WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary target audience

  1. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  2. PR Students Learn to Target Audiences through Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Trotter, Edgar P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an advanced course in public relations methods wherein students use an online computer terminal system to analyze up-to-date field data and to prepare realistic audience-targeted campaigns. (RL)

  3. Reaching and Teaching: A Study in Audience Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ellen M.; Welch, Diane T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service to market the Family Day Home Care Providers Program to an unknown clientele. Discusses the problems involved in identifying and reaching the target audience. (JOW)

  4. Defining and targeting an audience for cancer-prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinghaus, E P

    1992-01-01

    The target audience for cancer-prevention messages is not the cancer patient. Cancer-prevention messages should be designed for and directed toward groups of people who have been determined to be at risk for the disease. Potential audiences may vary widely in size and nature, depending on the specific cancer, its cause, and its etiology. The prevention of specific disease, eg, lung cancer, typically demands some behavior on the part of the recipient of a cancer-prevention message. Thus, members of a target audience may be asked to stop smoking or to refrain from starting. Each potential target audience is likely to be unique and cannot always be reached with typical mass-media campaigns. Messages designed to be effective for such special audiences may be required if a significant impact on behavior is to be obtained. This article attempts to identify potential audiences for cancer-prevention messages and develops the nature of the media to be used, the sources to be employed, and the arguments to be developed in such a campaign. Characteristics (eg, sex, race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status) are used as examples of variables that may dictate the nature of cancer-prevention campaigns.

  5. Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    The entry defines audiences in a digital, mediatized society as the people who, in their capacity of social actors, are attending to, negotiating the meaning of, and sometimes participating in the multimodal processes initiated or carried by institutional media. The first part of the entry discus...

  6. The perspective of a pharmacoeconomic study: targeting for audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, T D; Mantovani, L G

    1997-05-01

    As with any type of research, it is crucial at the outset to consider the concerns and perspectives of the audience to which economic study results will be presented. Because the results of a pharmacoeconomic study should result in decisions that can have great impact on the use of a drug or a service, a concise objective with clearly defined and relevant measurement criteria must be provided. The study must answer the questions of the target audience in an unambiguous, understandable language. A thorough assessment of the costs involved to carry out the research must also take place early on in the study design, in order not to jeopardise the study's progress or perceived value for money. The paper discusses briefly some points to bear in mind at the study design stage regarding tailoring the focus to the target audience.

  7. Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

  8. The Effects of Target Audience on Social Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarhan, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Online social bookmarking systems allow users to assign tags (i.e., keywords) to represent the content of resources. Research on the effects of target audience on social tagging suggests that taggers select different tags for themselves, their community (e.g., family, friends, colleagues), and the general public (Panke & Gaiser, 2009; Pu &…

  9. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  10. Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.

  11. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  12. A preliminary examination of audience-related communications issues for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.W.

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation doses people may have received from exposure to radioactive materials released during past operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project was initiated in response to public concerns about possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to effectively communicate to the many different concerned audiences. Accordingly, the TSP directed PNL to examine methods for communicating causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. After considering the directive and discussing it with the Communications Subcommittee of the TSP, PNL undertook a broad investigation of communications methods to consider for inclusion in the TSP's current communications program. As part of this investigation, a literature review was conducted regarding risk communications. A key finding was that, in order to successfully communicate risk-related information, a thorough understanding of the knowledge level, concerns and information needs of the intended recipients (i.e., the audience) is necessary. Hence, a preliminary audience analysis was conducted as part of the present research. This report summarizes the results of this analysis. 1 ref., 9 tabs.

  13. Targeting anti-smoking messages: does audience race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S; Shadel, William G

    2012-07-01

    This study examined whether an adolescent's self-identified race moderates the perceived effectiveness of anti-smoking messages. A sample of 94 never smoking adolescents (59% African-American; 41% European-American) participated in this two-part study. First, they rated the persuasive strength of a series of five decontextualized anti-smoking messages (i.e., messages delivered in text format). Second, they were exposed to five sets of anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs; viewed as TV advertisements) that had embedded in them the five anti-smoking messages used in the first part of the study and rated their smoking refusal self-efficacy after each one. Although race moderated participants' ratings of the decontextualized messages, there were no significant moderating effects of race when those messages were embedded in PSAs. The results of this study support the notion that anti-smoking PSAs should not be targeted to adolescent racial background, but suggests that decontextualized anti-smoking messages may be more effective if targeted to adolescent race.

  14. New Model for Ecosystem Management Interpretation: Target Audiences on Military Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Marynowski, Susan B.

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation model focusing on audience characteristics guided development of an ecosystem-management interpretive program targeting military leaders and planners at Eglin Air Force Base (Florida). Of five interpretative media tested, print mass media were most successful in increasing ecosystem knowledge and enhancing attitudes of both…

  15. Analysis of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brand’s audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors analyze the content, particularities and the rules of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brands audience. Approaches to estimating the results of brand-coloristics are proposed and attitude of different age consumer groups to its measures is found out.

  16. How much importance do we give to target audiences in article writing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nedjat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Writing papers can be used as a means to convey a message. Knowledge transfer is also about conveying the right message to the right target audience. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of articles that had mentioned a clear message and the target audience in the abstract and the article as a whole, and also to examine their association with different deter-minant factors. Methods: Articles published from 2001 to 2006 that were based on clinical and health system research conducted on Iranian popu-lations and on maternal care, diabetes and tuberculosis were searched systematically in domestic and international databases. Eventually checklists (Additional file 1 were completed for 795 articles. Results: Overall, 98.5% of articles had a clear message, whereas 12.5% had addressed the direct target audience. Presence of a clear message in formatted abstracts were seen 3.6 times more (CI95%: 1.5-8.7 than in articles without formatted abstracts (p = 0.005. Addressing of the direct target audience was seen twice as much in health system research articles as compared to clinical studies, odds ratio was 2.3 (CI95%: 1.47-3.48, p<0.001. Conclusions: Creating a format for journal abstracts seems to be an effective intervention for presenting the message in articles.

  17. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    ethical challenges that take into consideration the perspectives of employees, targeted organisations, online outlet administrators and audiences. The ethical challenge for employees is to disclose problems for organisational and societal changes in a safe context and supported by a large audience, while......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  18. COREnet: The Fusion of Social Network Analysis and Target Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    be integrated into a HTML5 web-based Target Audience Analysis Worksheet TAAW? D. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY This is a three-phase capstone project. The...Harrison & S. Huntington (Eds.), Culture matters: How values shape human progress (pp. 98–111). New York: Basic Books Gauchat, J. D., (2012). HTML5 for...networks to inform tactical engagement strategies that will influence the human domain. Small Wars Journal. MacDonald, M. (2012). HTML5 : The

  19. A New Development in Audiovisual Translation Studies: Focus on Target Audience Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation is now a well-established sub-discipline of Translation Studies (TS: a position that it has reached over the last twenty years or so. Italian scholars and professionals in the field have made a substantial contribution to this successful development, a brief overview of which will be given in the first part of this article, inevitably concentrating on dubbing in the Italian context. Special attention will be devoted to the question of target audience perception, an area where researchers in the University of Bologna at Forlì have excelled. The second part of the article applies the methodology followed by the above mentioned researchers in a case study of how Italian end users perceive the dubbed version of the British film The History Boys (2006, which contains a plethora of culture-specific verbal and visual references to the English education system. The aim of the study was to ascertain: a whether translation/adaptation allows the transmission in this admittedly constrained medium of all the intended culture-bound issues, only too well known to the source audience, and, if so, to what extent, and b whether the target audience respondents to the e-questionnaire used were aware that they were missing information. The linked, albeit controversial, issue of quality assessment will also be addressed.

  20. Using support vector machine ensembles for target audience classification on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Siaw Ling; Chiong, Raymond; Cornforth, David

    2015-01-01

    The vast amount and diversity of the content shared on social media can pose a challenge for any business wanting to use it to identify potential customers. In this paper, our aim is to investigate the use of both unsupervised and supervised learning methods for target audience classification on Twitter with minimal annotation efforts. Topic domains were automatically discovered from contents shared by followers of an account owner using Twitter Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). A Support Vector Machine (SVM) ensemble was then trained using contents from different account owners of the various topic domains identified by Twitter LDA. Experimental results show that the methods presented are able to successfully identify a target audience with high accuracy. In addition, we show that using a statistical inference approach such as bootstrapping in over-sampling, instead of using random sampling, to construct training datasets can achieve a better classifier in an SVM ensemble. We conclude that such an ensemble system can take advantage of data diversity, which enables real-world applications for differentiating prospective customers from the general audience, leading to business advantage in the crowded social media space.

  1. [Relationship among weblog authors' target audience, contents, and types of interpersonal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Matsumura, Naohiro; Kitayama, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Weblogs are one of the most popular personal websites in Japan, where entries are made in journal style and displayed in reverse chronological order. This study examined the relationship between weblog authors' target audience (i.e., orientation) and the actual situations depicted in their weblogs by combining a questionnaire survey of the authors with an analysis of their weblog content data. Based on a questionnaire survey of 736 Japanese weblog authors, their target audience was divided into four clusters: (a) general public, (b) self, (c) self and offline friends, and (d) various others. To assess the actual situations depicted in their weblogs, the amount of happy and unhappy emotional expression in their writing and the frequency of interpersonal communication (comments, bookmarks, and trackbacks) were calculated from their log data. The results suggested that weblog authors wrote different types of content and used different types of communication depending on their audience, whereas the weblog content itself still showed the diary-like characteristic of personal daily-life records.

  2. Targeting the audience for AIDS messages by actual and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L B; Rouse, R A

    1992-01-01

    Since there are many ways to segment an audience into target groups, we suggest that a productive strategy for AIDS education is to divide the audience by their actual and perceived risk. We provide an example in which we segmented an urban U.S. sample and make suggestions as to how messages appropriate for each group can be constructed. In our sample, the "unthreatened" accurately assessed their low risk of AIDS, and showed high knowledge and tolerance rates. The "panicked," who included more women and Hispanics, inaccurately thought themselves at high risk because of misunderstandings about the causes of AIDS, and showed more intolerance of people with AIDS. "Deniers" continued to have multiple sexual partners and take precautions irregularly, despite seeing AIDS as a social problem and having more education and AIDS knowledge. In contrast, "gamblers" recognized their higher risk of AIDS and were most likely to have taken some action, although not enough to prevent sexual transmission of the HIV virus.

  3. The Effect of Combination of Video Feedback and Audience Feedback on Social Anxiety: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Mak, Rebecca; Fujita, Satoko

    2015-09-01

    Although video feedback (VF) is shown to improve appraisals of social performance in socially anxious individuals, its impact on state anxiety during a social situation is mixed. The current study investigated the effect of combined video feedback and audience feedback (AF) on self-perceptions of performance and bodily sensations as well as state anxiety pertaining to a speech task. Forty-one socially anxious students were randomly allocated to combined video feedback with audience feedback (VF + AF), video feedback only (VF), audience feedback only (AF), or a control condition. Following a 3-min speech, participants in the VF + AF, VF, and AF conditions watched the videotape of their speech with cognitive preparation in the presence of three confederates who served as audience, and/or received feedback from the confederates, while the control group watched their videotaped speech without cognitive preparation. Both VF + AF and AF conditions improved distorted appraisal of performance and bodily sensations as well as state anxiety. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, V L

    2013-03-15

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product's marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the "text" and the way this is "read", the sense being born when the "reader" negotiates the "text". The negotiation takes place when the "reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A "target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and "negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the "target audiences".

  5. Marketing and semiotic approach on communication. Consequences on knowledge of target-audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borţun, D; Purcarea, VL

    2013-01-01

    Modern marketing puts the consumer and not the manufacturer in the center, the essence of the marketing approach being the conception, the projection and the making of the product, starting from the consumer towards the manufacturer; this resulting in the fact that the product’s marketing approach seems strikingly similar to the semiotic approach of the message. In the semiotic approach, the message is a construction of signs, which, by interacting with the receiver, produces the meaning. The transmitter (the message transmitter) becomes less important. The focus is centered to the „text" and the way this is „read", the sense being born when the „reader" negotiates the „text". The negotiation takes place when the „reader" filtrates the message through the sieve of his cultural loading. A „target public" is a group which is specific to a certain Cultural Loading, a loading which deals with linguistic, logical, psychological and symbolic structures, which get out to meet the message and „negotiates" with the structures similar to it. When we are thinking in terms of the semiotic approach, we are handling the cultural determinism of communication, using the concepts of Kuhn and Gonseth (paradigm and referential). They open a new path in the market research, in the market segmentation and knowledge of the „target audiences". PMID:23610591

  6. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, Kimberley; Brennan, Emily; Slater, Michael D; Dixon, Helen G; Durkin, Sarah J; Pettigrew, Simone; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2017-04-11

    Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads). Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40%) and the United Kingdom (26%). The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38%) or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%). Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of different characteristics of alcohol harm reduction ads. Given

  7. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  8. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  9. Predicting web site audience demographics for web advertising targeting using multi-web site clickstream data

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, K W; D. VAN DEN POEL; Manigart, S.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the virtues of behavioral targeting and personalization for online advertising. In this paper, we add to this literature by proposing a cost-effective methodology for the prediction of demographic web site visitor profiles that can be used for web advertising targeting purposes. The methodology involves the transformation of web site visitors’ clickstream patterns to a set of features and the training of Random Forest classifiers that generate predictions ...

  10. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes.

  11. Use of clinical simulations for patient education: targeting an untapped audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwe, Karin; Berterö, Carina; Pugh, Carla; Wijma, Barbro

    2009-01-01

    In most cases, the health professional has been the target for simulation based learning curricula. We have developed a simulation based curriculum for patient education. In our curriculum lay-women learn how to perform the clinical female pelvic examination using a manikin-based trainer. Learner assessments show that prior negative expectations turned into positive expectations regarding future pelvic examinations.

  12. Targeting Audience Subcategories for Specialty Magazines: A Uses and Gratifications Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Inskip, Elizabeth

    A study tested the uses and gratifications theoretical perspective--that motivations affect media use which in turn influences the effects of that use. The American Student Dental Association targeted its publications to different subaudiences and provided a grant to the University of Texas at Austin to study (1) whether the differentiation…

  13. Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

    To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision…

  14. Reaching the Target Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    their rich history, strong economy and a powerful military. All this was done at a time when the rest of the world was mired in the Great Depression ...the message. In today’s marketing world, this is called branding; tying slogans, images, color, symbols and music to a product.42 MISO must take full...halls and community centers) to listen to the music and news radio until home radios became affordable in the early 1930s. During the era of the

  15. Preliminary Report on Coining of Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P; Wall, M; Hodge, N; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-27

    We were tasked with developing a coining technique that would evaluate the feasibility of using a pressing, or coining process to imprint a one-dimensional sinusoidal pattern onto a thin disk specimen. We performed finite element method simulations of the coining process, designed, built, and tested a coining apparatus and tested surrogate materials, and coined a sample of special nuclear material. The preliminary results were encouraging. The pressing of a 3-mm diameter by {approx}100 {micro}m thick disc to 500 pounds of pressure produced a flat part with a 1-{micro}m deep by 50-{micro}m period sine wave pattern covering all of the surface and thus demonstrated the method for replicating ultraprecision, mesoscale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank. This coining technique is being developed to provide specialty processing for the manufacturing of difficult to machine, millimeter-size components made from materials that present hazardous conditions. The technology is versatile and can be used to imprint a wide range of features, or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The coining process requires a simple, conceivably hand held tool, which efficiently produces ultra-precision work pieces without the production of byproducts such as machining chips, or grinding swarf. It shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required.

  16. Peering into the "black box" of education interventions and attitude change: Audience characteristics moderate the effectiveness…and then only toward specific targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori-Rostam, Sara Michelle; Tate, Charlotte Chucky

    2017-01-01

    To probe the inconsistent link between education and attitude change toward minority social groups, we conducted a field study that focused on audience characteristics and education about lesbian, gay, and transgender (LGT) targets. Participants enrolled in a sexuality course were compared to those in a neurology course, both taught by the same professor. Multiple regression analyses predicted attitude change toward LGT targets from social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), ratings of professor's characteristics, SDO by course interaction, and RWA by course interaction. Only the SDO by course interaction significantly predicted attitude change. Simple slopes analyses indicated that high-SDO participants in the sexuality course showed the most positive attitude change. These findings suggest that education may reduce prejudice for certain audience characteristics.

  17. Preliminary results on the cryogenic target for FIREX project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, A.; Maekawa, R.; Mito, T.; Okamoto, M.; Motojima, O.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Nagai, K.

    2006-06-01

    Preliminary tests on the cryogenic target for the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX) project has been conducted. A foam shell method is proposed to realize its target design. A foam target consists of three parts: a foam shell, a conical laser guide and a liquid or gas feeder made of glass. The shell is a hollow sphere (500 μm in diameter) with a uniform and thin foam layer (˜ 20 μm in thickness). Epoxy resin is utilized to assemble the parts into the target. Regarding target fabrication, one of the concerns is the influence on various thermal contractions from the different materials when it is cooled down to cryogenic environment. This paper describes the result on the validity check at cryogenic environment and the demonstration of H{2} liquefaction using a dummy target instead of the foam target.

  18. Audience Commodification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a research project aimed at developing a business model by changing the value-creation mechanism. The essence of this change is to persuade customers to perform actions in favour of the service provider. Such actions include responding to advertising clips to unlock value....... The business model was generated from the concept of audience commodification and is based on the idea of looking at the users as source of a tradeable asset in business-to-business markets. Here, attention and actions are the assets that users pay to access the proposed value. The research includes two phases...... of surveys and experimentation. In the first phase, the tendency and acceptance level of users towards watching advertisements to unlock value are measured. In the next phase, a platform prototype is developed to test and understand user actions towards receiving value. The sample includes 52 users...

  19. Blogging and Audience Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Diane; Shea, Andrea; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogging may foreground audience needs for a written work and help novice authors grow in audience awareness and elicit and use audience feedback. A case study of a second-grade classroom compared students' growing audience awareness and the ways they addressed audience needs. Analysis of student written work, students' comments to…

  20. Genesis Silicon Carbide Concentrator Target 60003 Preliminary Ellipsometry Mapping Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis concentrator was custom designed to focus solar wind ions primarily for terrestrial isotopic analysis of O-17/O-16 and O-18/O-16 to +/-1%, N-15/N-14 to +/-1%, and secondarily to conduct elemental and isotopic analysis of Li, Be, and B. The circular 6.2 cm diameter concentrator target holder was comprised of four quadrants of highly pure semiconductor materials that included one amorphous diamond-like carbon, one C-13 diamond, and two silicon carbide (SiC). The amorphous diamond-like carbon quadrant was fractured upon impact at Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), but the remaining three quadrants survived fully intact and all four quadrants hold an important collection of solar wind. The quadrants were removed from the target holder at NASA Johnso n Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory in April 2005, and have been housed in stainless steel containers under continual nitrogen purge since time of disintegration. In preparation for allocation of a silicon carbide target for oxygen isotope analyses at UCLA, the two SiC targets were photographed for preliminary inspection of macro particle contamination from the hard non-nominal landing as well as characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate thin film contamination. This report is focused on Genesis SiC target sample number 60003.

  1. 修辞学受众观视域下的翻译归化策略探微%Preliminary Study on the Domestication Strategies for Translation from the Perspective of Audience in Rhetoric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兵; 姜亭亭

    2015-01-01

    修辞学强调,在修辞活动中修辞者需对受众群体给予充分的考量,以期达到沟通交流的和谐。翻译作为复杂的修辞活动,译者被视为修辞者,读者被视为受众,在归化策略中受众得到更多的考量。由此可见,受众成为修辞与翻译的契合点之一。从受众角度出发,来探讨修辞学对归化策略的指导,强调译者在译介过程中树立受众意识,使文本贴近于目标语读者,达到源语作者与目标受众的良好沟通。%Rhetoric emphasizes that the efficient consideration to the audience can lead to a harmonious communication. Transla⁃tion is also treated as a complicated rhetorical activity in which the translator is regarded as rhetor, the reader as audience. Both rhetor and translator have found the common ground---the audience. It is necessary to discuss the application of rhetoric into translation from the perspective of audience. When using domestication, taking the audience into full consideration and enhancing audience awareness, the translator can make the translation text close to the target reader. Consequently, a good relationship will be built up between the author and the target reader through the good communication.

  2. Pedagogical strategies and evaluations used with target audience students of Special Education according to the account of the ordinary and special education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Silva Gualda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the account of common classroom teachers on the teaching strategies used with the possible target audience students of special education (TASSE before forwarding them to the specialized educational service (SES in multifunctional resource classrooms (MRCs, as well as analyses the evaluation criteria established with those who came to receive such service, and the account of special education teachers about the assessments used with the TASSE, after receiving the SES in MRCs. For data collection, two interview scripts were used, one of which was answered by 30 ordinary classroom teachers and the other by five special education teachers. The results suggested that the pedagogical strategies and assessments directed at the TASSE were decisive factors to identify whether the policy proposals related to inclusive education were being effectively implemented in elementary schools.

  3. Knowing Your Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, Dallin

    1989-01-01

    Talks to English teachers about the importance of knowing their audience--the students. Encourages teachers to continue to be humanitarians even though they can not always see the good they are doing for their audience. (MG)

  4. Who Is Audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeching, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Music conservatoires have generally neglected focusing on a key issue: that of audiences--their needs and wants, why they value particular music, and how music actually functions in any particular community. Yet audience is typically a musician's first contact with the "real world"; understanding audience (one's market or customers) is…

  5. 新疆主流媒体对外传播目标受众研究%A Study of External Communication Target Audience of Mainstream Media in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦若薇

    2012-01-01

    由于传播资源的有限性和受众之间存在的客观差异,有效传播往往是建立在对对象分析了解的基础上。按照程曼丽教授的“国际传播受众分类”理论。可对新疆主流媒体对外传播的受众进行不同层次的划分。在新疆主流媒体的传播实践中,应影响重点受众、次重点受众并在世界范围内产生影响力从而间接影响一般受众;影响顺意受众,关注中立受众,促使逆意受众的转变;固化行动受众的积极心理定势,促使知晓受众形成积极态度,正面影响潜在受众的态度及其行为。这样才能真正提升对外传播的效果。%Because of objective differences between limited communication resources and audience, effective dissemination is often based of an analysis of target audience. According to Professor Cheng Manli' s the International Audience Classification Theory, different levels of external communication audiences of mainstream media can be divided in Xinjiang. In the practice of mainstream media dissemination in Xinjiang, suggestions such as first affecting audiences of most importance, then of secondary importance, and then produce influence in the world and thus indirectly affect the general audience and other proposals are put forward to really enhance the effect of external communication.

  6. The Imagined Audience on Social Network Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Litt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When people construct and share posts on social network sites like Facebook and Twitter, whom do they imagine as their audience? How do users describe this imagined audience? Do they have a sub-audience in mind (e.g., “friends who like reality television”? Do they share more broadly and abstractly (e.g., “the public”? Do such imaginings fluctuate each time a person posts? Using a mixed-methods approach involving a 2-month-long diary study of 119 diverse American adults and their 1,200 social network site posts, supplemented with follow-up interviews (N = 30, this study explores the imagined audience on social network sites. The findings reveal that even though users often interacted with large diverse audiences as they posted, they coped by envisioning either very broad abstract imagined audiences or more targeted specific imagined audiences composed of personal ties, professional ties, communal ties, and/or phantasmal ties. When people had target imagined audiences in mind, they were most often homogeneous and composed of people’s friends and family. Users’ imaginings typically fluctuated among these audience types as they posted even though the potential audience as per their posts’ privacy settings often did not change. The findings provide a list of audience types, as well as detailed descriptions, examples, and frequencies on which future research can build. With people’s online presence playing an important role for their reputations, these findings provide more insight into for whom people are managing their privacy and whom they have in mind as they share.

  7. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  8. Connecting with Your Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchur, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    A workshop model on presentation skills for teachers in the classroom is presented. The goals and techniques would apply to many teaching situations in the college classroom, as well as lectures and symposium presentations. Making a personal connection, focusing on audience, and empowering the audience are discussed. (MLW)

  9. Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Loftus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR intervals and heart rate variability (HRV of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR, root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD, geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1 and 2 (SD2, along with the low and high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio were calculated. The minimum, average and maximum RR intervals were significantly lower in training (indicative of an increase in heart rate as measured in beats-per-minute than in the stable ( p = 0.0006; p = 0.01; p = 0.03. SDRR, RMSSD, SD1, SD2 and the LF/HF ratio were all significantly lower in training than in the stable ( p = 0.001; p = 0.049; p = 0.049; p = 0.001; p = 0.01. When comparing the HR and HRV of horses during Join-up ® to overall training, there were no significant differences in any variable with the exception of maximum RR which was significantly lower ( p = 0.007 during Join-up ® , indicative of short increases in physical exertion (canter associated with this training exercise. In conclusion, training of horses during public demonstrations is a low-moderate physiological, rather than psychological stressor for horses. The physiological stress responses observed within this study were comparable or less to those previously reported in the literature for horses being trained outside of public audience events. Furthermore, there is no evidence that the use of Join-up ® alters HR and HRV in a way to suggest that this training method negatively affects the psychological welfare

  10. Monty Roberts' Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L; Fowler, Veronica L

    2016-09-09

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer's awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts' public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD), geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2), along with the low and high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. The minimum, average and maximum RR intervals were significantly lower in training (indicative of an increase in heart rate as measured in beats-per-minute) than in the stable ( p = 0.0006; p = 0.01; p = 0.03). SDRR, RMSSD, SD1, SD2 and the LF/HF ratio were all significantly lower in training than in the stable ( p = 0.001; p = 0.049; p = 0.049; p = 0.001; p = 0.01). When comparing the HR and HRV of horses during Join-up (®) to overall training, there were no significant differences in any variable with the exception of maximum RR which was significantly lower ( p = 0.007) during Join-up (®) , indicative of short increases in physical exertion (canter) associated with this training exercise. In conclusion, training of horses during public demonstrations is a low-moderate physiological, rather than psychological stressor for horses. The physiological stress responses observed within this study were comparable or less to those previously reported in the literature for horses being trained outside of public audience events. Furthermore, there is no evidence that the use of Join-up (®) alters HR and HRV in a way to suggest that this training method negatively affects the psychological welfare of

  11. Perelman's Universal Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the concept of the universal audience as the basic factor of Chaim Perelman's rhetorical theory and concludes that it is subject to the same criticism as Rousseau's general will and Kant's categorical imperative. (JMF)

  12. Preliminary shielding analysis for the CSNS target station monolith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 陈义学; 杨寿海; 吴军; 殷雯; 梁天骄; 贾学军

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated at Dongguan,Guangdong,China.In spallation neutron sources the target station monolith is contaminated by a large number of fast neutrons whose energies can be as large as those of the protons of the proton beam directed towards the tungsten target.A detailed radiation transport analysis of the target station monolith is important for the construction of the CSNS.The analysis is performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method.Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and first collision source methodology is also illustrated.The dose at the edge of the monolith is calculated.The results demonstrate that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the required standard limit.

