chang, A M

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyses and illustrates the application of Bandura's self-efficacy construct to an innovative self-management programme for patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Using theory as a framework for any health intervention provides a solid and valid foundation for aspects of planning and delivering such an intervention; however, it is reported that many health behaviour intervention programmes are not based upon theory and are consequently limited in their applicability to different populations. The cardiac-diabetes self-management programme has been specifically developed for patients with dual conditions with the strategies for delivering the programme based upon Bandura's self-efficacy theory. This patient group is at greater risk of negative health outcomes than that with a single chronic condition and therefore requires appropriate intervention programmes with solid theoretical foundations that can address the complexity of care required. The cardiac-diabetes self-management programme has been developed incorporating theory, evidence and practical strategies. This paper provides explicit knowledge of the theoretical basis and components of a cardiac-diabetes self-management programme. Such detail enhances the ability to replicate or adopt the intervention in similar or differing populations and/or cultural contexts as it provides in-depth understanding of each element within the intervention. Knowledge of the concepts alone is not sufficient to deliver a successful health programme. Supporting patients to master skills of self-care is essential in order for patients to successfully manage two complex, chronic illnesses. Valuable information has been provided to close the theory-practice gap for more consistent health outcomes, engaging with patients for promoting holistic care within organizational and cultural contexts. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Multinucleon short-range correlation model for nuclear spectral functions: Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Oswaldo; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energies based on the multinucleon short-range correlation (SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows us to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon (2N) SRC with center of mass motion we also derive the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. This approach allows us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contributions to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on two theoretical frameworks for evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred to as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Feynman diagrams to the time ordered noncovariant diagrams by evaluating nucleon spectators in the SRC at their positive energy poles, neglecting explicitly the contribution from vacuum diagrams. In the second approach, referred to as light-front approximation, we formulate the boost invariant nuclear spectral function in the light-front reference frame in which case the vacuum diagrams are generally suppressed and the bound nucleon is described by its light-front variables such as momentum fraction, transverse momentum, and invariant mass.

  13. A Theoretical Framework for Combining Techniques that Probe the Link Between Galaxies and Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, "plateau," knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed "plateau" feature in the stellar mass function at M * ~ 2 × 1010 M sun is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at Mh ~ 1012 M sun from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

  14. A Theoretical Framework for Quality-Aware Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Wu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Although cross-layer has been thought as one of the most effective and efficient ways for multimedia communications over wireless networks and a plethora of research has been done in this area, there is still lacking of a rigorous mathematical model to gain in-depth understanding of cross-layer design tradeoffs, spanning from application layer to physical layer. As a result, many existing cross-layer designs enhance the performance of certain layers at the price of either introducing side effects to the overall system performance or violating the syntax and semantics of the layered network architecture. Therefore, lacking of a rigorous theoretical study makes existing cross-layer designs rely on heuristic approaches which are unable to guarantee sound results efficiently and consistently. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap and develop a new methodological foundation for cross-layer design in wireless multimedia communications. We first introduce a delay-distortion-driven cross-layer optimization framework which can be solved as a large-scale dynamic programming problem. Then, we present new approximate dynamic programming based on significance measure and sensitivity analysis for high-dimensional nonlinear cross-layer optimization in support of real-time multimedia applications. The major contribution of this paper is to present the first rigorous theoretical modeling for integrated cross-layer control and optimization in wireless multimedia communications, providing design insights into multimedia communications over current wireless networks and throwing light on design optimization of the next-generation wireless multimedia systems and networks.

  15. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lou; Francis, Jill; Islam, Rafat; O'Connor, Denise; Patey, Andrea; Ivers, Noah; Foy, Robbie; Duncan, Eilidh M; Colquhoun, Heather; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lawton, Rebecca; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-21

    Implementing new practices requires changes in the behaviour of relevant actors, and this is facilitated by understanding of the determinants of current and desired behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed by a collaboration of behavioural scientists and implementation researchers who identified theories relevant to implementation and grouped constructs from these theories into domains. The collaboration aimed to provide a comprehensive, theory-informed approach to identify determinants of behaviour. The first version was published in 2005, and a subsequent version following a validation exercise was published in 2012. This guide offers practical guidance for those who wish to apply the TDF to assess implementation problems and support intervention design. It presents a brief rationale for using a theoretical approach to investigate and address implementation problems, summarises the TDF and its development, and describes how to apply the TDF to achieve implementation objectives. Examples from the implementation research literature are presented to illustrate relevant methods and practical considerations. Researchers from Canada, the UK and Australia attended a 3-day meeting in December 2012 to build an international collaboration among researchers and decision-makers interested in the advancing use of the TDF. The participants were experienced in using the TDF to assess implementation problems, design interventions, and/or understand change processes. This guide is an output of the meeting and also draws on the authors' collective experience. Examples from the implementation research literature judged by authors to be representative of specific applications of the TDF are included in this guide. We explain and illustrate methods, with a focus on qualitative approaches, for selecting and specifying target behaviours key to implementation, selecting the study design, deciding the sampling strategy, developing study materials, collecting and

  16. A theoretical framework for the incorporation of history in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, James Stephen

    This thesis formulates a theoretical framework for the incorporation of history of science in science teaching, which, it is argued, is essential to laying a stable foundation for instructional design and future empirical studies. It is assumed that the historical approach to teaching science no longer needs defending and that contextual methods are a pedagogically sound approach to learning. Various cognitive and learning theories suggest that there are five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective. On the basis of these five contexts, a model for teaching and learning is constructed, in which the story assumes a major role in engaging the learner affectively. This model is named the Story-Driven Contextual Approach (SDCA). The SDCA is introduced to students by means of a narrative, encouraging students to become actively engaged with the five contexts. In the SDCA, students are seen as novice researchers and the teacher as a research director. The place and nature of the historical science story in science education is a relatively undeveloped area in the literature. This thesis argues that the development of the events in a story proceed in the same fashion as the steps in learning a concept. A structural model of a story consisting of a three-stage temporal sequence, which includes a causative element, is presented and developed. It is argued that the conceptual change process, from a temporal perspective, can also be viewed as a three-stage sequence similar to the story. The story can, in this light, be thought of as the re-enactment of a particular type of learning process. This knowledge about the nature of stories can serve as a guiding principle in the designing and writing of effective stories based on the history of science, which are to be incorporated with the SDCA. The SDCA was tested in a university physics class using a constructed story which portrays the heroic

  17. Theoretical and conceptual framework for a high school pathways to pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awé, Clara; Bauman, Jerry

    2010-10-11

    To determine whether participation in the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy (UIC-COP) Pathways to Pharmacy, an early urban pipeline program, motivated underrepresented minority students to pursue a prepharmacy curriculum in college and choose pharmacy as a career. Over a 4-year period, underrepresented minority high school students participated in a comprehensive 6-week program that included 3 weeks of prepharmacy curriculum and intensive socialization and 3 weeks working as a pharmacy technician in a chain pharmacy. The High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) was administered 3 times to 120 program participants from 2005-2008, with 4 open-ended questions added to the pretest, 3 open-ended questions added to the test administered at the midpoint of the program, and 7 open-ended questions added to the posttest. After completing the program, 88 (75%) of the 120 students enrolled in the college's prepharmacy curriculum and planned to pursue a career in pharmacy, 10 (8%) were not interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy, and 20 (17%) were undecided, compared to the pretest data which showed that 40 (33%) were interested in a career in pharmacy, and 80 (67%) were undecided (p Pharmacy program grounded in both a theoretical and conceptual socialization model framework increased the number of underrepresented minority students in the pipeline to pharmacy schools.

  18. Surfactant-Free Shape Control of Gold Nanoparticles Enabled by Unified Theoretical Framework of Nanocrystal Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Matthew A; Harmsen, Stefan; Pal, Soumik; Zhang, Lihua; Arianna, Gianluca; Lombardi, John R; Drain, Charles Michael; Kircher, Moritz F

    2017-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles have unique properties that are highly dependent on their shape and size. Synthetic methods that enable precise control over nanoparticle morphology currently require shape-directing agents such as surfactants or polymers that force growth in a particular direction by adsorbing to specific crystal facets. These auxiliary reagents passivate the nanoparticles' surface, and thus decrease their performance in applications like catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Here, a surfactant- and polymer-free approach to achieving high-performance gold nanoparticles is reported. A theoretical framework to elucidate the growth mechanism of nanoparticles in surfactant-free media is developed and it is applied to identify strategies for shape-controlled syntheses. Using the results of the analyses, a simple, green-chemistry synthesis of the four most commonly used morphologies: nanostars, nanospheres, nanorods, and nanoplates is designed. The nanoparticles synthesized by this method outperform analogous particles with surfactant and polymer coatings in both catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Extending the theoretical framework for curriculum integration in pre-clinical medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, John; Stentoft, Diana; Montoya, Juny

    2017-08-01

    Curriculum integration is widely discussed in medical education but remains ill defined. Although there is plenty of information on logistical aspects of curriculum integration, little attention has been paid to the contextual issues that emerge from its practice and may complicate students' knowledge integration. Therefore, we aimed to uncover how curriculum integration is manifested through context. We collected data from the official curriculum and interviewed ten participants (including curriculum designers, facilitators, and students) in the bachelor's medical program at Aalborg University. We observed various learning activities focused on pre-clinical education. Inspired by grounded theory, we analyzed the information we gathered. The following theoretical constructs emerged after the inductive analysis: 1) curriculum integration complexity is embedded in the institutional learning perspectives; 2) curriculum integration is used to harmonize conflicting learning perspectives in curriculum practice; 3) curriculum integration creates tensions that self-organize its structure; and 4) curriculum integration becomes visible in collaborative learning spaces. These constructs provide a framework for analyzing curriculum integration in the context in which it is meant to appear, which may assist educationalists to gain a more specific understanding of the term. This may enable effective curriculum integration since contextual issues are addressed in addition to the goals specified in the official curriculum.

  20. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Kathryn E.; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots. PMID:24198797

  1. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area.

  2. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  3. A theoretical and experimental study of hydrogen storage in metal organic framework materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Li, Jing; Chabal, Yves; Langreth, David C.

    2008-03-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, assembled by linking metal ions or clusters through molecular bridges, have been shown to be good candidates for H2 storage. We have been successful in fabricating and characterizing MOFs with increased H2 uptakeootnotetextJ. Y. Lee et al. Adv. Func. Mater., 17, 1255 (2007), though still too low for commercial applications. Here we present a coordinated theoretical-experimental effort to understand the mechanism of H2 adsorption in true MOF materials. Using the completely ab initio van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)ootnotetextM. Dion et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 246401 (2004)^,ootnotetextT. Thonhauser et al. Phys. Rev. B, 76, 125112 (2007) we simulate the interactions of H2 within Zn2(bdc)2(ted). We demonstrate that modeling the entire MOF structure can result in different H2 adsorption geometries, binding energies and vibrational frequencies than observed in calculations on fragments of the MOF. Combining these results with experimental IR vibrational frequency studies may provide insights into modifying MOF structure and composition for enhanced H2 uptake.

  4. Linking predator risk and uncertainty to adaptive forgetting: a theoretical framework and empirical test using tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maud C O; Brown, Grant E; Bortolotti, Gary R; Chivers, Douglas P

    2010-07-22

    Hundreds of studies have examined how prey animals assess their risk of predation. These studies work from the basic tennet that prey need to continually balance the conflicting demands of predator avoidance with activities such as foraging and reproduction. The information that animals gain regarding local predation risk is most often learned. Yet, the concept of 'memory' in the context of predation remains virtually unexplored. Here, our goal was (i) to determine if the memory window associated with predator recognition is fixed or flexible and, if it is flexible, (ii) to identify which factors affect the length of this window and in which ways. We performed an experiment on larval wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, to test whether the risk posed by, and the uncertainty associated with, the predator would affect the length of the tadpoles' memory window. We found that as the risk associated with the predator increases, tadpoles retained predator-related information for longer. Moreover, if the uncertainty about predator-related information increases, then prey use this information for a shorter period. We also present a theoretical framework aiming at highlighting both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that could affect the memory window of information use by prey individuals.

  5. EXAMINING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE IMPORTANCE OF RECYCLING IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi AYBOĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the development of technology and increasing competition, producing goods or services of the business is not enough today. Production forms of business and their pers- pectives on the environment during the production of goods and services are also monitored by the clients. Today, in the matter of ensuring the sustainability of products and hence the company, recycling has come into prominence. With these grounds, in the product life cycle costing in this study, the importance of recycling have been studied in a theoretical framework. For this purpose, basic concepts are primarily explained and product life cycle is compared with traditional costing. Then, employing the importance of recycling and its advantages are described. The presence of shortages of raw materials, the risk of extinction of natural resources and in today’s world where the cost rises, using recycled products decreases operating costs and so customers turn to recycled products with the environmental awareness. Hereat, competitiveness of enterprises, their product sales and market share have increased. In terms of environment, air and water pollution decrease and logging is prevented. During recent years, the creation of renewable resources by recycling will ensure sustainable production and bring a new dimension to the production systems.

  6. The growth threshold conjecture: a theoretical framework for understanding T-cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Clemente F; Herrero, Miguel A; Cuesta, José A; Acosta, Francisco J; Fernández-Arias, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Adaptive immune responses depend on the capacity of T cells to target specific antigens. As similar antigens can be expressed by pathogens and host cells, the question naturally arises of how can T cells discriminate friends from foes. In this work, we suggest that T cells tolerate cells whose proliferation rates remain below a permitted threshold. Our proposal relies on well-established facts about T-cell dynamics during acute infections: T-cell populations are elastic (they expand and contract) and they display inertia (contraction is delayed relative to antigen removal). By modelling inertia and elasticity, we show that tolerance to slow-growing populations can emerge as a population-scale feature of T cells. This result suggests a theoretical framework to understand immune tolerance that goes beyond the self versus non-self dichotomy. It also accounts for currently unexplained observations, such as the paradoxical tolerance to slow-growing pathogens or the presence of self-reactive T cells in the organism.

  7. A Game Theoretic Framework for Incentive-Based Models of Intrinsic Motivation in Artificial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players’ optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  8. A general theoretical framework for understanding essential dynamics of Madden-Julian oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Guosen

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by observed structure of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), a general theoretical model framework is advanced for understanding fundamental aspects of MJO dynamics. The model extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating (a) moisture feedback to precipitation, (b) a trio-interaction among equatorial waves, boundary layer (BL) dynamics, and precipitation, and (c) a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization. The general model with B-M scheme yields a frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, which produces an equatorial planetary-scale, unstable system moving eastward slowly with coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure and BL moisture convergence leading major convection. The moisture feedback in B-M scheme reinforces the coupling between precipitation heating and Rossby waves and enhances the Rossby wave component in the MJO mode, thereby slowing down eastward propagation and resulting in a more realistic horizontal structure. It is, however, the BL frictional convergence feedback that couples equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating and selects a preferred eastward propagation. The eastward propagation speed in the model is inversely related to the relative intensity of the equatorial "Rossby" westerly versus "Kelvin" easterly associated with the MJO. The cumulus parameterization scheme may affect propagation speed through changing MJO horizontal structure. The SST or basic-state moist static energy has a fundamental control on MJO propagation speed and intensification/decay. Model sensitivity to BL and cumulus scheme parameters and ramifications of the model results to general circulation modeling are discussed.

  9. Cultural Psychology of Differences and EMS; a New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Reconstructing Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Serious Game Design: Exploring Pedagogy, Play and Fidelity and Their Implications for the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that digital games can provide an engaging, motivating and "fun" experience for students. However an entertaining game does not necessarily constitute a meaningful, valuable learning experience. For this reason, experts espouse the importance of underpinning serious games with a sound theoretical framework which…

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  12. Introducing the "Serious Games Mechanics": A theoretical framework to analyse relationships between "game" and "pedagogical aspects" of Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttie, Neil; Lim, Theodore; Louchart, Sandy; Macvean, Andrew; Westera, Wim; Brown, Damian; Djaouti, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Suttie, N., Louchart, S., Lim, T., Westera, W., Macvean, A., Djaouti, D., & Brown, D. (2012). Introducing the "Serious Games Mechanics": A theoretical framework to analyse relationships between "game" and "pedagogical aspects" of Serious Games. Procedia Computer Science 15, 314-315. Doi: 10.1016/j.p

  13. Introducing the "Serious Games Mechanics": A theoretical framework to analyse relationships between "game" and "pedagogical aspects" of Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttie, Neil; Louchart, Sandy; Lim, Theo; Westera, Wim; Macvean, Andrew; Djaouti, Damien; Brown, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Suttie, N., Louchart, S., Lim, T., Westera, W., Macvean, A., Djaouti, D., & Brown, D. (2012, 29-31 October). Introducing the "Serious Games Mechanics": A theoretical framework to analyse relationships between "game" and "pedagogical aspects" of Serious Games. Poster presentation at the VS-Games 2012

  14. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  15. Theoretical Framework for the Design and Development of a Personal Identity Profile fostering Interpersonal Trust in Virtual Project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., & Koper, R. (2007). Theoretical framework for the design and development of a personal identity profile fostering interpersonal trust in virtual project teams. Proceedings of the 6th workshop on social intelligence design (pp. 279-286). July, 2-4, 2007, Trento, Italy, Ce

  16. Toward an Instructional Philosophy: "A Theoretical Framework for Teaching and Training at Salman Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qandile, Yasine A.; Al-Qasim, Wajeeh Q.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a clear instructional philosophy for Salman bin Abdulaziz University as a fundamental basis for teaching and training as well as a theoretical framework for curriculum design and development. The study attempts to answer the main questions about pertaining to the basic structure of contemporary higher…

  17. Measuring implementation behaviour of menu guidelines in the childcare setting: confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical domains framework questionnaire (TDFQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Presseau, Justin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2017-04-04

    While there are number of frameworks which focus on supporting the implementation of evidence based approaches, few psychometrically valid measures exist to assess constructs within these frameworks. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically assess a scale measuring each domain of the Theoretical Domains Framework for use in assessing the implementation of dietary guidelines within a non-health care setting (childcare services). A 75 item 14-domain Theoretical Domains Framework Questionnaire (TDFQ) was developed and administered via telephone interview to 202 centre based childcare service cooks who had a role in planning the service menu. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to assess the reliability, discriminant validity and goodness of fit of the 14-domain theoretical domain framework measure. For the CFA, five iterative processes of adjustment were undertaken where 14 items were removed, resulting in a final measure consisting of 14 domains and 61 items. For the final measure: the Chi-Square goodness of fit statistic was 3447.19; the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was 0.070; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.072; and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had a value of 0.78. While only one of the three indices support goodness of fit of the measurement model tested, a 14-domain model with 61 items showed good discriminant validity and internally consistent items. Future research should aim to assess the psychometric properties of the developed TDFQ in other community-based settings.

  18. From Clouds to Protostars: A Theoretical Framework for the Formation of Wide Multiple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Stella

    . They will compare the simulated multiplicity statistics with those observed for protostellar and pre-main sequence sources, and produce synthetic continuum and molecular line observations that can be compared directly with recent ALMA and JVLA survey data. The proposed project will provide a theoretical framework for understanding the relation between wide multiple protostellar systems that form from core fragmentation and their natal core properties. Through the production of synthetic observations, the proposed work will evaluate estimates of protostellar multiplicity completeness limits, assess observational accuracy for derived core properties, and provide observational predictions, all of which are crucial for maximizing the science objectives for current and future surveys.

  19. Mathematical Evidence-theoretic Framework for Information Fusion of Disaster Scene Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The remote sensing community and geospatial industries are embracing the paradigm of 'big data'. This trend is in one hand due to the fact that heterogeneous remote sensors are producing tremendous amounts of earth observation (EO) data every day; on the other hand it is aspired by the promise that big data computing may be the fourth paradigm for scientific discovery. Many traditional techniques have been developed and will continue to be useful to deal with earth-observation big data, for examples, pansharpening, fusion of data with different electromagnetic nature (e.g. color images and SAR images), and use of multi-sensor data for improved land-cover classification. However, two limitations are recognized for these techniques, which include: (1) first, these methods are tightly dependent on a two-dimensional grid scale; and (2) second, temporal, spatial and causal relations are not intelligently treated. These limitations render them insufficient when used to attack the emerging Disaster Scene Big Data (DSBD). DSBD emerges as a geological or climatic hazard unfolds into a disaster. In the example of an earthquake, disaster data starts accruing as the ground shaking is being monitored. Along the time scale, heterogeneous multi-sensor data arise: EO data with various electromagnetic nature, oblique images, airborne/terrestrial active (Lidar) data, and the recently emerged crowdsourcing data. Neither theoretical models nor effective methods exist to date that can sufficiently fuse these data towards revealing the 'ground-truth' of the disaster effects, for example, damage to built objects. This presentation will present an augmented evidence-theoretic framework based on the classical Dempster-Shafer theory. With a focus on reasoning the ground-truth of build-object damage, causal, correlational and relational evidences will be defined considering their temporal and spatial scales. The newly developed graph-based learning approach will be explored for estimating

  20. The Role of the Media in Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan Naveh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper maintains that the media is involved in all stages of foreign policy formulation processes and that political leaders take the media into consideration in its national and international aspects. Moreover, the paper argues that this double-edged media environment is considered mainly in the publication, or media management stage. The involvement of the media in this decision-making process is complex. When an external, international event occurs, political leaders learn about it from the media. This information is processed through various image components and than the policy or decision-formulating process is set in motion. Media advisors and PR professionals participate in the process, officials consult with them and consider their advice. Finally, they take the media into account when they define their policy and match to it the appropriate media tools. Past studies of foreign policy decision-making neglected to deal with this complex role of the media. They described the media (if at all as one of the channels of informing leaders of international events, as input for the decision-making process. Actual reality demonstrates that this perspective minimizes the place of the media and therefore it should be dealt theoretically as well as in applied research case studies using a more complex approach emphasizing the crucial role of the media in foreign policy. The paper develops and presents a framework for the analysis of foreign policy decision-making which tries to compensate for some of the flaws of existing models in the field, incorporating the complex processes of media input into decision-making, as well as reflecting the role of the press and TV in the formulation stage of policy-making.