  13. The Negligence of the Target Audience's Psychological Needs in the Chinese Home-made Cartoons and Reflections%国产动画受众心理需求的缺失及反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭松

    2015-01-01

    动画作品存在的根本价值之一在于满足受众的心理需求。反观当前的国产动画,在满足受众心理需求上存在着缺失。总体认识上,受众心理需求的类型认识不清,导致供需定位整体模糊。具体层面上,对儿童受众心理需求的实质认识和适龄细分不足以至于“看不懂”;对成人受众的心理需求从属性定位到主观实践总体滞后造成了“看不惯”。综合而言,上述因素是造成当前国产动画与受众心理需求之间“供需失衡”现状的根本原因。%One of the fundamental existential values of the Chinese home-made cartoons is to meet the psychological needs of the target audience.In contrast,the current Chinese home-made cartoons have long been in the habit of neglecting their audiences'psychological needs.In view of the holistic recognition,the unclear classification of the types of the psychologi-cal needs result in the fuzzy demand and supply orientation.In the concrete level,owing to the improper understanding of the children's psychological needs between children of different ages,many cartoons are found to be difficult for children to under-stand;the lagging behind in the orientation of the adult audience's psychological needs,whether in terms of attribute orientation or the subj ective practice,has resulted in the unpopularity.In a word,the above-mentioned factors are the primary causes that lead to the imbalance between demand and supply concerning the psychological needs of the target audiences for the Chinese home-made cartoons.

  14. Facing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    and audience. Dialogic theory is applied toward an exploration of how humans make meaning (semiosis) on the basis of previous experience or knowledge. Three main Bakhtinian concepts are discussed in an attempt to gain understand theoretical understanding of the hybrid animated film: heteroglossia (multiple......This chapter explores machinima as a "hybrid animated film" or "hybrid text", with focus on the combination of machinima animation and live-action imagery. Machinima is used as an example of how "novel" or new forms of text evolve. The meaning-making processes of machinima filmmakers and audiences...... linguistic and cultural evolutions, and may even propel them. This essay concerns the dialogic theories on language and culture inspired by the Russian literary philosopher M. M. Bakhtin (1895-1975) applied to understanding machinima (realtime animation), which is seen as an example of “hybrid animated film...

  15. Capturing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Kobbernagel, Christian; Peters, Chris

    that underlie established news paradigms (Peters and Witschge, 2014). This paper thus focuses on methodological challenges that impede efforts to understand such shifting audience practices on three levels: conducting longitudinal research; operationalizing cross-national studies with a genuine comparative......-in-the-life interviews, Q-sort methodology and think-aloud protocols, alongside recent Dutch and Danish data that expands upon this research. The results highlight tensions and inconsistencies in data and design that hinder meaningful research into ever-shifting audiences. We argue that in order to enable comparison......, research instruments must have a high degree of standardization. However, in order to be valid they must also be sensitive to specificities – both for the sake of being faithful to the media system of each specific country or time being compared and in order to be meaningful to the vernacular...

  16. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 1: Listening to Your Target Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gaul, Zaneta J; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus; Jones, Sandra; Nichols, Kristen; Han Barthelemy, Solange; LaPlace, Lisa; Staatz, Colleen; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John T; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-21

    Young people (15-24 years) in the United States are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Shortfalls in HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI) likely contribute to this discrepancy. In this report we describe our experience developing a novel means of health communication combining entertainment-education theory and recent technological advances to create a HIV/STD-focused "motion comic." We also report the audience satisfaction and acceptance of the intervention. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM), entertainment-education (EE) principles, and the Sabido Method (SM) and conducted three rounds of focus groups to develop a 38-minute HIV/STD focused motion comic for young people between the ages 15 and 24 years. Participants indicated that motion comics were an acceptable method of delivering HIV/STD prevention messages. They also expressed satisfaction with motion comics plot, story settings, the tone of humor, and drama. Our results suggest that motion comics are a viable new method of delivering health communication messages about HIV/STD and other public health issues, and warrant further development and broader evaluation.

  17. Mirror Your Audience's Attitude: A Global Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussling, Vonne

    Recent advertising research has suggested that to gain initial entry into and retain continual success with a targeted audience of consumers, it is wise to mirror the attitudes and desires of those consumers. This has proven effective in the United States, where companies such as Chevrolet, Levi Strauss, and Coca-Cola have successfully catered to…

  18. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    and media professionals characterize the role of people in media engagings.  The initial conceptualization of “audience-as-commodity” was challenged by increased recognition of the audience as active consumers, or “audience-as-agent”.  Recently this recognition has led to the Hollywood media industry...

  19. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Joke; Berg, Annika van den; Mol, Marloes

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  20. In search of an audience...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor an academic, finding an audience is critical. However, finding an audience is not always easy for most marketing academics. This inaugural address explores what the challenges are in finding an audience, among fellow scholars, students, public policy, industry, or society in general.

  1. Art and the Educated Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James O.

    2010-01-01

    The important role audiences play in the workings of a well-ordered art world is seldom recognized. Aestheticians have little to say about audiences, and artists sometimes express disdain or even contempt for the judgment of audiences. I argue that valuable artworks are unlikely to be produced unless artists are responsive to a broad educated…

  2. In search of an audience...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor an academic, finding an audience is critical. However, finding an audience is not always easy for most marketing academics. This inaugural address explores what the challenges are in finding an audience, among fellow scholars, students, public policy, industry, or society in general.

  3. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Mk-18A Target Material Recovery Program (MTMRP) was established in 2015 to preserve the unique materials, e.g. 244Pu, in 65 previously irradiated Mk-18A targets for future use. This program utilizes existing capabilities at SRS and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to process targets, recover materials from them, and to package the recovered materials for shipping to ORNL. It also utilizes existing capabilities at ORNL to receive and store the recovered materials, and to provide any additional processing of the recovered materials or residuals required to prepare them for future beneficial use. The MTMRP is presently preparing for the processing of these valuable targets which is expected to begin in ~2019. As part of the preparations for operations, this report documents the preliminary acceptance criteria for the plutonium and heavy curium materials to be recovered from the Mk-18A targets at SRNL for transport and storage at ORNL. These acceptance criteria were developed based on preliminary concepts developed for processing, transporting, and storing the recovered Mk-18A materials. They will need to be refined as these concepts are developed in more detail.

  4. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  5. Movies: the Audience Favorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern screen art over its success to the use of folklore, myth, synthesis of the natural and supernatural, and a consistent orientation toward the most popular plot schemes. Their metaphorical appeal is not to the rational but to the emotional, through identification with the magic power of heroes and standardization of ideas, situations, characters and so on in compensation for dreams not realized in life, there are illusions – happy endings. In movies, TV shows, and music videos' rhythmic organization, viewers' feelings are influenced as much by the order of changing shots as by the content of productions. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that the media texts of popular culture obliged to a variety of factors for its success. These include: reliance on folklore and mythological sources, constancy metaphors, focus on consistent implementation of the most persistent plot schemes, the synthesis of the natural and the supernatural, the appeal not to rational and emotional, through the identification of (imaginary transformation in of active characters merge with the atmosphere, the aura of works, “magic power” of heroes, standardization (replication, unification, adaptation ideas, situations, characters, etc., mosaic, seriality, the compensation (of the cherished illusion, but not come true desires, the happy ending, the use of such rhythmic organization movies, TV shows, clips, where the feeling of the audience with the content of the frame affects the order of their shift; intuitive guessing subconscious audience interests, etc.

  6. Facing the Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    linguistic and cultural evolutions, and may even propel them. This essay concerns the dialogic theories on language and culture inspired by the Russian literary philosopher M. M. Bakhtin (1895-1975) applied to understanding machinima (realtime animation), which is seen as an example of “hybrid animated film......This chapter explores machinima as a "hybrid animated film" or "hybrid text", with focus on the combination of machinima animation and live-action imagery. Machinima is used as an example of how "novel" or new forms of text evolve. The meaning-making processes of machinima filmmakers and audiences...... of live action and the animated in filmmaking. The hybridity poses several theoretical challenges. On the one hand, understanding hybridity as an aspect of all texts, as any text builds on all previous texts or is intertextual. On the other hand, understanding the meaning-making process of filmmakers...

  7. WRITING FOR A REAL AUDIENCE: A LETTER-EXCHANGE PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In an EFL class, writing for a real audience can bring aboutmany inherent educational benefits. However, this is often ne-glected by many language teachers. This paper reports on the re-sults obtained from using a writing for a real audience project inan Intensive Reading course for non-English majors. Students inthis project wrote letters to their partners in the target languageand shared information with each other. The author found thatthe process of writing for a real audience can not only help stu-dents practice using the target language but also can encouragethem to overcome writing apprehension.

  8. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  9. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  10. Audience Research for the Performing Arts: Romanian Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin G. LUCHIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the strategic marketing tools (instruments such as segmentation and targeting for a better understanding of current and potential audiences of classical music festivals. Arts administrators need to locate and address the audience segmentation, enhancing communication with audiences of all segments. The marketing strategies for music festivals should include improving music festival branding as well as developing diverse programs and engaging with the community on multiple levels. The study incorporates a literature review of the recent sociological research dealing with the consumption of arts products and a case study approach on the fifteenth edition of Romanian Music Festival in Iași, involving an audience survey. The research can be used as a tool to inform marketing and audience development plans for the organisers of Romanian Music Festival and other arts organisations. It also contains insights that organisations might find useful in the development of an arts activity itself.

  11. Las series televisivas juveniles: tramas y conflictos en una «teen series» Television Fiction Series Targeted at Young Audience: Plots and Conflicts Portrayed in a Teen Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria García Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los principales hallazgos de un estudio sobre las «teen series», es decir las series de ficción televisiva protagonizadas por personajes adolescentes y dirigidas expresamente a una audiencia juvenil. El análisis del retrato de los jóvenes representados en productos específicamente dirigidos a un público juvenil tiene un valor muy significativo tanto por la producción de ficción como por la recepción, ya que los consumidores potenciales se encuentran en un momento clave del proceso de construcción de sus identidades. Después de repasar los principales antecedentes en el estudio de la representación de los jóvenes en la ficción televisiva, se describe el marco conceptual relativo a las «teen series» y se discute su relación con el consumo juvenil. Sucesivamente se presenta un estudio de caso que consiste en un análisis de contenido de la serie norteamericana «Dawson’s creek», realizado sobre una muestra representativa de tres temporadas de la serie, para analizar dos grupos de variables: variables relativas a los personajes y variables relativas a las tramas y a los conflictos. Se discuten los resultados relativos al segundo grupo de variables, con particular atención a las características de las tramas y al papel de los personajes en el desarrollo y en la resolución de las mismas. La aceptación de la identidad personal, el amor y la amistad han resultado ser las temáticas más recurrentes. Además, las relaciones sociales entre los personajes han resultado ejercer un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las tramas y de los conflictos.This paper presents the main findings of a research project on teen series, which are television fiction series featuring teenagers and specifically targeted at a young audience. The analysis of the portrayal of young people in television fictional series specifically targeted at a young audience has a meaningful value both for television production and for audience reception

  12. GNC architecture for autonomous robotic capture of a non-cooperative target: Preliminary concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Marko; Paul, Jan; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies of the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) have concluded that certain regions have already reached a critical density of objects. This will eventually lead to a cascading process called the Kessler syndrome. The time may have come to seriously consider active debris removal (ADR) missions as the only viable way of preserving the space environment for future generations. Among all objects in the current environment, the SL-8 (Kosmos 3M second stages) rocket bodies (R/Bs) are some of the most suitable targets for future robotic ADR missions. However, to date, an autonomous relative navigation to and capture of an non-cooperative target has never been performed. Therefore, there is a need for more advanced, autonomous and modular systems that can cope with uncontrolled, tumbling objects. The guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system is one of the most critical ones. The main objective of this paper is to present a preliminary concept of a modular GNC architecture that should enable a safe and fuel-efficient capture of a known but uncooperative target, such as Kosmos 3M R/B. In particular, the concept was developed having in mind the most critical part of an ADR mission, i.e. close range proximity operations, and state of the art algorithms in the field of autonomous rendezvous and docking. In the end, a brief description of the hardware in the loop (HIL) testing facility is made, foreseen for the practical evaluation of the developed architecture.

  13. Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective: An Audience Perception Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Şeker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was proposed to reveal how “Behzat Ç. An Ankara Detective” serial is perceived among audiences. The research was done by 11 participants and by means of deep engagements audience notions devoted to reception aesthetic were examined. It was confirmed that audiences were highly sensitive to messages. We acquired that socio-demographic variables differ from presented content in terms of resistance. While sense production related to social reality was closer to mass media reality among the youth, elder groups and educateds producted senses that did not coincide with tendency of serial. During the engagements, Behzat Ç. was characterized as a political person and the idea that certain political parties and communities were targeted became prominent. It was determined that the audience of Behzat Ç. interprets each message according to his or her intellectual and ideological framework with an active and sensitive eye.

  14. Teaching Audience Analysis with Presidential "Victory" Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students to understand the importance of audience analysis can be challenging. In fact, many public-speaking texts suggest methods for engaging audience analysis that is not always practical or possible (e.g., polling audiences before you speak to them). One practical way of understanding audience analysis is to see it at work in the text…

  15. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  16. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video...... recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks......'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can...

  17. An Audience for the Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  18. An Audience for the Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  19. An Investigation of TV Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    WITH 850 million viewers watching 300 million TV sets, China has the biggest TV audience in the world. Here, 72 percent of households with TVs. have more than one set. On average, urban citizens spend more than two hours watching TV every day. All the above data comes from the China Central Television Consultation Center of Information Investigation (CCTVCCII).

  20. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  1. WHAT DOES LESBIAN AUDIENCE LIKE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ibiti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify the mechanisms that define the pleasure (taste and disgust (disgust of the lesbian audience in receiving audiovisual set in lesbian communities. After viewing two stories constructed from the series The  L Word, 25 lesbians WERE interviewed in depth. Next, we conducted a qualitative content anaLysis of the interviews. The results are discussed from the theories of Entertainment (Media Psychology.

  2. Pentavalent rhenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid for targeted radiotherapy: synthesis and preliminary animal and human studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Lam, A.S.K. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); O`Doherty, M.J.; Kettle, A.G.; Coakley, A.J. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the kit-based synthesis of the agent on a therapeutic scale, to assess its stability in vivo, and to obtain preliminary biodistribution and dosimetry estimates, prior to evaluation of its potential as a targeted radiotherapy agent. The organ distribution of {sup 188}Re in mice was determined 2 h after injection of 3 MBq {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA prepared from eluate from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. Three patients with cancer of the prostate and three with cancer of the bronchus, all with bone metastases, were given 370 MBq {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA and imaged at 3 h and 24 h using the 155-keV {gamma}-photon (15%). Blood and urine samples were collected to determine clearance and to analyse the speciation of {sup 188}Re. Organ residence times were estimated from the scans, and used to estimate radiation doses using MIRDOSE 3. In mice, {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA was selective for bone and kidney. In patients, it showed selectivity for bone metastases (particularly those from prostate carcinoma) and kidney, but uptake in normal bone was not significantly greater than in surrounding soft tissues. Of the normal tissues the kidneys received the highest radiation dose (0.5-1.3 mGy/MBq). The images were strongly reminiscent of {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA scans in similar patients. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood and urine showed no evidence of {sup 188}Re in any chemical form other than {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA up to 24 h. In conclusion, {sup 188}Re(V)DMSA and its {sup 186}Re analogue warrant further clinical assessment as generator/kit-derived agents for treatment of painful bone metastases. These agents should also be assessed in medullary thyroid carcinoma and other soft tissue tumours which have been shown to accumulate {sup 99m}Tc(V)DMSA.(orig./MG) (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs.

  3. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  4. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  5. The science of science outreach: methods to maximise audience engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Effective public engagement relies on a clear understanding of public audiences; their existing knowledge base and their learning preferences. Scientific content that is effective in academic spheres is not necessarily popular in the public domain. This may be due to content (e.g. beginner level to advanced terminology); presentation style (graphical, text, multimedia); audience demographic (children to adults); and entertainment value. Over the last few years, there has been a major expansion in the quantity and quality of science outreach material. For scientists, the production of outreach material, in any form, is the first giant leap to disseminating their knowledge to broader audiences. However, there is also a need to evaluate the performance of outreach material, so that its content and delivery style can be tailored and maximised for the target audience. We examine the Google Analytics data for climate science outreach website Climatica over a 12 month period in 2015. The site publishes regular posts, which take the form of short written articles, graphics, videos, or teaching resources, on all aspects of climate science. The site is publicised via social media including Twitter and Facebook. In particular, we assess website performance, in terms of website visits and post engagement. These are examined in the context of: post topic, post style, social media engagement, and the timing of post publication/advertisement. The findings of this investigation are used to explore audience preferences and mechanisms for future post development to maximise the use of this web resource.

  6. Message Design and Audience Engagement with Tobacco Prevention Posts on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E

    2016-11-10

    Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p engagement, and varying implied audience choice played a role in audience engagement with smoking cessation posts on social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.

  7. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations......  In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video...

  8. Characterizing and Reaching High-Risk Drinkers Using Audience Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B.; Kirby, Susan D.; Donodeo, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Background Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically-defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment; where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions and research efforts. Methods We describe the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-report consuming five or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30-days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM™ audience segmentation database merged with Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top ten of the 66 PRIZM™ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provide additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers reside. Results The top ten audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge drinking behavior is referred to as the “Cyber Millenials.” This cluster is characterized as “the nation's tech-savvy singles

  9. Characterizing and reaching high-risk drinkers using audience segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Kirby, Susan D; Donodeo, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZM audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech

  10. Teaching audience analysis to the technical student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, M. B.; Brillhart, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching audience analysis, as practiced in a technical writing course for engineering students, is discussed. Audience analysis is described as the task of defining the audience for a particular piece of writing and determining those characteristics of the audience which constrain the writer and effect reception of the message. A mature technical writing style that shows the tension produced when a text is written to be read and understood is considered in terms of audience analysis. Techniques include: (1) conveying to students the concept that a reader with certain expectations exist, (2) team teaching to preserve the context of a given technical discipline, and (3) assigning a technical report that addresses a variety of readers, thus establishing the complexity of audience oriented writing.

  11. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  12. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  13. Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassberger, J A

    1983-03-01

    Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration.

  14. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  15. Innovativeness and the Public Radio Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; Krugman, Dean M.

    1981-01-01

    A public radio audience was surveyed to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between innovativeness and public radio listening. Rather than supporting the hypothesis, findings indicate that the entertainment and information elements of public radio are the primary attractions for the public radio audience. (MER)

  16. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  17. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that

  18. Attracting New Audiences through Special Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christyson, M. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Explores reasons to create special events, change existing events, or discontinue events, in the pursuit of new audiences. Describes surveys of usership at Cleveland Metroparks to identify new audiences. Effective event design and implementation requires effective advertising, which is expensive, so a discussion of fund development, branding, and…

  19. The Audience in Oral Interpretation: Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael, Ed.; Oschmann, Wendy, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue deals with the ways in which elements of a literary text specify the manner in which an oral interpreter will present the text to an audience. After an introductory statement, four poems by a contemporary poet are presented as sample texts. Four commentators discuss the ways these poems might be interpreted to an audience, and…

  20. Rearticulating Audience Engagement: Social Media and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Moe; T. Poell; J. van Dijck

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that dese

  1. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier t

  2. Design, synthesis and preliminary bio-evaluation of glucose-cholesterol derivatives as ligands for brain targeting liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lei; Wei Fan; Xian Kun Li; Shan Wang; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2011-01-01

    A series of glucose-cholesterol derivatives 8a-8e as ligands for brain targeting liposomes were synthesized. The preparation of compound 6 involved temporary protection of glucose with chlorotrimethylsilicane and hexamethyldisilazane followed by selectively hydrolyzed. The known cholesteryl tosylate 1 were coupled to ethylene glycols to afford alcohol 2a-2e. Substitution and deprotection of alcohol 2a-2e furnished the acids 4a-4e, which was condensed with compound 6 to get compounds 7a-7e, and then was deprotected in tetrahydrofuran with TEA to obtain the title compounds. As a model drug, tegafur was entrapped by liposomes coupled with 8b, and preliminary in vivo evaluation shown 8b could enhance the ability of liposomes delivering tegafur across the blood brain barrier.

  3. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  4. MR coronary angiography with breath-hold targeted volumes: preliminary clinical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr); H.G. de Bruin (Hein); B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); M. Hulshoff (Maarten); P.M.A. van Ooijen (Peter); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To assess the clinical value of a magnetic resonance (MR) coronary angiography strategy involving a small targeted volume to image one coronary segment in a single breath hold for the detection of greater than 50% stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  5. MR coronary angiography with breath-hold targeted volumes : Preliminary clinical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geuns, R J; Wielopolski, P A; de Bruin, Hein G.; Rensing, B J; Hulshoff, Marc; van Ooijen, P M; de Feyter, P J; Oudkerk, M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the clinical value of a magnetic resonance (MR) coronary angiography strategy involving a small targeted volume to image one coronary segment in a single breath hold for the detection of greater than 50% stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients referred for elective

  6. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960s through the 1980s by irradiating targets in production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One reactor was operated in a high-flux mode to produce heavy isotopes for defense purposes, DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. In this reactor, eighty-six Mk-18A (Mk-18A) targets were subjected to long-term high neutron fluxes 47 years ago. Twentyone targets of these were processed to recover 244Pu, heavy curium (i.e., curium rich in 246-248Cm), and 252Cf. The plutonium fraction, which was rich in 244Pu, was electromagnetically enriched in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) calutrons to produce gram quantities of 244Pu. This high-purity 244Pu was portioned out to scientists for basic research and for nuclear nonproliferation safeguards programs. The recovered tails (designated as FP-33) contain 244Pu isotopic purities below 20% and are stored at ORNL. The processing of these 21 Mk-18A targets provided the supply of 244Pu and heavy curium in use today. The remaining 65 unprocessed targets are currently in a storage pool at SRS; they contain the world’s remaining supply of unseparated 244Pu and heavy curium.

  7. Engagement with physics across diverse festival audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide effective and measurable audience engagement. We share our results from piloting this method at a leading music and arts festival as well as a science festival. This method also facilitated the collection of opinions and feedback directly from the audience which helps explore the benefits and limitations of this type of nonformal engagement in physics education.

  8. When do Logos Talk to their Audience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on two experiments where the ability of a new logo to reach and audience is explored. The approach is inspired by cybernetics and is based on measuring the variation of the reception of a logo seen just once. The variation is measured as the combined variation of between...... to the audience. A big variation within-subject means that the individual receives a varied, deep, and nuanced message. The ability to do this rests partly on the ability to activate competences and experiences from the past and thus making sense. The findings are that few logo elements are received by audiences...

  9. Identifying like-minded audiences for global warming public engagement campaigns: an audience segmentation analysis and tool development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W Maibach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Achieving national reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will require public support for climate and energy policies and changes in population behaviors. Audience segmentation--a process of identifying coherent groups within a population--can be used to improve the effectiveness of public engagement campaigns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Fall 2008, we conducted a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 2,164 to identify audience segments for global warming public engagement campaigns. By subjecting multiple measures of global warming beliefs, behaviors, policy preferences, and issue engagement to latent class analysis, we identified six distinct segments ranging in size from 7 to 33% of the population. These six segments formed a continuum, from a segment of people who were highly worried, involved and supportive of policy responses (18%, to a segment of people who were completely unconcerned and strongly opposed to policy responses (7%. Three of the segments (totaling 70% were to varying degrees concerned about global warming and supportive of policy responses, two (totaling 18% were unsupportive, and one was largely disengaged (12%, having paid little attention to the issue. Certain behaviors and policy preferences varied greatly across these audiences, while others did not. Using discriminant analysis, we subsequently developed 36-item and 15-item instruments that can be used to categorize respondents with 91% and 84% accuracy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In late 2008, Americans supported a broad range of policies and personal actions to reduce global warming, although there was wide variation among the six identified audiences. To enhance the impact of campaigns, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and businesses seeking to engage the public can selectively target one or more of these audiences rather than address an undifferentiated general population. Our screening instruments

  10. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; CHEN Yi-Xue; WANG Wei-Jin; YANG Shou-Hai; WU Jun; YIN Wen; LIANG Tian-Jiao; JIA Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan,Guangdong, China.Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The target of calculations is to optimize the neutron beamline shielding design to guarantee personal safety and minimize cost. Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and the first collision source methodology is also illustrated. Two-dimensional dose distribution is calculated. The dose at the end of the neutron beam line is less than 2.5μSv/h. The models have ensured that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the standard limit required.