  1. A theoretical framework for analyzing coupled neuronal networks: Application to the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Andrea K; Gautam, Shree Hari; Shew, Woodrow L; Ly, Cheng

    2017-10-02

    Determining how synaptic coupling within and between regions is modulated during sensory processing is an important topic in neuroscience. Electrophysiological recordings provide detailed information about neural spiking but have traditionally been confined to a particular region or layer of cortex. Here we develop new theoretical methods to study interactions between and within two brain regions, based on experimental measurements of spiking activity simultaneously recorded from the two regions. By systematically comparing experimentally-obtained spiking statistics to (efficiently computed) model spike rate statistics, we identify regions in model parameter space that are consistent with the experimental data. We apply our new technique to dual micro-electrode array in vivo recordings from two distinct regions: olfactory bulb (OB) and anterior piriform cortex (PC). Our analysis predicts that: i) inhibition within the afferent region (OB) has to be weaker than the inhibition within PC, ii) excitation from PC to OB is generally stronger than excitation from OB to PC, iii) excitation from PC to OB and inhibition within PC have to both be relatively strong compared to presynaptic inputs from OB. These predictions are validated in a spiking neural network model of the OB-PC pathway that satisfies the many constraints from our experimental data. We find when the derived relationships are violated, the spiking statistics no longer satisfy the constraints from the data. In principle this modeling framework can be adapted to other systems and be used to investigate relationships between other neural attributes besides network connection strengths. Thus, this work can serve as a guide to further investigations into the relationships of various neural attributes within and across different regions during sensory processing.

  2. A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellart Antonius JM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to communication behaviour, communication behaviour itself, and satisfaction with communication behaviour in a medical disability assessment context. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation of a model for the communication behaviour of physicians performing medical disability assessments in a social insurance context and of their claimants, in face-to-face encounters during medical disability assessment interviews and the preparation thereof. Conceptualisation The behavioural model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, is conceptualised for the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants separately, but also combined during the assessment interview. Other important concepts in the model are the evaluation of communication behaviour (satisfaction, intentions, attitudes, skills, and barriers for communication. Conclusion The conceptualisation of the TPB-based behavioural model will help to provide insight into the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants during disability assessment interviews. After empirical testing of the relationships in the model, it can be used in other studies to obtain more insight into communication behaviour in non-curative medicine, and it could help social insurance physicians to adapt their communication behaviour to their task when performing disability assessments.

  3. E-loyalty towards a cancer information website: applying a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Beekers, Nienke; van Eenbergen, Mies; Becker, Monique; Jongen, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2014-06-01

    To provide more insight into user perceptions related to e-loyalty towards a cancer information website. This is needed to assure adequate provision of high quality information during the full process of cancer treatment-from diagnosis to after care-and an important first step towards optimizing cancer information websites in order to promote e-loyalty. Participants were cancer patients (n = 63) and informal caregivers (n = 202) that visited a website providing regional information about cancer care for all types of cancer. Subsequently, they filled out a questionnaire assessing e-loyalty towards the website and user perceptions (efficiency, effectiveness, active trust and enjoyment) based on a theoretical framework derived from the field of e-commerce. A structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships between user perceptions and e-loyalty. Participants in general could find the information they were looking for (efficiency), thought it was relevant (effectiveness) and that they could act upon it (active trust) and thought the visit itself was pleasant (enjoyment). Effectiveness and enjoyment were both positively related with e-loyalty, but this was mediated by active trust. Efficiency was positively related with e-loyalty. The explained variance of e-loyalty was high (R(2)  = 0.70). This study demonstrates that the importance of user perceptions is not limited to fields such as e-commerce but is also present within the context of cancer information websites. The high information need among participants might explain the positive relationship between efficiency and e-loyalty. Therefore, cancer information websites need to foster easy search and access of information provided. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of capacity building programme of district health managers in India: a contextualised theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S ePrashanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the South Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organisations partnered with the state government to organise a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organisational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at ¬individual, institutional and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesised mechanisms of organisational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organisations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context-mechanism-outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome.

  5. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  6. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  7. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  8. Optimizing annotation resources for natural language de-identification via a game theoretic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Muqun; Carrell, David; Aberdeen, John; Hirschman, Lynette; Kirby, Jacqueline; Li, Bo; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Malin, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    de-identification of the HCO are 0.86 and 0.8, respectively. A game-based approach enables a more refined cost-benefit tradeoff, improving both privacy and utility for the HCO. For example, our investigation shows that it is possible for an HCO to release the data without spending all their budget on de-identification and still deter the attacker, with a precision of 0.77 and a recall of 0.61 for the de-identification. There also exist scenarios in which the model indicates an HCO should not release any data because the risk is too great. In addition, we find that the practice of paying fines back to a HCO (an artifact of suing for breach of contract), as opposed to a third party such as a federal regulator, can induce an elevated level of data sharing risk, where the HCO is incentivized to bait the attacker to elicit compensation. A game theoretic framework can be applied in leading HCO's to optimized decision making in natural language de-identification investments before sharing EMR data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  10. Patients' perceptions and experiences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review and framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; Holland, Carol; Pattison, Helen M; Cooke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This review provides a worked example of 'best fit' framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of health psychology theories as an a priori framework in the synthesis of qualitative evidence. Framework synthesis works best with 'policy urgent' questions. The review question selected was: what are patients' experiences of prevention programmes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes? The significance of these conditions is clear: CVD claims more deaths worldwide than any other; diabetes is a risk factor for CVD and leading cause of death. A systematic review and framework synthesis were conducted. This novel method for synthesizing qualitative evidence aims to make health psychology theory accessible to implementation science and advance the application of qualitative research findings in evidence-based healthcare. Findings from 14 original studies were coded deductively into the TDF and subsequently an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Synthesized findings produced six themes relating to: knowledge, beliefs, cues to (in)action, social influences, role and identity, and context. A conceptual model was generated illustrating combinations of factors that produce cues to (in)action. This model demonstrated interrelationships between individual (beliefs and knowledge) and societal (social influences, role and identity, context) factors. Several intervention points were highlighted where factors could be manipulated to produce favourable cues to action. However, a lack of transparency of behavioural components of published interventions needs to be corrected and further evaluations of acceptability in relation to patient experience are required. Further work is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the TDF as an a priori framework for 'policy urgent' questions using 'best fit' framework synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-07-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research.

  12. What can triple helix frameworks offer to the analysis of eco-innovation dynamics? Theoretical and methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Remmen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Bringing environmental concerns into focus of innovation processes will in several cases also expand the numbers of actors involved. Eco-innovation and triple helix are often frameworks applied to analyse how environmental concerns are integrated in the innovation processes and how different...... stakeholder groups are interacting in this connection. Taking the triple helix as the theoretical departure point, this paper discusses the opportunities offered by these triple helix frameworks for analyzing eco-innovation dynamics from both theoretical and practical perspectives. It adds to the debate about...... stakeholder dynamics in eco-innovation processes by using the discourse of a proactive company to argue for the need for, and a conceptual framing of, a fourth actor in the helix of eco-innovation....

  13. Fish stock assessment under data limitations developing a new method based on a size-structured theoretical ecology framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros

    -series. The method provides estimates of fishing mortality and the FMSY reference point, it is tested and validated, and is implemented as software package making it easy to use by stakeholders of different levels. The basis of the method is a size-based theoretical ecology framework that describes exploited fish...... for fish stocks that are not assessed. The goal of the thesis is to develop a new data-limited stock assessment method that is: rooted in theoretical ecology, requires only information about the size composition of the catch or surveys (i.e. aging is not required), and does not require time......-likelihood optimisation framework to estimate model parameters. The data-limited method estimates at the same time the fishing mortality rate and the biological reference point FMSY . Minimum data requirements consist of a single size frequency distribution fromthe commercial catch or a scientific survey. If the total...

  14. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  15. Theoretical Framework and Modeling of Service System%服务系统理论架构与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枫林; 张银

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework of service system based on the theory of system science,and studied some related notions,such as the composition of a system,the relationship between systems,the system hierarchy structure,the evolution of a system,etc.In the next section,we discussed the modeling of service system and the future research work.

  16. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Road Safety Performance Indicators and a Methodology for Creating a Performance Index

    OpenAIRE

    HERMANS, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with road safety performance indicators. Three main objectives are postulated. First, to introduce the concept of road safety performance indicators. This involves summarising essential information on indicators in general and road safety performance indicators in particular. Second, to develop a set of (best needed and best available) safety performance indicators. The selection of these indicators results from the elaboration of the theoretical framework. Th...

  17. Rehabilitation goal setting with community dwelling adults with acquired brain injury: a theoretical framework derived from clinicians' reflections on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah

    2017-06-11

    The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice. The framework incorporates three phases: a needs identification phase, a goal operationalisation phase, and an intervention phase. Contextual factors, including personal and environmental influences, also affect how clinicians and clients engage in this process. Clinicians use additional strategies to support clients with impaired self-awareness. These include structured communication and metacognitive strategies to operationalise goals. For clients with emotional distress, clinicians provide additional time and intervention directed at new identity development. The goal setting practice framework may guide clinician's understanding of how to engage in client-centred goal setting in brain injury rehabilitation. There is a predilection towards a client-centred goal setting approach in the community setting, however, contextual factors can inhibit implementation of this approach. Implications for Rehabilitation The theoretical framework describes processes used to develop achievable client-centred goals with people with brain injury. Building rapport is a core strategy to engage clients with brain injury in goal setting. Clients with self-awareness impairment benefit from additional metacognitive strategies to participate in goal setting. Clients with emotional distress may need additional time for new identity development.

  18. A Preliminary Theoretical Analysis of a Research Experience for Undergraduates Community Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Garsow, Carlos; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Woodley, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    The Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) is a successful summer research experience for undergraduates, with a strong record of mentoring Ph.D. graduates, particularly, underrepresented minority students. However, the MTBI program was designed for education in research, not for research in education, and the mechanisms of the…

  19. ACES-Based Testbed and Bayesian Game-Theoretic Framework for Dynamic Airspace Configuration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of algorithms and a framework for automated Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) using a cooperative Bayesian...

  20. Understanding end-user support for health information technology: a theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Shachak

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion The proposed framework may be a useful tool for describing and characterising enduser support for HIT. it may also be used by decision makers and implementation leaders for planning purposes.

  1. Why SOV might be initially preferred and then lost or recovered? A theoretical framework

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about why SOV order is initially preferred and then discarded or recovered. Here we present a framework for understanding these and many related word order phenomena: the diversity of dominant orders, the existence of free words orders, the need of alternative word orders and word order reversions and cycles in evolution. Under that framework, word order is regarded as a multiconstraint satisfaction problem in which at least two constraints are in conflict: online memory minimization and maximum predictability.

  2. [Analysis of the meridian-collateral theoretical framework and the conceptual annotation of YANG Shangshan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbin

    2016-02-01

    When classifying and compiling Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic), YANG Shangshan had constructed the systematic framework of the meridian-collateral theory. It has been found in the investigation of Huangdi Neijing Taisu (Grand Simplicity of The Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) that YANG Shangshan constructed the meridian-collateral systematic framework on the foundation of meridian theory. This framework includes two parts. One is the twelve meridians and the other one is the eight extra meridians, in which, the divergent meridians are derived from the regular meridians, and the collaterals, the cutaneous regions of meridians, genjie and biaoben are attributive to the regular meridians. The theory of the jingjin of meridians should be different from meridian-collateral system. YANG Shangshan constructed and annotated the meridian-collateral system, interpreting his unique thinking and analytic foundation. Being one of the forms of meridian-collateral theory at the early stage, YANG Shangshan's discovery deserves to be considered.

  3. Theoretical framework for the histone modification network: modifications in the unstructured histone tails form a robust scale-free network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yohei; Senda, Toshiya; Sano, Norihiko; Horikoshi, Masami

    2009-07-01

    A rapid increase in research on the relationship between histone modifications and their subsequent reactions in the nucleus has revealed that the histone modification system is complex, and robust against point mutations. The prevailing theoretical framework (the histone code hypothesis) is inadequate to explain either the complexity or robustness, making the formulation of a new theoretical framework both necessary and desirable. Here, we develop a model of the regulatory network of histone modifications in which we encode histone modifications as nodes and regulatory interactions between histone modifications as links. This network has scale-free properties and subnetworks with a pseudo-mirror symmetry structure, which supports the robustness of the histone modification network. In addition, we show that the unstructured tail regions of histones are suitable for the acquisition of this scale-free property. Our model and related insights provide the first framework for an overall architecture of a histone modification network system, particularly with regard to the structural and functional roles of the unstructured histone tail region. In general, the post-translational "modification webs" of natively unfolded regions (proteins) may function as signal routers for the robust processing of the large amounts of signaling information.

  4. A Framework to Measure the Service Quality of Distributor with Fuzzy Graph Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of fuzzy logic and graph theoretic approach has been used to find the service quality of distributor in a manufacturing supply chain management. This combination is termed as the fuzzy graph theoretic (FGT approach. Initially the identified factors were grouped by SPSS (statistical package for social science software and then the digraph approach was applied. The interaction and inheritance values were calculated by fuzzy graph theory approach in terms of permanent function. Then a single numerical index was calculated by using permanent function which indicates the distributor service quality. This method can be used to compare the service quality of different distributors.

  5. Critical Argument and Writer Identity: Social Constructivism as a Theoretical Framework for EFL Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article makes the argument that we need to situate student's academic writing as socially constructed pieces of writing that embody a writer's cultural identity and critical argument. In support, I present and describe a comprehensive model of an original English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing analytical framework. This article explains…

  6. Critical Argument and Writer Identity: Social Constructivism as a Theoretical Framework for EFL Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article makes the argument that we need to situate student's academic writing as socially constructed pieces of writing that embody a writer's cultural identity and critical argument. In support, I present and describe a comprehensive model of an original English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing analytical framework. This article explains…

  7. Exploring Asynchrony as a Theoretical Framework for Understanding Giftedness: A Case of Cognitive Dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…

  8. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  9. Coherent evolution of parahydrogen induced polarisation using laser pump, NMR probe spectroscopy: Theoretical framework and experimental observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Meghan E; Procacci, Barbara; Henshaw, Sarah-Louise; Perutz, Robin N; Duckett, Simon B

    2017-05-01

    We recently reported a pump-probe method that uses a single laser pulse to introduce parahydrogen (p-H2) into a metal dihydride complex and then follows the time-evolution of the p-H2-derived nuclear spin states by NMR. We present here a theoretical framework to describe the oscillatory behaviour of the resultant hyperpolarised NMR signals using a product operator formalism. We consider the cases where the p-H2-derived protons form part of an AX, AXY, AXYZ or AA'XX' spin system in the product molecule. We use this framework to predict the patterns for 2D pump-probe NMR spectra, where the indirect dimension represents the evolution during the pump-probe delay and the positions of the cross-peaks depend on the difference in chemical shift of the p-H2-derived protons and the difference in their couplings to other nuclei. The evolution of the NMR signals of the p-H2-derived protons, as well as the transfer of hyperpolarisation to other NMR-active nuclei in the product, is described. The theoretical framework is tested experimentally for a set of ruthenium dihydride complexes representing the different spin systems. Theoretical predictions and experimental results agree to within experimental error for all features of the hyperpolarised (1)H and (31)P pump-probe NMR spectra. Thus we establish the laser pump, NMR probe approach as a robust way to directly observe and quantitatively analyse the coherent evolution of p-H2-derived spin order over micro-to-millisecond timescales. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, S B; Guzmán, F; Di Marco, A; García, F; Rodríguez, O; Gonçalves, M

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the effective liquid drop model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer (VMAS) and Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient (WW). The calculated half lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. These comparisons show that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified, theoretical framework. A table listing the predicted half-life values, tau sub c , is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear breakup such that -7.30 -17.0, where tau is the total half life of the parent nucleus.

  11. Measuring molecular reorientation at liquid surfaces with time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2009-05-28

    A theoretical framework is presented for the design and analysis of ultrafast time- and polarization-resolved surface vibrational spectroscopy, aimed at elucidating surface molecular reorientational motion in real time. Vibrational excitation with linearly polarized light lifts the azimuthal symmetry of the surface transition-dipole distribution, causing marked, time-dependent changes in the surface sum-frequency generation (SFG) intensity. The subsequent recovery of the SFG signal generally reflects both vibrational relaxation and reorientational motion of surface molecules. We present experimental schemes that allow direct quantification of the time scale of surface molecular reorientational diffusive motion.

  12. The Development Of A Theoretical Lean Culture Causal Framework To Support The Effective Implementation Of Lean In Automotive Component Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Merwe, Karl Robert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the role that culture plays in the effective implementation of lean manufacturing principles and techniques. The ultimate aim of this exercise is to develop a theoretical lean culture causal framework.

  13. A theoretical and computational setting for a geometrically nonlinear gradient damage modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjar, B.

    The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  14. Assigning Function to Adult-Born Neurons: A Theoretical Framework for Characterizing Neural Manipulation of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHersman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientists are concerned with neural processes or computations, but these may not be directly observable. In the field of learning, a behavioral procedure is observed to lead to performance outcomes, but differing inferences on underlying internal processes can lead to difficulties in interpreting conflicting results. An example of this challenge is how many functions have been attributed to adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Some of these functions were suggested by computational models of the properties of these neurons, while others were hypothesized after manipulations of adult-born neurons resulted in changes to behavioral metrics. This review seeks to provide a framework, based in learning theory classification of behavioral procedures, of the processes that may be underlying behavioral results after manipulating procedure and observing performance. We propose that this framework can serve to clarify experimental findings on adult-born neurons as well as other classes of neural manipulations and their effects on behavior.

  15. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms.

  16. Theoretical prediction of the mechanical properties of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs)

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2017-08-25

    A good resistance against mechanical stress is essential for the utilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in practical applications such as gas sorption, separation, catalysis or energy conversion. Here, we report on the successful modification of the mechanical properties of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) achieved through a substitution of the terminal group. The mechanical modulus of SALEM-2 was found to significantly improve when the -H groups at position 2 of the imidazole linkers were replaced with electron withdrawing groups (-CHO, -Cl, or -Br). The charge distribution and electron density were analyzed to reveal the mechanism behind the observed variation of the elastic stiffness. Furthermore, ZIF-I with a -I group at position 2 of the imidazole linkers was predicted to exhibit an excellent mechanical strength in our study and then prepared experimentally. The results indicate that an inconspicuous change of the structure of ZIFs, i.e., additional groups strengthening the ZnN4 tetrahedron, will lead to a stiffer framework.

  17. Beyond k-Anonymity: A Decision Theoretic Framework for Assessing Privacy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Lebanon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An important issue any organization or individual has to face when managing data containing sensitive information, is the risk that can be incurred when releasing such data. Even though data may be sanitized before being released, it is still possible for an adversary to reconstruct the original data using additional information thus resulting in privacy violations. To date, however, a systematic approach to quantify such risks is not available. In this paper we develop a framework, based on statistical decision theory, that assesses the relationship between the disclosed data and the resulting privacy risk. We model the problem of deciding which data to disclose, in terms of deciding which disclosure rule to apply to a database. We assess the privacy risk by taking into account both the entity identification and the sensitivity of the disclosed information. Furthermore, we prove that, under some conditions, the estimated privacy risk is an upper bound on the true privacy risk. Finally, we relate our framework with the k-anonymity disclosure method. The proposed framework makes the assumptions behind k-anonymity explicit, quantifies them, and extends them in several natural directions.