  11. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  12. Engaging and Supporting Culturally Diverse Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C.; Buxner, S.; Peticolas, L. M.; Mendez, B.; Acevedo, S.; Begay, D.; Higgins, M. L.; Norman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This two hour special workshop was held during the 2012 ASP conference in Tucson. There are a variety of reasons that science education needs to reach out to culturally diverse audiences. Each culture, and each individual community, has its own challenges; each brings special insight to science. What does the research say about engaging these different audiences? How can science educators attract and sustain programs with various cultures? How do the needs of our audiences vary with culture and within communities? Moderators Shupla, Sanlyn, and Peticolas invited a variety of presenters with expertise to share their experiences: Salvador Acevado, David Begay, Michelle Higgins, Bryan Mendez, and Dara Norman. During the first hour, presenters shared a variety of best practices for engaging and supporting culturally diverse audiences; in the second hour, participants and presenters discussed specific programmatic challenges and possible directions.

  13. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  14. Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kara Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Kara Lynn Andersen, in her paper "Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience," argues for a rethinking of assumptions of child audiences as passive readers and viewers through an analysis of the Harry Potter phenomenon. Andersen argues that instead of categorizing children as passive and homogenous subjects of analysis, they should instead be incorporated as participants in the discourse about children's books and films. Although frequently figured as especially susceptible to the affect...

  15. Preliminary results from recent experiments and future roadmap to Shock Ignition of Fusion Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batani, D.; Malka, G.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Giuffrida, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Volpe, L.; Patria, A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.; Antonelli, L.; Richetta, M.; Nejdl, J.; Sawicka, M.; Margarone, D.; Krus, M.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Dudzak, R.; Velyhan, A.; Ullshmied, J.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Klimo, O.; Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A.; Spindloe, C.; O'Dell, T.; Vinci, T.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Pysarcizck, T.; Rosinski, M.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.

    2012-11-01

    Shock ignition (SI) is a new approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based on decoupling the compression and ignition phase. The last one relies on launching a strong shock through a high intensity laser spike (<= 1016 W/cm2) at the end of compression. In this paper, first we described an experiment performed using the PALS iodine laser to study laser-target coupling and laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime relevant for SI. A first beam with wavelength λ = 1.33 μm and low intensity was used to create an extended preformed plasma, and a second one with λ = 0.44 μm to create a strong shock. Several diagnostics characterized the preformed plasma and the interaction of the main pulse. Pressure up to 90 Mbar was inferred. In the last paper of the paper, we discuss the relevant steps, which can be followed in order to approach the demonstration of SI on laser facilities like LMJ.

  16. A queuing model for designing multi-modality buried target detection systems: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    Many remote sensing modalities have been developed for buried target detection, each one offering its own relative advantages over the others. As a result there has been interest in combining several modalities into a single detection platform that benefits from the advantages of each constituent sensor, without suffering from their weaknesses. Traditionally this involves collecting data continuously on all sensors and then performing data, feature, or decision level fusion. While this is effective for lowering false alarm rates, this strategy neglects the potential benefits of a more general system-level fusion architecture. Such an architecture can involve dynamically changing which modalities are in operation. For example, a large standoff modality such as a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera can be employed until an alarm is encountered, at which point a high performance (but short standoff) sensor, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), is employed. Because the system is dynamically changing its rate of advance and sensors, it becomes difficult to evaluate the expected false alarm rate and advance rate. In this work, a probabilistic model is proposed that can be used to estimate these quantities based on a provided operating policy. In this model the system consists of a set of states (e.g., sensors employed) and conditions encountered (e.g., alarm locations). The predictive accuracy of the model is evaluated using a collection of collocated FLIR and GPR data and the results indicate that the model is effective at predicting the desired system metrics.

  17. Microemulsion-based drug delivery system for transnasal delivery of Carbamazepine: preliminary brain-targeting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Patel, Bharat G; Gaikwad, Rajiv V

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of Carbamazepine (CMP)-loaded microemulsions (CMPME) for intranasal delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. The CMPME was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for physicochemical parameters. All formulations were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (technetium) and biodistribution of CMP in the brain was investigated using Swiss albino rats. Brain scintigraphy imaging in rats was also performed to determine the uptake of the CMP into the brain. CMPME were found crystal clear and stable with average globule size of 34.11 ± 1.41 nm. (99m)Tc-labeled CMP solution (CMPS)/CMPME/CMP mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMPMME) were found to be stable and suitable for in vivo studies. Brain/blood ratio at all sampling points up to 8 h following intranasal administration of CMPMME compared to intravenous CMPME was found to be 2- to 3-fold higher signifying larger extent of distribution of the CMP in brain. Drug targeting efficiency and direct drug transport were found to be highest for CMPMME post-intranasal administration compared to intravenous CMP. Rat brain scintigraphy also demonstrated higher intranasal uptake of the CMP into the brain. This investigation demonstrates a prompt and larger extent of transport of CMP into the brain through intranasal CMPMME, which may prove beneficial for treatment of epilepsy.

  18. How accessible was information about H1N1 flu? Literacy assessments of CDC guidance documents for different audiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa P Lagassé

    Full Text Available We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM. Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82 = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82 = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.

  19. How Accessible Was Information about H1N1 Flu? Literacy Assessments of CDC Guidance Documents for Different Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagassé, Lisa P.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Smith, Katherine C.; Storey, J. Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J.; Omer, Saad B.; Links, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend. PMID:22039401

  20. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  1. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  2. How accessible was information about H1N1 flu? Literacy assessments of CDC guidance documents for different audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagassé, Lisa P; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Storey, J Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J; Omer, Saad B; Links, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, Ptargeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.

  3. Marketing to Your Target Audience: How Syracuse University Public Safety Reached Its Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Every year, marketers spend millions of dollars trying to vie for the attention of that oh-so-lucrative demographic--the 18- to 24-year-old. For those people serving academic environments, this just happens to be the demographic of their entire clientele. So the challenge becomes how to grasp a slice of these attention spans distracted by…

  4. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  5. TV Audience Measurement with Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra

    2014-06-01

    TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.

  6. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  7. Audience studies 2.0: on the theory, politics and method of qualitative audience research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Audience research, this paper suggests, is an excellent field to test the claims of Media Studies 2.0. Moreover, 2.0 claims are a good means to review qualitative audience research itself too. Working from a broad strokes analysis of the theory, politics and method of interpretative research with au

  8. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  9. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  10. Toward Audience Involvement: Extending Audiences of Written Physician Notes in a Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuch, Lee-Ann Kastman; Bakke, Abigail; Thomas-Pollei, Kimberly; Mackey, L. Elizabeth; Weinert, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This article explores rhetorical implications of extending the audience of written physician notes in hospital settings to include patients and/or family members (the OpenNotes program). Interviews of participating hospital patients and family members (n = 16) underscored the need for more complex understandings of audience beyond…

  11. Cultural Mythology Analysisof Media texts in the Classroom at the Student Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents the cultural mythology analysis of media texts: identification and analysis of mythologizing (including in the framework of the so-called folk sources - fairy tales, urban legends, etc. plot, those types of characters, etc. in media texts. In particular, the audience (for example, students offered by critical analysis to answer the question why so many entertainment media texts so popular with a mass audience? The author thinks that the media texts relating to the mass / popular culture, have success with the audience is not due to the fact that they supposedly only target people with low aesthetic taste, subject to psychological pressure, easy to believing the lie, etc., but because their authors respect and learning needs of the audience, including - information, compensatory, hedonistic, recreational, moral, aesthetic, etc.

  12. The Active Audience? Gurus, Management Ideas and Consumer Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groß, C.; Heusinkveld, H.S.; Clark, T

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on an active audience perspective to develop a better understanding of mass audiences' attraction towards popular management ideas. It focuses on audience members' own experiences and, in particular, what audience activities actually play a role in shaping mass attraction, and how t

  13. Hearing or Ignoring Audience: the Dilemma of the Freshman Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Barbara

    Students work most productively when they feel free to move back and forth from ignoring audience to addressing it. Students should consider audience as they begin a writing task. Then they should get away from it all and simply write. If they find an audience inhibiting, they should feel free to ignore the idea of audience altogether or alter…

  14. Audience, consequence, and journal selection in toxic-exposure epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, David A

    2004-10-01

    Even preliminary toxic-exposure epidemiology papers can spark "media scares" and questionable reactions amongst the public. Concerns for the social consequences of publication can lead epidemiologists--despite the advantages of visible publication--to choose a more obscure outlet for potentially sensitive studies. Interviews with 61 US toxic-exposure epidemiologists indicate that investigators generally sought visible journals to transmit their work to the widest relevant audience. Yet up to 36-46% of this sample sometimes have sought or would seek to keep their research from a public who, they feared, might misuse their results. Implications for the boundaries between science and society (including evidence of hidden scientific activism and "inert" public activism) are discussed, and six hypotheses for further research are proposed.

  15. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age.

  16. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  17. How Accessible Was Information about H1N1 Flu? Literacy Assessments of CDC Guidance Documents for Different Audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lagassé, Lisa P.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Smith, Katherine C; J. Douglas Storey; Elizabeth Rhoades; Barnett, Daniel J.; Saad B Omer; Jonathan Links

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents ta...

  18. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    consider digital media and new technologies as appropriate ways to reach new audiences. However in the field of classical composition music, new technologies have more than often been applied mainly to online ticket sales, web based marketing, and social medias. The focus of our work at the School...

  19. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Laursen, Jeanette Kølbæk

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...

  20. Audience and Revision: Middle Schoolers "Slam" Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Describes organizing a poetry "slam" (a contest in which people read their original poems and listeners cast votes for their favorites) involving 200 eighth graders from two different schools. Discusses how this experience made vivid for students the need to write for an audience and to revise. (SR)

  1. Engagement with Physics across Diverse Festival Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Joseph; Stanley, Jessica; Davis, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Science shows provide a method of introducing large public audiences to physics concepts in a nonformal learning environment. While these shows have the potential to provide novel means of educational engagement, it is often difficult to measure that engagement. We present a method of producing an interactive physics show that seeks to provide…

  2. Audience development and its blind spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2015-01-01

    that the discourse developing around audience development takes an organizational and institutionalized approach to performance culture that risks reducing dilemmas in performing arts institutions to a question of either marketing or social distinction. It overlooks a substantial body of knowledge of performance...... nuanced language on how performance matters....

  3. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The changing patterns of news consumption in a digital era bring about new configurations between audiences, information, the devices upon which they consume it and the different (mobile) places and (shiftable) times where and when this is possible. This chapter highlights the need to consider th...... challenges the conventional routines and symbolic power of journalism as a place where, metaphorically, people can come together....

  4. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  5. Selling Participation to Audiences in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Huang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China. The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.

  6. Using Target Audience Analysis to Aid Strategic Level Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    continuum of wrong activities being undertaken. In Iraq and Afghanistan, he saw how big public relations and marketing companies cost the U.S...triumphalism—the belief that western, liberal, democratic free market econ- omies were the answer to all ills. Yet across Eastern Europe, the Maghreb, the...Pakhtunkhwa; the city of Peshawar and dis- tricts south of the city, including travel on the Pesha- war to Chitral road via the Lowari Pass; northern and

  7. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...... mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2...

  8. The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Digital News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The changing patterns of news consumption in a digital era bring about new configurations between audiences, information, the devices upon which they consume it and the different (mobile) places and (shiftable) times where and when this is possible. This chapter highlights the need to consider...... these interrelated changes in the media ecology if we want to grasp the newfound complexity of media consumption. Specifically, it outlines how audience engagement with news and different spatiotemporal configurations made possible by digital technology are trends that complement and reinforce one another in terms...... of changing the socially-situated affordances of news use. Having sketched these contours, the chapter then highlights analytical challenges for understanding and conceptualizing the new interrelations between digital news content, production, and consumption, grounding this analysis with theoretical insights...

  9. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and training of measurerschanged much over the years. In the early days, they could have an almostliterary profile. The first person in charge of the audience at the RadioTélévision Française was a teacher of philosophy. His followers had a formationin sociology and semiology. They all insisted on the fact that they were not"simply" measurers, and also worried about appreciation, quality,culture. They always figures did produce figures, but rarely only about thenumber of people present in front of the screen, mostly about satisfaction,appreciation, preferences for given genres, viewing habits. As there was onlyone channel – until 1964, with the number of TV sets rising sharply, ratings,in the modern sense, were not critical.Things started to change gradually. In 1974,the public broadcasting corporation was divided into several companies,including three competing channels. The service in charge of measuring audiencewas put under the direct authority of the Prime Minister. Audience figuresplayed a part in the distribution of resources, not only advertising but throughthe license fee sharing. However, the law also provided a clause about an indexof quality, which never functioned satisfactorily, although the service incharge of audiences put much effort into it. In 1985, around the time of deregulation,change came. From outside, this was translated into the rise of daily,detailed, fast produced figures of the audience through audimeters, thenpeoplemeters

  10. Audiences : Defining and Researching Screen Entertainment Reception

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This timely volume engages with one of the most important shifts in recent film studies: the turn away from text-based analysis towards the viewer. Historically, this marks a return to early interest in the effect of film on the audience by psychoanalysts and psychologists, which was overtaken by concern with the 'effects' of film, linked to calls for censorship and moral panics rather than to understanding the mental and behavioral world of the spectator. Early cinema history has revealed th...

  11. Modern museum exhibition technology revolution for audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Today's digital revolution leads to the increasing mobile device usage, which has changed people's life and work. However, the traditional static display and graphic version is unable to meet the requirements of the modern audience, which makes museums face the challenge in the distribution of knowledge. Meanwhile, the information storm produced by big data emerged a variety of new media, such as social media, Natural User Interface, Augmented Reality, and electronic publishing. This dizzying array of tools offered opportunities for museums all over the world to become more vibrant and accessible. Museums around the world have been constant changed and improved its presentation, which provides a valuable experience for us. The new Shanghai Natural History Museum has also applied information technology on exhibition, education, research and collection. But the change does not mean a complete subversion. Because the museum audience are di- verse, such as born in a different era, have different learning habits, museums need to control the change magnitude of display technology to meet the requirements of different audience.

  12. Prior experience and its effects on audience design

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    PRIOR EXPERIENCE AND ITS EFFECTS ON AUDIENCE DESIGN. Abstract Objective Audience design involves tailoring utterances to suit the needs of your partner. The current experiment was interested in whether a speaker’s experience has an impact on their use of audience design as a conversational tool and whether a speaker can transfer knowledge gained in one task across to a similar task. Design Two description tasks were used to investigate audience design by recording the numbe...

  13. Comparing Demographic, Health Status and Psychosocial Strategies of Audience Segmentation to Promote Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Nicholson, Robert A.; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    The goal of audience segmentation is to identify population subgroups that are homogeneous with respect to certain variables associated with a given outcome or behavior. When such groups are identified and understood, targeted intervention strategies can be developed to address their unique characteristics and needs. This study compares the…

  14. A Typology of Middle School Girls: Audience Segmentation Related to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Lisa K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Elder, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) combines social ecological and social marketing approaches to promote girls' participation in physical activity programs implemented at 18 middle schools throughout the United States. Key to the TAAG approach is targeting materials to a variety of audience segments. TAAG segments are individuals…

  15. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off, zoom-poin

  16. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience studies and critical literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.; van den Berg, A.; Mol, M.

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  17. Audience and Young Bilingual Writers: Building on Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how an audience-focused writing curriculum mediated the literacy development of bilingual Latina/o first-grade students. Drawing on translingual theories of literacy and scholarship describing the role of audience and audience awareness in skilled writing, this study qualitatively documented and analyzed students' writing and…

  18. A Sense of Audience in Young Children's Multimodal Information Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    Elementary children's sense of audience related to their multimodal information writing was examined. Forty-six third graders' interviews about the books that they created at the end of a science unit were analyzed to understand children's conception of audience, the connection between their sense of audience and their composing process, and their…

  19. TARGET:?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M Acton

    2014-01-01

      By 2003. as military planners had become worried that the country's long-range conventional weapons, such as cruise missiles, might be too slow to reach hypothetical distant targets that needed to be struck urgently...

  20. "LET'S SPEAK ENGLISH," AN EXPERIMENT IN ADULT EDUCATIONAL TV DESIGNED TO TEACH ENGLISH TO BEGINNERS, WITH A REPORT ON THE AUDIENCE REACHED AND ITS REACTIONS TO THE PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967

    THREE-HUNDRED SIXTY-EIGHT INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED IN THE HOME, BY MAIL, AND BY TELEPHONE PROVIDED DATA FOR THIS AUDIENCE STUDY OF THE ENGLISH COURSE FEATURING A MIMICRY-MEMORY TECHNIQUE. ABOUT 35 PER CENT OF AN IDEAL TARGET AUDIENCE IN THE TORONTO METROPOLITAN AREA DEFINED ACCORDING TO AGE AND LINGUISTIC ABILITY WATCHED SOME OF THE PROGRAM, AND ABOUT…

  1. The Effects of Authentic Audience on English as a Second Language (ESL) Writers: A Task-Based, Computer-Mediated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julian ChengChiang; Brown, Kimberly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The majority of writing tasks assigned to second language (L2) learners tend to target an abstract audience and the writing generated is not meant for real or meaningful purposes. The emergence of Web 2.0 concepts has created a potential educational environment where students have access to a widely distributed, authentic audience with a simple…

  2. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  3. Performance of a plasma window for a high pressure differentially pumped deuterium gas target for mono-energetic fast neutron production - Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A. de; Hershcovitch, A.; Franklyn, C.B.; Straaten, S. van; Guzek, J. E-mail: jguzek@debeers.co.za

    2000-09-01

    The reactions D(d,n){sup 3}He and T(d,n){sup 4}He are frequently used for production of the mono-energetic or quasi mono-energetic neutron beams but successful applications are often limited by the intensity of the generated neutron beams. The development of a suitable neutron source for such applications as studies of resonance phenomena, fast neutron radiography, selective fast neutron activation, explosives and contraband detection and others, depends on the output ion current of the accelerator and the design of the target system. A practical solution for a high pressure gas target was previously developed and successfully implemented at De Beers Diamond Research Laboratory in Johannesburg (Guzek et al., 1999), but it is limited to applications using low (<20%) duty cycle accelerators. The concept of a plasma window for the separation of a high pressure gas target region and accelerator vacuum, that was originally developed by Hershcovitch (1995) for electron welding applications, may be suitable for operation with continuous wave accelerators at high particle current output. Preliminary test results, which have been performed with various gases (argon, helium and deuterium), indicate that implementation of the plasma window into a gas target system, for the production of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams will be achievable.

  4. Audience reach of science on television in 10 European countries: An analysis of people-meter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus; Boyadjieva, Pepka; Cunningham, Yvonne; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo

    2016-02-01

    Beginning with a differentiation of science programmes into five different editorial concepts, this article explores the audience reach of science on television in 10 European countries with a special emphasis on young audiences aged between 14 and 29 years. In relation to the share of this age group in the entire population, science programmes in all countries reach a considerably smaller proportion of younger viewers. Specific preferences for science content on television do not seem to be relevant in explaining aggregated viewing behaviours especially of young audiences. Unlike all other segments, the young science viewer segment is almost intangible as an aggregated group, as a definable segment of a mass audience that can be targeted by science programme makers.

  5. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  6. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  7. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... of African and Indian entrepreneurs, activists and publicists, collaborating around newspaper production, captured fairly large and significant non-European audiences (some papers had print runs of around ten thousand) and engaged them in new ways, incorporating their aspirations, writings and points of view...... in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  8. The Places and Spaces of News Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on-demand. Day-by-day, month-by-month, year-by-year, technology moves forward, impacting more than just the ways in which we get news. These fundamental shifts change what news ‘is’. This book expands our understanding of contemporary news audiences and explores how the different places and spaces......Historically, or so we would like to believe, the story of everyday life for many people included regular, definitive moments of news consumption. Journalism, in fact, was distributed around these routines: papers were delivered before breakfast, the evening news on TV buttressed the transition...... can consume journalism and engage with information – from tablets, to smartphones, online, and so forth – and the different places and moments of news consumption have multiplied as a result, to the point where news is increasingly mobile and instantaneous. It is personalized, localized and available...

  9. Privacy-Preserving Television Audience Measurement Using Smart TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Drosatos, George; Tasidou, Aimilia; Efraimidis, Pavlos,

    2012-01-01

    Part 6: Privacy Attitudes and Properties; International audience; Internet-enabled television systems, often referred to as Smart TVs, are a new development in television and home entertainment technologies. In this work, we propose a new, privacy-preserving, approach for Television Audience Measurement (TAM), utilizing the capabilities of the Smart TV technologies. We propose a novel application to calculate aggregate audience measurements using Smart TV computation capabilities and permanen...

  10. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can...... be beneficial, it is speculated that involving the audiences in the creative process of developing an interactive art piece can make the artist improve the art in general and the audience's experience in particular. In this paper, the experience of eliciting the experience of the audiences of an interactive art...

  11. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Amann, Gabriele [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute for Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vienna (Austria); Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Breitenseher, Martin [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Dominkus, Martin [Orthopaedics Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  12. The preliminary studies on preparation and characterization of bulk nanoporous zinc as a laser target candidate to generate soft x-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Lutfi Ahmad Shahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk nanoporous metal has become a reliable source to replace liquid as source to generate EUV lithography which have debris problem to tackle. A solid yet low density porous material promised a low melting point and low plasma density. The plasma density of bulk nanoporous Sn and SnO2 profile plays a key role in the generation of 13.5 nm light for an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL source from laser produced plasma (LPP. The success of this preparation method might solve problems related to EUV lithography, or even soft Xray (XUV lithography. In this paper, we present the preliminary result of preparing such ideal low density target in form of bulk metal porous.

  13. A Preliminary Controlled Comparison of Programs Designed to Reduce Risk of Eating Disorders Targeting Perfectionism and Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M.; Durbridge, Mitchell R.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to find out whether programs targeting perfectionism and media literacy are more effective than control classes in reducing eating disorder risk factors. Finding reveals that perfectionism programs are well suited to individuals of mid- to late adolescent age and shows the importune of making prevention programs developmentally…

  14. Development and preliminary evaluation of a motorized needle guide template for MRI-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare M; Zhang, Elizabeth; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-11-01

    To overcome the problems of limited needle insertion accuracy and human error in the use of a conventional needle guide template in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided prostate intervention, we developed a motorized MRI-compatible needle guide template that resembles a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate template. The motorized template allows automated, gapless needle guidance in a 3T MRI scanner with minimal changes in the current clinical procedure. To evaluate the impact of the motorized template on MRI, signal-to-noise ratio and distortion were measured under various system configurations. A maximum of 44% signal-to-noise ratio decrease was found when the ultrasonic motors were running, and a maximum of 0.4% image distortion was observed due to the presence of the motorized template. To measure needle insertion accuracy, we performed four sets of five random target needle insertions mimicking four biopsy procedures, which resulted in an average in-plane targeting error of 0.94 mm with a standard deviation of 0.34 mm. The evaluation studies indicated that the presence and operation of the motorized template in the MRI bore create insignificant image degradation, and provide submillimeter targeting accuracy. The automated needle guide that is directly controlled by navigation software eliminates human error so that the safety of the procedure can be improved.

  15. Radiofrequency ablation of small liver malignancies under magnetic resonance guidance: progress in targeting and preliminary observations with temperature monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraz, Sylvain; Cernicanu, Alexandru; Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Viallon, Magalie; Salomir, Rares; Becker, Christoph D. [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Mentha, Gilles [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Visceral Surgery and Transplantation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for small liver tumours with poor conspicuity on both contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT), using fast navigation and temperature monitoring. Sixteen malignant liver nodules (long-axis diameter, 0.6-2.4 cm) were treated with multipolar RF ablation on a 1.5-T wide-bore MR system in ten patients. Targeting was performed interactively, using a fast steady-state free precession sequence. Real-time MR-based temperature mapping was performed, using gradient echo-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) and hardware filtering. MR-specific treatment data were recorded. The mean follow-up time was 19 {+-} 7 months. Correct placement of RF electrodes was obtained in all procedures (image update, <500 ms; mean targeting time, 21 {+-} 11 min). MR thermometry was available for 14 of 16 nodules (88%) with an accuracy of 1.6 C in a non-heated region. No correlation was found between the size of the lethal thermal dose and the ablation zone at follow-up imaging. The primary and secondary effectiveness rates were 100% and 91%, respectively. RF ablation of small liver tumours can be planned, targeted, monitored and controlled with MR imaging within acceptable procedure times. Temperature mapping is technically feasible, but the clinical benefit remains to be proven. (orig.)

  16. Listening for Listeners: Two Educational Radio Stations Discover Audience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavitsky, Alan G.

    Two pioneering public radio stations--WOSU-AM, licensed to the Ohio State University in Columbus, and WHA-AM, licensed to the University of Wisconsin in Madison--conducted audience research as early as the 1920s. The challenge for early education broadcasters became to adapt the existing audience research paradigm to their purposes, or to develop…

  17. Sensing Audience Response - Beyond One Way Streaming of Live Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); E. Geelhoed; I. Biscoe; P. Stenton

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractDuring a live theatre performance, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 15 audience members was measured simultaneously and synchronized with video footage of performers and audience. Questionnaires explored emotions evoked during the play. The research is part of an EU Framework 7 program to

  18. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  19. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  20. Audience Insights: Communicating to Teens (Aged 12-17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    CDC's Marketing and Communication Strategy Branch (MCSB) in the National Center for Health Marketings Division of Health Communication and Marketing divides audiences into segments with similar needs, preferences, and characteristics and provides CDC programs with audience-specific information, marketing expertise, and communication planning. To…

  1. Physical Activity in the Mass Media: An Audience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception…

  2. Sensing Audience Response - Beyond One Way Streaming of Live Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Geelhoed, E.; Biscoe, I.; Stenton, P.