  18. A dynamic systems approach to psychotherapy: A meta-theoretical framework for explaining psychotherapy change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Multimodes and multiple representations: theoretical frameworks and semiotic perspectives for scientific concepts learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the scientific knowledge is necessarily linked to a peculiar type language that uses a variety of representations and several discursive manners to communicate them. To understand that knowledge involves giving significance to those representations. For that perspective, this work highlights some theoretical concepts of the semiotic science with the purpose of accomplishing a reflection regarding the students' difficulties with the scientific representations. The reflections that will be place are based in recent researches that are participating in studies of the mathematical and scientific education, but substantial portion of the theme in focus has been privileged by investigations of the first study area. With that procedure, we firstly have the intention transposing important theoretical reflections of mathematical education area to scientific education, entrusting to be contributing with the conceptual refinement of this last one, as while analytic referential that subsidizes the mathematical education it is shown capable to supply a theoretical panorama equally valid to refine scientific education. With that, we tried to converge two knowledge areas that come practically developing in independent way, making it possible an intellectual enrichment. In a second moment, we still join works of an incipient research area in scientific education that investigates the pedagogic influences that have multi-modal and multiple representations in the construction of the scientific meanings. Besides trying to show a direct continuity with the previous theme, we tried to establish relationships with other concepts and theories of the literature in scientific education. Nevertheless, the essence of the work is to attempting for the semiotic theme as promising field of study to understand the nature of the difficulties of learning of the scientific representations, allowing with its theoretical concepts to bring new light to the problems of

  20. A Game Theoretic Framework for Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society Authorized licensed use limited to: ROME AFB. Downloaded on July 20,2010 at 10:57:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions...from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. sensor network using repeated stage games [19]. A game theoretic energy balance routing (GTEBR) algorithm has...AFB. Downloaded on July 20,2010 at 10:57:32 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. Fig. 1 shows node w as the receiver under consideration. Node

  1. Aggregate demand, endogenous money, and debt: a Keynesian critique of Keen and an alternative theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Keynesian critique of Steve Keen's treatment of the aggregate demand–credit–endogenous money nexus. It argues his analytic intuition is correct but is developed in the wrong direction. Keen's fundamental relation describing determination of AD in an endogenous credit money economy suffers from two flaws. First, it neglects the core Keynesian problematic of leakages from and injections into the circular flow of income. Second, it falls into the theoretical morass rega...

  2. State-of-the-Art: Research Theoretical Framework of Information Systems Implementation Research in the Health Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetteh, Godwin Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the state-of-the-art of reference theories and theoretical framework of information systems implementation research in the health industry in the Sub-Saharan countries from a process perspective. A process – variance framework, Poole et al, (2000), Markus & Robey, (1988......, CINAHL, Science Direct and Emerald, we identified 41 published research articles that met our inclusion criteria. The articles were mapped unto the process-variance framework. A significant finding in this critical review is that, the state-of-the-art of a large proportion of the studies was underpinned...... the process theoretical framework to enhance our insight into successful information systems implementation in the region. It is our optimism that the process based theoretical framework will be useful for, information system practitioners and organisational managers and researchers in the health sector...

  3. What would a theory of interprofessional education look like? Some suggestions for developing a theoretical framework for teamwork training 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2006-12-01

    Much of the literature on interprofessional education (IPE) is descriptive, anecdotal, and atheoretical. To advance both practice and research in this field, IPE needs to develop theoretical frameworks that: (i) identify major concepts to guide the development of course and program structures and processes, (ii) specify learning objectives and effective methods for their achievement, (iii) suggest appropriate roles for faculty and students in the educational process, and (iv) aid in research and assessment of program impacts and outcomes. Following an exploration of what theory should mean and the role it might play in advancing IPE, this discussion surveys five different theoretical approaches for guidance in developing an IPE framework: (i) cooperative, collaborative, or social learning; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) epistemology and ontology of interdisciplinary inquiry; (iv) cognitive and ethical student development; and (v) education of the reflective practitioner. Common themes are discussed and their implications for IPE are explored. These include: (i) social context of collaborative and experiential learning, (ii) epistemology and ontology, facts and values, (iii) importance of reflection, and (iv) implications for student and faculty roles. Overall, this discussion aims to foster continued dialogue, discussion, and debate on the need for, and the role of, theory in IPE.

  4. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  5. Designing Thought,Technical Line and Some Theoretical Issues on Geospatial Digital Framework of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the developing tendency of present China's basic GIS,this paper discusses the designing idea for scales of 1∶10 000,1∶50 000,1∶250 000 and 1∶1 000 000 pyramidlike multilayer and multiresolution of the basic GIS.A technical line for the construction of basic GIS of the whole country and various provinces for sustainable development is put forward.And some important theoretical GIS issues touched by the technical process are discussed.

  6. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management – Part 1: Theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM. The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.

  7. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  8. Theory of mind and paranoia in schizophrenia: a game theoretical investigation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin K S; Chen, Eric Y H

    2011-11-01

    INTRODUCTION. Ample evidence already shows that theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to critically review this literature. METHOD. We completed a selected review of the research literature on ToM in schizophrenia. RESULTS. Gaps in ToM research were identified. A specific relationship between impaired ToM and paranoid delusions, although intuitively reasonable from a theoretical basis, has only been demonstrated in a few studies. Psychometric properties of ToM tasks employed in these studies may be a confounding factor in drawing conclusions about the relationship. Because most ToM measures have focused on the third-person perspective, participants are not actively interacting. The tasks fail to capture the cognitive demands faced by individuals in real-life situations, and, in effect, are not a direct measure of ToM. CONCLUSIONS. Potential research areas are discussed. Since game theoretical paradigms require the direct involvement of the first person and situate the participant's interpersonal reasoning within an interactive context, they provide more ecologically valid experimental platforms than conventional questionnaire measures to assess ToM in schizophrenia research.

  9. On the theoretical framework of magnetized outflows from stellar-mass black holes and related observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly non-linear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behaviour may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion discs is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  10. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, D M; Kazanas, D; Steiner, J F; Papadopoulos, D B; Laycock, S G T

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the \\cite{bla77} model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assume...

  11. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): a useful theoretical framework for guiding and evaluating a guideline implementation process in a hospital-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimaier, Helga E; Heckemann, Birgit; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in healthcare settings is a complex intervention involving both independent and interdependent components. Although the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) has never been evaluated in a practical context, it appeared to be a suitable theoretical framework to guide an implementation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness, applicability and usefulness of the CFIR in the implementation of a fall-prevention CPG in nursing practice to improve patient care in an Austrian university teaching hospital setting. The evaluation of the CFIR was based on (1) team-meeting minutes, (2) the main investigator's research diary, containing a record of a before-and-after, mixed-methods study design embedded in a participatory action research (PAR) approach for guideline implementation, and (3) an analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected from graduate and assistant nurses in two Austrian university teaching hospital departments. The CFIR was used to organise data per and across time point(s) and assess their influence on the implementation process, resulting in implementation and service outcomes. Overall, the CFIR could be demonstrated to be a comprehensive framework for the implementation of a guideline into a hospital-based nursing practice. However, the CFIR did not account for some crucial factors during the planning phase of an implementation process, such as consideration of stakeholder aims and wishes/needs when implementing an innovation, pre-established measures related to the intended innovation and pre-established strategies for implementing an innovation. For the CFIR constructs reflecting & evaluating and engaging, a more specific definition is recommended. The framework and its supplements could easily be used by researchers, and their scope was appropriate for the complexity of a prospective CPG-implementation project. The CFIR facilitated qualitative data

  12. A Critical Review of the Use of Wenger's Community of Practice (CoP) Theoretical Framework in Online and Blended Learning Research, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sedef Uzuner; Hayes, Suzanne; Shea, Peter

    2017-01-01

    After presenting a brief overview of the key elements that underpin Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (CoP) theoretical framework, one of the most widely cited and influential conceptions of social learning, this paper reviews extant empirical work grounded in this framework to investigate online/blended learning in higher education and in…

  13. Exploring behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Effective and efficient medication reporting processes are essential in promoting patient safety. Few qualitative studies have explored reporting of medication errors by health professionals, and none have made reference to behavioural theories. The objective was to describe and understand the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This was a qualitative study comprising face-to-face, semi-structured interviews within three major medical/surgical hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. Health professionals were sampled purposively in strata of profession and years of experience. The semi-structured interview schedule focused on behavioural determinants around medication error reporting, facilitators, barriers and experiences. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF; a framework of theories of behaviour change) was used as a coding framework. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all participating hospital ethics committees. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing ten nurses, ten pharmacists and nine physicians. Whilst it appeared that patient safety and organisational improvement goals and intentions were behavioural determinants which facilitated reporting, there were key determinants which deterred reporting. These included the beliefs of the consequences of reporting (lack of any feedback following reporting and impacting professional reputation, relationships and career progression), emotions (fear and worry) and issues related to the environmental context (time taken to report). These key behavioural determinants which negatively impact error reporting can facilitate the development of an intervention, centring on organisational safety and reporting culture, to enhance reporting effectiveness and efficiency.

  14. Factors that influence effective perioperative temperature management by anesthesiologists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Patey, Andrea M; Baron, Justine S; Mohamed, Karim; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Bryson, Gregory L; Brehaut, Jamie C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-06-01

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Safe and effective warming techniques exist to prevent IPH; however, IPH remains common. This study aimed to identify factors that anesthesiologists perceive may influence temperature management during the perioperative period. After Research Ethics Board approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff anesthesiologists at a Canadian academic hospital. An interview guide based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to capture 14 theoretical domains that may influence temperature management. The interview transcripts were coded using direct content analysis to generate specific beliefs and to identify relevant TDF domains perceived to influence temperature management behaviour. Data saturation was achieved after 15 interviews. The following nine theoretical domains were identified as relevant to designing an intervention for practices in perioperative temperature management: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, memory/attention/decision-making, environmental context and resources, social/professional role/identity, social influences, and behavioural regulation. Potential target areas to improve temperature management practices include interventions that address information needs about individual temperature management behaviour as well as patient outcome (feedback), increasing awareness of possible temperature management strategies and guidelines, and a range of equipment and surgical team dynamics that influence temperature management. This study identified several potential target areas for future interventions from nine of the TDF behavioural domains that anesthesiologists perceive to drive their temperature management practices. Future interventions that aim to close the evidence-practice gap in perioperative temperature management may include these targets.

  15. Towards a theoretical basis for students' alternative frameworks in science and for science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian L.; Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.

    1993-12-01

    As there is nothing as practical as a good theory, there is a continuing need in the field of science education enquiry to look for theories which help to interpret the findings about students' alternative frameworks and to inform the design of teaching strategies which relate to a research focus on ‘how the student learns’. The developmental model of cognitive functioning based on the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982) as updated in 1991 (Biggs & Collis, 1991; Collis & Biggs, 1991) is being applied in this way. Questionnaire data from two large studies of science learning of Australian students (conducted by ACER and NBEET) are being re-analysed in terms of the current theory. This paper illustrates the theory and describes a plan of further research.

  16. General Framework and Advanced Information Theoretical Results on Eigenmode MIMO Channel Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sykora

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides general and deep investigation of adaptationstrategies based on the channel inversion policy regarding wide varietyof channel modes. Our novel approach to the eigenmode space MIMOchannel inversion policy relies on the eigenmode space reductionproviding zero transmission outage probability regardless of theinstantaneous channel fading realization. Very detailed survey of thefeatures of channel capacity is provided in analytical closed formexpressions supported by many particular numerical results (Alamoutischeme is included. The correlated MIMO channel is involved into ourtreatment as well. We also address the trade-off between the capacityand transmission outage probability. The novel results are developed inthe general framework with exhaustive summary of well known SISO andSIMO results.

  17. Development of habits through apprenticeship in a community: DHAC theoretical framework of physics teacher preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Etkina, Eugenia; Vokos, Stamatis

    2015-01-01

    The DHAC framework builds on the contemporary understanding of teacher preparation and strives to provide a better understanding of the process of learning to teach physics. Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that pre-service teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching means. However, despite having developed the requisite dispositions, knowledge and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We therefore argue that the missing link between intentional decision-making and actual teaching practice are the teacher's habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues). Teachers unavoidably develop habits w...

  18. A Network Approach to Environmental Impact in Psychotic Disorder: Brief Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; Borsboom, Denny; van Os, Jim; Guloksuz, Sinan

    2016-07-01

    The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel psychometric framework for the study of mental disorders. Using general population data, we construct network models for the relation between 3 environmental risk factors (cannabis use, developmental trauma, and urban environment), dimensional measures of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobic anxiety, somatizations, and hostility), and a composite measure of psychosis expression. Results indicate the existence of specific paths between environmental factors and symptoms. These paths most often involve cannabis use. In addition, the analyses suggest that symptom networks are more strongly connected for people exposed to environmental risk factors, implying that environmental exposure may lead to less resilient symptom networks.

  19. Electron–deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosyn W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Electron–Ion Collider (EIC would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n and measurement of its recoil momentum (“spectator tagging”. Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron’s partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light–front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x and report about on-going developments.

  20. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  1. Electron-deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosyn, Wim B. [University of Ghent, Belgium; Guzey, Vadim A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300, Russia; Sargsian, Misak M. [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Strikman, Mark M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n) and measurement of its recoil momentum ("spectator tagging''). Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron's partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light-front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x) and report about on-going developments.

  2. Evolution of Organic Agriculture within Theoretical Frameworks of Structural Change and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    of agricultural structural change. We have three different but intertwined treadmills: a product-, land market- and credit treadmill. Our conclusion is that the greatest reason for the first two treadmills is the scarcity of land. The rule of scarcity is a fundamental rule and must be part of any agricultural...... agriculture. The two competing systems of technology operate with different principles. While in principle organic agriculture internalise conventional agriculture seeks to externalise cost into price. Besides, the external economy of conventional agriculture may be larger and create larger economic synergy...... of agricultural structural change. Because organic agriculture is a niche, it is a transformation with an unexploited potential. Whether organic agriculture is a fourth and non-niche transformation is an issue for prediction. The link between transformation and organic agriculture opens up for a theoretical...

  3. Responsive feeding is embedded in a theoretical framework of responsive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Aboud, Frances E

    2011-03-01

    Children throughout the world are confronted with growth problems ranging from underweight and stunting to overweight and obesity. The development of healthy eating behaviors depends on both healthy food and responsive parenting behaviors. With origins from anthropology, psychology, and nutrition, responsive parenting reflects reciprocity between child and caregiver, conceptualized as a 4-step mutually responsive process: 1) the caregiver creates a routine, structure, expectations, and emotional context that promote interaction; 2) the child responds and signals to the caregiver; 3) the caregiver responds promptly in a manner that is emotionally supportive, contingent, and developmentally appropriate; and 4) the child experiences predictable responses. This paper examines evidence for the practice and developmental benefits of responsive parenting with a view to providing a theoretical basis for responsive feeding. Recommendations are made that future efforts to promote healthy growth and to prevent underweight and overweight among young children incorporate and evaluate responsive feeding.

  4. U.S. hegemony and the policy of regional modeling: Theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut Ateş

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, ‘‘regional modelling’’ that has been increasingly applied as an hegemonic policy almost for the last twenty years is examined with a view to clarify the locus of that policy in international relation theory. Some states at regional level are examplified through modelling based on free market principles, democratic norms and civil society; so that it is targeted that form of statehood of all states at global scale is singularized. Taking into account the reality that current international system is unipolar in which U.S. is the hegemonic power; to connect the initiation of transforming states in developing and underdeveloped regions in line with the models proposed, with main theoretical approaches in international relations might contribute to a certain extent to understanding current world politics.

  5. Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed. PMID:22251053

  6. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part I: Theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operational point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operational limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. A comprehensive literature survey has shown that these security margins have been studied separately. This fact has suggested to the authors the possibility of researching a common analysis framework valid for all of them. This is the first part of a two-part paper. In part I, a novel mathematical formulation valid to address the study of any steady state security margin is proposed. The developed general approach is presented in three steps: (a) formulation, (b) computation, and (c) improvement of security margins. In part II, the performance of the proposed approach when used to compute and improve the aforementioned steady security margins is illustrated through its application to the Spanish power system. Results denote that this approach can be a useful tool to solve a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. (author)

  7. Theoretical Discovery of a Superconducting Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yinong; Cui, Bin; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Feng

    2017-09-15

    Superconductivity is a fascinating quantum phenomenon characterized by zero electrical resistance and the Meissner effect. To date, several distinct families of superconductors (SCs) have been discovered. These include three-dimensional (3D) bulk SCs in both inorganic and organic materials as well as two-dimensional (2D) thin film SCs but only in inorganic materials. Here we predict superconductivity in 2D and 3D organic metal-organic frameworks by using first-principles calculations. We show that the highly conductive and recently synthesized Cu-benzenehexathial (BHT) is a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer SC. Remarkably, the monolayer Cu-BHT has a critical temperature (Tc) of 4.43 K, while Tc of bulk Cu-BHT is 1.58 K. Different from the enhanced Tc in 2D inorganic SCs which is induced by interfacial effects, the Tc enhancement in this 2D organic SC is revealed to be the out-of-plane soft-mode vibrations, analogous to surface mode enhancement originally proposed by Ginzburg. Our findings not only shed new light on better understanding 2D superconductivity but also open a new direction to search for SCs by interface engineering with organic materials.

  8. A theoretical framework for the episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    The present research proposes the local urban air quality management plan which combines two different modelling approaches (hybrid model) and possesses an improved predictive ability including the 'probabilistic exceedances over norms' and their 'frequency of occurrences' and so termed, herein, as episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP). The e-UAQMP deals with the consequences of 'extreme' concentrations of pollutant, mainly occurring at urban 'hotspots' e.g. traffic junctions, intersections and signalized roadways and are also influenced by complexities of traffic generated 'wake' effects. The e-UAQMP (based on probabilistic approach), also acts as an efficient preventive measure to predict the 'probability of exceedances' so as to prepare a successful policy responses in relation to the protection of urban environment as well as disseminating information to its sensitive 'receptors'. The e-UAQMP may be tailored to the requirements of the local area for the policy implementation programmes. The importance of such policy-making framework in the context of current air pollution 'episodes' in urban environments is discussed. The hybrid model that is based on both deterministic and stochastic based approaches predicting the 'average' as well as 'extreme' concentration distribution of air pollutants together in form of probability has been used at two air quality control regions (AQCRs) in the Delhi city, India, in formulating and executing the e-UAQMP— first, the income tax office (ITO), one of the busiest signalized traffic intersection and second, the Sirifort, one of the busiest signalized roadways.

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity: From a Theoretical Framework to Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Nangunoori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity remains a pervasive global health problem. While there are a number of nonsurgical and surgical options for treatment, the incidence of obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate. The inability to curtail the growing rise of the obesity epidemic may be related to a combination of increased food availability and palatability. Research into feeding behavior has yielded a number of insights into the homeostatic and reward mechanisms that govern feeding. However, there remains a gap between laboratory investigations of feeding physiology in animals and translation into meaningful treatment options for humans. In addition, laboratory investigation may not be able to recapitulate all aspects of human food consumption. In a landmark pilot study of deep brain stimulation (DBS of the lateral hypothalamic area for obesity, we found that there was an increase in resting metabolic rate as well as a decreased urge to eat. In this review, the authors will review some of the work relating to feeding physiology and research surrounding two nodes involved in feeding homeostasis, nucleus accumbens (NAc and hypothalamus, and use this to provide a framework for future investigations of DBS as a viable therapeutic modality for obesity.

  10. Theoretical frameworks for understanding and investigating the therapeutic relationship in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, R; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2001-11-01

    Mental health care is delivered through a relationship between a clinician and a patient. Although this therapeutic relationship is of central importance for mental health care, it appears to be relatively neglected in psychiatric research. Empirical research has for the most part adopted concepts and methods developed in psychotherapy and general medical practice. Hence, unpacking the presuppositions that have informed research on the therapeutic relationship to date may be a useful first step in developing this field. A review of the literature was carried out. Six central theories are identified as framing the definitions and methods on this topic: role theory, psychoanalysis, social constructionism, systems theory, social psychology and cognitive behaviourism. To date, role theory, psychoanalysis and systems theory appear to be the frameworks most often applied in research in this field. Each perspective offers a unique emphasis in the analysis of the therapeutic relationship, which is reflected in the empirical work from each perspective discussed herein. None of the theories identified have been fully specified and comprehensively investigated in psychiatric settings. However, more than one approach may be used for thinking about relationships, depending on the treatment situation. Further specification and testing of the theories in psychiatric practice--taking account of the specific context--is warranted to underpin more pragmatic research. A stronger link between fundamental psychological and sociological research and applied health care research would advance our understanding of which elements of positive therapeutic relationships are instrumental in improving patient outcome and ultimately contribute to improving mental health care.

  11. Favorable genomic environments for cis-regulatory evolution: A novel theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeso, Ignacio; Tena, Juan J

    2016-09-01

    Cis-regulatory changes are arguably the primary evolutionary source of animal morphological diversity. With the recent explosion of genome-wide comparisons of the cis-regulatory content in different animal species is now possible to infer general principles underlying enhancer evolution. However, these studies have also revealed numerous discrepancies and paradoxes, suggesting that the mechanistic causes and modes of cis-regulatory evolution are still not well understood and are probably much more complex than generally appreciated. Here, we argue that the mutational mechanisms and genomic regions generating new regulatory activities must comply with the constraints imposed by the molecular properties of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and the organizational features of long-range chromatin interactions. Accordingly, we propose a new integrative evolutionary framework for cis-regulatory evolution based on two major premises for the origin of novel enhancer activity: (i) an accessible chromatin environment and (ii) compatibility with the 3D structure and interactions of pre-existing CREs. Mechanisms and DNA sequences not fulfilling these premises, will be less likely to have a measurable impact on gene expression and as such, will have a minor contribution to the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, we discuss current comparative cis-regulatory data under the light of this new evolutionary model, and propose that the two most prominent mechanisms for the evolution of cis-regulatory changes are the overprinting of ancestral CREs and the exaptation of transposable elements.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity: From a Theoretical Framework to Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangunoori, Raj K; Tomycz, Nestor D; Oh, Michael Y; Whiting, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a pervasive global health problem. While there are a number of nonsurgical and surgical options for treatment, the incidence of obesity continues to increase at an alarming rate. The inability to curtail the growing rise of the obesity epidemic may be related to a combination of increased food availability and palatability. Research into feeding behavior has yielded a number of insights into the homeostatic and reward mechanisms that govern feeding. However, there remains a gap between laboratory investigations of feeding physiology in animals and translation into meaningful treatment options for humans. In addition, laboratory investigation may not be able to recapitulate all aspects of human food consumption. In a landmark pilot study of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the lateral hypothalamic area for obesity, we found that there was an increase in resting metabolic rate as well as a decreased urge to eat. In this review, the authors will review some of the work relating to feeding physiology and research surrounding two nodes involved in feeding homeostasis, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hypothalamus, and use this to provide a framework for future investigations of DBS as a viable therapeutic modality for obesity.

  13. An Evolving Triadic World: A Theoretical Framework for Global Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton A. Gunaratne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A macro theory that recognizes the world’s three competing center-clusters and their respective hinterlands o?ers a realistic framework for global communication research. This study has used recent data on world trade, computers, Internet hosts, and high-tech exports to map the triadization of the world in the Information Age. The original dependency theory and world-system theory perspectives emphasized the hierarchical linking of national societies to the capitalist world-economy in a center-periphery structure. The proposed global-triadization formulation looks at the center-periphery structure in terms of a capitalist world-economy dominated by three competing center economic clusters, each of which has a dependent hinterland comprising peripheral economic clusters. These clusters may not necessarily be geographically contiguous. Strong-weak relationships may exist within each center-cluster, as well as within each periphery-cluster, with one center-cluster occupying a hegemonic role. The rudimentary Information-Society Power Index, constructed for this study, can guide the researcher to test an abundance of hypotheses on the pattern of global communication and information ?ow with particular attention to source, message, channel, and receiver.

  14. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE AT A HIGHER INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniia Nikolaevna Kikot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of organization of contemporary education process is getting more important nowadays in the conditions of ICT (information and communication technologies and e-education usage.This defines one of the most important methodological and research directions in the university – creation of informational-educational course unit complex as the foundation of e-University resource.The foundation of informational-educational course unit complex creation are the concepts of openness, accessibility, clearness, personalisation and that allow to built the requirements system to the complex creation and its substantial content.The main functions of informational educational complex are detected: informational, educational, controlling and communicative.It’s defined that into the basis of scientific justification of new structure elements of informational-educational of course unit complex development and introduction is necessary to include creation of e-workbook, e-workshops in order to organize theoretical and practical e-conferences.Development of ICT in education that provides e-education application assume establishment of distance learning techno-logies for educational programme implementation.

  15. [Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology as a theoretical-philosophical framework in teaching research in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Marlene Gomes; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; dos Santos, Evangelia Kotzias Atherino; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-09-01

    This paper aims at describing the theoretical-philosophical appraoch used in the development of the qualitative research that constituted the thesis "Meanings of sensibility for being a nursing teacher-nurse in teaching and learning to be and do nursing in light of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. This approach made it possible to seek subsidies for the questions that result from life experience, since the philosopher recognizes the body inserted in the world as a constitution of the subjectivity and expression of speech. According to the Merleau-Pontyan thought, it is possible to comprehend the language as gesture and body expression in the perceptive experiences of the other when interviews are done with the participants. The results indicate the importance of phenomenology as it helped the researchers to figure out their own ways, know the feelings, behaviors, and the relations with the other in a dynamic world, which is in constant transformation and that develops a dialogue and makes connections with life.

  16. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols.

  17. The Global Organic Food Market and Transformation: A Conceptual Theoretical Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    The present study is part of the project “Public Policies and Demand for Organic Food: An International Comparison of Policy Effects and Policy Determinants” (COP). It is carried out in WP II that concerns the supply-side policies and demand. In the WP it is an initial task to formulate...... of organic agriculture. In the conclusion the study is presenting a basis for indicators that can be used for comparative studies. It is underlined that the indicators are tentative and that they have to be tested and adjusted in future studies.   The report is written by Ole Horn Rasmussen that for four...... month has been attached to the WP as research assistant. A great part of his theoretical contribution here is based on his former PhD studies on structural change and transformation related to the evolution of organic agriculture.     Aalborg in December 2007-12-21     Jan Holm Ingemann, head of WP II  ...

  18. Cell-Type-Selective Effects of Intramembrane Cavitation as a Unifying Theoretical Framework for Ultrasonic Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksin, Michael; Kimmel, Eitan; Shoham, Shy

    2016-01-01

    Diverse translational and research applications could benefit from the noninvasive ability to reversibly modulate (excite or suppress) CNS activity using ultrasound pulses, however, without clarifying the underlying mechanism, advanced design-based ultrasonic neuromodulation remains elusive. Recently, intramembrane cavitation within the bilayer membrane was proposed to underlie both the biomechanics and the biophysics of acoustic bio-effects, potentially explaining cortical stimulation results through a neuronal intramembrane cavitation excitation (NICE) model. Here, NICE theory is shown to provide a detailed predictive explanation for the ability of ultrasonic (US) pulses to also suppress neural circuits through cell-type-selective mechanisms: according to the predicted mechanism T-type calcium channels boost charge accumulation between short US pulses selectively in low threshold spiking interneurons, promoting net cortical network inhibition. The theoretical results fit and clarify a wide array of earlier empirical observations in both the cortex and thalamus regarding the dependence of ultrasonic neuromodulation outcomes (excitation-suppression) on stimulation and network parameters. These results further support a unifying hypothesis for ultrasonic neuromodulation, highlighting the potential of advanced waveform design for obtaining cell-type-selective network control.

  19. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  20. A theoretical framework for evaluating analytical digestion methods for poorly soluble particulate beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Brink, Christopher A; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Brisson, Michael J; Hoover, Mark D; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2007-04-01

    Complete digestion of all chemical forms and sizes of particulate analytes in environmental samples is usually necessary to obtain accurate results with atomic spectroscopy. In the current study, we investigate the physicochemical properties of beryllium particles likely to be encountered in samples collected from different occupational environments and present a hypothesis that a dissolution theory can be used as a conceptual framework to guide development of strategies for digestion procedures. For monodisperse single-chemical constituent primary particles, such as those encountered when handling some types of beryllium oxide (BeO) powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient when it completely dissolves all primary particles, independent of cluster size. For polydisperse single-chemical constituent particles, such as those encountered during the handling of some types of beryllium metal powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient only when it completely dissolves the largest particle in the sample. For samples with unknown or multi-chemical constituent particles and with particles having undefined sizes, e.g., fume emissions from a copper-beryllium alloy furnace operation or dust from a beryl ore crushing operation, a surface area-limited and single-constituent-dependent dissolution theory may not predict complete dissolution, thereby requiring non-routine robust treatment procedures with post-digestion filtration, followed by examination of residual particulate material. Additionally, for beryllium, and likely other poorly soluble materials, particulate reference materials of various chemical forms and size distributions are needed to better evaluate and harmonize analytical digestion procedures. Figure Generation of aerosol particles during machining of beryllium oxide.

  1. ON A NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR RR LYRAE STARS. I. THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconi, M.; Coppola, G.; Musella, I.; Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bono, G.; Braga, V.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica—Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1 (Italy); Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Via M. Maggini, Teramo (Italy); Castellani, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Stellingwerf, R. F., E-mail: marcella.marconi@oacn.inaf.it, E-mail: giuseppe.bono@roma2.infn.it, E-mail: marco.castellani@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: adriano@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: roberto.buonanno@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: rfs@swcp.com [Stellingwerf Consulting, 11033 Mathis Mtn Rd SE, 35803 Huntsville, AL USA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We present new nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae stars computed assuming a constant helium-to-metal enrichment ratio and a broad range in metal abundances (Z = 0.0001–0.02). The stellar masses and luminosities adopted to construct the pulsation models were fixed according to detailed central He-burning horizontal-branch evolutionary models. The pulsation models cover a broad range in stellar luminosity and effective temperatures and the modal stability is investigated for both fundamental (FU) and first overtone polsators (FOs). We predict the topology of the instability strip (IS) as a function of the metal content and new analytical relations for the edges of the IS in the observational plane. Moreover, a new analytical relation to constrain the pulsation mass of double pulsators as a function of the period ratio and the metal content is provided. We derive new Period–Radius–Metallicity relations for FU and FO pulsators. They agree quite well with similar empirical and theoretical relations in the literature. From the predicted bolometric light curves, transformed into optical (UBVRI) and near-infrared (NIR; JHK) bands, we compute the intensity-averaged mean magnitudes along the entire pulsation cycle and in turn new and homogenous metal-dependent (RIJHK) Period–Luminosity relations. Moreover, we compute new dual and triple-band optical, optical–NIR, and NIR Period–Wesenheit–Metallicity relations. Interestingly, we find that the optical Period-W(V, B–V) is independent of the metal content and that the accuracy of individual distances is a balance between the adopted diagnostics and the precision of photometric and spectroscopic data sets.

  2. THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK WITH REFERENCE TO THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF ACCESSION TO THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia FEURAS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary competitive factors of a country is the state of institutions. EU membership requires substantial changes in the content and structure of the institutional framework of the acceding countries, which could generate progress or regress in their development if the existing institutions and the transferred ones are incompatible. In this article the author has undertaken the task to examine, theoretically and conceptually, the process of institutional change in terms of three concepts: Europeanization, institutional transfer and path dependence. There have been analysed the forms, tools, methods and costs of institutional transfer and possible institutional failures. This research has come to the conclusion that in the situation of the Republic of Moldova, the partial modification of institutions is mainly determined by the desire of the veto players to survive and not by the consistent abidance of the accession process to the EU.

  3. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  4. Developing a Theoretical Framework Using a Nursing Perspective to Investigate Perceived Health in the "Sandwich Generation" Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulevey Bachmann, Annie; Danuser, Brigitta; Morin, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Coexisting workloads from professional, household and family, and caregiving activities for frail parents expose middle-aged individuals, the so-called "Sandwich Generation", to potential health risks. Current trends suggest that this situation will continue or increase. Thus SG health promotion has become a nursing concern. Most existing research considers coexisting workloads a priori pathogenic. Most studies have examined the association of one, versus two, of these three activities with health. Few studies have used a nursing perspective. This article presents the development of a framework based on a nursing model. We integrated Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance middle-range theory into "Neuman Systems Model". The latter was chosen for its salutogenic orientation, its attention to preventive nursing interventions and the opportunity it provides to simultaneously consider positive and negative perceptions of SG health and SG coexisting workloads. Finally, it facilitated a theoretical identification of health protective factors.

  5. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation: Preliminary system design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, John W., IV; Henderson, Richard; Futrell, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The focus here is on the design of components that make up the FPP. These components serve as supporting systems for the Integration Mechanism and the Framework Processor and provide the 'glue' that ties the FPP together. Also discussed are the components that allow the platform to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous environment and to manage the development and evolution of software system artifacts.

  6. Neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga-based practices: towards a comprehensive theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Powers, Chivon; Henje Blom, Eva

    2015-01-01

    During recent decades numerous yoga-based practices (YBP) have emerged in the West, with their aims ranging from fitness gains to therapeutic benefits and spiritual development. Yoga is also beginning to spark growing interest within the scientific community, and yoga-based interventions have been associated with measureable changes in physiological parameters, perceived emotional states, and cognitive functioning. YBP typically involve a combination of postures or movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and various techniques to improve attentional focus. However, so far little if any research has attempted to deconstruct the role of these different component parts in order to better understand their respective contribution to the effects of YBP. A clear operational definition of yoga-based therapeutic interventions for scientific purposes, as well as a comprehensive theoretical framework from which testable hypotheses can be formulated, is therefore needed. Here we propose such a framework, and outline the bottom-up neurophysiological and top-down neurocognitive mechanisms hypothesized to be at play in YBP.

  7. Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by pharmacological modulation of temperature-sensitive TRP channels: theoretical framework and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.

  8. Neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of yoga-based practices: Towards a comprehensive theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSchmalzl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades numerous yoga-based practices (YBP have emerged in the West, with their aims ranging from fitness gains to therapeutic benefits and spiritual development. Yoga is also beginning to spark growing interest within the scientific community, and yoga-based interventions have been associated with measureable changes in physiological parameters, perceived emotional states, and cognitive functioning. Yoga-based interventions typically involve a combination of postures or movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and various techniques to improve attentional focus. However, so far little if any research has attempted to deconstruct the role of these different component parts in order to better understand their respective contribution to the effect of YBP. A clear operational definition of yoga-based therapeutic interventions for scientific purposes, as well as a comprehensive theoretical framework from which testable hypotheses can be formulated, is therefore needed. Here we propose such a framework, and outline the bottom-up neurophysiological and top-down neurocognitive mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the effects of YBP.

  9. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V{sub MAS}/WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, {tau}{sub c} is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 <{approx_equal} log{sub 10} {tau}{sub c} [S] <{approx_equal} 27.50 and log {sub 10}({tau}/{tau}{sub c}) > -17.0, where {tau} is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  10. A Quantitative Theoretical Framework For Protein-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement-Förster-Type Resonance Energy Transfer (PIFE-FRET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Eitan; Ploetz, Evelyn; Hohlbein, Johannes; Cordes, Thorben; Weiss, Shimon

    2016-07-01

    Single-molecule, protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) serves as a molecular ruler at molecular distances inaccessible to other spectroscopic rulers such as Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer. In order to provide two simultaneous measurements of two distances on different molecular length scales for the analysis of macromolecular complexes, we and others recently combined measurements of PIFE and FRET (PIFE-FRET) on the single molecule level. PIFE relies on steric hindrance of the fluorophore Cy3, which is covalently attached to a biomolecule of interest, to rotate out of an excited-state trans isomer to the cis isomer through a 90° intermediate. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework that accounts for relevant photophysical and kinetic parameters of PIFE-FRET, show how this framework allows the extraction of the fold-decrease in isomerization mobility from experimental data, and show how these results provide information on changes in the accessible volume of Cy3. The utility of this model is then demonstrated for experimental results on PIFE-FRET measurement of different protein-DNA interactions. The proposed model and extracted parameters could serve as a benchmark to allow quantitative comparison of PIFE effects in different biological systems.

  11. Potential determinants of health-care professionals' use of survivorship care plans: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Presseau, Justin; Ellis, Shellie D; Gerstel, Adrian A; Mayer, Deborah K

    2014-11-15

    Survivorship care plans are intended to improve coordination of care for the nearly 14 million cancer survivors in the United States. Evidence suggests that survivorship care plans (SCPs) have positive outcomes for survivors, health-care professionals, and cancer programs, and several high-profile organizations now recommend SCP use. Nevertheless, SCP use remains limited among health-care professionals in United States cancer programs. Knowledge of barriers to SCP use is limited in part because extant studies have used anecdotal evidence to identify determinants. This study uses the theoretical domains framework to identify relevant constructs that are potential determinants of SCP use among United States health-care professionals. We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the relevance of 12 theoretical domains in predicting SCP use among 13 health-care professionals in 7 cancer programs throughout the United States with diverse characteristics. Relevant theoretical domains were identified through thematic coding of interview transcripts, identification of specific beliefs within coded text units, and mapping of specific beliefs onto theoretical constructs. We found the following theoretical domains (based on specific beliefs) to be potential determinants of SCP use: health-care professionals' beliefs about the consequences of SCP use (benefit to survivors, health-care professionals, and the system as a whole); motivation and goals regarding SCP use (advocating SCP use; extent to which using SCPs competed for health-care professionals' time); environmental context and resources (whether SCPs were delivered at a dedicated visit and whether a system, information technology, and funding facilitated SCP use); and social influences (whether using SCPs is an organizational priority, influential people support SCP use, and people who could assist with SCP use buy into using SCPs). Specific beliefs mapped onto the following psychological constructs: outcome

  12. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Adaptation of the methodological instrument of the representation of the content (CORE to the theoretical framework of TPCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fernando Candela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the eighties the community in science education has been interested in teachers to identify and develop the Content Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK. To this end, it has designed educational programs from a “reflective orientation” perspective structured from a set of training activities whose tasks are focused on the practice of designing specific content learning environments, where the methodological instrument of the Representation of Content (CoRe has played a critical role. The logical structure of it provides the possibility for teachers to become aware of the theoretical and methodological elements that underpin the PCK. On the other hand, with the emergence of digital technologies as an instrument for representing content and effective management of the classroom, the need to transform the construct of the Content Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK to the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of the content is generated (TPCK. In this sense, it is pertinent to adapt the epistemological structure of the CoRe to the theoretical framework of the emerging construct of the TPCK, in order that this instrument continue to be used as a key heuristic in education programs where the practice of designing environments Learning is important for the professional development of teachers. Of course, the adaptation of the CoRe to the perspective of the TPCK is accompanied by a conceptualization of each of the twelve items that configure it, in order to illustrate the teachers during their development.

  14. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Janet A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers

  15. A preliminary probabilistic framework of the assessment of bridge cable fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldsgaard, Joan Hee; Georgakis, Christos T.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    , traffic load-ing, bridge specific parameters and the mechanisms that induce significant cable vibrations are the main input parameters. The suggested framework is illustrated on a case study considering the second longest hanger ca-ble of the Great Belt Bridge outlining how information with respect...

  16. Success in Preschool Learning Related to Formal and Open-Framework Programs: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of educational programs for young children were examined, the formal based on Ausebel's learning theory and the open-framework based on Piaget's theory of intellectual development. The formal program resulted in improved performance on both classification and conservation tasks. (MF)

  17. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Manal; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2016-05-27

    Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers' activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers' health systematically. The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and constructs of health SQ activity. A

  18. Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kerry; O'Connor, Denise A; Browning, Colette J; French, Simon D; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill J; Russell, Grant M; Workman, Barbara; Flicker, Leon; Eccles, Martin P; Green, Sally E

    2014-03-03

    Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs' reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of 'Beliefs about consequences'); discomfort in using validated tools ('Emotion'), possibly due to limited training and confidence ('Skills'; 'Beliefs about capabilities'); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment ('Knowledge'; 'Memory, attention and decision processes'). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment ('Knowledge'); possessing the necessary skills and confidence ('Skills'; 'Beliefs

  19. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  20. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of "environmental context and resources", "beliefs about consequences", and "social influences" were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice.

  1. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  2. Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Behavior Concerning Land Degradation: A Theoretical Framework and a Case Study in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; Liu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    In an era of global environmental change, social actors from an individual level to a national level are increasingly seeking adaptation strategies to better manage risks from environmental hazards. Vulnerability arises where adaptation capacity is not sufficient in dealing with a changing environment. Adaptation on an individual level and community level is important because of the location specific nature of environmental change. Land degradation is drawing much attention from both governments and academics, because it tends to affect the most vulnerable human populations and ecological systems most significantly. Despite these efforts, there is limited scientific knowledge regarding how farmers at a local level perceive the risks associated with degraded land and how their background, attitude, and living situation may affect their adaptation behavior. This poses a challenge to policy makers who are tasked to enhance the resilience of the society in response to environmental changes. Degradation of land by pollutant chemicals is particularly serious in China due to aggressive urbanization and industrialization activities over the last four decades. A report by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) in 2014 suggested that 16.1 percent of the nation's soil is polluted. Other studies suggest that shallow groundwater contamination is even more wide spread, with 80 90 percent being polluted. The government has realized the seriousness of land contamination, and vowed to give high priority to land remediation. Millions of hectares of contaminated agricultural land are expected to be remediated over the next decade. However, farmer's perception and adaptation behavior under this social and environmental change remain unknown. In this presentation, we report a conceptual framework and research hypothesis based on theoretical methodologies found in existing literature. We applied this framework to a case study of degraded land in an arid region in Northwest of

  3. Real-time feedback on nonverbal clinical communication. Theoretical framework and clinician acceptance of ambient visual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Patel, R A; Czerwinski, M; Pratt, W; Roseway, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Back, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Effective nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians fosters both the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and positive patient outcomes. Although nonverbal skill training is a recognized need, few efforts to enhance patient-clinician communication provide visual feedback on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. We describe a novel approach that uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and to display ambient visual feedback on control and affiliation--two primary, yet distinct dimensions of interpersonal nonverbal communication. To examine the design and clinician acceptance of ambient visual feedback on nonverbal communication, we 1) formulated a model of relational communication to ground SSP and 2) conducted a formative user study using mixed methods to explore the design of visual feedback. Based on a model of relational communication, we reviewed interpersonal communication research to map nonverbal cues to signals of affiliation and control evidenced in patient-clinician interaction. Corresponding with our formulation of this theoretical framework, we designed ambient real-time visualizations that reflect variations of affiliation and control. To explore clinicians' acceptance of this visual feedback, we conducted a lab study using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to simulate system use with 16 healthcare professionals. We followed up with seven of those participants through interviews to iterate on the design with a revised visualization that addressed emergent design considerations. Ambient visual feedback on non- verbal communication provides a theoretically grounded and acceptable way to provide clinicians with awareness of their nonverbal communication style. We provide implications for the design of such visual feedback that encourages empathic patient

  4. Extra-framework aluminium species in hydrated faujasite zeolite as investigated by two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenhui; Zheng, Anmin; Su, Yongchao; Fang, Hanjun; Shen, Wanling; Yu, Zhiwu; Chen, Lei; Deng, Feng

    2010-04-21

    Extra-framework aluminium (EFAL) species in hydrated dealuminated HY zeolite were thoroughly investigated by various two-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques as well as density functional theoretical calculations. (27)Al MQ MAS NMR experiments demonstrated that five-coordinated and four-coordinated extra-framework aluminium subsequently disappeared with the increase of water loading, and the quadrupole interaction of each aluminium species decreased gradually during the hydration process. (1)H double quantum MAS NMR revealed that the EFAL species in the hydrated zeolite consisted of three components: a hydroxyl AlOH group, and two types of water molecule (rigid and mobile water). (1)H-(27)Al LG-CP HETCOR experiments indicated that both the extra-framework and the framework Al atoms were in close proximity to the rigid water in the fully rehydrated zeolite. The experimental results were further confirmed by DFT theoretical calculations. Moreover, theoretical calculation results further demonstrated that the EFAL species in the hydrated zeolite consisted of the three components and the calculated (1)H NMR chemical shift for each component agreed well with our NMR observations. It is the rigid water that connects the extra-framework aluminium with the four-coordinated framework aluminium through strong hydrogen bonds.