    2013-01-01

    During a live theatre performance, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 15 audience members was measured simultaneously and synchronized with video footage of performers and audience. Questionnaires explored emotions evoked during the play. The research is part of an EU Framework 7 program to support rem

  3. Integrating Digital Response Systems within a Diversity of Agricultural Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarappa, William; Quinn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have new computer-assisted tools as audience response systems (clickers) for increasing educational effectiveness and improving assessment by facilitating client input. From 2010-2012, 26 sessions involving 1093 participants in six diverse client categories demonstrated wide audience acceptance and suitability of clickers in…

  4. Museum Accessibility: Combining Audience Research and Staff Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Nina; Reich, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses an audience-informed professional development model that combines audience research focus groups and staff training that includes interaction and direct feedback from visitors, in this case, visitors with low vision. There are two critical components to this model: one is that museums' programming decisions are informed by…

  5. News and social networks: audience behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, Pere; Guallar, Javier; Suau, Jaume; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos; Peralta, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Based on a quantitative approach, this paper presents some of the preliminary results of a research project focused on the analysis of the motivations that encourage citizens to actively participate in online news media, using the mechanisms provided by their websites, and through open social network platforms. The findings show that, although there is a widespread discourse of distrust in connection to journalists and the traditional media institutions, as well as general criticism of the ac...

  6. Social Audience in Spain: Succesful strategies in national TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Saavedra Llamas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the concept of social audience, as a new narrative space born in the convergence of the TV audience and the user’s conversations in Twitter, and examine strategies of TV programs in Spain with higher social audience. Understand what exactly the social audience is, how does it works or what kind of metrics are made for it, becomes more necessary than ever to deepen into the uses and opportunities facing both the television media and advertisers who choose to invest in a TV space.Through the study of successful cases already implemented is to establish formulas for success that achieve a more active participation of users, transfer from social to traditional audience and the profitable inclusion of brands in this full of possibilities new communication scenario.

  7. Teaching Energy to a General Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baski, Alison; Hunnicutt, Sally

    2010-02-01

    A new, interdisciplinary course entitled ``Energy!'' has been developed by faculty in the physics and chemistry departments to meet the university's science and technology general education requirement. This course now enrolls over 400 students each semester in a single lecture where faculty from both departments co-teach throughout the term. Topics include the fundamentals of energy, fossil fuels, global climate change, nuclear energy, and renewable energy sources. The students represent an impressive range of majors (science, engineering, business, humanities, etc.) and comprise freshmen to seniors. To effectively teach this diverse audience and increase classroom engagement, in-class ``clickers'' are used with guided questions to teach concepts, which are then explicitly reinforced with online LON-CAPAfootnotetextFree open-source distributed learning content management and assessment system (www.lon-capa.org) homework. This online system enables immediate feedback in a structured manner, where students can practice randomized versions of problems for homework, quizzes, and exams. The course is already in high demand after only two semesters, in part because it is particularly relevant to students given the challenging energy and climate issues facing the nation and world. )

  8. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  9. A preliminary controlled comparison of programs designed to reduce risk of eating disorders targeting perfectionism and media literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Durbridge, Mitchell R; Wade, Tracey D

    2008-08-01

    The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of two eight-lesson programs, targeting perfectionism and media literacy compared to control classes in reducing eating disorder risk. Students from six classes (N = 127, mean age 15.0 years, SD 0.4) and two schools participated. Linear mixed-model analyses were conducted by group (3: perfectionism, media literacy, control), time (2: postprogram, 3-month follow-up) and eating disorder risk status (2: high, low), with baseline observations included as a covariate. An interaction effect favoring the perfectionism program at 3-month follow-up was found for concern over mistakes (effect size 0.45). A main effect for group, also favoring the perfectionism program, was found for personal standards (effect size 0.44). High-risk participants (i.e., those with high levels of shape and weight concern at baseline) benefited most from the perfectionism program with reliable change indices indicating favorable rates of improvement beyond chance on all of the variables, whereas the media literacy and control participants experienced a comparable rate of change during the course of the study. Targeting perfectionism represents a promising prevention option that requires further investigation in children of mid-adolescence age, and further investigation is required to determine the demographic most likely to benefit from media literacy.

  10. Detection of miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and preliminary analysis of its downstream target molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shen; Jian-Wu Gao; Yan-Yu Li; Peng Teng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and analyze its downstream target molecules.Methods:Patients with different FIGO stages of cervical cancer and healthy subjects were selected, cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected, and contents of miRNA-21 and apoptotic genes were detected; cervical cancer SiHa cells were cultured, miRNA-21 mimics and inhibitors were transfected, and then apoptotic gene contents were detected.Results:miRNA-21 contents in different stages of cervical cancer tissue were all higher than those in normal cervical tissue, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were lower than those in normal tissue, and mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were negatively correlated with miRNA-21 contents; after miRNA-21 mimics were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly decreased, and after miRNA-21 inhibitors were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly increased.Conclusion:miRNA-21 contents in cervical cancer tissue significantly increase; downstream target genes of this miRNA may be apoptotic genes p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19.

  11. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  12. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been shown to be conditional on the changing feature being irrelevant to the current task. How change blindness operates during interactive tasks is unclear but preliminary evidence suggests that relevance of the changing feature may also play a role (Triesch, Ballard, Hayhoe & Sullivan, 2003. The present study created a simple on-line card trick inspired by Triesch and colleagues’ (2003 that allowed playing cards to be instantaneously replaced without distraction or occlusion as participants were either actively sorting the cards (active condition or watching another person perform the task (passive conditions. Participants were given one of three sets of instructions. The relevance of the card color to the task increased across the three instructions. During half of the trials a card changed color (but retained its number as it was moving to the stack. Participants were instructed to immediately report such changes. Analysis of the probability of reporting a change revealed that actively performing the sorting task led to more missed changes than passively watching the same task but only when the changing feature was irrelevant to the sorting task. If the feature was relevant during either the pick-up or put-down action change detection was as good as during the passive block. These results confirm the ability of audience participation to create subtle dynamics of attention and perception during a magic trick and hide otherwise striking changes at the center of

  13. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been shown to be conditional on the changing feature being irrelevant to the current task. How change blindness operates during interactive tasks is unclear but preliminary evidence suggests that relevance of the changing feature may also play a role (Triesch et al., 2003). The present study created a simple on-line card trick inspired by Triesch et al.'s (2003) that allowed playing cards to be instantaneously replaced without distraction or occlusion as participants were either actively sorting the cards (Doing condition) or watching another person perform the task (Watching conditions). Participants were given one of three sets of instructions. The relevance of the card color to the task increased across the three instructions. During half of the trials a card changed color (but retained its number) as it was moving to the stack. Participants were instructed to immediately report such changes. Analysis of the probability of reporting a change revealed that actively performing the sorting task led to more missed changes than passively watching the same task but only when the changing feature was irrelevant to the sorting task. If the feature was relevant during either the pick-up or put-down action change detection was as good as during the watching block. These results confirm the ability of audience participation to create subtle dynamics of attention and perception during a magic trick and hide otherwise striking changes at the center of attention.

  14. Beyond the "general public": implications of audience characteristics for promoting species conservation in the Western Ghats hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagavel, Arun; Raghavan, Rajeev; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how different audience groups perceive wildlife is crucial for the promotion of biodiversity conservation, especially given the key role of flagship species in conservation campaigns. Although the heterogeneity in preferences reinforces the need for campaigns tailored to specific target audiences, many conservation education and awareness campaigns still claim to target the "general public". Audiences can be segmented according to social, economic, and cultural criteria across which species perceptions are known to vary. Different studies have investigated the preferences of different groups towards certain wildlife species, but these are largely confined to a single conservation stakeholder group, such as tourists, local communities, or potential donors in western countries. In this study, we seek to determine from a multi-stakeholder perspective, audience characteristics that influence perceptions towards wildlife at Valparai, a fragmented plateau in the Western Ghats region of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Hotspot. We found that stakeholder group membership was the most important characteristic followed by gender. While some characteristics had a wide-scale effect others were restricted to a few species. Our results emphasize the need to design conservation campaigns with specific audiences in mind, instead of the very often referred to "general public".

  15. Extending IPY Data to a Wider Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Perhaps the most significant IPY contribution to science education was the vast amount of data collected at the polar-regions on Earth systems and processes that was made immediately available to teachers and curriculum developers. Supplementing textbooks with the Internet as an education partner, allowed participating teachers to transform science education through: their use of current data as an integral component of their classroom teaching; their training of students to seek out data as evidence of Earth processes; and their instruction to students on how to validate sources and uses of data. Yet, for every teacher and student who has been part of this successful IPY outreach there are many more who have not been reached, don’t know how to include polar science into their coursework, or don’t comfortably work with data. Our experience with data education projects suggests that to reach the next round of students, teachers, educators and the wider adult population we need to translate this data so it is accessible through carefully constructed activities, simulations, and games. In addition we need to actively seek new partnership and outlet opportunities. The collected measurements tell us that our poles are warming on a human timescale. Using data to tell the story, the unambiguous signal of warming makes it accessible to a much broader audience. Our experience has shown that, for a novice population working with data, the educational effectiveness is significantly enhanced when the signal in the data is strong and the Earth processes are clear. Building upon IPY data and resources, focusing on the Earth’s changing climate, and working with partnerships developed over the last two years, Lamont has put together several new education and outreach collaborations. Our goal is to reach new audiences through: 1) Inventorying, Assessing and Planning - Through an NSF planning grant we are leveraging IPY connections and findings in a Polar Climate Education

  16. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  17. Engaging Latino audiences in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Susan B.

    Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit organization, developed a four-year research project to establish a baseline for Latino participation and to identify practical tools that would enable educators to overcome barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE). Its national scope and broad suite of governmental and non-governmental, Latino and non-Latino partners ensured that surveys and interviews conducted in Latino communities reflected the cosmopolitan nature of the factors that influence participation in ISE programs. Information about economic and education levels, country of origin, language, length of residence in the US, and perceptions of natural areas combined with existing demographic information at six study sites and one control site provided a broader understanding of Latino communities. The project team's ability to work effectively in these communities was strengthened by the involvement of native, Spanish-speaking Latino interns in the National Park Service's Park Flight Migratory Bird Program. The project also went beyond data gathering by identifying key measures to improve participation in ISE and implementing these measures at established informal science education programs, such as International Migratory Bird Day, to determine effectiveness. The goals of Engaging Latino Audiences in Informal Science Education (ISE) were to 1) identify and reduce the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education; 2) provide effective tools to assist educators in connecting Latino families with science education, and 3) broadly disseminate these tools to agencies and organizations challenged to engage this audience in informal science education (ISE). The results answer questions and provide solutions to a challenge experienced by parks, refuges, nature centers, and other informal science education sites across the US. Key findings from this research documented low participation rates in ISE by Latinos, and that

  18. Effects of audience awareness on procedural text writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Matsushima, Kazutoshi

    2006-08-01

    Effects of audience awareness were examined. Some participants acted as writers and the others acted as readers. Writers wrote a text describing a geometrical figure. Readers read the text and tried to draw the figure according to the description. In Exp. 1, audience awareness was manipulated among undergraduate students, 11 men and 34 women. Writers in the high audience-awareness condition spent more time planning and writing texts than writers in the low audience-awareness condition. Texts in the high audience-awareness condition consisted of more letters and sentences with descriptions elaborating the texts. In Exp. 2, prototype texts were constructed based on the results of Exp. 1. Undergraduate students, 11 men and 47 women, who read the prototype text in the high audience-awareness condition could draw the figure more accurately. In Exp. 3, effects of feedback from readers were examined. Ninth-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as writers and 7th-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as readers. Merely being told to attend to an audience did not improve the quality of texts written by 9th-grade students. However, feedback from the readers who were 7th-grade students was effective. Writers could revise the texts appropriately according to feedback and improve the quality of texts. In addition, the experience of revising the text according to feedback transferred to later writing. Educational implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas; Møller Petersen, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density functions of the sound pressure levels were obtained in octave bands, which were fitted with three Gaussian distribution curves. The Gaussian distribution curve with the lowest mean value corresponds to a mixture of the technical background noise and audience generated noise, which is named the mixed background noise. Finally, the audience noise distribution is extracted by energy subtraction of the technical background noise levels measured in an empty condition from the mixed background noise levels. As a single index, L(90) of the audience noise distribution is named the audience noise level. Empirical prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended.

  20. A preliminary assessment of asteroid shapes produced by impact disruption and re-creation: Application to the AIDA target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Olivier; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the origin of the 65803 Didymos, the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission, and gain insights on the origin and evolution of the asteroid's162173 Ryugu and 101955 Bennu, we investigate systematically the shapes of all re-accumulated fragments produced by the catastrophic disruption of a parent body that is 1 km in diameter or larger. These new fragments eventually become new asteroids of the size that current sample-return missions plan to explore. We choose a range of impact conditions by varying the parent bodies' strength, size and porosity, and the velocity and size of the projectile. Impact conditions range from near the catastrophic threshold, usually designated by Q*, where half of the target's mass escapes, to far greater values above this threshold. Our numerical investigations of the catastrophic disruption, which are undertaken using an SPH hydrocode, include a model of fragmentation for porous materials. The gravitationally dominated phase of reaccumulation of our asteroids is computed using the N-body code pkdgrav. At sufficiently slow impact speeds in the N-body model, particles are permitted to stick, forming irregular, competent pieces that can gather into non-idealized rubble piles as a result of re-accumulation. Shape and spin information of re-accumulated bodies are thus preserved. Due to numerical expense, this first study uses what we call a hard-sphere model, rather than a soft-sphere spring and dashpot model. This latter model is more commonly used in granular flow simulations for which detailed treatment of the multicontact physics is needed, which is not the case here, and comes at the expense of much smaller timesteps. With the hard-sphere model, there are three supported collision outcomes for bonded aggregates: sticking on contact (to grow the aggregate); bouncing (computed for these generally non-central impacts); and fragmentation (wherein the particles involved become detached from

  1. Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

    2011-12-01

    The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

  2. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  3. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Pierre; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended....

  4. Audience noise in concert halls during musical performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marie, Pierre; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by the audience during musical performances is audible and sometimes disturbing. In this study, an attempt to estimate such audience noise was carried out. From the recordings of performances in five performance spaces (four concert halls and one opera house), probability density...... prediction models were made using the four orchestra concert halls, revealing that the audience noise level is significantly correlated with the technical background noise level. It is therefore concluded that a relaxation of the current background noise recommendations for concert halls is not recommended...

  5. Emergent health risks and audience information engagement on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2016-03-01

    Social media can effectively reach large audiences and serve as an indicator for the public's sentiment and engagement in situations of disease outbreaks. This study used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook posts between March 18 and October 31, 2014, surrounding the 2014 Ebola outbreak, to look at the audience engagement with online health information. The CDC submitted fewer posts about Ebola than about non-Ebola topics, but audience engagement with Ebola posts was significantly higher, and men were more interested in Ebola posts and submitted more comments per user.

  6. Graphic Novels: A New Stress Mitigation Tool for Military Training: Developing Content for Hard-to-Reach Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel; Lambert, Shari; Peeler, Russ; Lane, Becky; Borst, Carrie

    2017-05-01

    This article describes the development of two graphic novels as a new approach to mental health communication and coping strategies for the Navy and Marine Corps. The novels are intended to capture the attention of the younger target audience and provide vital teaching messages to better prepare personnel for deployment to combat zones. The novels were developed based on embedding the principles of combat and operational stress control (COSC) into realistic and relatable characters, stories, and images. Approaches used for development included (a) basing storylines on real-life service members and the situations they face in combat and their personal lives; (b) partnering with COSC experts to embed teaching points; (c) ensuring technical accuracy through research and target audience reviews of the storyboard and artwork; (d) developing characters that are representative of the target audience, with varied jobs, ages, backgrounds, and professional concerns; and (e) designing artwork in a manner sensitive to training objectives and the psychological effects on readers. Because technical accuracy, realism, and sensitivity were noted as essential components of an effective graphic novel tool, focus-group research and review of author drafts by the target audience and technical experts are strongly recommended.

  7. Surgical pathology and the patient: a systematic review evaluating the primary audience of pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossanen, Matthew; True, Lawrence D; Wright, Jonathan L; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Lavallee, Danielle; Gore, John L

    2014-11-01

    The pathology report is a critical document that helps guide the management of patients with cancer. More and more patients read their reports, intending to participate in decisions about their care. However, a substantial subset of patients may lack the ability to comprehend this often technical and complex document. We hypothesized that most literature on pathology reports discusses reports from the perspective of other physicians and not from the perspective of patients. An expert panel of physicians developed a list of search criteria, which we used to identify articles on PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar databases. Two reviewers independently evaluated all articles to identify for detailed review those that met search criteria. We identified the primary audience of the selected articles and the degree to which these articles addressed clarity of communication of pathology reports with patients. Of 801 articles identified in our search, 25 involved the formatting of pathology reports for clarity of communication. Recurrent themes in proposed improvements in reports included content standardization, variation in terminology, clarity of communication, and quality improvement. No articles discussed patients as their target audience. No study evaluated the health literacy level required of patients to comprehend pathology reports. In summary, there is a scarcity of patient-centered approaches to improve pathology reports. The literature on pathology reports does not include patients as a target audience. Limited resources are available to help patients comprehend their reports. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication are desirable to address this overlooked aspect of patient care.

  8. Multiscreen television and audience research: the case of regional channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Medina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available TV content can be enjoyed on multiple screens not only on the TV set. This is what we called Smart or Connected TV, that is to say, an online and interactive television that enables personalized and on demand consumption through a variety of deliveries. The development of connected TV needs new audience measurement systems that allow monitoring the audience across multiple screens. Only a suitable measuring method allows to know the audience for content management and advertising sales.The firstobjective of this paper is to analyze whether the public regional public television in Spain also made this offer. We have chosen the Catalan Corporation of Audiovisual Media (CCMA and EITB, the Basque Radio and Television (EITB. Our second goal is to study the need of new audience measurement systems for this regional television and make suggestions that could help them to exploit the new sources of revenue.

  9. Watching Dallas again 1: Doing retro audience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gilroy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay and the audience reception projects it introduces alleviate the desperation of seeking the television audience by recourse to Ien Ang's influential book, Watching Dallas ([1982] 1985. Within the context of a unit on audience research in a master's-level course on media, two groups of students explored the possibilities of remixing Ang in the present digital media landscape via informants' comments on the first season of the new series of Dallas (2012–14. Discourses of nostalgia circulate within and around the text, as well as the project itself. Retro audience research generates not only data about the affective memories and critical reflections of informants but also insights into research methods and the production of new nostalgic subjects.

  10. Audience affects decision-making in a marmoset communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toarmino, Camille R; Wong, Lauren; Miller, Cory T

    2017-01-01

    An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour. This active social signalling paradigm provided subjects an opportunity to interact with and learn about the behaviour of each VM in the network and apply this knowledge in subsequent communicative decisions. We found that subjects' propensity to interact with particular VMs was determined by the behaviour of each VM in the audience and suggests that marmoset social decision-making strategies are highly adaptive to nuances of the immediate communication network.

  11. Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Joshua Fahey; Niiya Melissa; Warschauer March

    2015-01-01

    Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the...

  12. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  13. An Audience-Centric Approach for Museums Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Di Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a visitor centric perspective that can support museums towards sustainability. The main premise of this study is due to a concept of economic and social sustainability of museums, defined as the possession of sufficient resources to maintain the existence of an organization, and achieve their goals in the future, ensuring a certain flow of visitors. A great number of museums are characterized by a low number of visits; therefore, in order to become sustainable, museums should pay attention to audience and its internal diversity. In this way, a cultural site can plan tailored strategies to increase the number of visits and re-visits and to achieve community support. For this reason it is necessary to understand the cultural needs of visitors, acquiring appropriate monitoring tools, such as qualitative and quantitative ones. Generally, quantitative analyses are more reliable and complete, even if they require a considerable number of observations for the reliability of the results. Moreover, qualitative analysis provides more in depth information, even if their data do not allow us to make generalizations. The qualitative and quantitative methods for the detection of satisfaction are usually used separately, but their integration may bring significant added value in terms of the wealth of information. This study follows the analysis of the potential of the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques customized with respect to different types of targets. The results of the experimentation performed on ethnographic museums shows a consistency of the results obtained by the two different tools that increase the capacity information of survey instruments.

  14. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  15. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi;

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  16. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  17. Audience segmentation to promote lifestyle for cancer prevention in the Korean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to segment the audience group of '10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' based on demographic characteristics and the level of knowledge about each guideline for cancer prevention among the community in South Korea. Participants were chosen through stratified random sampling according to the age and gender distribution of Gangwon province in South Korea. A telephone survey was conducted from 6 to 15 calls among 2,025 persons on October 2008. A total of 1,687 persons completed the survey (response rate: 83.3%). Survey items were composed of socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, education, and residence area and the knowledge level of '10 guidelines for cancer prevention', developed by 'Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare' and covering smoking cessation, appropriate drinking, condom use, and regular physical activity and so on. We selected the priority needed to promote awareness and segmented the audience group based on the demographic characteristics, homogeneous with respect to the knowledge level using Answer Tree 3.0 with CHAID as a data mining algorithm. The results of analysis showed that each guideline of ' 10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' had its own segmented subgroup characterized by each demographic. Especially, residence area, city or county, and ages were the first split on the perceived level of knowledge and these findings suggested that segmentation of audiences for targeting is needed to deliver more effective education of patients and community people. In developing the strategy for effective education, the method of social marketing using the decision tree analysis could be a useful and appropriate tool. The study findings demonstrate the potential value of using more sophisticated strategies of designing and providing health information based on audience segmentation.

  18. The relationship between audience mentality and attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignowska, Izabella; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Slonska, Zofia

    2016-09-01

    Health promoters who use the mass media to encourage people to change their health behaviours usually underestimate the importance of audience's mental predispositions, which may determine their susceptibility to such influences. This paper presents research findings that show how some elements of an audience's mentality are related to their attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in the mass media (HLPMM). The research project, undertaken between 2007 and 2009, comprised: a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (N=30); a self-administered survey on a purposive sample (N=237) and a computer-assisted personal interview or interviewing (CAPI) survey on a representative sample of Polish adult population (N=934). The findings from the first two studies were used to construct a scale to investigate the attitude towards HLPMM. This scale was applied in a nation wide survey and, as a result, four dimensions of the attitude were identified: (1) appraisal of the idea of HLPMM; (2) appraisal of HLPMM practice; (3) propensity to receive media messages promoting healthy lifestyle and (4) propensity to avoid such messages. Moreover, the survey results confirmed the hypotheses whereby a higher degree of individualism, a higher degree of authoritarianism, a weaker demanding orientation and generalised trust are related to a more positive attitude towards HLPMM. The aforementioned relationships indicate that producers of media messages promoting a healthy lifestyle need to take account of their audience's mentality, since knowledge of mental predispositions of the target audience may help them make the message more suitable for specific recipients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. An audience with … the public, the representative, the sovereign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanese Niccolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of audience, in common law, is the right of a lawyer to represent a client in a court. Royalty, the Pope and some Presidents grant audiences. What does the power to grant an audience consist in? And what does it mean to demand an audience (with? Through a reading of the way in which the vocabulary of theatre, acting and audience is involved in the generation of a theory of state by Hobbes and Rousseau, this paper looks to reopen these questions as a political resource for us to re-imagine and refigure our ways of being together. Through readings of Hobbes and Rousseau, it looks at the ways in which the performance of politics creates the public, the representative and the sovereign and the ways these figures interact. It proposes an alternative role for theatre as places of affective learning and a civic ethics of playfulness, in which the auto-institution of the state as an imagined collectivity is fully assumed.

  20. Audience reaction movie trailers and the Paranormal Activity franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swanson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the concept and growing practice of audience reaction movie trailers, specifically for films in the horror genre. Popularized by the Paranormal Activity series of films, these trailers primarily utilize green night-vision video footage of a movie theater audience reacting to the film being advertised, yet also consist of webcam recordings of screaming fans, documentary-style B-roll footage of audiences filing into preview screenings with high levels of anticipation, and close-up shots of spectator facial expressions, accompanied by no footage whatsoever from the film being advertised. In analyzing these audience-centric promotional paratexts, my aim is to reveal them as attempting to sell and legitimize the experiential, communal, and social qualities of the theatrical movie viewing experience while at the same time calling for increased fan investment in both physical and online spaces. Through the analysis of audience reaction trailers, this article hopes to both join and engender conversations about horror fan participation, the nature of anticipatory texts as manipulative, and the current state of horror gimmickry in the form of the promotional paratext.

  1. What do audiences do when they sit and listen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Ana-Despina; Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Speech anxiety (SA) training may help subjects improve their skills on keeping audiences interested in the speech and on managing calm or restless audiences. Attention and lack of attention during speeches are displayed through several nonverbal cues. Such and other nonverbal behaviors can also spread throughout a group and engage whole audiences. The current study is an inquiry into the nonverbal markers of attention and lack of attention during lectures (e.g. note taking, eye gaze towards the speaker, conduct with electronic devices such as mobile phones or laptops). Additionally, the study tries to identify nonverbal behaviors that are diffused and their spatial and time diffusion characteristics. 37 university students at the Ilmenau University of Technology have been observed during a 40-minutes lecture. A quantitative content analysis is conducted to identify patterns of behaviors depicting attention and inattention. Afterwards a qualitative content analysis is carried out to identify contagious behaviors and their spreading characteristics. The findings are used to design virtual audiences (VA) whose members react to each other or display observable audience responses (OAR) and will be implemented into training scenarios for training university students against SA.

  2. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  3. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  4. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  5. Audience preferences are predicted by temporal reliability of neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Bezdek, Matthew A; Abelson, Brian P; Johnson, John S; Schumacher, Eric H; Parra, Lucas C

    2014-07-29

    Naturalistic stimuli evoke highly reliable brain activity across viewers. Here we record neural activity from a group of naive individuals while viewing popular, previously-broadcast television content for which the broad audience response is characterized by social media activity and audience ratings. We find that the level of inter-subject correlation in the evoked encephalographic responses predicts the expressions of interest and preference among thousands. Surprisingly, ratings of the larger audience are predicted with greater accuracy than those of the individuals from whom the neural data is obtained. An additional functional magnetic resonance imaging study employing a separate sample of subjects shows that the level of neural reliability evoked by these stimuli covaries with the amount of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activation in higher-order visual and auditory regions. Our findings suggest that stimuli which we judge favourably may be those to which our brains respond in a stereotypical manner shared by our peers.