  5. Images of Poverty in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Youth: Preliminary Results of a Content Analysis Using a Social Psychological Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Shirley A.; Tilley, Carol L.

    This preliminary study of 20 contemporary realistic fiction books for youth, in middle school and above, analyzed images of poverty using a framework adapted from the work of Robert Leahy. Findings are related to demographics, images of poverty and emerging themes. Results indicate that, as a whole, the sample of books rely on concrete images of…

  6. Climate change and occupational safety and health: establishing a preliminary framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. To begin such an effort, it may be useful to develop a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace; workers; and occupational morbidity, mortality, and injury. This article develops such a framework based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: (1) increased ambient temperature, (2) air pollution, (3) ultraviolet exposure, (4) extreme weather, (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.

  7. Development, Theoretical Framework, and Outcome Evaluation from Implementation of a Parent and Teacher-Delivered Adolescent Intervention on Adolescent Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Herbert, Natasha L.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Vogt, Tara M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (Tdap, HPV, and MCV4) and annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with non-vaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents be developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle- and high-school based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle- and high-school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention. PMID:24440920

  8. Identifying determinants of medication adherence following myocardial infarction using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Schwalm, J D; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Witteman, Holly O; Natarajan, Madhu K; Linklater, Stefanie; Sullivan, Katrina; Ivers, Noah M

    2016-12-20

    Despite evidence-based recommendations, adherence with secondary prevention medications post-myocardial infarction (MI) remains low. Taking medication requires behaviour change, and using behavioural theories to identify what factors determine adherence could help to develop novel adherence interventions. Compare the utility of different behaviour theory-based approaches for identifying modifiable determinants of medication adherence post-MI that could be targeted by interventions. Two studies were conducted with patients 0-2, 3-12, 13-24 or 25-36 weeks post-MI. Study 1: 24 patients were interviewed about barriers and facilitators to medication adherence. Interviews were conducted and coded using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Study 2: 201 patients answered a telephone questionnaire assessing Health Action Process Approach constructs to predict intention and medication adherence (MMAS-8). Study 1: domains identified: Beliefs about Consequences, Memory/Attention/Decision Processes, Behavioural Regulation, Social Influences and Social Identity. Study 2: 64, 59, 42 and 58% reported high adherence at 0-2, 3-12, 13-24 and 25-36 weeks. Social Support and Action Planning predicted adherence at all time points, though the relationship between Action Planning and adherence decreased over time. Using two behaviour theory-based approaches provided complimentary findings and identified modifiable factors that could be targeted to help translate Intention into action to improve medication adherence post-MI.

  9. Thermogravitational cycles: theoretical framework and example of an electric thermogravitational generator based on balloon inflation/deflation

    CERN Document Server

    Aouane, Kamel; Ford, Ian J; Elson, Tim P; Nightingale, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have combined heat and gravitational energy exchanges to create novel heat engines. A common theoretical framework is developed here to describe thermogravitational cycles which have the same efficiencies as the Carnot, Rankine or Brayton cycles. Considering a working fluid, enclosed in a balloon, inside a column filled with a transporting fluid, the cycle is composed of four steps. Starting from the top of the column, the balloon goes down, receives heat from a hot source at the bottom, rises and delivers heat to a cold source at the top. Unlike classic power cycles which need external work to operate the compressor, thermogravitational cycles can operate as "pure power cycle" where no work is provided to drive the cycle. To illustrate this concept, the prototype of a thermogravitational electrical generator is presented. It uses a hot source of low temperature (average temperature near 57{\\deg}C) and relies on the gravitational energy exchanges of an organic fluid inside a balloon attached t...

  10. Concepts and theoretical frameworks of Knowledge Translation%知识转化的概念及理论框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凤芝; 于书慧; 李晶

    2016-01-01

    知识转化是将临床研究证据或以研究证据为依据的临床实践指南运用于临床实践当中,改善临床实践,促进执行者行为改变,提高患者服务质量。知识转化在国外发展迅速,而国内对知识转化的认识刚起步。为了促进知识转化在我国的发展,本文将重点阐述知识转化的概念及理论框架等内容,探讨其对临床实践的重要价值。%Knowledge Translation (KT) is the method of applying research evidence or evidence based clinical practice guidelines into clinical practice to improve practice, change knowledge users’ behaviour, and improve the quality of patient care. While KT research has made signiifcant progress in western countries, it only started gaining attention in China in recent years. This paper aims to provide a basic description of key concepts and theoretical frameworks in KT research, in order to promote the development of KT research in China.

  11. 可视化管理理论框架构建探究%Visualization Management theoretical framework structure research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文超

    2013-01-01

      To solve the problem existing in the existing enterprises, especially large-scale production enterprise problems such as large amount of information, information processing is not timely, improve the efficiency of enterprise management information processing and decision accuracy, this article through to the existing visual management research background and the status quo, combined with the actual situation of enterprises, introduces the significance of visual management for enterprises, and build the theory of visual management theory framework, for visual management in the enterprise to provide theoretical guidance for practical application.%  为解决现有企业特别是大型生产企业中存在的信息量过大、信息处理不及时等问题,提高企业管理者的信息处理效率和决策正确性,本文通过对现有的可视化管理研究背景以及现状介绍,结合企业的实际情况,阐述了可视化管理理念对于企业生存发展的重要意义,并构建了可视化管理理论框架理论,为可视化管理在企业的实际应用提供理论指导。

  12. Depressive symptoms in the Netherlands 1975–1996 : a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, gender differences and changes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivian Meertens, Vivian; Scheepers, Peer; Tax, Bert

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the longitudinal trend of depressive symptoms in the Netherlands, using large-scale national data recorded over the period 1975–1996. Our analyses showed fluctuations in the overall longitudinal trend. On the basis of a general theoretical framework, we formulated hypotheses

  13. "Because I Am Worth It" : A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Review of a Justification-Based Account of Self-Regulation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315033770; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; De Ridder, Denise T D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discr

  14. Depressive symptoms in the Netherlands 1975–1996 : a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, gender differences and changes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivian Meertens, Vivian; Scheepers, Peer; Tax, Bert

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the longitudinal trend of depressive symptoms in the Netherlands, using large-scale national data recorded over the period 1975–1996. Our analyses showed fluctuations in the overall longitudinal trend. On the basis of a general theoretical framework, we formulated hypotheses co

  15. Interaction between GIS and hydrologic model: A preliminary approach using ArcHydro Framework Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Jorge C. Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In different regions of Brazil, population growth and economic development can degrade water quality, compromising watershed health and human supply. Because of its ability to combine spatial and temporal data in the same environment and to create water resources management (WRM models, the Geographical Information System (GIS is a powerful tool for managing water resources, preventing floods and estimating water supply. This paper discusses the integration between GIS and hydrological models and presents a case study relating to the upper section of the Paraíba do Sul Basin (Sao Paulo State portion, situated in the Southeast of Brazil. The case study presented in this paper has a database suitable for the basin’s dimensions, including digitized topographic maps at a 50,000 scale. From an ArcGIS®/ArcHydro Framework Data Model, a geometric network was created to produce different raster products. This first grid derived from the digital elevation model grid (DEM is the flow direction map followed by flow accumulation, stream and catchment maps. The next steps in this research are to include the different multipurpose reservoirs situated along the Paraíba do Sul River and to incorporate rainfall time series data in ArcHydro to build a hydrologic data model within a GIS environment in order to produce a comprehensive spatial temporal model.

  16. A knowledge-based design framework for airplane conceptual and preliminary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaat, Wilhelmus A. J.

    The goal of work described herein is to develop the second generation of Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA) into an object-oriented structure which can be used in different environments. One such environment is the third generation of AAA with its own user interface, the other environment with the same AAA methods (i.e. the knowledge) is the AAA-AML program. AAA-AML automates the initial airplane design process using current AAA methods in combination with AMRaven methodologies for dependency tracking and knowledge management, using the TechnoSoft Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This will lead to the following benefits: (1) Reduced design time: computer aided design methods can reduce design and development time and replace tedious hand calculations. (2) Better product through improved design: more alternative designs can be evaluated in the same time span, which can lead to improved quality. (3) Reduced design cost: due to less training and less calculation errors substantial savings in design time and related cost can be obtained. (4) Improved Efficiency: the design engineer can avoid technically correct but irrelevant calculations on incomplete or out of sync information, particularly if the process enables robust geometry earlier. Although numerous advancements in knowledge based design have been developed for detailed design, currently no such integrated knowledge based conceptual and preliminary airplane design system exists. The third generation AAA methods are tested over a ten year period on many different airplane designs. Using AAA methods will demonstrate significant time savings. The AAA-AML system will be exercised and tested using 27 existing airplanes ranging from single engine propeller, business jets, airliners, UAV's to fighters. Data for the varied sizing methods will be compared with AAA results, to validate these methods. One new design, a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA), will be developed as an exercise to use the tool for designing a new airplane

  17. Debris Flow Risk Management Framework and Risk Analysis in Taiwan, A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ting-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Ko; Chiou, Lin-Bin; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Lo, Wen-Chun; Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Cheng-Nong; Ju, Jiun-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located on a seismically active mountain belt between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. After 1999's Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), landslide and debris flow occurred frequently. In Aug. 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and numerous landslides and debris flow events, some with tremendous fatalities, were observed. With limited resources, authorities should establish a disaster management system to cope with slope disaster risks more effectively. Since 2006, Taiwan's authority in charge of debris flow management, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (SWCB), completed the basic investigation and data collection of 1,503 potential debris flow creeks around Taiwan. During 2008 and 2009, a debris flow quantitative risk analysis (QRA) framework, based on landslide risk management framework of Australia, was proposed and conducted on 106 creeks of the 30 villages with debris flow hazard history. Information and value of several types of elements at risk (bridge, road, building and crop) were gathered and integrated into a GIS layer, with the vulnerability model of each elements at risk applied. Through studying the historical hazard events of the 30 villages, numerical simulations of debris flow hazards with different magnitudes (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years return period) were conducted, the economic losses and fatalities of each scenario were calculated for each creek. When taking annual exceeding probability into account, the annual total risk of each creek was calculated, and the results displayed on a debris flow risk map. The number of fatalities and frequency were calculated, and the F-N curves of 106 creeks were provided. For F-N curves, the individual risk to life per year of 1.0E-04 and slope of 1, which matched with international standards, were considered to be an acceptable risk. Applying the results of the 106 creeks onto the F-N curve, they were divided into 3 categories: Unacceptable, ALARP (As Low As Reasonable Practicable) and

  18. Preliminary Evidence Supporting a Framework of Psychological Adjustment to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebles, Jennifer L.; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Background Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. Methods All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Results Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn’s disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33–0.80, all P < 0.05), an emotional representation of illness (r = 0.44–0.58, P < 0.01), disease acceptance (r = 0.34–0.74, P < 0.05), coping (r = 0.33–0.60, P < 0.05), and frequency of gastroenterologist visits (r = 0.39–0.70, P < 0.05). Better adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40–0.84, P < 0.05) and demonstrated a cohesive composite. Conclusions The framework presented and results of this study underscore the importance of considering complementary pathways of disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components. PMID:20155849

  19. Design for safety: theoretical framework of the safety aspect of BIM system to determine the safety index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Lin Evelyn Teo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the safety improvement drive that has been implemented in the construction industry in Singapore for many years, the industry continues to report the highest number of workplace fatalities, compared to other industries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical framework of the safety aspect of a proposed BIM System to determine a Safety Index. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the current workplace safety and health situation in the construction industry and explore how BIM can be used to improve safety performance in the industry. A safety hazard library was developed based on the main contributors to fatal accidents in the construction industry, determined from the formal records and existing literature, and a series of discussions with representatives from the Workplace Safety and Health Institute (WSH Institute in Singapore. The results from the survey suggested that the majority of the firms have implemented the necessary policies, programmes and procedures on Workplace Safety and Health (WSH practices. However, BIM is still not widely applied or explored beyond the mandatory requirement that building plans should be submitted to the authorities for approval in BIM format. This paper presents a discussion of the safety aspect of the Intelligent Productivity and Safety System (IPASS developed in the study. IPASS is an intelligent system incorporating the buildable design concept, theory on the detection, prevention and control of hazards, and the Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS. The system is based on the premise that safety should be considered at the design stage, and BIM can be an effective tool to facilitate the efforts to enhance safety performance. IPASS allows users to analyse and monitor key aspects of the safety performance of the project before the project starts and as the project progresses.

  20. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  1. Interaction of turbine-generated turbulence with agricultural crops: Conceptual framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Segal, M.; Elmore, R.; Hatfield, J.; Prueger, J. H.; Taylor, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    such purposes for growing commodity agricultural crops are unknown. Suppressing effects of a premature freeze could extend the growing season by two or more weeks. Aerodynamic surface roughness influences the mean wind at hub height of wind turbines. Type of crop (e.g., corn vs. soybeans) and stage of growth will influence roughness, as will management practices (smooth surface vs. crop residue and tillage-induced roughness). Management of crop residue and snow cover influences surface albedo and hence diabatic influences on turbulent loss of momentum at the surface. We have launched a pilot project to assess the interaction of turbines with crops in Iowa by use of models and measurements. Preliminary studies show that turbulence kinetic energy in the lee of turbines may be enhanced by as much as 300% near hub height and 40% at 10 m above the ground under neutral flow conditions. Field observations of fluxes of CO2, heat, and water vapor have been made outside of wind farms, and plans call for simultaneous measurements to be made within and outside of wind farms.

  2. Exploring end user adoption and maintenance of a telephone-based physical activity counseling service for individuals with physical disabilities using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasone, Jennifer R; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Pila, Eva; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Cummings, Isabelle; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Routhier, François

    2017-06-01

    In Canada, two counseling services are offered to facilitate physical activity participation among persons with physical disabilities, yet both have encountered concerns related to the recruitment and retainment of clients. The purpose of this paper is to explore factors related to service adoption among nonusers, and the barriers and facilitators to maintaining service participation among adopters. Individuals who had never enrolled in the services (nonusers, n = 13) as well as current/previous service clients (adopters, n = 26) participated in interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Transcripts were subjected to deductive thematic analysis according to participant group. Fifteen themes relating to service adoption within 10 of the 12 theoretical domains were identified for nonusers, while 23 themes relating to maintenence of service participation were identified across all 12 theoretical domains for adopters. The findings provide strategies to improve recruitment, adoption, and retention of clients in counseling services and to enhance the experiences of targeted service users. Implications for Rehabiliation Peer support and education for equipment use should be built into physical activity programs to encourage participation among persons with physical disabilities. Programs that encourage physical activity among individuals with disabilities should be designed by practitioners to be responsive to a variety of needs, which are addressed in the program's advertisements and offerings. The Theoretical Domains Framework is a useful framework for providing valuable insight about clients' experiences of adoption and maintenance of a behavior change service, suggesting merit in other rehabilitation settings.

  3. A theoretical framework to guide a study of patients' bowel symptoms and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Savage, Eileen

    2013-08-01

    A paucity of research is available on patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Most research undertaken to date on patients' bowel symptoms following surgery for rectal cancer has been largely atheoretical. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of choosing a theoretical framework to guide a study of patients' bowel symptoms and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. As a result of a thorough literature review, we determined that the Symptom Management Theory provided the most comprehensive framework to guide our research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Achieving behaviour change for detection of Lynch syndrome using the Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Long, Janet C; Debono, Deborah; Williams, Rachel; Salisbury, Elizabeth; O'Neill, Sharron; Eykman, Elizabeth; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Chin, Melvin

    2016-03-12

    Lynch syndrome is an inherited disorder associated with a range of cancers, and found in 2-5 % of colorectal cancers. Lynch syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of significant family and clinical history and pathology. The definitive diagnostic germline test requires formal patient consent after genetic counselling. If diagnosed early, carriers of Lynch syndrome can undergo increased surveillance for cancers, which in turn can prevent late stage cancers, optimise treatment and decrease mortality for themselves and their relatives. However, over the past decade, international studies have reported that only a small proportion of individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome were referred for genetic consultation and possible genetic testing. The aim of this project is to use behaviour change theory and implementation science approaches to increase the number and speed of healthcare professional referrals of colorectal cancer patients with a high-likelihood risk of Lynch syndrome to appropriate genetic counselling services. The six-step Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach will be used at two large, metropolitan hospitals treating colorectal cancer patients. Steps are: 1) form local multidisciplinary teams to map current referral processes; 2) identify target behaviours that may lead to increased referrals using discussion supported by a retrospective audit; 3) identify barriers to those behaviours using the validated Influences on Patient Safety Behaviours Questionnaire and TDFI guided focus groups; 4) co-design interventions to address barriers using focus groups; 5) co-implement interventions; and 6) evaluate intervention impact. Chi square analysis will be used to test the difference in the proportion of high-likelihood risk Lynch syndrome patients being referred for genetic testing before and after intervention implementation. A paired t-test will be used to assess the mean time from the pathology test results to referral for high

  5. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical…

  6. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  7. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  8. Theoretical microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    in complexity, a proper theoretical understanding becomes increasingly important. The basic idea of the book is to provide a self-contained formulation of the theoretical framework of microfluidics, and at the same time give physical motivation and examples from lab-on-a-chip technology. After three chapters...

  9. A theoretical framework for convergence and continuous dependence of estimates in inverse problems for distributed parameter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.

  10. Developing a theoretical framework to illustrate associations among patient satisfaction, body image and quality of life for women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer W; Crosby, Melissa A; Reece, Gregory P

    2013-10-01

    Within the field of breast reconstruction there is increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes related to satisfaction, body image, and quality of life. These outcomes are deemed highly relevant because the primary goal of breast reconstruction is to recreate the appearance of a breast (or breasts) that is satisfying to the patient. Prominent researchers have suggested the need to develop improved standards for outcome evaluation which can ultimately benefit patients as well as physicians. The purpose of this article is to summarize key findings in the area of patient-reported outcomes for breast reconstruction and introduce a theoretical framework for advancing research in this field. We conducted an extensive literature review of outcome studies for breast reconstruction focusing on patient-reported results. We developed a theoretical framework illustrating core patient-reported outcomes related to breast reconstruction and factors associated with these outcomes. Our theoretical model highlights domains and distinguishing features of patient satisfaction, body image, and quality of life outcomes for women undergoing breast reconstruction. This model further identifies a broad range of variables (e.g., historical/premorbid influences, disease and treatment-related factors) that have been found to influence patient-reported outcomes and need to be taken into consideration when designing future research in this area. Additional attention is given to examining the relationship between patient reported outcomes and outside evaluation of breast reconstruction. Our proposed theoretical framework suggests key opportunities to expand research in this area with the goal of optimizing body image adjustment, satisfaction, and psychosocial outcomes for the individual patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Demonstration of the usefulness of a theoretical framework for humanising care with reference to a residential aged care service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbasi, Sally; Galvin, Kathleen T; Adams, Trevor; Todres, Les; Farrelly, Brona

    2013-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of a theoretical framework for humanising care of dementia patients. The term humanisation of care has been increasingly used to describe an approach to health care that is informed by core dimensions of what it means to be human. Recent developments in dementia care highlight the importance of maintaining personhood in people with dementia. A conceptual framework is proposed by which the humanisation of care can be understood and applied. Eight dimensions that articulate core features of what needs to be attended to in order for a person to feel more deeply 'met' as a human being are discussed. Evidence from an evaluative study of a dementia outreach service is used to illustrate the usefulness of the humanising framework. Case study examples demonstrate the value of this framework by describing how a dementia outreach service enables care staff in residential aged care facilities to change their focus in the provision of care to residents with dementia. Each of the eight dimensions of humanisation/dehumanisation is used to illustrate how the dementia outreach service team have led to the improvements in resident care. Positive outcomes can be achieved by providing humanised care to residents with dementia. The paper highlights the potential for the humanising framework to be used in dementia care and shows how the framework can be helpfully translated into practice so that carers are supported to adopt an inclusive view of care delivery. A comprehensive framework, grounded in a strong philosophical foundation, can name a breadth of criteria for humanly sensitive care and can be translated into practice in such a way as to potentially transform the provision of care to residents in residential aged care facilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: a critical evaluation of its theoretical framework from a clinical-phenomenological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Henriksen, Mads Gram; Sass, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has played an increasingly important role in psychotherapy for schizophrenia since the 1990s, but it has also encountered many theoretical and practical limitations. For example, methodologically rigorous meta-analyses have recently found only modest...... overall effect sizes of CBT treatment, and therefore questions have emerged about forwhat and for whom it actually works. Method: The focus of the present paper is to elucidate the theoretical assumptions underlying CBT for schizophrenia and to examine their consistency with abnormalities of experience...... and self-awareness frequently reported by schizophrenia patients and systematically studied in phenomenological psychopathology from the beginning of the 20th century. Results: We argue that a strong theoretical emphasis on cognitive appraisals with only subsidiary attention devoted to affective...