  6. Improving Community Understanding of Medical Research: Audience Response Technology for Community Consultation for Exception to Informed Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Vohra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Department of Health and Human Services and Food and Drug Administration described guidelines for exception from informed consent (EFIC research. These guidelines require community consultation (CC events, which allow members of the community to understand the study, provide feedback and give advice. A real-time gauge of audience understanding would allow the speaker to modify the discussion. The objective of the study is to describe the use of audience response survey (ARS technology in EFIC CCs. Methods: As part of the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial (RAMPART, 13 CC events were conducted. We prepared a PowerPoint™ presentation with 4 embedded ARS questions,according to specific IRB guidelines to ensure that the pertinent information would reach our targeted audience. During 6 CCs, an ARS was used to gauge audience comprehension. Participants completed paper surveys regarding their opinion of the study following each CC. Results: The ARS was used with minimal explanation and only one ARS was lost. Greater than 80% of the participants correctly answered 3 of the 4 ARS questions with 61% correctly answering the question regarding EFIC. A total of 105 participants answered the paper survey; 80-90% of the responses to the paper survey were either strongly agree or agree. The average scores on the paper survey in the ARS sites compared to the non-ARS sites were significantly more positive. Conclusion: The use of an audience response system during the community consultation aspects of EFIC is feasible and provides a real-time assessment of audience comprehension of the study and EFIC process. It may improve the community’s opinion and support of the study.

  7. Audience responses to television news coverage of medical advances: The mediating role of audience emotions and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2015-08-01

    Exemplifying a real person in news stories has become a popular journalistic technique to describe an event or issue. With the frequent appearance of medical news reports in local television in recent years, this news presentation style is widely believed to help audiences better engage in and understand complex medical information and to influence their perceptions and judgments. In terms of television news coverage of medical advances, this study investigates how audiences respond to embedded human examples (mainly patients who experience benefits from the advances) and to overall news stories, and how such responses are related to their perception of portrayed medical advances. The experimental results indicate that news stories with a human example were more likely to intensify the audience's positive emotions than those without, which in turn influenced favorable perceptions of the described medical advance. In addition, the extent to which the audience identified with a human example (in particular, sympathy) mediated the relationship between the audience's involvement in the news story and its perception of the portrayed medical advance.

  8. Mobile Audience Response Systems at a Continuing Medical Education Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Alexandra; Gousseau, Michael; Sommerfeld, Connor; Leitao, Darren; Gooi, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Mobile audience response systems (mARS) are electronic systems allowing speakers to ask questions and audience members to respond anonymously and immediately on a screen which enables learners to view their peers' responses as well as their own. mARS encourages increased interaction and active learning. This study aims to examine the perceptions of audience members and speakers towards the implementation of mARS at a national medical conference. mARS was implemented at the CSO Annual Meeting in Winnipeg 2015. Eleven presenters agreed to participate in the mARS trial. Both audience and presenters received instructions. Five-point Likert questions and short answer questions were emailed to all conference attendees and the data was evaluated. Twenty-seven participants responded, 23 audience members and 4 instructors. Overall, responders indicated improved attention, involvement, engagement and recognition of audience's understanding of topics with the use of mARS. mARS was perceived as easy to use, with clear instructions, and the majority of respondents expressed an interest in using mARS in more presentations and in future national medical conferences. Most respondents preferred lectures with mARS over lectures without mARS. Some negative feedback on mARS involved dissatisfaction with how some presenters implemented mARS into the workshops. Overall mARS was perceived positively with the majority of respondents wanting mARS implemented in more national medical conferences. Future studies should look at how mARS can be used as an educational tool to help improve patient outcomes.

  9. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis to Understand Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction......Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational...

  10. Exploring Learning through Audience Interaction in Virtual Reality Dome Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolellis, Panagiotis; Daradoumis, Thanasis

    Informal learning in public spaces like museums, science centers and planetariums is increasingly popular during the last years. Recent advancements in large-scale displays allowed contemporary technology-enhanced museums to get equipped with digital domes, some with real-time capabilities like Virtual Reality systems. By conducting extensive literature review we have come to the conclusion that little to no research has been carried out on the leaning outcomes that the combination of VR and audience interaction can provide in the immersive environments of dome theaters. Thus, we propose that audience collaboration in immersive virtual reality environments presents a promising approach to support effective learning in groups of school aged children.

  11. The impact of stage hypnosis on audience members and participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Jay Lynn, Steven; Meyer, Eric

    2004-07-01

    Before and after a stage-hypnosis performance, 67 audience members and 6 participants completed the Hypnotic Attitudes Questionnaire (HAQ), the Posthypnotic Experience Scale (PES), and several questions related to attitudes about performing in public. Audience members' beliefs about hypnosis (HAQ total and factor scores),experience ratings (PES factor scores: pleasantness, anger/irritability,anxiety), and responses to the performance-related questions changed in a positive direction after the performance. The participants in the show reported no significant pre- to postperformance changes. How-ever, there were indications that the on stage participants exhibited generally favorable attitudes toward hypnosis and performing before they engaged in the actual performance.

  12. The Sender-Receiver Model and the Targeting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark A.

    The goal of this paper is to describe how one classroom teacher uses the Sender-Receiver Communications Model to illustrate for students in a lively and memorable way the process of "targeting your audience" with medium and message. Students are used as examples of Receivers, or target audience, illustrating the potential range of…

  13. Preliminary Studies on the Detection of a NLOS Target in a 2D Urban Canyon Using PolInSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Koeniguer, Elise; Sar, Nicolas; Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Mokadem, Azza

    2011-03-01

    The urban environment is very complex to interpret on a high resolution radar image, partly because of the presence of many geometric effects due to the radar lateral illumination: the double-bounce scattering, the very strong dynamic between the edges of buildings and horizontal surfaces, the presence of urban canyons, the artefacts due to the imaging process, and so on. It is then very difficult to interpret and distinguish all the effects observed, but also to predict them (for example, see [1]). In this paper, we are particularly interested in understanding the propagation occurring in a urban canyon on PolInSAR data. A urban canyon is an artefact of a urban environment similar to a natural canyon, and can be defined as the free space located between two vertical walls. It is a simple scene to describe but provides a difficult multipath environment to understand. Its interpretation on a PolInSAR image is already sufficiently complex to be the subject of this paper. Our ultimate goal is to determine for which configurations a non line of sight (NLOS) target located within a urban canyon can be detected using multipath, and to find the best method of detection associated. In this context, polarimetry and interferometry are expected to be valuable tools to analyse and differentiate the different electromagnetic returns obtained on a urban canyon. We propose in this paper to use results of simulation and in a first step, we analyse the range profiles, without taking into account the Doppler integration effects. Therefore, for this preliminary study, we have developed a simple simulation tool that does not take into account electromagnetic effects due to diffraction, roughness, and antenna scattering pattern. Using this simple simulation tool,we will try to see if we are able to predict the number of multipath and to determine how sensitive it is to the radar configuration, namely the antenna height. Finally we will study to what extent polarimetric interferometry

  14. Take Me Out to the Ball Game: Science Outreach to Non-traditional Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsted, B. A.

    2010-08-01

    Science outreach often targets audiences that are already interested in science and are looking for related educational experiences for themselves or their families. The University of Wisconsin Geology Museum (UWGM) with funding from the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is targeting unique venues and thereby new audiences who may not typically seek out science outreach events. With this goal in mind, in June, 2009 the UWGM and NAI sponsored an "Astrobiology Night at the Ballpark" at the Madison Mallards Ballpark, the local Madison, Wisconsin minor league baseball venue. At the game, 6,250 attendees were exposed to current NASA-funded astrobiology research being conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Fans were greeted at the gate by volunteers passing out a nine-card pack of extremophile trading cards, each of which featured a different extremophile group (e.g. halophiles, cryophiles, and barophiles). Next, participants could interact with project scientists, graduate students and museum staff at four exploration stations, where each station highlighted astrobiology themes (i.e. extremophiles, banded iron formation, earth's oldest rocks, earth's oldest fossils). Before the game began, the video board on the field was used to broadcast short NASA videos about recent Mars missions as well as the search for life in space. Additionally, inning breaks were used as fun opportunities to engage fans through an "Alien vs. Kids" tug-of-war as well as the distribution of Frisbees with an astrobiology timeline printed on them. Engaging the broader public at a non-science venue is a means to breaking down perceived barriers between scientists and the general public. We found Mallards fans to be receptive and ready to connect with our science themes. Tapping into a new audience also builds a larger awareness of our museum and University, expanding our impact in the community.

  15. Narrative Writing in Digital Formats: Interpreting the Impact of Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Joshua Fahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital writing has enabled students to write for a variety of authentic audiences, both in and out of the classroom. As they consider audience, students shoulder a cognitive burden that they must juggle in addition to the task of composition. At the same time, writing provides students with opportunities to craft and express their identities. The ways that identity formation and cognitive load intersect may be particularly complex in digital, online writing environments, as students gain the ability to share and receive feedback from global and local audiences. In this counterbalanced experimental study, 86 seventh- and eighth-grade students responded to two narrative prompts. One prompt was written for the teacher and the other was written for the teacher and peers in an online forum. We examined student writing fluency, mechanical errors, academic word use, and setting. Students were found to be more likely to set narratives in private settings when writing for an audience that included peers. We discuss this finding from cognitive and sociocultural perspectives and how it might inform networked communication research.

  16. Audience expectations of media accountability in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Schönbach, K.

    2014-01-01

    Citizens in the Netherlands demand that news media are transparent and responsive to audiences. But above all, the population expects journalism to adopt a more professional manner of self-regulation in order to strengthen news quality. These are the main findings from a large-scale representative

  17. Audience Expectations of Media Accountability: More Professionalization of Journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Schönbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Citizens in the Netherlands demand that news media are transparent and responsive to audiences. But above all, these citizens expect journalism to adopt a more professional manner of self-regulation in order to strengthen news quality. These are the main findings from a large-scale representative

  18. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  19. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  20. Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes…

  1. PEMBUATAN APLIKASI AUDIENCE RESPONSE SYSTEM BERBASIS WEB DAN ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Leonardo Pisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience Response Systems are widely used in various events as a media to gather information, to collect data, and to know the opinions of the general public towards particular issues, topics, news. Audience Response System can also be used to find out the client or customer satisfaction to the quality of products or services. Unfortunately most of the audience response systems that exist today are in the form of a physical (or remote device which is severely limited in use. Along with the development of technology, almost all people have a smartphone to support their daily activities. The physical remote device called a clicker can be replaced with an application or program that can be installed on smartphones, while the polls are created through the website. In this research, the Audience response system was built using Node.js, PhoneGap platform, and the WebSocket Socket.IO as Javascript library to support bi-directional data communications. Based on testing result, this application can run properly all the functionalities that have been mentioned such as login to the system, create a poll, join a poll, and give a vote. The realiability of the system is 93%..

  2. Best Practices in Nutrition Education for Low-Income Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan; Auld, Garry; MacKinnon, Chloe; Ammerman, Alice; Hanula, Gail; Lohse, Barbara; Scott, Marci; Serrano, Elena; Tucker, Easter; Wardlaw, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) identified a need for a comprehensive set of best practices in nutrition education for low-income audiences for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) educational projects, including SNAP-Ed. A comprehensive list of best practices would promote consistency and efficacy in program planning,…

  3. Messages from within: Communicating with Internal Audiences Is Increasingly Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbage, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Many communications offices are so busy working on external communications that they tend to neglect their internal audiences. But the reality is that in higher education, communicating effectively with students, faculty, and staff is critical to achieving an institution's overall communications goals. Having realized that reaching internal…

  4. Researching the Film Audience: Purposes, Procedures, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Film audience research complements institutional research, verifying scholarship on the meanings films have to viewers and providing broad-based explanations of film images. Most important, such research focuses on the decision and motivation processes people use before they set foot in the movie theater, thereby helping to construct a context…

  5. Segmenting Broadcast News Audiences in the New Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the "benefit segmentation model," a marketing strategy for local news media which is capable of sorting consumers into discrete segments interested in similar salient product attributes or benefits. Concludes that benefit segmentation may provide a means by which news programmers may respond to their audience. (RS)

  6. Audience gaze while appreciating a multipart musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Satoshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members' gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers' gaze shifts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Elementary Students' Mathematical Explanations and Attention to Audience with Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning and constructing mathematical explanations for an audience have become increasingly important activities in elementary classrooms with the implementation of reform-oriented curriculum and standards. Mobile learning tools and applications, such as screencasts, allow students to generate multimedia presentations of their solution…

  8. An expressive virtual audience with flexible behavioral styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Riemsdijk, M.B. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, expressive virtual humans are used in psychological research, training, and psychotherapy. However, the behavior of these virtual humans is usually scripted and therefore cannot be modified freely at runtime. To address this, we created a virtual audience with parameterized behavioral sty

  9. Red Chamber Charm Classic Chinese romance wows New York audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nobody would expect an American audience to understand a dance performance that tries to interpret one of China’s most revered, classic and complicated works of literature. They might, however, have been amazed at the enthusiastic response of the crowd at the Rose Theater at New York City’s Lincoln Center

  10. New Scenarios for Audience Response Systems in University Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Daniel; Kopf, Stephan; Klinger, Melanie; Guthier, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices like smartphones and tablet PCs are widely used among university students and can be used for audience response systems (clicker systems) to improve teaching. Modern implementations of these systems are no longer limited to plain multiple-choice questions, but enable the lecturers to perform a variety of teaching scenarios. We…

  11. Absent Audiences: Youth Identity Formation in Preparations for Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the use of audiences in preparation for public presentation by an urban youth organization in Camden, New Jersey (U.S.). Camden is an impoverished city with few opportunities for youth. The organization, a hybrid of youth development, technology, business, and college preparation, prepared youth for good jobs or college.…

  12. Using Deep Learning Neural Networks To Find Best Performing Audience Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Badhe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding the appropriate mobile audience for mobile advertising is always challenging since there are many data points that need to be considered and assimilated before a target segment can be created and used in ad serving by any ad server. Deep learning neural networks have been used in machine learning to use multiple processing layers to interpret large datasets with multiple dimensions to come up with a high-level characterization of the data. During a request for an advertisement and subsequently serving of the advertisement on the mobile device there are many trackers that are fired collecting a lot of data points. If the user likes the advertisement and clicks on it another set of trackers give additional information resulting from the click. This information is aggregated by the ad server and shown in its reporting console. The same information can form the basis of machine learning by feeding this information to a deep learning neural network to come up with audiences that can be targeted based on the product that is advertised.

  13. Audience Analysis for "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel": A Pilot Study. Final Report Presented to United States Steel and the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. CDC Technical Report No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mark J.; And Others

    Prompted by the realization that a reference text presents special problems in audience address since there is typically a diverse set of users, a study was designed to provide preliminary data on the use of the reference text, "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel," a landmark book in the steel industry. Data on the use of the text were…

  14. Global Warming’s Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the first rules of effective communication is to “know thy audience.” People have different psychological, cultural and political reasons for acting - or not acting - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change educators can increase their impact by taking these differences into account. In this presentation we will describe six unique audience segments within the American public that each responds to the issue in its own distinct way, and we will discuss methods of engaging each. The six audiences were identified using a nationally representative survey of American adults conducted in the fall of 2008 (N=2,164). In two waves of online data collection, the public’s climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, values, policy preferences, conservation, and energy-efficiency behaviors were assessed. The data were subjected to latent class analysis, yielding six groups distinguishable on all the above dimensions. The Alarmed (18%) are fully convinced of the reality and seriousness of climate change and are already taking individual, consumer, and political action to address it. The Concerned (33%) - the largest of the Six Americas - are also convinced that global warming is happening and a serious problem, but have not yet engaged with the issue personally. Three other Americas - the Cautious (19%), the Disengaged (12%) and the Doubtful (11%) - represent different stages of understanding and acceptance of the problem, and none are actively involved. The final America - the Dismissive (7%) - are very sure it is not happening and are actively involved as opponents of a national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigating climate change will require a diversity of messages, messengers and methods that take into account these differences within the American public. The findings from this research can serve as guideposts for educators on the optimal choices for reaching and influencing target groups with varied informational needs

  15. Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2012-12-01

    Communicating effectively about climate change can be very frustrating because hostility to climate science is rooted in deeply held beliefs rather than facts. Opposition can be more effectively countered by respecting ideological objections than by aggressive insistence on acceptance of consensus evidence. When presented with a stark choice between sacred beliefs and factual evidence, social science research shows that nearly everyone will choose the latter. Rational argument from authority is often the weakest approach in such situations. Climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  16. Normative Aesthetics: The Ideal Audience and Art Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryono Basuki Ks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reader-Response Criticism proposes a new way of looking at literary text. One of the writers of this criticism discusses about 'literary competence' which entails the idea of 'ideal reader'. The writer proposes the idea of 'ideal audience' to work with fields of art other than literature. In an attempt to give the proper appreciation of art, norms are required, and norms in art can be arrived at using the concept of 'ideal audience'. It is a fact that norms are normally contextual, not universal, and change according to the change in the concept of art creation. Then the question is why take the trouble of forming norms if they keep changing?

  17. The Audiences in View of the Changes in Cyber Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Ignacio Armentia Vizuete

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper in Internet have suffered in the last years a series of changes, in the way towards the acquisition of some own characteristics differentiated with regard to the printed dailys. This evolution also has had his reflex in the audiences. Today Internet isn’t an elitist product and is available for the majority of the population. Nevertheless, the way of measuring the above mentioned audiences constitutes one of the hanging questions for the cybermedia, unlike what it happens in other three big informative supports: press, radio and television, where measurements of reference for each one of the supports exist. As it is exposed in this article, we have a great disparity between the data and methods of measurement of organisms and companies like EGM, OJD, Alexa and others, on the Internet. This text is based on a research about the evolution of the cyberjournalism in Spain financed by the University of the Basque Country.

  18. 超越平凡的DYNAUDIO AUDIENCE 52SE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2003-01-01

    @@ 许多年之后,当笔者见到Dynaudio Audience 52 SE音箱时,一定会想起当初迷上书架音箱时的那些日子.丹拿的Audience 5(听众5号)作为我购买的第一款丹拿产品,正是在经历了诸多选择后的一个明智的选择.这是丹拿最廉价的音箱,但它采用的高级单元却让我从此走上了高保真、低音染、大动态的"阳关道".

  19. Risk perception of festival audience: an application of psychometric paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ahi, Julide Ceren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...

  20. Gender and Sexual Diversity Issues in Physics: The Audience Speaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Nicole; Deconinck, Wouter; Falk, Michael L; Garmon, Savannah; Henry, Edward; Long, Elena

    2012-01-01

    An account is presented of the special session on "Gender and Sexual Diversity Issues in Physics" which took place at the American Physical Society March Meeting 2012. The opinions of those who attended this session were solicited via an anonymous survey, the results of which are reported here. Drawing both upon ideas put forward by the speakers and audience from the meeting, a set of recommended actions is proposed for the Physics community to become more inclusive of LGBT+ people.

  1. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience...

  2. Exploring social and cultural diversity within 'Black British Jazz' audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent study which explores the social, economic and cultural characteristics of audiences for performances by black British jazz musicians. It draws on Bourdieu’s theoretical concept of cultural capital, which links social class and educational qualification level to cultural consumption, as well as on Hall’s exploration of ‘new ethnicities’, demonstrating how the two theories are interrelated. The study uses a mixed method approach of observation, quest...

  3. Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Császi, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    In his paper "Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence" Lajos Császi argues that media violence is not a reification of social violence; rather, a popular ritual allowing contemporary societies to sublimate, to substitute, and to discuss aggression in the public sphere. Császi reviews the central questions of contemporary debates about television violence including Stuart Hall's thought on this topic and introduces the ideas of Elias, Geertz, Turner, Bettelhei...

  4. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  5. Mechanism of sound absorption by seated audience in halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, N; Hidaka, T; Beranek, L L

    2001-11-01

    Four methods are explored for predicting the reverberation times in fully occupied halls for music as related to the sound absorption by their audiences. The methods for providing audience absorptions include two that use reverberation chambers, namely, the ISO 354 method (and other similar standards) (ISO) and Kath and Kuhl's method (K & K) [Acustica 15, 127-131 (1965)], and two that use average data from halls, i.e., Beranek's method (COH) [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY, 1996)], and the average audience power-per-seat absorption which in practice is multiplied by the number of seats (AA). These methods are applied to the calculation of reverberation times in six existing halls, fully occupied, and the results were compared with actual measurements. The COH method was best for predictions over the entire frequency range. The K & K method showed the highest accuracy at mid-frequencies. Both the ISO and the K & K methods yielded wide differences for the measurements in the 125- and 250-Hz bands. The AA method was as good as the COH method when the measurements for the six halls were averaged, but showed a wide spread in the predictions around the average because it does not consider the degree of upholstering of the seats. It was hypothecated by the authors that the principal reasons for the ISO and K & K discrepancies at low frequencies were (a) differences between the degree of sound diffusion in actual halls and that in reverberation chambers, and (b) lack of information on the mechanisms of absorption of sound by people seated side-by-side in rows, particularly for near-grazing incidence sound fields. First, this article explores the sound diffusivity in a reverberation chamber and in the halls using CAD models. A probability density function of the incident angles of the sound rays that impinge on the audiences is defined and was measured for each case. Using a unique method, the sound absorption

  6. An Instructional Approach for Minimizing Stage Fright: Insights from Buss' Theory of Audience Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joseph

    Effective instructional approaches for dealing with stage fright can be developed by examining A. H. Buss's theory of audience anxiety. Buss argues that audience anxiety correlates with feelings of self-consciousness, characteristics of the audience, and the novelty of the speaking role. From his perspective, the experience of anxiety is divided…

  7. The missing link: audience frames in the process model of framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, A.S.; Vliegenthart, R.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The process model of framing effects proposes that media frames affect public opinion via audience frames. However, there is a lack of research examining these audience frames. In this investigation we define and subsequently develop an empirical measurement of audience frames, which is applied to t

  8. The Effects of Audience Interest, Responsiveness, and Evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety and Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Thivierge, Kimly A.; MacDonald, J. Renee

    1997-01-01

    Examines potential sources of public-speaking anxiety among undergraduate students stemming from the audience. Identifies three sources of anxiety: degree of formal evaluation, level of audience interest in the topic, and audience's responsiveness to the speaker. Measures willingness to speak and expected speech quality. Finds interest,…

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.20 - How does this part meet the needs of its audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the needs of its audience? 102-3.20 Section 102-3.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.20 How does this part meet the needs of its audience? This Federal Advisory Committee Management part meets the general and specific needs of its audience by addressing the following issues...

  10. Constitutive Rhetoric as an Aspect of Audience Design: The Public Texts of Canadian Suffragists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a way of using the theory of audience design--how speakers position different audience groups as main addressees, overhearers, or bystanders--for written discourse. It focuses on main addressees, that is, those audience members who are expected to participate in and respond to a speaker's utterances. The text samples are…

  11. Constitutive Rhetoric as an Aspect of Audience Design: The Public Texts of Canadian Suffragists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a way of using the theory of audience design--how speakers position different audience groups as main addressees, overhearers, or bystanders--for written discourse. It focuses on main addressees, that is, those audience members who are expected to participate in and respond to a speaker's utterances. The text samples are…

  12. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    development of the relevant teaching materials for the course have largely been completed, tailoring the course for targeted audiences becomes a relatively easy task, requiring less effort and providing more flexibility for both the lecturers and future participants. One-day or two-day courses with focus specifically on the U.S. transport security requirements can be delivered, at locations away from Argonne, by one or two principal lecturers to targeted audiences such as regulators, shippers, carriers, state and local law enforcement personnel, and emergency responders. This paper will highlight the lessons learned in hosting previous one-week courses and discuss the development of options for detailed and/or customized courses/workshops for targeted key audiences.

  13. Applying the principles of adult learning to the teaching of psychopharmacology: audience response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M; Davis, Richard L

    2009-08-01

    Medical presentations can be enhanced by systematically collecting audience feedback. This is readily accomplished with polling systems, called audience response systems. Several systems are now available that are small, inexpensive, and can be readily integrated into standard powerpoint presentations without the need for a technician. Use of audience response systems has several advantages. These include improving attentiveness, increasing learning, polling anonymously, tracking individual and group responses, gauging audience understanding, adding interactivity and fun, and evaluating both participant learning and instructor teaching. Tips for how to write questions for audience response systems are also included.

  14. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  15. The entry to Kolarac foundation: Cultural activity and music audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foundation of Ilija Milosavljević Kolarac (also known as Kolarac Foundation; in Serbian: Kolarčeva zadužbina was established simultaneously with the development of the most important modern cultural institutions in Serbia in the 19th century. The quality and diversity of the program, the ability to recognize important topics in the current time, as well as preservation of the old and encouragement of new ideas in almost all domains of art and science have contributed to its unquestionable reputation throughout the region. However, there have been no significant academic attempts to approach its work analytically and, in particular, its audience. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the work of Kolarac Foundation by presenting the origin and history of the institution, followed by an analysis of the program of all its activities in the first ten seasons of the new millennium. The central part of the paper is an analysis of its cultural activity in the given period. Finally, by using empirical data, the music audence of Great Hall (Velika Dvorana of Kolarac Foundation is profiled through its basic socio-demographic characteristics and music practices. The music audience mainly consisted of women, highly educated professionals with a high material standard. The share of the oldest and those from 21 to 30 years old is the highest and, at the same time, equal. This audience is authentically fond of music, with no exceptions at all. Its members listen to music on everyday basis, and they were attending concerts in the year before the investigation. They find music to be an inevitable part of their lives, and cannot imagine emotional expression or making friendships without it. Finally, they sincerely like coming to Kolarac Foundation since they find it to be a place that has all the positive treats of a good cultural institution.