  13. What can triple helix frameworks offer to the analysis of eco-innovation dynamics? Theoretical and methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Remmen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Bringing environmental concerns into focus of innovation processes will in several cases also expand the numbers of actors involved. Eco-innovation and triple helix are often frameworks applied to analyse how environmental concerns are integrated in the innovation processes and how different...

  14. Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…

  15. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  16. The brightness of the red giant branch tip. Theoretical framework, a set of reference models, and predicted observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.; Cassisi, S.; Salaris, M.; Pietrinferni, A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The brightness of the tip of the red giant branch is a useful reference quantity for several fields of astrophysics. An accurate theoretical prediction is needed for such purposes. Aims: We provide a solid theoretical prediction for the brightness of the tip of the red giant branch, valid for a reference set of standard physical assumptions, and mostly independent of numerical details. Methods: We examine the dependence on physical assumptions and numerical details for a wide range of metallicities and masses and based on two different stellar evolution codes. We adjust differences between the codes to treat the physics as identically as possible. After we have succeeded in reproducing the tip brightness between the codes, we present a reference set of models based on the most up to date physical inputs, but neglecting microscopic diffusion, and convert theoretical luminosities to observed infrared colours suitable for observations of resolved populations of stars and include analytic fits to facilitate their use. Results: We find that consistent use of updated nuclear reactions, including an appropriate treatment of the electron screening effects, and careful time-stepping on the upper red giant branch are the most important aspects to bring initially discrepant theoretical values into agreement. Small but visible differences remain unexplained for very low metallicities and mass values at and above 1.2 M⊙, corresponding to ages younger than 4 Gyr. The colour transformations introduce larger uncertainties than the differences between the two stellar evolution codes. Conclusions: We demonstrate that careful stellar modelling allows an accurate prediction for the luminosity of the red giant branch tip. Differences to empirically determined brightnesses may result either from insufficient colour transformations or from deficits in the constitutional physics. We present the best-tested theoretical reference values to date.

  17. A Game Theoretic Framework for Green HetNets Using D2D Traffic Offload and Renewable Energy Powered Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias

    2015-08-26

    This chapter investigates the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green communications in LTE heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Two game theoretic concepts are studied and analyzed in order to perform dynamic HetNet base station (BS) on/off switching. The first approach is a coalition-based method whereas the second is based on the Nash bargaining solution. Afterwards, a method for coupling the BS on/off switching approach with D2D collaborative communications is presented and shown to lead to increased energy efficiency. The savings are additionally increased when a portion of the small cell BSs in a HetNet are powered by renewable energy sources. Different utility functions, modeling the game theoretic framework governing the energy consumption balance between the cellular network and the mobile terminals (MTs), are proposed and compared, and their impact on MT quality of service (QoS) is analyzed.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Three English Translations of Li Qingzhao ’s Sheng Sheng Man in Two Different Theoretical Frameworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Demanding as it has always been, verse translation is a suitable subject to observe on what ground and how translators make their choices to deal with translation problems. By comparing three different English versions of Li Qingzhao’s Sheng Sheng Man within two dramatically different theoretical frameworks, namely the skopos theory and Walter Benjamin’s theory on pure language, the present study aims at deriving a reflection on the nature of translation as a practice, a closer look at its dy-namic complexity.

  19. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations of the torsional mode for two acoustic viscometers with preliminary experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuhui; Lange, Rebecca A

    2008-03-01

    A rigorous analysis of the torsional modes in both a cylindrical wave guide and the associated static viscous fluid field has been conducted from the solid and the fluid wave equations and the coupled boundary conditions. As a result, two acoustic viscometer models, along with four independent equations connecting the density and the viscosity of the fluid with the attenuation and the phase velocity of the torsional wave in the wave guide, have been developed. The analysis shows that the product of the viscosity and the density of the fluid can be measured from the end reflection coefficient of the torsional wave in the wave guide and that both the viscosity and the density can be determined simultaneously from either the phase velocity or the attenuation of the torsional wave in a single cylindrical wave guide. For the simultaneous measurements of the viscosity and the density, the independent equations have to be solved numerically, for example, using Matlab (The MathWorks, Natick, MA), given either the attenuation or the phase velocity in the wave guide that is surrounded by the fluid. To demonstrate the technical feasibility, numerical simulations have been conducted to discern viscosity, phase velocity, and density, all versus attenuation, at different frequencies, and with variable dimension of a molybdenum rod, so that both the advantages and the disadvantages of the simultaneous measurements can be explored. In the end, to test the two models, preliminary experiments on two viscous standards were conducted at 23 degrees C, and good agreements have been achieved between the viscosities measured from both models and for both standards.

  20. The Role of Body Image in the Relationship Between Internet Use and Bulimic Symptoms: Three Theoretical Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melioli, Tiffany; Rodgers, Rachel F; Rodrigues, Marie; Chabrol, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traditional media has been associated with bulimic symptoms. However, to date, little is known regarding the effects of Internet exposure. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between Internet use and bulimic symptoms within the competing frameworks of sociocultural, impression management, and self-objectification theory. A sample of 289 French women aged 18-25 years completed an online questionnaire assessing bulimic symptoms, body dissatisfaction, body image avoidance, self-surveillance, body shame, and weekly Internet use. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that body shame and body image avoidance mediated the effect of weekly Internet use on bulimic symptoms. Furthermore, when entered into a multiple mediation analysis, these two variables provided independent mediation pathways of equal magnitude. The findings support the usefulness of both the self-objectification and impression management frameworks for investigating the relationship between Internet use and bulimic symptoms. Longitudinal research would help to clarify these pathways further.

  1. Career advising in family medicine: a theoretical framework for structuring the medical student/faculty advisor interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods: At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results: The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion: This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.

  2. Welfare Measures and Mandatory Regulation for Transgenic Food in the European Union: A Theoretical Framework for the Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, Maria Del Carmen Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework for studying the impact of mandatory labelling regulation for transgenic food. We compare Genetically Modified (GM) and conventional crop markets and identify gains for food processors prior to mandatory labelling and losses after this measure for the GM market. Nevertheless, food processors could obtain gains for conventional products after market disgregation. Finally, consumers will be worse off both for conventional and GM foods unless qualities...

  3. Preliminary assessment of the eutrophication status of selected areas in the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea according to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directiverequired a number of tasks to be fulfilled: classifying the variouswater bodies into different types, defining reference conditionsfor each of the types and assessing their ecological qualitystatus - this last is based on biological, hydromorphologicaland physicochemical quality elements of the ecosystem.The paper presents an attempt to estimate reference values inselected areas of Polish coastal and transitional watersas well as in an open sea area following WFD principles.The preliminary eutrophication assessment showed all the assessedareas to be eutrophication problem areas.

  4. Contrast properties of entropic criteria for blind source separation : a unifying framework based on information-theoretic inequalities/

    OpenAIRE

    Vrins, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In the recent years, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has become a fundamental tool in adaptive signal and data processing, especially in the field of Blind Source Separation (BSS). Even though there exist some methods for which an algebraic solution to the ICA problem may be found, other iterative methods are very popular. Among them is the class of information-theoretic approaches, laying on entropies. The associated objective functions are maximized based on optimization schemes, and o...

  5. Preliminary studies for the Development of S.E.T.U.P. : "Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Es-Sebbar, Et.; Romanzin, C.; Perrier, S.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents studies performed in the frame of the SETUP program (a French acronym for Experimental and Theoretical Simulations Useful for Planetology). The final goal of this project is to perform representative simulations of Titan's atmosphere and to be able to determine the physicochemical processes involved in its atmosphere. The simulation experiments will be performed in a reactor where an initial gas mixture will be exposed, for the first time, to both major energy sources (electrons and photons) that are responsible for the chemical evolution of Titan's atmosphere. Thus, the complex chemistry between N atoms and CH3, CH2, CH fragments, issued from electron dissociation of N2 and photodissociation of CH4 respectively, will be initiated. For these simulation experiments, we are planning to use a pulsed excimer KrF laser delivering photons at 248 nm to dissociate methane via a multiphotonic process because the Lyman-α radiation, mainly responsible for the dissociation of this compound in the upper atmosphere, cannot be easily reproduced in the laboratory. A first attempt to check for the energetic equivalence of the two processes - 2 photons at 248 nm vs. one single photon at Lyman-α - has already been performed and a more extensive re-examination of the methane photolysis at both wavelengths has been undertaken. The available literature indeed provides contradictory results for the methane's primary photolytic scheme at Lyman-α and no studies at all have been performed yet to establish the different photolytic decomposition pathways at 248 nm. One has to note that the available literature provides contradictory results for methane's primary photolytic scheme at Lyman-α and no studies at all have been performed yet to establish the different photolytic decomposition pathways at 248 nm. Thus, a re-examination of the methane photolysis at both wavelengths has been undertaken. Photolysis of methane has been carried out using a photochemical classic

  6. Hierarchical representations of the five-factor model of personality in predicting job performance: integrating three organizing frameworks with two theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Rodell, Jessica B; Klinger, Ryan L; Simon, Lauren S; Crawford, Eean R

    2013-11-01

    Integrating 2 theoretical perspectives on predictor-criterion relationships, the present study developed and tested a hierarchical framework in which each five-factor model (FFM) personality trait comprises 2 DeYoung, Quilty, and Peterson (2007) facets, which in turn comprise 6 Costa and McCrae (1992) NEO facets. Both theoretical perspectives-the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma and construct correspondence-suggest that lower order traits would better predict facets of job performance (task performance and contextual performance). They differ, however, as to the relative merits of broad and narrow traits in predicting a broad criterion (overall job performance). We first meta-analyzed the relationship of the 30 NEO facets to overall job performance and its facets. Overall, 1,176 correlations from 410 independent samples (combined N = 406,029) were coded and meta-analyzed. We then formed the 10 DeYoung et al. facets from the NEO facets, and 5 broad traits from those facets. Overall, results provided support for the 6-2-1 framework in general and the importance of the NEO facets in particular. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The effectiveness of a high-fidelity teaching simulation based on an NLN/Jeffries simulation in the nursing education theoretical framework and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen-Fen Zhu; Li-Rong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a high-fidelity teaching simulation based on an NLN/Jef-fries simulation in the nursing education theoretical framework and its influencing factors. Methods: A high-fidelity teaching simulation on clinical nursing practices using intelligent human an-alogues was conducted with 200 students, and The Simulation Design Scale, and the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale developed by the National League for Nursing were used to evaluate the training effectiveness and its influencing factors. Results: For the high-fidelity teaching simulation, students gave scores of 4.36 ± 0.54 points for satis-faction and 4.33 ± 0.46 points for Self-Confidence. The students highly rated the five dimensions of teaching design, i.e., teaching objectives/information, assistance/support for students, problem solving, guided feedback, and fidelity. The teaching design was closely correlated with the satisfaction of the high-fidelity teaching simulation and self-efficacy, and the dimensions of teaching objectives/informa-tion and assistance/support for students were particularly strong predictors of teaching effectiveness. Conclusions: A high-fidelity teaching simulation based on Jeffries' theoretical framework improved student satisfaction with the simulation and their Self-Confidence. In planning simulations, teachers should take into account five characteristics, i.e., teaching objectives/information on simulation educa-tion, assistance/support for students, problem solving, guided reflection, and fidelity, to achieve better teaching effectiveness.

  8. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  9. Theoretical assessment of the elastic constants and hydrogen storage capacity of some metal-organic framework materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Amit; Furuta, Terumi; Li, Ju

    2006-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for applications such as separation, catalysis, and gas storage. A key indicator of their structural stability is the shear modulus. By density functional theory calculations in a 106-atom supercell, under the local density approximation, we find c11=29.2GPa and c12=13.1GPa for Zn-based MOF 5. However, we find c44 of MOF-5 to be exceedingly small, only 1.4GPa at T =0K. The binding energy Eads of a single hydrogen molecule in MOF-5 is evaluated using the same setup. We find it to be -0.069to-0.086eV/H2 near the benzene linker and -0.106to-0.160eV/H2 near the Zn4O tetrahedra. Substitutions of chlorine and hydroxyl in the benzene linker have negligible effect on the physisorption energies. Pentacoordinated copper (and aluminum) in a framework structure similar to MOF-2 gives Eads≈-0.291eV/H2 (and -0.230eV/H2), and substitution of nitrogen in benzene (pyrazine) further enhances Eads near the organic linker to -0.16eV/H2, according to density functional theory with local density approximation.

  10. Understanding practice: the factors that influence management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department--a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Knott, Jonathan; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; O'Connor, Denise A

    2014-01-13

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause of presentation to emergency departments. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines in this area, there is variation in practice. One of the aims of the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation program is to develop and evaluate a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed intervention to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in Australian emergency departments. This study is the first step in the intervention development process and uses the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the factors perceived to influence the uptake of four key evidence-based recommended practices for managing mild traumatic brain injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with emergency staff in the Australian state of Victoria. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore current practice and to identify the factors perceived to influence practice. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. A total of 42 participants (9 Directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses) were interviewed over a seven-month period. The results suggested that (i) the prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; skills; social/professional role and identity; and beliefs about capabilities; (ii) the use of guideline-developed criteria or decision rules to inform the appropriate use of a CT scan was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; beliefs about capabilities; social influences; skills and behavioral regulation; (iii) providing verbal and written patient information on discharge was influenced by: beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; social/professional role and identity; and knowledge; (iv) the practice of

  11. Quantifying behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a cross-sectional survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to explore any differences between respondents. A cross-sectional survey of patient-facing doctors, nurses and pharmacists within three major hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. An online questionnaire was developed based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, a framework of behaviour change theories). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify components and internal reliability determined. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all hospital ethics committees. Two hundred and ninety-four responses were received. Questionnaire items clustered into six components of knowledge and skills, feedback and support, action and impact, motivation, effort and emotions. Respondents generally gave positive responses for knowledge and skills, feedback and support and action and impact components. Responses were more neutral for the motivation and effort components. In terms of emotions, the component with the most negative scores, there were significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive, p = 0.002) and age (older most positive, p Theoretical Domains Framework to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors. • Questionnaire items relating to emotions surrounding reporting generated the most negative responses with significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive) and age (older most positive) with no differences for gender and health profession. • Interventions based on behaviour change techniques mapped to emotions should be prioritised for development.

  12. The design and testing of a caring teaching model based on the theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese Context: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujie; Shen, Jie; Ye, Xuchun; Chen, Huali; Jiang, Anli

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to report the design and test the effectiveness of an innovative caring teaching model based on the theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context. Since the 1970's, caring has been a core value in nursing education. In a previous study, a theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context is explored employing a grounded theory study, considered beneficial for caring education. A caring teaching model was designed theoretically and a one group pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study was administered to test its effectiveness. From Oct, 2009 to Jul, 2010, a cohort of grade-2 undergraduate nursing students (n=64) in a Chinese medical school was recruited to participate in the study. Data were gathered through quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the caring teaching model. The caring teaching model created an esthetic situation and experiential learning style for teaching caring that was integrated within the curricula. Quantitative data from the quasi-experimental study showed that the post-test scores of each item were higher than those on the pre-test (p<0.01). Thematic analysis of 1220 narratives from students' caring journals and reports of participant class observation revealed two main thematic categories, which reflected, from the students' points of view, the development of student caring character and the impact that the caring teaching model had on this regard. The model could be used as an integrated approach to teach caring in nursing curricula. It would also be beneficial for nursing administrators in cultivating caring nurse practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using the theoretical domains framework to guide the development of a self-management program for individuals with spinal cord injury: Results from a national stakeholder advisory group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Sarah E P; Allin, Sonya; Wolfe, Dalton L; Anzai, Karen; Linassi, Gary; Noonan, Vanessa K; Jaglal, Susan B

    2017-07-30

    To determine the implementation considerations for a targeted self-management program for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) from the perspective of a national stakeholder advisory group using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) as a guide. Qualitative descriptive approach. Two focus groups held at the 6(th) National Spinal Cord Injury Conference (October 2-4(th), 2014) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 25 stakeholders from across Canada participated in focus groups or "brainstorming sessions". The stakeholders included 5 clinicians, 14 researchers, 3 policy makers, and 3 individuals with SCI. Not applicable. Not applicable. All 14 theoretical domains were identified in the brainstorming sessions. No new themes or domains were identified. The need to consider the theoretical domains of Knowledge, Skills, Reinforcement, Intentions, Goals (e.g. the readiness of the individual with SCI), Environmental Context and Resources (e.g. considerations for governance and ownership of the program and a business model for sustainability), as well as Social Influences (e.g. issues of privacy and security in the context of on-line delivery) was identified. The current study provides complementary results to our previous series of studies on the implementation considerations for the development of a targeted self-management program for individuals with SCI by emphasizing the health care professional/health policy perspective. It is anticipated that such a program could not only reduce secondary complications and subsequent inappropriate health care use but it may also improve the quality of life for individuals with SCI and their caregivers.

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electronic band structure of metal-organic frameworks of HKUST-1 type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350002 Fuzhou (China); Heinke, Lars, E-mail: Lars.Heinke@KIT.edu; Wöll, Christof [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Neumann, Tobias; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Li, Qiang; Fink, Karin [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly “simple” MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of “intra-unit” excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, “inter-unit” excitations also have to be considered.

  15. Public Disaster Communication and Child and Family Disaster Mental Health: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L; Sorenson, Mary E; Koch, Megan

    2016-06-01

    Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach. Our review also indicates that schools are a promising system for child and family disaster communication. We complete our review with three conclusions. First, theoretically, there appears to be a great opportunity for public disaster communication focused on child disaster reactions. Second, empirical research assessing the effects of public child and family disaster communication is essentially nonexistent. Third, despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area, there is opportunity for public child and family disaster communication efforts that address new domains.

  16. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based practice utilizing an iterative stakeholder process and theoretical framework: problem solving therapy for Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Joyce P; Huynh, Loanie; Areán, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Main objectives were to familiarize the reader with a theoretical framework for modifying evidence-based interventions for cultural groups, and to provide an example of one method, Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapies (FMAP), in the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for a cultural group notorious for refusing mental health treatment. Provider and client stakeholder input combined with an iterative testing process within the FMAP framework was utilized to create the Problem Solving Therapy--Chinese Older Adult (PST-COA) manual for depression. Data from pilot-testing the intervention with a clinically depressed Chinese elderly woman are reported. PST-COA is categorized as a 'culturally-adapted' treatment, where core mediating mechanisms of PST were preserved, but cultural themes of measurement methodology, stigma, hierarchical provider-client relationship expectations, and acculturation enhanced core components to make PST more understandable and relevant for Chinese elderly. Modifications also encompassed therapeutic framework and peripheral elements affecting engagement and retention. PST-COA applied with a depressed Chinese older adult indicated remission of clinical depression and improvement in mood. Fidelity with and acceptability of the treatment was sufficient as the client completed and reported high satisfaction with PST-COA. PST, as a non-emotion-focused, evidence-based intervention, is a good fit for depressed Chinese elderly. Through an iterative stakeholder process of cultural adaptation, several culturally-specific modifications were applied to PST to create the PST-COA manual. PST-COA preserves core therapeutic PST elements but includes cultural adaptations in therapeutic framework and key administration and content areas that ensure greater applicability and effectiveness for the Chinese elderly community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Signalling entropy: A novel network-theoretical framework for systems analysis and interpretation of functional omic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Sollich, Peter; Kuehn, Reimer

    2014-06-01

    A key challenge in systems biology is the elucidation of the underlying principles, or fundamental laws, which determine the cellular phenotype. Understanding how these fundamental principles are altered in diseases like cancer is important for translating basic scientific knowledge into clinical advances. While significant progress is being made, with the identification of novel drug targets and treatments by means of systems biological methods, our fundamental systems level understanding of why certain treatments succeed and others fail is still lacking. We here advocate a novel methodological framework for systems analysis and interpretation of molecular omic data, which is based on statistical mechanical principles. Specifically, we propose the notion of cellular signalling entropy (or uncertainty), as a novel means of analysing and interpreting omic data, and more fundamentally, as a means of elucidating systems-level principles underlying basic biology and disease. We describe the power of signalling entropy to discriminate cells according to differentiation potential and cancer status. We further argue the case for an empirical cellular entropy-robustness correlation theorem and demonstrate its existence in cancer cell line drug sensitivity data. Specifically, we find that high signalling entropy correlates with drug resistance and further describe how entropy could be used to identify the achilles heels of cancer cells. In summary, signalling entropy is a deep and powerful concept, based on rigorous statistical mechanical principles, which, with improved data quality and coverage, will allow a much deeper understanding of the systems biological principles underlying normal and disease physiology.

  18. Strategizing Safety: Theoretical Frameworks to Understand Women's Decision Making in the Face of Partner Violence and Social Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonis, Alisa J; Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-08-24

    Women in physically and psychologically abusive relationships face numerous decisions related to their safety: decisions that historically have been viewed by researchers and human service practitioners as related to individual or interpersonal factors, such as how they feel about their partner, what they (or those they are close to) think is best for their children, or whether they have a safe place to go to. Social and structural factors, such as poverty, sexism, and barriers related to disability, are either left out or viewed at their individual-level consequence, such as a woman's employment status. Using interview data and case studies from a larger study on housing instability, partner violence, and health, the authors apply ecological and macro-level theoretical models that go beyond the individual level to the stories of women who struggled with partner violence, arguing that it is critical to examine the large social and structural forces that impact women's lives if we are to understand the decisions women make when facing a violent partner.

  19. Insight into the SBU condensation in mg coordination and supramolecular frameworks: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platero-Prats, Ana E; de la Peña-O'Shea, Víctor A; Proserpio, Davide M; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, Angeles

    2012-03-14

    This work is to emphasize the influence of the synthetic procedures in the isolation of different coordination polymers that coexist under hydro-/solvothermal conditions. An experimental and theoretical study in the Mg(2+):4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(benzoic acid):1,10-phenantroline system has been carried out. Computational studies have determined the relative energies for those compounds that coexist under certain hydrothermal conditions, and have helped to identify the driving forces for the formation of the different phases. The five new compounds belong to five different structural types: AEPF-14, which presents two polymorphs (α- and β-) ([Mg(H(2)O)(4)(phen)(2)]L), AEPF-15 ([Mg(HL)(2)(phen)]) and AEPF-16 ([Mg(H(2)O)(2)(L)(phen)]) are both 1D MOFs (AEPF-16 with a helical structure), and AEPF-17 ([Mg(H(2)O)(L)(phen)]) with a 2D structure. Hydrogen bond interactions found in the five compounds have been taken into account to study the topology of their supramolecular nets. Finally, dehydration studies performed on AEPF-14 (α- and β-) and AEPF-16 have shown that the topological type of their supramolecular networks determines the structural changes that take place during the dehydration processes of these Mg compounds.

  20. Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Eilidh M; Francis, Jill J; Johnston, Marie; Davey, Peter; Maxwell, Simon; McKay, Gerard A; McLay, James; Ross, Sarah; Ryan, Cristín; Webb, David J; Bond, Christine

    2012-09-11

    Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: "social professional role and identity," "environmental context and resources," "social influences," "knowledge," "skills," "memory, attention, and decision making," and "behavioral regulation." From critical appraisal of the interview data, "beliefs about consequences" and "beliefs about capabilities" were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants' attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains that should also be targeted, despite participants' perceptions that they were not relevant to

  1. Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Eilidh M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Method Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Results Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: “social professional role and identity,” “environmental context and resources,” “social influences,” “knowledge,” “skills,” “memory, attention, and decision making,” and “behavioral regulation.” From critical appraisal of the interview data, “beliefs about consequences” and “beliefs about capabilities” were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. Conclusions In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants’ attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains

  2. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  3. [A history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil (1960-2007): an analysis based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttems, Leila Bernardo Donato; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Silva, Aline Ferreira Melgaço da; Silva, Priscila Avelino da

    2009-06-01

    This article analyzes the history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil, based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism, identifying the predominant configurations and trends in the various administrations of the State Health Secretariat (SES-DF) from 1960 to 2007. The study indicates that the characteristics of the Federal District's health policy are dependent on the history of the original health system plans for setting priorities and goals, as well as for the health system's implementation. This influence, in addition to the centralization of decision-making processes and limited political participation, can contribute to making primary care ancillary to hospital care, thus jeopardizing its potential to produce change in the health care model.

  4. Barriers and facilitators towards implementing the Sepsis Six care bundle (BLISS-1): a mixed methods investigation using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Neil; Hooper, Guy; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Storr, Wendell; Spivey, Michael

    2017-09-19

    The 'Sepsis 6', a care bundle of basic, but vital, measures (e.g. intravenous fluid, antibiotics) has been implemented to improve sepsis treatment. However, uptake has been variable. Tools from behavioral sciences, such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) may be used to understand and address such implementation issues. This study used a behavioral science approach to identify barriers and facilitators towards Sepsis Six implementation at a case study hospital. Semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were conducted with a sample group of consultants, junior doctors and nurses from Emergency Department, Medical and Surgical Admissions, to explore barriers/facilitators to Sepsis Six performance. Transcripts were analyzed following the combined principles of content and framework analysis. Emerging themes informed a questionnaire to explore generalizability and importance across a sample of 261 stakeholders. Median importance and agreement ratings for each theme were calculated overall and for each role and clinical area. These were used to identify important barriers and important facilitators as targets for performance improvement. No new belief statements were discovered and data saturation was deemed achieved after 10 interviews. 1699 utterances were coded into 64 belief statements, then collated into a 51-item questionnaire. 113 questionnaire responses were obtained (44.3% response rate). Important barriers included insufficient audit and feedback, poor teamwork and communication, concerns about using the Sepsis Six in certain patients, insufficient training, and resource concerns. Facilitators included confidence in knowledge and skills, beliefs in overall benefits of the bundle, beliefs that identification and management of septic patients fell within everyone's role, and that regular use of the bundle made it easier to remember. Some beliefs were applicable for the entire group, others were specific to particular staff groups. A range of barriers

  5. What helps or hinders midwives to implement physical activity guidelines for obese pregnant women? A questionnaire survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParlin, Catherine; Bell, Ruth; Robson, Stephen C; Muirhead, Colin R; Araújo-Soares, Vera

    2017-06-01

    to investigate barriers and facilitators to physical activity (PA) guideline implementation for midwives when advising obese pregnant women. a cross-sectional, self-completion, anonymous questionnaire was designed using the Theoretical Domains Framework. this framework was developed to evaluate the implementation of guidelines by health care professionals. A total of 40 questions were included. These were informed by previous research on pregnant women's and midwives views, knowledge and attitudes to PA, and supported by national evidence based guidelines. Demographic information and free text comments were also collected. three diverse NHS Trusts in the North East of England. all midwives employed by two hospital Trusts and the community midwives from the third Trust (n=375) were invited to participate. mean domain scores were calculated. Factor and regression analysis were performed to describe which theoretical domains may be influencing practice. Free text comments were analysed thematically. 192 (53%) questionnaires were returned. Mean domain scores were highest for social professional role and knowledge, and lowest for skills, beliefs about capabilities and behaviour regulation. Regression analysis indicated that skills and memory/attention/decision domains had a statistically significant influence on midwives discussing PA with obese pregnant women and advising them accordingly. Midwives comments indicated that they felt it was part of their role to discuss PA with all pregnant women but felt they lacked the skills and resources to do so effectively. midwives seem to have the necessary knowledge about the need/importance of PA advice for obese women and believe it is part of their role, but perceive they lack necessary skills and resources, and do not plan or prioritise the discussion regarding PA with obese pregnant woman. designing interventions that improve skills, promote routine enquiry regarding PA and provide resources (eg. information, referral

  6. Using theory to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lucy; McCullough, Amanda; Del Mar, Chris; Lowe, John

    2017-02-13

    Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia. Forty-three semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with general practitioners, pharmacists and patients were conducted. Responses were coded into domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework, and specific criteria from the Behaviour Change Wheel were used to identify which domains were relevant to increasing the use of delayed prescribing by GPs. The interviews revealed nine key domains that influence GPs' use of delayed prescribing: knowledge; cognitive and interpersonal skills; memory, attention and decision-making processes; optimism; beliefs about consequences; intentions; goals; emotion; and social influences: GPs knew about delayed prescribing; however, they did not use it consistently, preferring to bring patients back for review and only using it with patients in a highly selective way. Pharmacists would support GPs and the public in delayed prescribing but would fill the prescription if people insisted. The public said they would delay taking their antibiotics if asked by their GP and given the right information on managing symptoms and when to take antibiotics. Using a theory-driven approach, we identified nine key domains that influence GPs' willingness to provide a delayed prescription to patients with an acute respiratory infection presenting to general practice. These data can be used to develop a structured intervention to change this behaviour and thus reduce antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in general practice.

  7. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical invest...... interaction. The analysis inputs an initial conceptualization of a new theoretical framework of idea management. The theoretical framework suggests a dynamic network structure comprised of the dimensions of space, content, and process....

  8. A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework to investigate why patients were or were not assessed for rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth A; Luker, Julie A; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Fryer, Caroline E; Hillier, Susan L

    2017-07-01

    To explore the factors perceived to affect rehabilitation assessment and referral practices for patients with stroke. Qualitative study using data from focus groups analysed thematically and then mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework. Eight acute stroke units in two states of Australia. Health professionals working in acute stroke units. Health professionals at all sites had participated in interventions to improve rehabilitation assessment and referral practices, which included provision of copies of an evidence-based decision-making rehabilitation Assessment Tool and pathway. Eight focus groups were conducted (32 total participants). Reported rehabilitation assessment and referral practices varied markedly between units. Continence and mood were not routinely assessed (4 units), and people with stroke symptoms were not consistently referred to rehabilitation (4 units). Key factors influencing practice were identified and included whether health professionals perceived that use of the Assessment Tool would improve rehabilitation assessment practices (theoretical domain 'social and professional role'); beliefs about outcomes from changing practice such as increased equity for patients or conversely that changing rehabilitation referral patterns would not affect access to rehabilitation ('belief about consequences'); the influence of the unit's relationships with other groups including rehabilitation teams ('social influences' domain) and understanding within the acute stroke unit team of the purpose of changing assessment practices ('knowledge' domain). This study has identified that health professionals' perceived roles, beliefs about consequences from changing practice and relationships with rehabilitation service providers were perceived to influence rehabilitation assessment and referral practices on Australian acute stroke units.

  9. A theoretical framework for whole-plant carbon assimilation efficiency based on metabolic scaling theory: a test case using Picea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Deng, Jianming; Milne, Richard I; Ran, Jinzhi; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhexuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jiangtao; Huang, Heng; Cheng, Dongliang; Niklas, Karl J

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous and accurate measurements of whole-plant instantaneous carbon-use efficiency (ICUE) and annual total carbon-use efficiency (TCUE) are difficult to make, especially for trees. One usually estimates ICUE based on the net photosynthetic rate or the assumed proportional relationship between growth efficiency and ICUE. However, thus far, protocols for easily estimating annual TCUE remain problematic. Here, we present a theoretical framework (based on the metabolic scaling theory) to predict whole-plant annual TCUE by directly measuring instantaneous net photosynthetic and respiratory rates. This framework makes four predictions, which were evaluated empirically using seedlings of nine Picea taxa: (i) the flux rates of CO(2) and energy will scale isometrically as a function of plant size, (ii) whole-plant net and gross photosynthetic rates and the net primary productivity will scale isometrically with respect to total leaf mass, (iii) these scaling relationships will be independent of ambient temperature and humidity fluctuations (as measured within an experimental chamber) regardless of the instantaneous net photosynthetic rate or dark respiratory rate, or overall growth rate and (iv) TCUE will scale isometrically with respect to instantaneous efficiency of carbon use (i.e., the latter can be used to predict the former) across diverse species. These predictions were experimentally verified. We also found that the ranking of the nine taxa based on net photosynthetic rates differed from ranking based on either ICUE or TCUE. In addition, the absolute values of ICUE and TCUE significantly differed among the nine taxa, with both ICUE and temperature-corrected ICUE being highest for Picea abies and lowest for Picea schrenkiana. Nevertheless, the data are consistent with the predictions of our general theoretical framework, which can be used to access annual carbon-use efficiency of different species at the level of an individual plant based on simple, direct

  10. ‘It’s a can of worms’: understanding primary care practitioners’ behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry Lisa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’ and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination

  11. 构建护理服务型领导理论框架的研究%Application of Delphi Method to construct nursing servant leadership theoretical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙莎; 刘薇群; 吴静; 杨阳; 葛津津

    2012-01-01

    目的:构建护理服务型领导理论框架,明确服务型领导在护理领域中的具体特征,为临床护理管理提供理论依据.方法:选择17名护理管理学专家、心理学专家做为函询对象,应用德尔菲法对护理服务型领导理论框架进行两轮函询.结果:专家的积极性高,专家的权威程度(Cr)系数为0.86,专家意见协调系数为0.15 ~ 0.18,建立的护理服务型领导理论框架包括甘于奉献、关心护士、授权、尊重护士、平易近人、促进护士发展6个维度,共20个项目.结论:专家的积极性、权威性及专家意见的集中程度均较高;护理服务型领导理论框架的构建,可为评价护理领导行为提供依据,并为护理领导培训课程的设置提供参考.%Objective: To construct nursing servant leadership theoretical framework, confirm its special characteristics in nursing field and provide theoretical reference to clinical nursing management. Methods: A total of 17 specialists on nursing management and psychology were consulted for 2 rounds via Delphi Method. Results: Specialists were quite active while specialists' authority coefficient (Cr) was 0.86 and coordination coefficient was 0.15-0.18. Our nursing servant leadership theoretical framework consisted of 6 dimensions: loyal devotion, caring nurses, empowerment, respecting nurses, amiableness, promoting nurses development, totally including 20 items. Conclusions: Specialists' activity, authority, and concentration of their opinions were quite high. Nursing servant leadership theory could provide evidence and reference to nursing leadership behavior assessment and training courses.

  12. A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians’ beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Rafat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable, Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work, Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives, and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion, Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a fully automated quantitative framework for characterizing general breast tissue histology via color histogram and color texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Batiste, Rebecca C.; Kontos, Despina; Feldman, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Visual characterization of histologic specimens is known to suffer from intra- and inter-observer variability. To help address this, we developed an automated framework for characterizing digitized histology specimens based on a novel application of color histogram and color texture analysis. We perform a preliminary evaluation of this framework using a set of 73 trichrome-stained, digitized slides of normal breast tissue which were visually assessed by an expert pathologist in terms of the percentage of collagenous stroma, stromal collagen density, duct-lobular unit density and the presence of elastosis. For each slide, our algorithm automatically segments the tissue region based on the lightness channel in CIELAB colorspace. Within each tissue region, a color histogram feature vector is extracted using a common color palette for trichrome images generated with a previously described method. Then, using a whole-slide, lattice-based methodology, color texture maps are generated using a set of color co-occurrence matrix statistics: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. The extracted features sets are compared to the visually assessed tissue characteristics. Overall, the extracted texture features have high correlations to both the percentage of collagenous stroma (r=0.95, phistological processes in digitized histology specimens.

  14. A preliminary examination of patient loyalty: an application of the customer loyalty classification framework in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiens, R A; Pleshko, L P

    1997-01-01

    The present article applies the customer loyalty classification framework developed by Dick and Basu (1994) to the health care industry. Based on a two factor classification, consisting of repeat patronage and relative attitude, four categories of patient loyalty are proposed and examined, including true loyalty, latent loyalty, spurious loyalty, and no loyalty. Data is collected and the four patient loyalty categories are profiled and compared on the basis of perceived risk, product class importance, provider decision importance, provider awareness, provider consideration, number of providers visited, and self-reported loyalty.

  15. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Tavender, E. J.; M. Bosch; Gruen, R. L.; Green, S. E.; Michie, S; Brennan, S. E.; Francis, J.; Ponsford, J L; Knott, J. C.; Meares, S.; Smyth, T.; O Connor, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant...

  16. Pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation are commonly influenced by environment, knowledge, and beliefs about consequences: a systematic review using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Narelle S; Oliveira, Cristino C; Lahham, Aroub; Holland, Anne E

    2017-04-01

    What are the barriers and enablers of referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Systematic review of qualitative or quantitative studies reporting data relating to referral, uptake, attendance and/or completion in pulmonary rehabilitation. People aged >18years with a diagnosis of COPD and/or their healthcare professionals. Data were extracted regarding the nature of barriers and enablers of pulmonary rehabilitation referral and participation. Extracted data items were mapped to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). A total of 6969 references were screened, with 48 studies included and 369 relevant items mapped to the TDF. The most frequently represented domain was 'Environment' (33/48 included studies, 37% of mapped items), which included items such as waiting time, burden of illness, travel, transport and health system resources. Other frequently represented domains were 'Knowledge' (18/48 studies, including items such as clinician knowledge of referral processes, patient understanding of rehabilitation content) and 'Beliefs about consequences' (15/48 studies, including items such as beliefs regarding role and safety of exercise, expectations of rehabilitation outcomes). Barriers to referral, uptake, attendance or completion represented 71% (n=183) of items mapped to the TDF. All domains of the TDF were represented; however, items were least frequently coded to the domains of 'Optimism' and 'Memory'. The methodological quality of included studies was fair (mean quality score 9/12, SD 2). Many factors - particularly those related to environment, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours - interact to influence referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation. Overcoming the challenges associated with the personal and/or healthcare system environment will be imperative to improving access and uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation. PROSPERO CRD42015015976

  17. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  18. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global carbon-climate-nitrogen system (CCN with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the land-use change perturbation (LUC. Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

  19. Coagulated Rhythm [Review of Li, Li Fang and Hai Tao Yang. Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Kunming: Yunnan People’s Press, 2002, iii+337]. Coagulated Rhythm [Review of Li, Li Fang and Hai Tao Yang. Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Kunming: Yunnan People’s Press, 2002, iii+337].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y. Cheung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is a recurrent theme and simultaneously a research focus of Cultural Studies. Not unrelated to this is the focus on complex diachronic and synchronic variability in language and discourse as demonstrated within the broad range of epistemologies in Linguistics and Sociolinguistics in particular. The ongoing debate concerning disciplinary boundaries of Cultural Studies and Sociolinguistics and related entities such as Anthropology, Gender Studies, Media Studies and Sociology is itself indicative of heterogeneity, complexity and variability. These themes emerge from the rich descriptive study offered through a kind of kaleidoscopic vision that is the monograph Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography. Heterogeneity is a recurrent theme and simultaneously a research focus of Cultural Studies. Not unrelated to this is the focus on complex diachronic and synchronic variability in language and discourse as demonstrated within the broad range of epistemologies in Linguistics and Sociolinguistics in particular. The ongoing debate concerning disciplinary boundaries of Cultural Studies and Sociolinguistics and related entities such as Anthropology, Gender Studies, Media Studies and Sociology is itself indicative of heterogeneity, complexity and variability. These themes emerge from the rich descriptive study offered through a kind of kaleidoscopic vision that is the monograph Coagulated Rhythm: the Theoretical Framework and Aesthetic Interpretation of Naxi Musical Iconography.