  16. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  17. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo evaluation of liposomal nanoparticles for passive and active tumour targeting by scintigraphic and MRI imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Bianchi [Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Molecular Imaging Center, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Eirini, Fragogeorgi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens (Greece); NCSR Democritos, Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Eleni, Efthymiadou [NCSR Democritos, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Athens (Greece); Stavros, Xanthopoulos [NCSR Democritos, Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Dimitrios, Psimadas [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens (Greece); Penelope, Bouzioti [NCSR Democritos, Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); George, Kordas [NCSR Democritos, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Athens (Greece); George, Loudos [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens (Greece); Aime, Silvio [Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Molecular Imaging Center, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-07-29

    Liposomes belong to the most desirable drug delivery systems that enable their application in MRI and SPECT by incorporating lipids chelated to MR contrast agents as well as to radioactive tracers. Here we report our observation on a novel αvβ3- targeting liposome formulation (RGD-LP) and on the corresponding non-targeting control (NT-LP) for diagnosis and molecular imaging of tumor by exploiting SPECT/MRI technology.

  18. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...... target groups were families with children age 6–12 years and school classes with students from 4th to 6th grade. The main purpose of the study was to understand the methodological potential and challenges mobile eye tracking comprises during the different stages of research on informal e......-learning in a science centre context utilising digital platforms to enhance informal learning and interaction. The paper presents how eye-tracking methods influence research on: 1) an interventional level: what role eye tracking and eye-tracking equipment plays in interventions; 2) a data level: what new types of data...

  19. MAIN FEATURES OF VIDEO MEDIA FOR PRESCHOOL AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia GROMOVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of television on pre-school audience, namely on children from 0 to 6 years in the article. The author carefully analyzed the features of psychological and physical evolution of infantile (early age group (0-3 years and preschool children (3-6 ac-cording to which telecast must be created. The author analyzed program schedules of Russian TV channels with the aim to identify the availability of TV programs relevant to each preschool age group.

  20. Teaching Students how to Analyze and Adapt to Audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, R. H.

    2007-01-01

    Not long ago, one of the author's students told him, “I won't be able to make it to your class today. I have to study for a test in another course. Will I miss anything important?” The author, of course, had heard this excuse before, as many of us probably have. What made this interaction more amusing was what, by coincidence, the student was going to miss that day: a discussion on analyzing and adapting to audiences. Had she attended the class, we wonder if she would understand the negative ...

  1. From everyday communicative figurations to rigorous audience news repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an unprecedented explosion of news media platforms and formats, as a succession of digital and social media have joined the ranks of legacy media. We live in a ‘hybrid media system’ (Chadwick, 2013), in which people build their cross-media news reperto...... of six audience news repertoires in Denmark, also preserves the qualitative thickness of the participants’ verbal accounts of the communicative figurations of their day-in-the-life with the news media...

  2. [Audience response-systems enhance the learning environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Vad; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-11-14

    The purpose of this article was to describe the possibilities gained by using an electronic voting system (EVS), the existing evidence to determine whether an EVS affects learning proceeds, challenges in EVS and perspectives for EVS in Danish medical training. Audience Response-Systems (ARS) seem suited to enhance participants' activity and attention. The technology as such holds the potential to enhance learning outcome, but changes in the pedagogical method are needed. More studies examining the use of new wireless, mobile voting systems are required.

  3. Research of Public Opinion: The First Step For Building Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Rhoden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article show how the Research of Public Opinion itself presents required for building audiences in potential. It details, to begin with, the delimitation of public opinion concept, articulating it over the social aspects from society over the so called mediatization. After that, it’s presented and analyzed the development, application, description and analyses process’ of data obtained trough opinion research, due to the achievement from Unipampa Fm, an academic radio program, at São Borja-RS. It’s identified that the Public Opinion Research is an important assistance and source for implementation and practice of communication.

  4. Theater Activities for Jung Opera Audience: An Educational Urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Maule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Numerous studies have led researchers to conclude that the socio-demographic profile of the public of classical music appears to be quite generalizable. However, the survey of the opera public, a classical music subgenre that is often associated with theater performances, appears to be much more difficult to quantify and has not yet been the subject of specific investigations (1. The drastic decrease in audience attendance, especially among young people, has led to a radical change in the management of all the opera houses in Europe (2. The research here presented has explored, through a representative sample of twenty-four Theatres in twelve different European countries, all practitioners of Opera Education, the complex interaction of personal, social and cultural factors that have led the theatres to interact with the educational system and the school curricula (3. A research on the different methods applied for teaching Opera to young people has led to attention being given especially to what is now called “Dramatic Interpretation of Music Theatre”, a method developed within Germany but now accepted by the majority of Opera Houses in Northern Europe (4. Approach: The research on educational projects for young people was made through the analysis of the web-sites of 24 theatres: 12 of these were members of Reseo, the network of partners involved in opera education that was proposed and promoted by the European Community in 1999; 12 other theatres, although belonging to other such networks were not members of Reseo. Results: (1 Opera seems to attract a rather limited public that occupies, in terms of number, the last places in the classification; the amount of people who listen to classical music is double that of those who listen to opera. (2. Educating the audience and, therefore, organizing also didactic projects for young people, has become for theaters a means to ensure their future survival. (3. The European Opera

  5. Opening New Doors: Hands-On Participation Brings a New Audience to the Clay Studio. Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Bob; Heywood, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines how The Clay Studio, a ceramic-arts studio, gallery and shop in Philadelphia, attracted younger audiences to its workshops and exhibits. In 2007, the studio became concerned that its audience was getting older and few newcomers were signing up for classes or making purchases. The studio had to engage younger professionals…

  6. Social facilitation of cognition in rhesus monkeys: audience vs. coaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie J. Reynaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect, or a passive spectator (audience effect changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone versus in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however 4 times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  7. Social Facilitation of Cognition in Rhesus Monkeys: Audience Vs. Coaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Amélie J; Guedj, Carole; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine; Monfardini, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

  8. Captivating Broad Audiences with an Internet-connected Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Elliott, L.; Gervais, F.; Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Pirenne, B.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, a network of Ocean Networks Canada and the first deep water cabled ocean observatory, began operations in December 2009. Located offshore Canada's west coast, the network streams data from passive, active, and interactive sensors positioned at five nodes along its 800 km long looped cable to the Internet. This technically advanced system includes a sophisticated data management and archiving system, which enables the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data, including video, at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Scientists in Canada and around the world comprise the primary audience for these data, but NEPTUNE Canada is also serving these data to broader audiences including K-16 students and teachers, informal educators, citizen scientists, the press, and the public. Here we present our engagement tools, approaches, and experiences including electronic books, personal phone apps, Internet-served video, social media, mini-observatory systems, print media, live broadcasting from sea, and a citizen scientist portal.NEPTUNE Canada's ibook available on Apple's iBook store.

  9. MEDIA AND THE AUDIENCE-DRIVEN DISSEMINATION OF NOTHINGNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra MARINESCU-NENCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the present paper tries to figure out the premises for the nowadays twisted relationship existing between mass media and audience in times when the televisual message gets continuously adapted in order to fit the needs of a chameleonic globalized audience that contradicts the growing ratings by declaring its discontent regarding the received mediated information. Therefore, the article tries to explain why people keep watching TV and prioritize exactly the media providers that offer them the least of what they supposedly look for. On the other hand, the study intends to shed a new light over the twists that take place in the mass media realm itself. If until recently the media have been known as the best providers of instrumental information that helped the public control the surrounding environment, the lately growing interest in general information may conduct to a change of paradigm in the self-attributed functions of both new and old mass communication media.

  10. Tips for using mobile audience response systems in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gousseau M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Gousseau, Connor Sommerfeld, Adrian Gooi Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada Background: With growing evidence on the benefits of active learning, audience response systems (ARSs have been increasingly used in conferences, business, and education. With the introduction of mobile ARS as an alternative to physical clickers, there are increasing opportunities to use this tool to improve interactivity in medical education. Aim: The aim of this study is to provide strategies on using mobile ARS in medical education by discussing steps for implementation and pitfalls to avoid. Method: The tips presented reflect our commentary of the literature and our experiences using mobile ARS in medical education. Results: This article offers specific strategies for the preparation, implementation, and assessment of medical education teaching sessions using mobile ARS. Conclusion: We hope these tips will help instructors use mobile ARS as a tool to improve student interaction, teaching effectiveness, and participant enjoyment in medical education. Keywords: mobile audience response systems, active learning, medical education, ARS

  11. Media Text and Audiences: Discursive Constructions of Fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Popović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research findings obtained from a research project investigating media audiences and their reception of a cult-television (Cult TV text, namely Da Ali G Show. The audience research comprises 18 semi-structured interviews conducted in London (the United Kingdom and in Zagreb (Croatia aimed at establishing how fandom is discursively constructed. The analysis of the interpretive community in two distinct socio-cultural contexts showed that there were more similarities than differences overall. The practices engaged in by the interviewees mostly involved making a conscious effort to regularly watch the primary text as well as to show an interest in the future work of the author. The research showed that interviewees typically engaged in a type of ‘moderate’ fandom, whilst strong emotional attachments were seen as negative, as was intrusiveness into people’s privacy. This indicates a split between the signifier and the signified: the term ‘fan’ was readily adopted by interviewees in describing their relationship to the text; however, the meaning was negotiated and carefully constructed so as to disassociate oneself from the extreme, passionate, irrational connotation that the etymology of the term carries.

  12. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  13. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference.

  14. Physical activity in the mass media: an audience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity's role in promoting health is highlighted in public health campaigns, news and current affairs, reality television and other programs. An investigation of audience exposure, beliefs and reactions to media portrayals of physical activity offers insights into the salience and influence of this communication. An audience reception study was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 46 adults in New South Wales, Australia. The sample was stratified by gender, age group, area of residence and body mass index. Most respondents could only recall media coverage of physical activity with prompting. Television was the primary channel of exposure, with reality television the dominant source, followed by news programs and sports coverage. The messages most readily recalled were the health risks of inactivity, especially obesity, and the necessity of keeping active. Physical activity was regarded as a matter of personal volition, or for children, parental responsibility. Respondents believed that the media had given physical activity inadequate attention, focused too heavily on risks and not provided practical advice. In Australia, there is a need to counter the framing of physical activity by reality television, and engage the media to generate understanding of the socioecological determinants of inactivity. Physical activity campaigns should deliver positive and practical messages.

  15. MEDIA AND THE AUDIENCE-DRIVEN DISSEMINATION OF NOTHINGNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra MARINESCU-NENCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, the present paper tries to figure out the premises for the nowadays twisted relationship existing between mass media and audience in times when the televisual message gets continuously adapted in order to fit the needs of a chameleonic globalized audience that contradicts the growing ratings by declaring its discontent regarding the received mediated information. Therefore, the article tries to explain why people keep watching TV and prioritize exactly the media providers that offer them the least of what they supposedly look for. On the other hand, the study intends to shed a new light over the twists that take place in the mass media realm itself. If until recently the media have been known as the best providers of instrumental information that helped the public control the surrounding environment, the lately growing interest in general information may conduct to a change of paradigm in the self-attributed functions of both new and old mass communication media.

  16. Engaging the audience: developing presentation skills in science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ann E

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a graduate class in presentation skills ("PClass") as a model for how a class with similar objectives, expectations and culture might be mounted for undergraduates. The required class is given for students in neuroscience and physiology programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; I describe the class in the years I led it, from 2003-2012. The class structure centered on peer rehearsal, critiquing of PowerPoint, and chalk talks by the students; video-recording of student talks for later review by the student with the instructor; and presentation of polished talks in a formal setting. A different faculty visitor to the class each week gave the students a variety of perspectives. The students also gained insight into their own evolving skills by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of seminars given by visitors to the campus. A unique feature of the class was collaboration with a professional actor from the University's Department of Dramatic Arts, who helped the students develop techniques for keeping the attention of an audience, for speaking with confidence, and for controlling nervousness. The undergraduate campus would be expected to lend itself to this sort of interdisciplinary faculty cooperation. In addition, students worked on becoming adept at designing and presenting posters, introducing speakers graciously and taking charge of the speaker's question session, and speaking to a lay audience.

  17. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kniel

    Full Text Available Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis, domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird. Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  18. Sex-Specific Audience Effect in the Context of Mate Choice in Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Nina; Bender, Stefanie; Witte, Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Animals observing conspecifics during mate choice can gain additional information about potential mates. However, the presence of an observer, if detected by the observed individuals, can influence the nature of the behavior of the observed individuals, called audience effect. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis), domesticated males show an audience effect during mate choice. However, whether male and female descendants of the wild form show an audience effect during mate choice is unknown. Therefore, we conducted an experiment where male and female focal birds could choose between two distinctive phenotypes of the opposite sex, an artificially adorned stimulus bird with a red feather on the forehead and an unadorned stimulus bird, two times consecutively, once without an audience and once with an audience bird (same sex as test bird). Males showed an audience effect when an audience male was present and spent more time with adorned and less time with unadorned females compared to when there was no audience present. The change in time spent with the respective stimulus females was positively correlated with the time that the audience male spent in front of its cage close to the focal male. Females showed no change in mate choice when an audience female was present, but their motivation to associate with both stimulus males decreased. In a control for mate-choice consistency there was no audience in either test. Here, both focal females and focal males chose consistently without a change in choosing motivation. Our results showed that there is an audience effect on mate choice in zebra finches and that the response to a same-sex audience was sex-specific.

  19. Implications for Language Diversity in Instruction in the Context of Target Language Classrooms: Development of a Preliminary Model of the Effectiveness of Teacher Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the conceptual and pedagogical issues that revolve around target language (TL) only instruction and teacher code-switching in the context of TL classrooms. To this end, I first examine four intertwined ideas (that is, monolingualism, naturalism, native-speakerism, and absolutism) that run through the monolingual approach to TL…

  20. Audience in the Service of Learning: How Kids Negotiate Attention in an Online Community of Interactive Media Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Audience can serve as powerful motivation in learning--and network technologies have the potential to greatly broaden audience for the processes and products of learning. But these new opportunities for audience are accompanied by new challenges. In this paper, we examine and problematize the notion and role of audience in learning by presenting a…

  1. Sun-Earth Connection EPO's with Multiple Uses and Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Russell, R.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.; Kiessling, D.; Hughes, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    The three-year life of an EPO grant can be a journey guided by clear goals and enriched by collaborative and outreach opportunities connecting Space sciences to Earth sciences for both K-12 and public audiences. This point is illustrated by two EPO projects funded by NASA Sun-Earth Connection research grants to the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. They are entering their final year coordinated by the Office of Education and Outreach at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The content focus of both projects is well aligned with HAO's research mission and the expertise of our scientists, addressing solar dynamics, space weather, and the impacts of solar events on the magnetosphere, as well as societies inhabiting Earth's surface. The first project (Gang Lu, PI) develops presentation resources, inquiry activities, and tips that will help HAO scientists be better prepared to visit K-12 classrooms. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous development of a Teachers' Guide to NCAR's new Climate Discovery exhibit, which takes an Earth system approach to climate and global change, has created a niche for this EPO resource to be revised and repurposed for a needed unit in the guide about the exhibit's graphic panels on Sun-Earth connections. The second project (Art Richmond, PI) engages two high school "Teachers in Residence" to develop resources they can utilize with their students. Excited by exceptional educational graphics and animations in the new Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems module co-produced by HAO and the COMET Program for advanced undergraduate courses, they chose to adapt appropriate sections of the module to enrich Earth science and math concepts addressed in their 9th and 10th grade astronomy and general physics classes. Simultaneously, the Windows to the Universe web site, which continuously updates space science content and is now developing a new Space Weather section with support from the Center for

  2. Audience Accommodation in Terms of Audience's Wants in English Writings%英语写作中需求方面的读者顺应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌奇

    2012-01-01

    写作是作者与读者的一种交流,读者在写作过程中占据极其重要的地位。写作中需求层面的读者顺应是指作者从读者入手,正确判断读者的阅读需求,通过语域方面的顺应、得体定位、价值凸显,以促进读者对话语的认同。达到有效交际的目的。%Written text is a way of communication with audience,so audience plays an im- portant role in writing. Audience accommodation in terms of audience' s want in English writ- ings means that the writer, starting from audience,rightly estimating his audience' s wants, pres- ents his ideas by ways of genre analysis, value-bursting and propriety in settings that can best facilitate his audience's identification, by which an effective communication can be achieved.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Short Range Recovery (SRR) Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) System Small Target Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    FOV) Geometry ........ ............. 1-10 2-1 Data Grouping for CDP Calculations ......... ............ 2-8 2-2 CDP Versus Range for FLIR Searching...in the percent of ta’gets detected, but had no statistically significant effect on detection ranges. For CDP curve calculations and aialysis of the...life raft targets should be selec- ted on the basis of factors such as creq safety ;her than FLiR effectiveness, with 1000 feet slightly preferred

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal targets using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc: Feasibility and clinical preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Bignardi, Mario; Alongi, Filippo; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Castiglioni, Simona; Pentimalli, Sara; Tozzi, Angelo (IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Italy)), e-mail: pietro.mancosu@humanitas.it; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca (Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland))

    2011-05-15

    Purpose. To report early clinical experience in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) in patients with primary or metastatic tumours at abdominal sites. Material and methods. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were treated using RA. Of these, 16 had primary or metastatic liver tumours, nine had pancreatic cancer and 12 a nodal metastasis in the retro-peritoneum. Dose prescription varied from 45 to 75 Gy to the Clinical Target Volume in 3 to 6 fractions. The median follow-up was 12 months (6-22). Early local control and toxicity were investigated and reported. Results. Planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk were met in most cases. Delivery time ranged from 2.8 +- 0.3 to 9.2 +- 2.4 minutes and pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index from 95.3 +- 3.8 to 98.3 +- 1.7%. At the time of analysis, local control (freedom from progression) at six months, was assessable in 24 of 37 patients and was achieved in 19 patients with a crude rate of 79.2%. Seven patients experienced treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced a mild and transient G1 enteritis and two showed a transient G1 liver damage. Two had late toxicity: one developed chronic enteritis causing G1 diarrhoea and G1 abdominal pain and one suffered at three months a G3 gastric bleeding. No patients experienced G4 acute toxicity. Conclusions. SBRT for abdominal targets delivered by means of RA resulted to be feasible with good early clinical results in terms of local control rate and acute toxicity profile. RA allowed to achieve required target coverage as well as to keep within normal tissue dose/volume constraints

  5. Framing political messages to fit the audience's regulatory orientation: how to improve the efficacy of the same message content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mannetti

    Full Text Available This research investigates how the impact of persuasive messages in the political domain can be improved when fit is created by subliminally priming recipients' regulatory focus (either promotion or prevention and by linguistic framing of the message (either strategic approach framing or strategic avoidance framing. Results of two studies show that regulatory fit: a increases the impact of a political message favoring nuclear energy on implicit attitudes of the target audience (Study 1; and b induces a more positive evaluation of, and intentions to vote for, the political candidate who is delivering a message concerning immigration policies (Study 2.

  6. Framing political messages to fit the audience's regulatory orientation: how to improve the efficacy of the same message content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannetti, Lucia; Brizi, Ambra; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Higgins, E Tory

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how the impact of persuasive messages in the political domain can be improved when fit is created by subliminally priming recipients' regulatory focus (either promotion or prevention) and by linguistic framing of the message (either strategic approach framing or strategic avoidance framing). Results of two studies show that regulatory fit: a) increases the impact of a political message favoring nuclear energy on implicit attitudes of the target audience (Study 1); and b) induces a more positive evaluation of, and intentions to vote for, the political candidate who is delivering a message concerning immigration policies (Study 2).

  7. [Compensatory self-enhancement as a strategy for the multiple audience problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Yuu; Daibo, Ikuo

    2010-04-01

    This study examined how people can handle the multiple audience problem of self-presentation (Fleming, 1994), when faced with two or more audiences while simultaneously wanting each audience to form or maintain a different impression of the presenter. In the laboratory, female participants had a brief conversation with either an opposite-sex (male) or a same-sex (female) confederate. The results showed that when no one else observed the conversation, the participants presented themselves as physically attractive to the opposite-sex more than to the same-sex audience. On the other hand, when another same-sex individual was observing the conversation, the participants presented themselves to the opposite-sex audience as less physically attractive but more socially desirable and friendly. The importance of this compensatory self-enhancement strategy in the multiple-audience situation is discussed.

  8. The Audience Wheel as a Technic to Create Transformative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helth, Poula

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to document how a new learning technic may create transformative learning in leadership in an organisational practice. Design/methodology/approach: The learning methods developed in the learning in practice (LIP) project include aesthetic performances...... combined with reflections. The intention has been to explore how leadership may be transformed, when leaders work as a collective of leaders. The learning methods developed and tested in the LIP project are art-informed learning methods, concepts of liminality and reflection processes carried out...... in the leaders’ organisational practice. Findings: One of the most important findings in the LIP project in relation to transformative learning is a new learning technique based on guided processes rooted in aesthetic performance combined with reflections and separation of roles as performer and audience...

  9. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  10. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  11. Design as co-evolution of problem, solution, and audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg; Galle, Per

    2014-01-01

    The meaning of ‘design’ can be captured in a general way by a good definition, but even the best definition cannot provide an understanding sufficiently deep to guide the professional designer or the student of design in the intricate deliberations of doing design in practice. Therefore we explore...... design beyond the level of definitions, reviewing canonical theories about design as a professional enterprise. We find that the well-established theoretical notion of ‘co-evolution’ of problem and solution in design has its merits in regard to understanding design deliberations; but also that existing...... conceptual resources for conceiving of design in terms of such triple co-evolution. For example, many design products may be thought of as offering an audience a ‘subject position’ that hint at whom they should become. In support of the case we make for thinking in terms of constitutive rhetoric in design...

  12. Using Creative Visual Research Methods to Understand Media Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gauntlett

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces an emerging area of qualitative media «audience» research, in which individuals are asked to produce media or visual material themselves, as a way of exploring their relationship with particular issues or dimensions of media. The process of making a creative visual artefact – as well as the artefact itself (which may be, for example, a video, drawing, collage, or imagined magazine cover – offers a reflective entry-point into an exploration of individuals» relationships with media culture. This article sets out some of the origins, rationale and philosophy underlying this methodological approach; briefly discusses two example studies (one in which children made videos to consider their relationship with the environment, and one in which young people drew pictures of celebrities as part of an examination of their aspirations and identifications with stars; and finally considers some emerging issues for further development of this method.

  13. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  14. Focusing the EarthScope for a Broader Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research is often the translation of a technical result into a clear "teachable moment" that is accessible (and interesting!) to a broader audience. The success of this milestone can largely be measured by its effectiveness to inspire interest and enthusiasm in the non-scientist. Moreover, as 4D multimedia now dominates most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. In response to these needs, a primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), a major focus of this EarthScope CAREER project is aimed at the construction and installation of customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. An additional focus of this CAREER project is aimed at the development of several Earthquakes in Action teaching modules for grades 6-12, which have been successfully tested and implemented in both teacher-prep courses and an annual high school summer geosciences camp at the University of Texas at El Paso. These activities are beginning to shape a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  15. Development of audience design in children with and without ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined 2 hypotheses concerning the development of audience design by contrasting children with and without autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in referential communication. The 2-stage hypothesis predicts that the ability to use contrastive size adjectives for ambiguity avoidance develops separately from and faster than the ability to avoid perspective-inappropriate descriptions for their addressee. The single-stage hypothesis assumes that both abilities reflect speakers' perspective-taking, and they should develop in tandem with each other. Experiment 1 found that 6- to 10-year-olds with and without ASD produced disambiguating size adjectives ("small door") equally often when the size-contrasting competitor (large door) was in the visual context shared with their addressee. When the competitor was hidden from their addressee, that is, it was part of children's privileged context, children with ASD produced more perspective-inappropriate size adjectives than those without ASD, providing support for the 2-stage model. Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results with 11- to 16-year-old adolescents. Compared with adults, 6- to 10-year-olds without ASD produced more perspective-inappropriate size adjectives in the privileged context, while producing fewer disambiguating size adjectives in the shared context, demonstrating more "egocentric" behaviors than adults. Importantly, whereas 11- to 16-year-olds without ASD produced disambiguating adjectives nearly as often as adults in the shared context, they produced perspective-inappropriate adjectives more than adults in the privileged context. This indicated that even in non-ASD, the ability to avoid perspective-inappropriate descriptions develops more slowly than the ability to avoid ambiguous descriptions, delaying the onset of adult-like audience design, consistent with the 2-stage hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The Dimensions of Performance Space – A Brief Anatomy of Space for a Moving Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis work aims to identify in what ways the performance space can influence audience behaviour. The text concerns performances where the audience and the actors share the same space and where the audience is free to move in the performance space. Apart from the physical features of space, the social and temporal aspects of space are also considered in the text. The main question of the text is: how does the performance space influence the choices the spectators make when t...

  17. Modelling In-Store Consumer Behaviour Using Machine Learning and Digital Signage Audience Measurement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ravnik, Robert; Solina, Franc; Žabkar, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Audience adaptive digital signage is a new emerging tech- nology, where public broadcasting displays adapt their content to the audience demographic and temporal features. The collected audience measurement data can be used as a unique basis for statistical analysis of viewing patterns, interactive display applications and also for further research and observer modelling. Here, we use machine learning methods on real-world digital signage viewership data to predict consumer behav- iour in a r...

  18. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  19. Participatory Agricultural Extension from the Prospective of Audience-centered Communication Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Transformation process to Audience-centered Communication Theory is introduced,as well as the basic idea of the theory in China.It is believed that using Audience-centered Communication theory can help to consolidate the theoretical basis of participatory agricultural extension.The communication essence of agricultural extension activity is studied,which is spreaders send information to farmers;then,farmers filter and process the information,transform it into their own experiences and feed back on time.Internal logical relationship between audience-centered communication and participatory agricultural extension is studied.Effects of Audience-centered Communication Theory on participatory agricultural extension are analyzed.One is that the Audience-centered Communication Theory defines the guidance and implementation basis of agricultural extension activities;the other is that bringing Audience-centered Communication Theory into agricultural extension research can help to expend the agricultural extension.Several enlightenments of the theory to participatory agricultural extension are obtained.Firstly,take audience as the orientation and focus on the needs of the audience.Secondly,advocate the participatory approach of process;and emphasize the importance of internal audience participation.Thirdly,establish two-way interaction mechanism;and make the promoters understand the implementation and performance status on time.Fourthly,develop vernacular knowledge;and better integrate the innovation and practice.

  20. Effects of a supportive or an unsupportive audience on biological and psychological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Kozanian, Tamar A; Moore, Amy N; Moons, Wesley G

    2010-01-01

    Although social support is related to substantial benefits for health and well-being, research has uncovered qualifications to its benefits. In a test of the psychological and biological impact of an audience on responses to laboratory stress challenges, 183 participants going through the Trier Social Stress Test experienced either (a) an unsupportive audience, (b) a supportive audience, or (c) no audience. Both audience conditions produced significantly stronger cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the stress tasks, relative to the no-audience control, even though the supportive audience was rated as supportive. Contrary to hypotheses offered by several theories, these effects were not moderated by self-esteem, individual differences in psychological resources, or baseline social support. Psychological resources and baseline social support were, however, tied to more beneficial biological and psychological profiles at baseline and at recovery in some cases. It was concluded that when one must perform stressful tasks in front of an audience, evaluative concerns may outweigh the potential benefits of a supportive audience.

  1. Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Early evaluation of response to targeted therapy and prognostic value of Perfusion CT and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Ultrasound. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampas, Eric, E-mail: eric.frampas@chu-nantes.fr [Central Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Hôtel-Dieu, 1 Place Alexis Ricordeau, 44093 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Lassau, Nathalie, E-mail: Nathalie.LASSAU@igr.fr [IR4M UMR 8081, Université Paris Sud 11, Institut Gustave Roussy, 114 Av. Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Zappa, Magaly, E-mail: magaly.zappa@bjn.aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, APHP Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Beaujon, 100 Bd du général Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Vullierme, Marie-Pierre, E-mail: marie-pierre.vullierme@bjn.aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, APHP Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Beaujon, 100 Bd du général Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Koscielny, Serge, E-mail: serge.koscielny@igr.fr [Department of Biostatistics, Institut Gustave Roussy, 114 Av. Edouard Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Vilgrain, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.vilgrain@bjn.aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, APHP Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Beaujon, 100 Bd du général Leclerc, 92110 Clichy (France); Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM CRB3 U773, 75018 Paris (France)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether there is any correlation between standard endpoints and tumor perfusion measurements with Perfusion CT and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (DCE-US) in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treated with targeted therapy. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated during targeted therapy (sorafenib n = 16, sunitinib n = 3). Changes in tumor perfusion measurements between baseline and month 1 were assessed and compared using RECIST progression criteria at month 2. Results: Median time to progression according to RECIST was 117 days and median time to death was 208 days. Perfusion CT values before treatment were significantly increased in HCC compared to the surrounding liver (n = 17, P < .02). Eleven patients received complete examinations with both techniques at baseline and month 1. A non-significant decrease was found in all Perfusion CT values between RECIST nonprogressors (n = 7) and progressors (n = 4): mean Blood Volume: −27.9 vs. −11.1% and mean Blood Flow: −25.0 vs. −11.7% respectively. With DCE-US, opposite changes were found (mean Area Under the Curve AUC: −38.3 vs. 436.3%). RECIST progression at month 2 was significantly correlated with a threshold 40% decrease in AUC (P = .015). None of the patients with a decrease in AUC ≥ 40% was a progressor at month 2. Conclusion: Despite perfusion changes with both Perfusion CT and DCE-US in patients receiving treatment, only DCE-US at month 1 (with a decrease in the AUC of more than 40%) predicted non-progression at month 2 and may be a potential surrogate marker of tumor response during targeted therapy.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis on the homing endonuclease I-Dmo-I in complex with its target DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Pilar [Macromolecular Crystallography Group, Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish National Cancer Centre (CNIO), c/Melchor Fdez. Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, Jesús; Ramos, Elena; Blanco, Francisco J. [NMR Group, Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish National Cancer Centre (CNIO), c/Melchor Fdez. Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: gmontoya@cnio.es [Macromolecular Crystallography Group, Structural Biology and Biocomputing Programme, Spanish National Cancer Centre (CNIO), c/Melchor Fdez. Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-12-01

    I-Dmo-I is a well characterized homing endonuclease from the archaeon Desulfurococcus mobilis. The enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments of I-Dmo-I in complex with its DNA target in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. Homing endonucleases are highly specific DNA-cleaving enzymes that recognize long stretches of base pairs. The availability of these enzymes has opened novel perspectives for genome engineering in a wide range of fields, including gene therapy, by taking advantage of the homologous gene-targeting enhancement induced by a double-strand break. I-Dmo-I is a well characterized homing endonuclease from the archaeon Desulfurococcus mobilis. The enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments of I-Dmo-I in complex with its DNA target in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.75, b = 70.18, c = 106.85 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 119.93°. The self-rotation function and the Matthews coefficient suggested the presence of three protein–DNA complexes per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.6 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)

  3. Diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility and preliminary tests on laser interaction with light-atom clusters and p+{sup 11}B targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.consoli@enea.it [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Cristofari, Giuseppe; Di Giorgio, Giorgio [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bonasera, Aldo [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Barbui, Marina [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Mazzocco, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Barbarino, Matteo [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Kimura, Sachie [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    The diagnostics of particle flows in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments is a delicate issue, due to the fast timescales and to the strong radiative electromagnetic contributions. This makes the discrimination of the different particles produced by the laser–plasma interaction not trivial, and requires the use of several diagnostic techniques. We describe here the diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility. They will provide more detailed analysis of microwave fields and particles originating from the interaction of laser with targets foreseen for future experiments.

  4. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo assessment of a new targeted inhibitor for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wenbo Li,1,* Lijie Dong,1,* Minwang Ma,2,* Bojie Hu,1 Zhenyu Lu,3 Xun Liu,1 Juping Liu,1 Xiaorong Li1 1Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces (CapF, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Tianjin Precision Cell Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV in age-related macular degeneration usually causes blindness. We established a novel targeted inhibitor for CNV in age-related macular degeneration. The inhibitor CR2-sFlt 1 comprises a CR2-targeting fragment and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF domain (sFlt 1. The targeting of CR2-sFlt 1 was studied using the transwell assay in vitro and frozen sections in vivo using green fluorescent labeling. Trans­well assay results showed that CR2-sFlt 1 migrated to the interface of complement activation products and was present in the retinal tissue of the CR2-sFlt 1-treated CNV mice. Treatment effects were assessed by investigating the VEGF concentration in retinal pigmented epithelial cell medium and the thickness of the CNV complex in the mice treated with CR2-sFlt 1. CR2-sFlt 1 significantly reduced the VEGF secretion from retinal pigmented epithelial cells in vitro and retarded CNV progress in a mouse model. Expression analysis of VEGF and VEGFRs after CR2-sFlt 1 intervention indicated the existence of feedback mechanisms in exogenous CR2-sFlt 1, endogenous VEGF, and VEGFR interaction. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that using CR2-sFlt 1 could inhibit CNV with clear targeting and high selectivity. Keywords: choroidal neovascularization, macular degeneration, complement activation, vascular endothelial growth factor

  5. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Ets transcription factor in complex with target DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Teruya; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Kai, Hirofumi; Yamagata, Yuriko, E-mail: yamagata@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862-0973 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The complex between the Ets domain of Ets2 and its target DNA has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. The Ets2 transcription factor is a member of the Ets transcription-factor family. Ets2 plays a role in the malignancy of cancer and in Down’s syndrome by regulating the transcription of various genes. The DNA-binding domain of Ets2 (Ets domain; ETSD), which contains residues that are highly conserved among Ets transcription-factor family members, was expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The aggregation of ETSD produced after thrombin cleavage could be prevented by treatment with NDSB-195 (nondetergent sulfobetaine 195). ETSD was crystallized in complex with DNA containing the Ets2 target sequence (GGAA) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystals were grown using 25% PEG 3350, 80 mM magnesium acetate, 50 mM sodium cacodylate pH 5.0/5.5 as the reservoir at 293 K. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.89, b = 95.52, c = 71.89 Å, β = 101.7° and a V{sub M} value of 3.56 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å.

  6. Rational design, synthesis and preliminary antitumor activity evaluation of a chlorambucil derivative with potent DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Li, Yan; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2017-09-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role not only in gene expression but also in DNA repair. Herein, we report the successful design, synthesis and evaluation of a chlorambucil derivative named vorambucil with a hydroxamic acid tail as a DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitor. Vorambucil obtained both potent DNA and HDACs inhibitory activities. Molecular docking results supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and rationalized the potent inhibitory activity of vorambucil against HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6. Vorambucil showed potent antiproliferative activity against all the test four cancer cell lines with IC50 values of as low as 3.2-6.2μM and exhibited 5.0-18.3-fold enhanced antiproliferative activity than chlorambucil. Vorambucil also significantly inhibits colony formation of A375 cancer cells. Further investigation showed that vorambucil remarkably induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle of A375 cells at G2/M phase. Vorambucil could be a promising candidate and a useful tool to elucidate the role of those DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitors for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  8. Increasing Enrollment by Better Serving Your Institution's Target Audiences through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betsy

    The marketing technique of benefit segmentation may be effective in increasing enrollment in adult educational programs, according to a study at College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois. The study was conducted to test applicability of benefit segmentation to enrollment generation. The measuring instrument used in this study--the course improvement…

  9. Audiencing Research: Textual Experimentation and Targeting for Whose Reality? ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    Seen from within the discipline of qualitative methods, the move to experimental forms of representation of research is an effort to represent live experience more richly and to connect social science research more closely to literary, poetic, and performance forms that address communities and indigenous discursive structures outside of academe.…

  10. Assessment and Evaluation of the Utah Master Naturalist Program: Implications for Targeting Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese-Casanova, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Utah Master Naturalist Program trains citizens who provide education, outreach, and service to promote citizen stewardship of natural resources within their communities. In 2007-2008, the Watersheds module of the program was evaluated for program success, and participant knowledge was assessed. Assessment and evaluation results indicated that…

  11. Identifying Target Audiences for Graduate Programs among Mid-Career Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A.; Rose, Patricia B.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 308 communications professionals in south Florida investigated interest in graduate programs, both formal degree programs and professional continuing education. Results indicate the primary reason for enrollment in a formal degree program is not economic but perceived benefit to the employer. More minority group members wanted formal…

  12. Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Tahal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Opera has a famous history and even the present-day repertoire in opera houses mostly consists of classical and well-known works. Marketers are trying to find new ways that would enable opera lovers all over the world to enjoy top quality performances. One of the most successful models is real-time transmissions of operas to geographically remote cinemas. Cinemas from all around the world participate in the project. In this paper, the authors analyze the spectators´ profile and point out differences between North America and the Czech Republic, focusing on transmissions of performances by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The authors submit a detailed analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the spectators and the attendance frequency. Special attention is paid to the marketing profile of Czech spectators, based on primary data gathered in the research. The paper is a combination of research report and business case study. The study reveals that female visitors prevail. Elderly people are also represented in high percentages. The spectators are characterized by refined taste in their lifestyles and familiarity with modern technology.

  13. Informing Extension Program Development through Audience Segmentation: Targeting High Water Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.; Dukes, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on water has led to water issues globally. Although extension professionals have made efforts successfully to educate the general public about water conservation to enhance water resource sustainability, difficulty has been found in reaching high water users, defined as residents irrigating excessively to their landscape irrigation…

  14. Preliminary Experiments with XKaapi on Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Lima, Joao Vicente; Broquedis, Francois; Gautier, Thierry; Raffin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents preliminary performance comparisons of parallel applications developed natively for the Intel Xeon Phi accelerator using three different parallel programming environments and their associated runtime systems. We compare Intel OpenMP, Intel CilkPlus and XKaapi together on the same benchmark suite and we provide comparisons between an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor and a Sandy Bridge Xeon-based machine. Our benchmark suite is composed of three computing k...

  15. Interest of targeting either cortical area Brodmann 9 or 46 in rTMS treatment for depression: a preliminary randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojak, Benoit; Meille, Vincent; Jonval, Lysiane; Schuffenecker, Nicolas; Haffen, Emmanuel; Schwan, Raymund; Bonin, Bernard; Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe

    2014-12-01

    To assess the interest of specifically targeting Brodmann Areas (BA) 9 or 46 for rTMS treatment of depression. Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression were randomly assigned to two treatment groups to receive either rTMS on BA 9 or on BA 46. Each patient underwent 10 sessions of 1Hz-rTMS for 2weeks. The Hamilton and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales (HDRS, MADRS) were used under blind conditions to assess the therapeutic response (50% improvement). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the depression rating scales scores obtained before and after the 10 rTMS sessions for each of the two groups. The therapeutic results in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. We also reported the effect sizes using Hedges's g. Fifteen patients were included. Stimulation of both BA 9 (n=7) and BA 46 (n=8) led to similar therapeutic responses in the two groups (with moderate effect size), such as the mean decrease in HDRS (BA 9: p=0.015; BA 46: p=0.010) and MADRS (BA 9: p=0.042; BA 46: p=0.038) scores. Our results do not come out in favor of one or the other BA. Stimulation of BA 9 and BA 46 appears to be equally effective in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Villalba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  17. Audience-Oriented Writing and Peer Evaluation. SCO Cahier No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, G.

    To demonstrate that peer evaluation is an appropriate means of improving written composition, particularly in terms of audience and goal orientation, the use of peer evaluation as a teaching method is discussed and then the connection between peer evaluation and audience awareness is drawn. Based on observation of Dutch 17-year-old students, the…

  18. How are we connected? : Measuring Audience Galvanic Skin Response of Connected Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chen); X. Zhu (Xintong); E. Geelhoed; I. Biscoe; T. Röggla (Tom); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurately measuring the audience response during a performance is a difficult task. This is particularly the case for connected performances. In this paper, we staged a connected performance in which a remote audience enjoyed the performance in real-time. Both objective (galvanic skin

  19. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  20. Type of frame dependence: variation in media frames affecting attitudes via audience frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, A.S.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper two suggested processes of framing theory (Scheufele, 1999) are tested: frame setting (media affecting audience frames) and the individual effects process (audience frames affecting attitudes or behavior). Media frames may affect opinions and behavior, however these effects are not dir

  1. Audience influence on EGM gambling: the protective effects of having others watch you play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    One component of social facilitation on gambling is the potential for an audience of people to observe the play of Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gamblers and influence their behaviour without participating directly in gambling themselves. An experiment was conducted with an audience of onlookers, purported to be students of research methods, taking notes while watching the participants play an EGM. Forty-three male and 82 female participants (N = 125), aged 18-79 (M = 49.2, SD = 15.6), played a laptop simulated 3-reel EGM using a $20 stake in three conditions: (1) alone, (2) watched by a simulated audience of six persons, or (3) watched by an audience of 26. Outcomes on the poker machine were rigged with a fixed sequence of five wins in the first 20 spins and indefinite losses thereafter. The results found smaller bet-sizes associated with larger audiences of onlookers, and this outcome is consistent with a hypothesized motivation to display more wins to the audience. Moreover, final payouts were greater in the audience conditions compared to the control, further suggesting that an audience may be a protective factor limiting player losses.

  2. Audience Matters: Teaching Issues of Race and Racism for a Predominantly Minority Student Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybee, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the literature about teaching issues of race and racism in classrooms has addressed matters of audience. Zeus Leonardo, for example, has argued that teachers should use the language of white domination, rather than white privilege, when teaching about race and racism because the former language presupposes a minority audience, while the…

  3. Writing an Argument to a Real Audience: Alternative Ways to Motivate Students in Writing about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Writing for an audience different from teachers motivates students to translate their existing knowledge into audience-appropriate language, in which students explain, elaborate, and integrate their understanding of science concepts using more than just the technical language of the subject. Several studies also have found that students can…

  4. Three Concentric Circles: Young Chinese English Learners' Perceptions of Purposeful Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2015-01-01

    English learners have more access to communicate with different purposeful audiences across the Three Concentric Circles of English (Kachu, 1985): the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. However, young language learners' purposeful audience as a focus of communication has not been emphasized as much as other linguistic…

  5. Children's Drawings of Significant Figures for a Peer or an Adult Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn; Murray, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed if children would present different information in their drawings of emotion eliciting stimuli when they believed that an adult or a child audience would view their drawings. Seventy-five 6-year-olds (44 boys and 31 girls) were allocated to three groups: the reference group, the child audience group and the adult…

  6. Understanding Audience: Using Online Surveys in First-Year Writing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkewitte, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Although students must understand the rhetorical medium that they use to present their proposals to their fellow classmates, they must also understand how audiences shape the rhetorical medium and shape how they create texts. Surveying audience members can help students figure out the best strategies to present their proposals and, in doing so,…

  7. Engaging the d/Deaf Audience in Museums: A Case Study at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Patrícia Roque

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses ways that museums can strengthen programming for d/Deaf audiences. Through the development and study of a tour for a d/Deaf audience conducted through signing and oral translation at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum in Lisbon (Portugal), the author examines issues of language, identity and inclusion. She argues that the use of…

  8. Virtual Focus Groups in Extension: A Useful Approach to Audience Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…

  9. Setting of Russian Sonorant Consonants [L–L'] Pronunciation in a Bulgarian Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peneva N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare articulation-acoustic nature of Russian and Bulgarian sounds [l], [l'], to reveal typical difficulties faced by students producing these sounds, and development of some methods of neutralizing accent in Russian speach of Bulgarians. Special attention is paid to the description of articulation peculiarities of sonorant [l], [l'] in Russian and Bulgarian languages, identified both common and specific characteristics of these sounds. In the target audience represented by the Russists-students a listening was held to analyse their perception of hard [l] in identical Russian-Bulgarian lexical parallels, which showed the following results: for almost 68% of the target audience Bulgarian hard [l] sounds softer than Russian, for 22% of students they are identical in acoustic effect, and about 10% of the students could not answer the question. The analysis has revealed the difficulties that may be encountered by Bulgarians in a process of setting/correcting pronouncation of Russian consonants. They are connected primarily with differences of articulation of hard and soft consonants [l], [l'] in compared languages and phonologically undifferentiated Russian sonants [l], [l']. These mistakes are related to the pronunciation mistakes of the mixed type. The author supposes that to remove accent in Russian speech pronouncing fluent consonants [l], [l'], it is necessary to inform students about articulation peculiarities of these sounds in both languages, to make comments about possible deviations of these sounds prononciation, to draw attention to reasons of this deviations. As visual and audial measures of education, articulation schemes, tables and figures in special albums or books should be used as well as audio records of normative Russian speech. In the final the conclusion is made that listening of newscasters' speech, repeating of the examples, recording of own speech with analysis of made mistakes, listening for

  10. Experiences of faculty and students using an audience response system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Monturo, Cheryl; Conroy, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    The advent of innovative technologies, such as the audience response system, provides an opportunity to engage students and enhance learning. Based on their experiences, three nursing faculty evaluated the use of an audience response system in four distinct nursing courses through the use of informal survey results. When using the audience response system, the faculty experienced an increased perception of student attentiveness and engagement, high level of class attendance, and enhanced learning. Faculty feelings were mixed concerning the burden in adapting to increased classroom time and increased preparation time. Students' perception of the value of audience response system use was mostly positive, except when responses were included as part of the grade. The majority of the students indicated that use of the audience response system enhanced learning and was a helpful learning method when used with NCLEX-style questions. Overall, faculty believed that the benefits of student engagement and enhanced learning outweighed the burdens of incorporating this new technology in the classroom.

  11. Audience effects: what can they tell us about social neuroscience, theory of mind and autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Lind, Frida

    2016-01-01

    An audience effect arises when a person's behaviour changes because they believe someone else is watching them. Though these effects have been known about for over 110 years, the cognitive mechanisms of the audience effect and how it might vary across different populations and cultures remains unclear. In this review, we examine the hypothesis that the audience effect draws on implicit mentalising abilities. Behavioural and neuroimaging data from a number of tasks are consistent with this hypothesis. We further review data suggest that how people respond to audiences may vary over development, personality factors, cultural background and clinical diagnosis including autism and anxiety disorder. Overall, understanding and exploring the audience effect may contribute to our models of social interaction, including reputation management and mentalising.

  12. Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijssen Jolanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, audience segmentation of adolescents with respect to alcohol has been carried out mainly on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. In this study we examined whether it is possible to segment adolescents according to their values and attitudes towards alcohol to use as guidance for prevention programmes. Methods A random sample of 7,000 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was drawn from the Municipal Basic Administration (MBA of 29 Local Authorities in the province North-Brabant in the Netherlands. By means of an online questionnaire data were gathered on values and attitudes towards alcohol, alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics. Results We were able to distinguish a total of five segments on the basis of five attitude factors. Moreover, the five segments also differed in drinking behavior independently of socio-demographic variables. Conclusions Our investigation was a first step in the search for possibilities of segmenting by factors other than socio-demographic characteristics. Further research is necessary in order to understand these results for alcohol prevention policy in concrete terms.

  13. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.

  14. An Airborne Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on 16 Elements: 150 kHz Piezopolymer Transducer Arrays—Preliminary Simulated and Experimental Results for Cylindrical Targets Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capineri, L.; Bulletti, A.; Calzolai, M.; Giannelli, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 16-element transducer array for airborne ultrasonic imaging operating at 150 kHz, that can operate both at close range (50 mm) in the near field of a synthetic aperture, and up to 250 mm. The proposed imaging technique is based on a modified version of the delay and sum algorithm implemented with a synthetic aperture where each pixel amplitude is determined by the integration of the signal obtained by the coherent summation of the acquired signals over a delayed window with fixed length. The image reconstruction methods using raw data provides the possibility to detect targets with smaller feature size on the order of one wavelength because the coherent signals summation over the selected window length while the image reconstruction methods using the summation of enveloped signals increases the amplitude response at the expenses of a lower spatial resolution. For the implementation of this system it is important to design compact airborne transducers with large field of view and this can be obtained with a new design of hemi-cylindrical polyvinylidene fluoride film transducers directly mounted on a printed circuit board. This new method is low cost and has repeatable transducer characteristics. The complete system is compact, with a modular architecture, in which eight boards with dual ultrasonic channels are mounted on a mother board. Each daughter board hosts a microcontroller unit and can operate with transducers in the bandwidth 40-200 kHz with on-board data acquisition, pre-processing and transfer on a dedicated bus.

  15. Transarterial embolization combined with RNA interference targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study of rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jia-Yan; Xu, Lin-Feng; Wang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Qiao-Sheng; Sun, Hong-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ting

    2017-02-01

    To study whether transarterial embolization (TAE) with RNA interference (RNAi) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can improve efficacy of TAE in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CBRH-7919 rat hepatoma cell line was used and HCC models of rats were constructed. The siRNA transfection compound was made by mixing specific siRNA and Lipofectamine 2000™. Delivery and transfection of siRNA were administered by injecting iodized oil emulsion (diluted lipiodol and siRNA) via hepatic artery. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were detected using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays, respectively. In vitro experiment, the specific HIF-1α-siRNA was proved to inhibit expression levels of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effectively. In animal study, real-time RT-PCR assay showed the average relative mRNA expressions of HIF-1α were 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.03, 0.46 ± 0.005, and 1.00 ± 0.00 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Western blotting assay showed the average relative protein expressions of HIF-1α were 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.87 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 1.02 ± 0.01 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Compared with control, TAE, and siRNA groups, TAE + siRNA can significantly inhibit protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF (P HIF-1α < 0.001; P VEGF < 0.001). Overall survival of rats underwent TAE + siRNA was significantly longer than that of rats treated with TAE monotherapy (P = 0.001). This animal study showed TAE combined with HIF-1α-RNAi could significantly improve efficacy of TAE in treating HCC by inhibiting expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF after TAE treatment.

  16. L’argumentation rhétorique et le problème de l’auditoire complexe Rhetorical Argumentation and the Problem of the Complex Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Tindale

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La nécessité pour l’argumentateur de connaître son auditoire afin de persuader est l’un des lieux communs de la théorie de l’argumentation. Mais, en dehors du cas où l’argumentation s’adresse à soi-même ou à un interlocuteur unique, les auditoires vers lesquels nous nous tournons sont de composition complexe, et reflètent la diversité de nos identités et les différents groupes auxquels nous appartenons. Comment les argumentateurs doivent-ils faire face à une telle diversité de l’auditoire ? S’inspirant principalement des travaux de Perelman et Olbrechts-Tyteca, ainsi que de ceux d’Amartya Sen, cet article explore la manière dont divers aspects identitaires sont choisis par les auditoires, et les moyens par lesquels les argumentateurs peuvent encourager de tels choix en préalable à l’acte de persuasion lui-même.It is a commonplace of argumentation theory that an arguer needs to know her or his audience in order to be persuasive. But beyond arguments directed to oneself or to a single interlocutor, the audiences we address are complex in make-up, reflecting the diversity of our own identities and the different groups to which we belong. How should arguers accommodate such diversity within audiences? Drawing principally from the work of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca, as well as Amartya Sen, this paper explores the ways aspects of identities are chosen by audiences, and how arguers can encourage such choices as a preliminary move to persuasion itself.

  17. Using photographic art to connect researchers with public audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L.; Roberts, E.; Fields, J.; Johnson, B.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals. Before information can be exchanged both or al parties have to be willing to partake in the communication process. Climate change scientists are still struggling to present their message in part because the general public does not want to hear their message and in part of the personality gap between scientists and the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). This demonstrates the need for communication, through a variety of means, with the general public about who climate change researchers are and what they do, besides the message that they have to convey. This ';feeling' type - relying on personal value and impact of decisions on others- of communication, not common in the scientific community that requires facts, has been suggested to be more effective with the general public (Weiler et al. 2011). We created a multimedia exhibition, which aims to put an intimate human face on science with an approach based on the following ideas: 1) Art initiates the connection between researchers and public audiences through visual stimulation, and 2) The one-on-one experience with a researcher through audio-visual means increases public engagement with climate change science. The exhibition implements these ideas by first, building on the core artistic vision of an artist/photographer who has been accompanying us on field courses and expeditions in the Amazon basin, and second, by bringing the personal voice and stories of students and scientists to the images in which they are represented. Our approach expanded on these themes with a unique twist: we use artistic imagery and video to show the personality of researchers and the process of science. After an image has captured the attention of a visitor, they will be engaged by the intimacy of hearing the scientist explaining how they got there, what they were doing at that particular moment, and why it's relevant and important to the visitor's life

  18. An evaluation of learning clinical decision-making for early rehabilitation in the ICU via interactive education with audience response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonstra, Amy L; Nelliot, Archana; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Zanni, Jennifer M; Hodgson, Carol; Needham, Dale M

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge-related barriers to safely implement early rehabilitation programs in intensive care units (ICUs) may be overcome via targeted education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive educational session on short-term knowledge of clinical decision-making for safe rehabilitation of patients in ICUs. A case-based teaching approach, drawing from published safety recommendations for initiation of rehabilitation in ICUs, was used with a multidisciplinary audience. An audience response system was incorporated to promote interaction and evaluate knowledge before vs. after the educational session. Up to 175 audience members, of 271 in attendance (129 (48%) physical therapists, 51 (19%) occupational therapists, 31 (11%) nursing, 14 (5%) physician, 46 (17%) other), completed both the pre- and post-test questions for each of the six unique patient cases. In four of six patient cases, there was a significant (prehabilitation activities. This learning effect was similar irrespective of participants' years of experience and clinical discipline. An interactive, case-based, educational session may be effective for increasing short-term knowledge, and identifying knowledge gaps, regarding clinical decision-making for safe rehabilitation of patients in ICUs. Implications for Rehabilitation Lack of knowledge regarding the safety considerations for early rehabilitation of ICU patients is a barrier to implementing early rehabilitation. Interactive educational formats, such as the use of audience response systems, offer a new method of teaching and instantly assessing learning of clinically important information. In a small study, we have shown that an interactive, case-based educational format may be used to effectively teach clinical decision-making for the safe rehabilitation of ICU patients to a diverse audience of clinicians.

  19. AUDIENCE AWARENESS IN THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF SUDANESE EFL UNIVERSITY LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Osman Zakaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the written discourse of the Sudanese EFL university learners to evaluate and assess their awareness of the audience to whom they write. The analytic descriptive approach is adopted to achieve the aims of the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 50 Sudanese EFL students drawn from Faculty of Arts at Alneelain university. Three tools were employed for data collection: a writing test, a questionnaire and an interview with the students. Results showed that the written discourse produced by Sudanese EFL students did not reveal an awareness of the audience with whom they communicate. The students did not succeed to make assumptions of what their audience already know and what they expect to find in the texts being written. They held fragmentary knowledge on the concept of audience awareness. Accordingly, the students were not able to prepare and edit texts which keep and stimulate their audience – they were not able to depend on lexical and structural variation to produce proper and effective writing. Furthermore, results indicated that students were not able to attach unity and coherence to the texts they produced. Their organizational skills were very poor. To help the students develop the concept they hold on audience awareness, writing instructors and syllabus designers need to put special emphasis on the importance of audience awareness as a factor which is essential for effective writing.

  20. Psychosocial stress evoked by a virtual audience: relation to neuroendocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen; Matheson, Kimberly; Martinez, Alejandra; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie

    2007-10-01

    A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to determine whether exposure to a virtual audience using virtual reality (VR) technology would prompt an increase of neuroendocrine activity comparable to that prompted by a real audience. Following an anticipatory period, participants completed a speech or a speech-plus-math challenge in front of either a virtual audience, a panel of judges they were led to believe was behind a one-way mirror, or an audience comprised of confederates. An additional group that had prepared a speech was simply directed to observe the virtual audience but did not deliver the speech. Finally, a control group completed questionnaires for the duration of the experiment. Cortisol samples were obtained upon arrival to the laboratory, just before the challenge, and 15 and 30 minutes after the task. Participants also completed a measure assessing stressor appraisals of the task before and after the challenge. Anticipation of the task was associated with a modest increase of cortisol levels, and a further rise of cortisol was evident in response to the challenge. The neuroendocrine changes evoked by the virtual audience were comparable to those elicited by the imagined audience (behind the one-way mirror) but less than changes evoked by the panel of confederates. Stressor appraisals were higher post-challenge compared to those reported prior to the task; however, appraisals were similar across each group. These data suggest that VR technology may be amenable to evaluating the impact of psychosocial stressors such as the TSST.

  1. Caching in the presence of competitors: Are Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) sensitive to audience attentiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jamie; Manser, Marta B

    2016-01-01

    When social animals cache food close to their burrow, the potential for an audience member to observe the event is significantly increased. As a consequence, in order to reduce theft it may be advantageous for animals to be sensitive to certain audience cues, such as whether they are attentive or not to the cache event. In this study, observations were made on three groups of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in their natural habitat when they cached provisioned food items. When individuals cached within 10 m of conspecifics, we recorded the attentiveness (i.e. whether any audience members were orientated towards the cacher, had direct line of site and were not engaged in other activities) and identity of audience members. Overall, there was a preference to cache when audience members were inattentive rather than attentive. Additionally, we found rank effects related to cache avoidance whereby high-ranked individuals showed less avoidance to cache when audience members were attentive compared to medium- and low-ranked individuals. We suggest this audience sensitivity may have evolved in response to the difference in competitive ability amongst the ranks in how successful individuals are at winning foraging competitions. This study demonstrates that Cape ground squirrels have the ability to not only monitor the presence or absence of conspecifics but also discriminate individuals on the basis of their attentive state.

  2. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  3. Effect of media relations on audiences: comparing how editorials and advertising influence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tkalac Verčič

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A notion, according to which editorials have a bigger communication influence than advertisements, is very common and quite popular in public relations. The said notion is so prevalent (among both public relations and marketing communications experts that it has led to the concept of perceived influence multipliers that point to a stronger editorial influence in comparison to advertising influence (2.5 to 8 times stronger. Based on the described assumption, the aim of this paper was to further explore how the target audience perceives editorial and advertising content. The research problem was to compare the effects of both types of content on behavior and behavioral intent (through four media – Internet, radio, newspapers and television. Respondents were divided into two groups – current users of the service that was in focus (for influence on behavior and potential users (for influence on behavioral intent. Even though current users said that editorials had a bigger influence on their behavior, this difference was not significant. On the other hand, potential users stated that the advertising content shaped their behavioral intent more than did editorials. These results once again show the assumption, according to which editorials have a stronger communication influence than advertisements, to be highly questionable.

  4. Monarchy, jesters, politicians and audiences Comparison of TV satire in UK and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valhondo Crego, Ph. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Satire programmes have become a frequent form of political communication on TV. After the liberalisation of media and the globalization of formats, countries like Spain have adopted satirical formats derived from earlier ones, which relied on old traditions from nearly the inception of television similar to the United Kingdom. The goal of this article is to build a definition of the genre, taking into account the examples of the two mentioned countries and, also, referring to both periods, before and after liberalisation. We will use a comparative methodology relative to the profile of the audiences, of the buffoons of satire and the role played by the politicians through the short history of television satire. The results point to an evolution. During the sixties in the past century, the genre targeted the middle classes, writers tried to popularize politics for a society respectful to the Establishment and politicians censored the program in case it created an imbalance between ideological options during elections. In the nineties, satire jesters acquired the main role in the show and the politicians not only immunized themselves against satire but seemed to take advantage of it.

  5. Presidential laugh lines. Candidate display behavior and audience laughter in the 2008 primary debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick A

    2010-09-01

    Political humor has long been used by candidates to mobilize supporters by enhancing status or denigrating the opposition. Research concerning laughter provides insight into the building of social bonds; however, little research has focused on the nonverbal cues displayed by the individual making humorous comments. This study first investigates whether there is a relationship between facial display behavior and the presence and strength of laughter. Next, the analysis explores whether specific candidate displays during a humorous comment depend on the target of the comment. This paper analyzes the use of humor by Republican and Democratic candidates during ten 2008 presidential primary debates. Data analyzed here employs laughter as an indicator of a successful humorous comment and documents candidate display behavior in the seconds immediately preceding and during each laughter event. Findings suggest specific facial displays play an important communication role. Different types of smiles, whether felt, false, or fear-based, are related to who laughs as well as how intensely the audience is judged to laugh.

  6. Preparing for Antibiotic Resistance Campaigns: A Person-Centered Approach to Audience Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Quesnell, Madisen; Glick, Lydia; Hackman, Nicole; M'Ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health that calls for urgent attention. However, creating campaigns to slow the emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens is challenging because the goal-antibiotic stewardship-encompasses multiple behaviors. This study provided a novel approach to audience segmentation for a multifaceted goal, by using a person-centered approach to identify profiles of U.S. adults based on shared stewardship intentions. The latent class analysis identified three groups: stewards, stockers, and demanders. The findings suggest campaigns with goals aimed at encouraging stewards to follow through on their intentions, encouraging stockers to dispose of their leftover antibiotics, and convincing demanders to accept providers' evidence-based judgment when a prescription for antibiotics is not indicated. Covariate analysis showed that people who held more inaccurate beliefs about what antibiotics can treat had higher odds of being demanders and stockers instead of stewards. People with stronger health mavenism also had higher odds of being stockers instead of stewards. The covariate analysis provided theoretical insight into the strategies to pursue in campaigns targeting these 3 groups.

  7. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, AnneMarie Kay; Gambino, Jen M; Nguyen, Vina; Nelson, Zach; Szasz, Taylor; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha; Bulla, Sandra; Prabhu, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80) for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA). The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTM(NPO) CRL-2836) at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL) of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF). Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test) induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum species having

  8. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Kay Kovach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80 for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA. The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTMNPO CRL-2836 at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF. Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum

  9. A Model for Advertising Aestheticization: How An Ad is Aesthetically Created and has an Impact on Audience- Product, Pdvertising Pood and Target Audience Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to aesthetic components that advertisement texts generally have, advertisements are sometimes perceived as a genre of art by some circles. The study is based upon a perspective presented by an interdisciplinary background and it acknowledges a paradigm that advertising is not a genre of art, it obviously pursues commercial profits and within this context, expolits the created aesthetics in product. The main objective of the study, which focuses advertising aesthetic fundamentally, is to build a scientific model formulating some levels of aestheticisation during its production process. Formulation in question has been reconstructed on theoretical and applied literature.

  10. [Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugère, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful.

  11. Establishing versus preserving impressions: Predicting success in the multiple audience problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Austin Lee; Cottrell, Catherine A

    2015-12-01

    People sometimes seek to convey discrepant impressions of themselves to different audiences simultaneously. Research suggests people are generally successful in this "multiple audience problem." Adding to previous research, the current research sought to examine factors that may limit this success by measuring social anxiety and placing participants into situations requiring them to either establish or preserve multiple impressions simultaneously. In general, participants were more successful when preserving previously conveyed impressions than when establishing impressions for the first time. In contrast, social anxiety did not affect multiple audience success. In all, this research offers valuable insight into potential challenges that people face in many social situations.

  12. Sciencetogo.Org: Using Humor to Engage a Public Audience with the Serious Issue of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse

  13. Interacting with audiences social influences on the production of scientific writing

    CERN Document Server

    Blakeslee, Ann M

    2000-01-01

    This volume examines how scientists learn about and then address their audiences, studying scientific rhetoric in actual practice. For scholars and students in scientific and technical writing, rhetoric, studies of science, and related areas.

  14. Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age, by Louisa Ellen Stein [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Louise Dare-Edwards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Louisa Ellen Stein, Millennial fandom: Television audiences in the transmedia age. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2015, paperback, $24 (224p ISBN 978-1609383558; e-book, $24, ISBN 978-1609383565.

  15. “It really is a craft” Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, van A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  16. 'It really is a craft' - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners' talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  17. 'It really is a craft' - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners' talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more pa

  18. “It really is a craft” Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, van A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more pa

  19. Audience Reaction as a Determinant of the Speaker's Self-Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Paper tests effects of audience feedback on speaker attitudes; subjects who received sincere feedback showed greater change in the direction of their speech than did those who received insincere feedback. (Author)

  20. Give Me a Like: How HIV/AIDS Nonprofit Organizations Can Engage Their Audience on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yi-Pin; Saxton, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid proliferation and adoption of social media among healthcare professionals and organizations, social media-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs have become increasingly popular. However, the question of the effectiveness of the HIV/AIDS messages disseminated on social media has received scant attention in the literature. The current study applies content analysis to examine the relationship between Facebook messaging strategies employed by 110 HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations and audience reactions in the form of liking, commenting, and sharing behavior. The results reveal that HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations often use informational messages as one-way communication with their audience instead of dialogic interactions. Some specific types of messages, such as medication-focused messages, engender better audience engagement; in contrast, event-related messages and call-to-action messages appear to translate into lower corresponding audience reactions. The findings provide guidance to HIV/AIDS organizations in developing effective social media communication strategies.

  1. Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boslaugh, Sarah E; Kreuter, Matthew W; Nicholson, Robert A; Naleid, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    .... This study compares the results of audience segmentation for physical activity that is based on either demographic, health status or psychosocial variables alone, or a combination of all three types of variables...

  2. Effect of Character-Audience Similarity on the Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking PSAs via Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Shi, Rui; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-10-01

    This study assesses the impact of character-audience similarity, a core aspect of tailored communication, on evaluation of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). Smoker and persuader characters are distinguished to explore their different roles in message effectiveness. Daily adult smokers (n = 1,160) were exposed to four video PSAs randomly selected from a larger pool. Similarity scores were determined from matching in demographic (age, gender, race) and motivational factors (quitting status) between the audience and the PSA's characters. Results show that PSAs featuring distinctive smoker and/or persuader characters yielded significantly higher message engagement and perceived effectiveness (PE) than PSAs without characters. Given the presence of characters, smoker-audience similarity was positively associated with the engagement, which in turn enhanced PE. Persuader-audience similarity failed to predict increases in either engagement or PE.

  3. The audience effect in adolescence depends on who's looking over your shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Laura K; Bazargani, Narges; Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents have been shown to be particularly sensitive to peer influence. However, the data supporting these findings have been mostly limited to the impact of peers on risk-taking behaviours. Here, we investigated the influence of peers on performance of a high-level cognitive task (relational reasoning) during adolescence. We further assessed whether this effect on performance was dependent on the identity of the audience, either a friend (peer) or the experimenter (non-peer). We tested 24 younger adolescent (10.6-14.2 years), 20 older adolescent (14.9-17.8 years) and 20 adult (21.8-34.9 years) female participants. The presence of an audience affected adolescent, but not adult, relational reasoning performance. This audience effect on adolescent performance was influenced by the participants' age, task difficulty and the identity of the audience. These findings may have implications for education, where adolescents often do classwork or homework in the presence of others.

  4. [Museums and their archives: in search of sources for researching audiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köptcke, Luciana Sepúlveda; Pereira, Marcele Regina Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    The article explores to what extent historical archives at museums may serve as documental sources in developing audience research. It analyzes the process by which we construct our knowledge of the relation between museums and their different visitors and also contextualizes the emergence of 'audience' as a category and object of study by the social sciences. The article presents Luciana Sepúlveda Köptcke and Marcelle Pereira's Guia de fontes primárias: o Museu Nacional - seu público no século XIX e no início do XX (Guide of primary sources: the National Museum - its audience in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries), a valuable research tool that can enhance the significance of documental fonds and reveal the nature and import assigned to different audiences by these institutions.

  5. Creating learner-centered classrooms: use of an audience response system in pediatric dentistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey T

    2005-03-01

    Research suggests that the exclusive use of lecture in the classroom hinders student learning. The advent of compact electronic wireless audience response systems has allowed for increased student participation in the classroom. Such technology is utilized in medical education. This article describes the use of an audience response system in a "quiz bowl" format to facilitate and improve the comprehension of student dentists in core concepts in pulp therapy for the pediatric patient.

  6. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Ranganathan, Jai; Walker, Barbara L E; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  7. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett E K Byrnes

    Full Text Available As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  8. Predicting Audience Location on the Basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor Multilabel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding audience location information in online social networks is important in designing recommendation systems, improving information dissemination, and so on. In this paper, we focus on predicting the location distribution of audiences on YouTube. And we transform this problem to a multilabel classification problem, while we find there exist three problems when the classical k-nearest neighbor based algorithm for multilabel classification (ML-kNN is used to predict location distribution. Firstly, the feature weights are not considered in measuring the similarity degree. Secondly, it consumes considerable computing time in finding similar items by traversing all the training set. Thirdly, the goal of ML-kNN is to find relevant labels for every sample which is different from audience location prediction. To solve these problems, we propose the methods of measuring similarity based on weight, quickly finding similar items, and ranking a specific number of labels. On the basis of these methods and the ML-kNN, the k-nearest neighbor based model for audience location prediction (AL-kNN is proposed for predicting audience location. The experiments based on massive YouTube data show that the proposed model can more accurately predict the location of YouTube video audience than the ML-kNN, MLNB, and Rank-SVM methods.

  9. Inferring audience partisanship for YouTube videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, I.; Garimella, V.R.K.; Borra, E.; Schwabe, D.

    2013-01-01

    Political campaigning and the corresponding advertisement money are increasingly moving online. Some analysts claim that the U.S.-elections were partly won through a smart use of (i) targeted advertising and (ii) social media. But what type of information do politicized users consume online? And,

  10. Inferring audience partisanship for YouTube videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, I.; Garimella, V.R.K.; Borra, E.; Schwabe, D.

    2013-01-01

    Political campaigning and the corresponding advertisement money are increasingly moving online. Some analysts claim that the U.S.-elections were partly won through a smart use of (i) targeted advertising and (ii) social media. But what type of information do politicized users consume online? And, th

  11. Cool Science: Engaging Adult and K-16 Audiences in Climate Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    opportunity develop and evaluate a new approach to improving the level of scientific literacy among adults. Cool Science is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. This paper will report on project progress, research challenges encountered to date, and present preliminary findings. Among the results presented will be the 6 winning student artworks, analysis of teacher/student interviews, and audience attitudes and knowledge of climate change prior to the intervention. In addition, a comparison of website use before and during the implementation of the public learning campaign will be available.; Learning the Climate Change Science on the Go!

  12. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  13. Examination of muscularity and body fat depictions in magazines that target heterosexual and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J

    2013-03-01

    Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture.

  14. Does Visual Communication Get through to its Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Visual communication is often directed towards an assumed homogenous target group, a marketor segment. However, this study shows that such constructs as typical, average consumer, modal or blue or red segment can be misleading. Individuals and markets represent distinct levels of analysis. The logo...... is desired because it means a thorough deep understanding, but between people variation means that the reception resembles a Babylonian confusion. We find that various visual elements are able to explain how these variations occur. When the market does not work well as a mass market, it should be addressed...

  15. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  16. Designing virtual audiences for fear of public speaking training - an observation study on realistic nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application.

  17. “Dive into the Movie” Audience-Driven Immersive Experience in the Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Shigeo

    “Dive into the Movie (DIM)” is a name of project to aim to realize a world innovative entertainment system which can provide an immersion experience into the story by giving a chance to audience to share an impression with his family or friends by watching a movie in which all audience can participate in the story as movie casts. To realize this system, several techniques to model and capture the personal characteristics instantly in face, body, gesture, hair and voice by combining computer graphics, computer vision and speech signal processing technique. Anyway, all of the modeling, casting, character synthesis, rendering and compositing processes have to be performed on real-time without any operator. In this paper, first a novel entertainment system, Future Cast System (FCS), is introduced which can create DIM movie with audience's participation by replacing the original roles' face in a pre-created CG movie with audiences' own highly realistic 3D CG faces. Then the effects of DIM movie on audience experience are evaluated subjectively. The result suggests that most of the participants are seeking for higher realism, impression and satisfaction by replacing not only face part but also body, hair and voice. The first experimental trial demonstration of FCS was performed at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion of the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan. Then, 1,640,000 people have experienced this event during 6 months of exhibition and FCS became one of the most popular events at Expo. 2005.

  18. Audience effects on the neural correlates of relational reasoning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Wolf, Laura K; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents are particularly sensitive to peer influence. This may partly be due to an increased salience of peers during adolescence. We investigated the effect of being observed by a peer on a cognitively challenging task, relational reasoning, which requires the evaluation and integration of multiple mental representations. Relational reasoning tasks engage a fronto-parietal network including the inferior parietal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, dorsolateral and rostrolateral prefrontal cortices. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), peer audience effects on activation in this fronto-parietal network were compared in a group of 19 female mid-adolescents (aged 14-16 years) and 14 female adults (aged 23-28 years). Adolescent and adult relational reasoning accuracy was influenced by a peer audience as a function of task difficulty: the presence of a peer audience led to decreased accuracy in the complex, relational integration condition in both groups of participants. The fMRI results demonstrated that a peer audience differentially modulated activation in regions of the fronto-parietal network in adolescents and adults. Activation was increased in adolescents in the presence of a peer audience, while this was not the case in adults.

  19. Does Visual Communication Get Through to Its Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    Visual communication is often directed towards an assumed homogenous target group, a market- or segment. However, this study shows that such constructs as typical, average consumer, modal or blue or red segment can be misleading. Individuals and markets represent distinct levels of analysis....... The logo is a prime each individual to receive the next message in a positive mood. In this paper, a distinction is made between how the message is received by the single individual and how the message is received by the market that is how it is received by the "average respondent". The distinction is made...... between individual vs. market variation. A variation seen by the individual means that the message is received with its complexity and meaningfulness, while a big market variation means people understand different things and a Babylonian confusion is the outcome. Also differences between cultures...

  20. Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

  1. Targeting in Advertising Markets: Implications for Offline Versus Online Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Dirk; Bonatti , Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model with many advertisers (products) and many advertising markets (media). Each advertiser sells to a different segment of consumers, and each medium is targeting a different audience. We characterize the competitive equilibrium in the advertising markets and evaluate the implications of targeting. An increase in targeting leads to an increase in the total number of consumer-product matches, and hence in the social value of advertising. Yet, targeting also increases the concent...

  2. Applicative Research on Psychological Demand of Audience and the TAXI for People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether TAXI for People from Beijing traffic channel, the only special program customized for taxi driver in Beijing, knows about the psychological feature of the certain taxi group is an important factor that affects the development of program. Based on demand theory of psychology, this article uses the questionnaire method to find out the psychological feature and lifestyle of audience, and discusses the degree to the TAXI for People which meets the psychological demand of taxi driver audience by analysis on the program content. It is said from the research that the TAXI for People basically meets the psychological demand from taxi drivers. However, this program shall focus more on their basic needs and provide the opportunity for the audience to participate in the program and activity.

  3. Audiences, Journalists, and Forms of Capital in the Online Journalistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson C. Tandoc Jr.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study found divergence in how online journalists and student-audiences rated articles with varying popularity, as measured by audience metrics, and quality, as operationalized by winning a journalistic award. The findings revealed that while metrics and awards did not matter for young online news audiences, they were important for online journalists. But even among journalists, the importance of metrics and awards varied depending on whether the journalists were evaluating stories or their peers. For online journalists, popular stories were more newsworthy than those that were not. Awards did not influence their judgment of newsworthiness. But when evaluating the authors of the articles, online journalists rated authors of articles that won awards more favorably than authors of articles without awards. The popularity of stories did not matter in their evaluation of the authors.

  4. Risk communication as an operation meant to produce and share audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Korbas-Magal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Luhmann's system theory is used as a theoretical framework for analysing the way risk communicators view their social functions. Narrated experiences from risk communicators in practice facilitate an understanding of risk communication as both an external irritation to society and part of the mass communication system. They also aid in clarifying how perceptions of audiences are reflected in the risk-communication strategies. The analysis is based on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews conducted with 22 risk communicators (scientific professionals, spokespeople and journalists in Israel. Thematic areas reflected in interviewees' reported strategies embody their perception of audiences. Those themes include: the reduction of complexities; coding and sorting of information; autopoiesis (realisation/non-realisation of the risk; rationality; inherent paradoxes; and schema formation. In sum, the findings suggest that risk communicators play a major role in defining, creating and producing audiences for the mass communication system.

  5. Defining obesity: second-level agenda setting attributes in black newspapers and general audience newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunmin; Len-Ríos, María E

    2014-01-01

    This content analysis study examines how obesity is depicted in general-audience and Black newspaper stories (N=391) through the lens of second-level agenda setting theory. The results reveal that both Black newspapers and general-audience newspapers generally ascribe individual causes for obesity. While both types of newspapers largely neglected to mention solutions for the problem, Black newspapers were more likely than general-audience newspapers to suggest both individual and societal solutions for treating obesity. For Black newspapers, these solutions more often included community interventions. In addition, Black newspapers more often used a negative tone in stories and more frequently mentioned ethnic and racial minorities as at-risk groups.

  6. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories.

  7. Modulation of the brain activity in outcome evaluation by the presence of an audience: An electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Feng, Chunliang; Wang, Lili; Guan, Qing; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-07-30

    The audience effect refers to the phenomenon that one׳s performance on a task is affected by the presence of others. Here we investigated how the audience effect modulates the neurocognitive signatures underlying people׳s evaluation of their own task performance/outcome. Participants in our study played a gambling game in two social contexts: an "audience" condition and an "alone" condition. The presence of others modulated the feedback-related negativity (FRN), which might reflect enhanced motivational significance or increased reward processing when participants were watched compared to when they were alone. We also observed increased