  20. Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Langousis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

  1. Use of the theoretical domains framework to further understanding of what influences application of fluoride varnish to children's teeth: a national survey of general dental practitioners in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnich, Wendy; Bonetti, Debbie; Sherriff, Andrea; Sharma, Shilpi; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in the oral health of Scotland's population, the persistence of childhood dental caries underscores a need to reduce the disease burden experienced by children living in Scotland. Application of fluoride varnish (FV) to children's teeth provides an evidence-based approach to achieving this goal. Despite policy, health service targets and professional recommendations supporting application, not all children receive FV in line with guidance. The objective of this study was to use the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to further an understanding of what may influence fluoride varnish application (FVA) in General Dental Practice in Scotland. A postal questionnaire assessing current behaviour (frequency of FVA) and theoretical domains (TDs) was sent to all General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Correlations and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FVA and the TDs. One thousand and ninety (53.6%) eligible GDPs responded. Respondents reported applying FV more frequently to increased risk and younger children (aged 2-5 years). Higher scores in eight TDs (Knowledge, Social/professional role and identity, Beliefs about consequences, Motivation and goals, Environmental context and resources, Social influences, Emotion and Behavioural regulation) were associated with greater frequency of FVA. Four beliefs in particular appear to be driving GDPs' decision to apply FV (recognizing that FVA is a guideline recommended behaviour (Knowledge), that FVA is perceived as an important part of the GDPs' professional role (Professional role/identity), that FV is something parents want for their children (Social influences) and that FV is something GDPs really wanted to do (Emotion). The findings of this study support the use of the TDF as a tool to understand GDPs application of FV and suggest that a multifaceted intervention, targeting dental professionals and families, and more specifically those domains and items

  2. Use of the Theoretical Domains Framework to evaluate factors driving successful implementation of the Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoien, Wade; Page, Katie; Parsonage, William; Ashover, Sarah; Milburn, Tanya; Cullen, Louise

    2016-10-12

    The translation of healthcare research into practice is typically challenging and limited in effectiveness. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) identifies 12 domains of behaviour determinants which can be used to understand the principles of behavioural change, a key factor influencing implementation. The Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project has successfully translated research into practice, by implementing an intervention to improve the assessment of low to intermediate risk patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. The aims of this paper are to describe use of the TDF to determine which factors successfully influenced implementation and to describe use of the TDF as a tool to evaluate implementation efforts and which domains are most relevant to successful implementation. A 30-item questionnaire targeting clinicians was developed using the TDF as a guide. Questions encompassed ten of the domains of the TDF: Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Optimism; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; and Social influences. Sixty-three of 176 stakeholders (36 %) responded to the questionnaire. Responses for all scales showed that respondents were highly favourable to all aspects of the implementation. Scales with the highest mean responses were Intentions, Knowledge, and Optimism, suggesting that initial education and awareness strategies around the ACRE project were effective. Scales with the lowest mean responses were Environmental context and resources, and Social influences, perhaps highlighting that implementation planning could have benefitted from further consideration of the factors underlying these scales. The ACRE project was successful, and therefore, a perfect case study for understanding factors which drive implementation success. The overwhelmingly positive response suggests that it

  3. Predicting Rib Fracture Risk With Whole-Body Finite Element Models: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Probabilistic Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L.; Kent, Richard W.; Mroz, Krystoffer; Pipkorn, Bengt; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to develop a strain-based probabilistic method to predict rib fracture risk with whole-body finite element (FE) models, and to describe a method to combine the results with collision exposure information to predict injury risk and potential intervention effectiveness in the field. An age-adjusted ultimate strain distribution was used to estimate local rib fracture probabilities within an FE model. These local probabilities were combined to predict injury risk and severity within the whole ribcage. The ultimate strain distribution was developed from a literature dataset of 133 tests. Frontal collision simulations were performed with the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) model with four levels of delta-V and two restraints: a standard 3-point belt and a progressive 3.5–7 kN force-limited, pretensioned (FL+PT) belt. The results of three simulations (29 km/h standard, 48 km/h standard, and 48 km/h FL+PT) were compared to matched cadaver sled tests. The numbers of fractures predicted for the comparison cases were consistent with those observed experimentally. Combining these results with field exposure informantion (ΔV, NASS-CDS 1992–2002) suggests a 8.9% probability of incurring AIS3+ rib fractures for a 60 year-old restrained by a standard belt in a tow-away frontal collision with this restraint, vehicle, and occupant configuration, compared to 4.6% for the FL+PT belt. This is the first study to describe a probabilistic framework to predict rib fracture risk based on strains observed in human-body FE models. Using this analytical framework, future efforts may incorporate additional subject or collision factors for multi-variable probabilistic injury prediction. PMID:23169122

  4. Is being resolute better than being pragmatic when it comes to breastfeeding? Longitudinal qualitative study investigating experiences of women intending to breastfeed using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, E E; McLellan, J; Dombrowski, S U

    2017-09-01

    In the UK, initiating then discontinuing breastfeeding before two weeks post-partum is common. The aim of this longitudinal qualitative study was to explore which psychosocial factors may influence discontinuation. A sample of 10 pregnant women intending to breastfeed were recruited. A longitudinal qualitative design was used to capture views prior to and two weeks following birth. Semi-structured interviews were conducted underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore a comprehensive list of psychosocial factors. Four women discontinued breastfeeding at the time of the second interview. Pre-partum differences were identified between maintainers and discontinuers; discontinuers appeared to have stronger intentions to breastfeed based on their self-determination, self-confidence and perception of fewer barriers to breastfeeding. Post-partum, discontinuers highlighted how they felt physically unable to carry on; their feeding experiences elicited negative emotions and pain. Negative emotions appeared to be exacerbated by original breastfeeding beliefs and advice given by healthcare professionals. The women in this study who discontinued breastfeeding showed less cognitive flexibility, which appeared to exacerbate post-partum emotional distress, when they encountered difficulties. Women with strong intentions and self-determination might benefit from support in anticipating potential barriers and identifying ways of overcoming them.

  5. What factors influence uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes? A qualitative study informed by the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Amelia J; Browne, Jessica L; Rees, Gwyneth; Speight, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18-39years) face increased risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal screening is essential to detect DR, yet screening rates for this group are low and little is known about the underlying factors influencing this important behavior. Using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to guide data collection and analysis, we explored screening barriers and facilitator, contrasting them with a comparator group of older adults with T2D (40+ years). Thirty semi-structured telephone interviews (10 younger, 20 older adults) were conducted. Data were coded into TDF domains with salience identified by "frequency" of reference. Screening facilitators and barriers were systematically compared between groups. Although many screening facilitators and barriers were shared by younger and older adults, additional factors highly relevant to the former included: social comparison with others ('social influences'); concern for the impact on the family unit, unrealistic optimism and perceived invulnerability ('beliefs about consequences'); lack of time and financial resources ('environmental context and resources'), and DR misconceptions ('knowledge'). This study demonstrated that young adult retinal screening behavior was influenced by additional social cognitive factors compared to older adults, providing a first-step evidence base for clinicians and other health professionals, and potential targets for future eye health and retinal screening interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of pregnancy weight management and obesity guidelines: a meta-synthesis of healthcare professionals' barriers and facilitators using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslehurst, N; Newham, J; Maniatopoulos, G; Fleetwood, C; Robalino, S; Rankin, J

    2014-06-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is rising and is associated with severe health consequences for both the mother and the child. There is an increasing international focus on guidelines to manage the clinical risks of maternal obesity, and for pregnancy weight management. However, passive dissemination of guidelines is not effective and more active strategies are required for effective guideline implementation into practice. Implementation of guidelines is a form of healthcare professional behaviour change, and therefore implementation strategies should be based on appropriate behaviour change theory. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of healthcare professionals' behaviours in relation to maternal obesity and weight management. Twenty-five studies were included. Data synthesis of the existing international qualitative and quantitative evidence base used the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the barriers and facilitators to healthcare professionals' maternal obesity and weight management practice. The domains most frequently identified included 'knowledge', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'environmental context and resources'. Healthcare professionals' weight management practice had the most barriers compared with any other area of maternal obesity practice. The results of this review will be used to inform the development of an intervention to support healthcare professional behaviour change. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Quantized $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ Sigma Model Has No Continuum Limit in Four Dimensions; 1, Theoretical Framework

    CERN Document Server

    De Lyra, J L; Foong, S K; Gallivan, T E; Harrington, R; Kapulkin, A; Myers, E; Polchinski, Joseph; Lyra, Jorge de; Witt, Bryce De; Foong, See Kit; Gallivan, Timothy; Harrington, Rob; Kapulkin, Arie; Myers, Eric; Polchinski, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear sigma model for which the field takes its values in the coset space $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ is similar to quantum gravity in being perturbatively nonrenormalizable and having a noncompact curved configuration space. It is therefore a good model for testing nonperturbative methods that may be useful in quantum gravity, especially methods based on lattice field theory. In this paper we develop the theoretical framework necessary for recognizing and studying a consistent nonperturbative quantum field theory of the $O(1,2)/O(2)\\times Z_2$ model. We describe the action, the geometry of the configuration space, the conserved Noether currents, and the current algebra, and we construct a version of the Ward-Slavnov identity that makes it easy to switch from a given field to a nonlinearly related one. Renormalization of the model is defined via the effective action and via current algebra. The two definitions are shown to be equivalent. In a companion paper we develop a lattice formulation of the theory ...

  10. Intersectorial health-related policies: the use of a legal and theoretical framework to propose a typology to a case study in a Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tess, Beatriz Helena; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes intersectorial health-related policies (IHRP) based on a case study performed in 2008-2009 that mapped the social policies of the city of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research strategy comprised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and converging information sources. Legal and theoretical conceptual frameworks were applied to the Piracicaba study results and served as the basis for proposing a typology of IHRP. Three types of IHRP were identified: health policies where the health sector is coordinator but needs non-health sectors to succeed; policies with a sector other than health as coordinator, but which needs health sector collaboration to succeed; and thirdly, genuine intersectorial policies, not led by any one sector but by a specifically-appointed intersectorial coordinator. The authors contend that political commitment of local authorities alone may not be enough to promote efficient intersectorial social policies. Comprehension of different types of IHRP and their interface mechanisms may contribute to greater efficiency and coverage of social policies that affect health equity and its social determinants positively. In the final analysis,, this will lead to more equitable health outcomes.

  11. Intersectorial health-related policies: the use of a legal and theoretical framework to propose a typology to a case study in a Brazilian municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Tess

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes intersectorial health-related policies (IHRP based on a case study performed in 2008-2009 that mapped the social policies of the city of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research strategy comprised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and converging information sources. Legal and theoretical conceptual frameworks were applied to the Piracicaba study results and served as the basis for proposing a typology of IHRP. Three types of IHRP were identified: health policies where the health sector is coordinator but needs non-health sectors to succeed; policies with a sector other than health as coordinator, but which needs health sector collaboration to succeed; and thirdly, genuine intersectorial policies, not led by any one sector but by a specifically-appointed intersectorial coordinator. The authors contend that political commitment of local authorities alone may not be enough to promote efficient intersectorial social policies. Comprehension of different types of IHRP and their interface mechanisms may contribute to greater efficiency and coverage of social policies that affect health equity and its social determinants positively. In the final analysis,, this will lead to more equitable health outcomes.

  12. The SeIsmic monitoring and vulneraBilitY framework for civiL protection (SIBYL) Project: An overview and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Parolai, Stefano; Iervolino, Iunio; Pitilakis, Kyriazis; Petryna, Yuriy

    2016-04-01

    The SIBYL project is setting out to contribute to enhancing the capacity of Civil Protection (CP) authorities to rapidly and cost-effectively assess the seismic vulnerability of the built environment. The reason for this arises from the occurrence of seismic swarms or foreshocks, which leads to the requirement that CP authorities must rapidly assess the threatened area's vulnerability. This is especially important for those regions where there is a dearth of up-to-date and reliable information. The result will be a multi-faceted framework, made up of methodologies and software tools, that provides information to advise decision makers as to the most appropriate preventative actions to be taken. It will cover cases where there is a need for short-notice vulnerability assessment in a pre-event situation, and the monitoring of the built environment's dynamic vulnerability during a seismic sequence. Coupled with this will be the ability to stimulate long-term management plans, independent of the hazard or disaster of concern. The monitoring itself will involve low-cost sensing units which may be easily installed in critical infrastructures. The framework will be flexible enough to be employed over multiple spatial scales, and it will be developed with a modular structure which will ease its applicability to other natural hazard types. Likewise, it will be able to be adapted to the needs of CP authorities in different countries within their own hazard context. This presentation therefore provides an overview of the aims and expected outcomes of SIBYL, while explaining the tools currently being developed and refined, as well as preliminary results of several field campaigns.

  13. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  14. Barriers and facilitators to healthcare professional behaviour change in clinical trials using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case study of a trial of individualized temperature-reduced haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Mutsaers, Brittany; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Squires, Janet; McIntyre, Christopher W; Garg, Amit X; Sood, Manish M; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-05-22

    Implementing the treatment arm of a clinical trial often requires changes to healthcare practices. Barriers to such changes may undermine the delivery of the treatment making it more likely that the trial will demonstrate no treatment effect. The 'Major outcomes with personalized dialysate temperature' (MyTEMP) is a cluster-randomised trial to be conducted in 84 haemodialysis centres across Ontario, Canada to investigate whether there is a difference in major outcomes with an individualized dialysis temperature (IDT) of 0.5 °C below a patient's body temperature measured at the beginning of each haemodialysis session, compared to a standard dialysis temperature of 36.5 °C. To inform how to deploy the IDT across many haemodialysis centres, we assessed haemodialysis physicians' and nurses' perceived barriers and enablers to IDT use. We developed two topic guides using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to assess perceived barriers and enablers to IDT ordering and IDT setting (physician and nurse behaviours, respectively). We recruited a purposive sample of haemodialysis physicians and nurses from across Ontario and conducted in-person or telephone interviews. We used directed content analysis to double-code transcribed utterances into TDF domains, and inductive thematic analysis to develop themes. We interviewed nine physicians and nine nurses from 11 Ontario haemodialysis centres. We identified seven themes of potential barriers and facilitators to implementing IDTs: (1) awareness of clinical guidelines and how IDT fits with local policies (knowledge; goals), (2) benefits and motivation to use IDT (beliefs about consequences; optimism; reinforcement; intention; goals), (3) alignment of IDTs with usual practice and roles (social/professional role and identity; nature of the behaviour; beliefs about capabilities), (4) thermometer availability/accuracy and dialysis machine characteristics (environmental context and resources), (5) impact on workload (beliefs

  15. Exceptional H 2 sorption characteristics in a Mg 2+ -based metal–organic framework with small pores: insights from experimental and theoretical studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 the Owner Societies. Experimental sorption measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and theoretical studies of H2 sorption were performed in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6], a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of a network of Mg2+ ions coordinated to formate ligands. The experimental H2 uptake at 77 K and 1.0 atm was observed to be 0.96 wt%, which is quite impressive for a Mg2+-based MOF that has a BET surface area of only 150 m2 g-1. Due to the presence of small pore sizes in the MOF, the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) value was observed to be reasonably high for a material with no open-metal sites (ca. 7.0 kJ mol-1). The INS spectra for H2 in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] is very unusual for a porous material, as there exist several different peaks that occur below 10 meV. Simulations of H2 sorption in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] revealed that the H2 molecules sorbed at three principal locations within the small pores of the framework. It was discovered through the simulations and two-dimensional quantum rotation calculations that different groups of peaks correspond to particular sorption sites in the material. However, for H2 sorbed at a specific site, it was observed that differences in the positions and angular orientations led to distinctions in the rotational tunnelling transitions; this led to a total of eight identified sites. An extremely high rotational barrier was calculated for H2 sorbed at the most favorable site in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] (81.59 meV); this value is in close agreement to that determined using an empirical phenomenological model (75.71 meV). This rotational barrier for H2 exceeds those for various MOFs that contain open-metal sites and is currently the highest yet for a neutral MOF. This study highlights the synergy between experiment and theory to extract useful and important atomic level details on the remarkable sorption mechanism for H2 in a MOF with small pore sizes.

  16. Exceptional H2 sorption characteristics in a Mg(2+)-based metal-organic framework with small pores: insights from experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Falcão, Eduardo H L; Eckert, Juergen; Space, Brian

    2016-01-21

    Experimental sorption measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and theoretical studies of H2 sorption were performed in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6], a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of a network of Mg(2+) ions coordinated to formate ligands. The experimental H2 uptake at 77 K and 1.0 atm was observed to be 0.96 wt%, which is quite impressive for a Mg(2+)-based MOF that has a BET surface area of only 150 m(2) g(-1). Due to the presence of small pore sizes in the MOF, the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) value was observed to be reasonably high for a material with no open-metal sites (ca. 7.0 kJ mol(-1)). The INS spectra for H2 in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] is very unusual for a porous material, as there exist several different peaks that occur below 10 meV. Simulations of H2 sorption in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] revealed that the H2 molecules sorbed at three principal locations within the small pores of the framework. It was discovered through the simulations and two-dimensional quantum rotation calculations that different groups of peaks correspond to particular sorption sites in the material. However, for H2 sorbed at a specific site, it was observed that differences in the positions and angular orientations led to distinctions in the rotational tunnelling transitions; this led to a total of eight identified sites. An extremely high rotational barrier was calculated for H2 sorbed at the most favorable site in α-[Mg3(O2CH)6] (81.59 meV); this value is in close agreement to that determined using an empirical phenomenological model (75.71 meV). This rotational barrier for H2 exceeds those for various MOFs that contain open-metal sites and is currently the highest yet for a neutral MOF. This study highlights the synergy between experiment and theory to extract useful and important atomic level details on the remarkable sorption mechanism for H2 in a MOF with small pore sizes.

  17. Effect of temperature on formation of two new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of Tm(III)-succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto F. de; Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Malvestiti, Ivani [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil); Malta, Valeria Rodrigues dos S. [Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, UFAL, 57062-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O. [Department of Chemistry, UFS, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Junior, Severino A., E-mail: salvesjr@ufpe.br [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Compound 1, crystallized in space group P1-bar with the formula [Tm{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, (H{sub 2}L=succinic acid), has triclinic cell parameters of a=7.61780(10), b=10.58050(10), c=12.71030(10), {alpha}=95.3130(10), {beta}=107.4370(10), {gamma}=111.0960(10) and a cell volume of 888.446(16) A{sup 3}. Compound 2, crystallized in space group I2/a with the same formula, is monoclinic, with cell parameters of a=13.77020(10), b=7.63170(10), c=17.2410(2), {beta}=101.303(10) and a cell volume of 1776.72(3) A{sup 3}. The results of this work indicate that a flexible succinate ligand that provides several modes of coordination can lead to different conformations, depending on the temperature used in the reaction. In the theoretical part of this study, semiempirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3 and PM6 models are employed to predict the structure of MOFs, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining [Tm{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]H{sub 2}O in two different crystalline phases under the influence of reaction temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was synthesized new MOFs based on Tm{sup 3+} ions and succinic acid in different temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the temperature leads to two compounds with different crystalline systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sparkle AM1, PM3 and PM6 models were used to comparison of the theoretical and experimental cell.

  18. Barriers and facilitators for implementing a new screening tool in an emergency department: A qualitative study applying the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jeanette W; Sivertsen, Ditte M; Petersen, Janne; Nilsen, Per; Petersen, Helle V

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to identify the factors that were perceived as most important as facilitators or barriers to the introduction and intended use of a new tool in the emergency department among nurses and a geriatric team. A high incidence of functional decline after hospitalisation for acute medical illness has been shown in the oldest patients and those who are physically frail. In Denmark, more than 35% of older medical patients acutely admitted to the emergency department are readmitted within 90 days after discharge. A new screening tool for use in the emergency department aiming to identify patients at particularly high risk of functional decline and readmission was developed. Qualitative study based on semistructured interviews with nurses and a geriatric team in the emergency department and semistructured single interviews with their managers. The Theoretical Domains Framework guided data collection and analysis. Content analysis was performed whereby new themes and themes already existing within each domain were described. Six predominant domains were identified: (1) professional role and identity; (2) beliefs about consequences; (3) goals; (4) knowledge; (5) optimism and (6) environmental context and resources. The content analysis identified three themes, each containing two subthemes. The themes were professional role and identity, beliefs about consequences and preconditions for a successful implementation. Two different cultures were identified in the emergency department. These cultures applied to different professional roles and identity, different actions and sense making and identified how barriers and facilitators linked to the new screening tool were perceived. The results show that different cultures exist in the same local context and influence the perception of barriers and facilitators differently. These cultures must be identified and addressed when implementation is planned. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John

  19. Quantum mechanical design of efficient second-order nonlinear optical materials based on heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates: first theoretical framework of POM-based heterocyclic aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf

    2012-11-05

    This work was inspired by a previous report (Janjua et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 3576-3587) in which the nonlinear-optical (NLO) response strikingly improved with an increase in the conjugation path of the ligand and the nature of hexamolybdates (polyoxometalates, POMs) was changed into a donor by altering the direction of charge transfer with a second aromatic ring. Herein, the first theoretical framework of POM-based heteroaromatic rings is found to be another class of excellent NLO materials having double heteroaromatic rings. First hyperpolarizabilities of a large number of push-pull-substituted conjugated systems with heteroaromatic rings have been calculated. The β components were computed at the density functional theory (DFT) level (BP86 geometry optimizations and LB94 time-dependent DFT). The largest β values are obtained with a donor (hexamolybdates) on the benzene ring and an acceptor (-NO(2)) on pyrrole, thiophene, and furan rings. The pyrrole imido-substituted hexamolybdate (system 1c) has a considerably large first hyperpolarizability, 339.00 × 10(-30) esu, and it is larger than that of (arylimido)hexamolybdate, calculated as 0.302 × 10(-30) esu (reference system 1), because of the double aromatic rings in the heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates. The heteroaromatic rings act as a conjugation bridge between the electron acceptor (-NO(2)) and donor (polyanion). The introduction of an electron donor into heteroaromatic rings significantly enhances the first hyperpolarizabilities because the electron-donating ability is substantially enhanced when the electron donor is attached to the heterocyclic aromatic rings. Interposing five-membered auxiliary fragments between strong donor (polyanion) or acceptor (-NO(2)) groups results in a large computed second-order NLO response. The present investigation provides important insight into the NLO properties of (heteroaromatic) imido-substituted hexamolybdate derivatives because these compounds

  20. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally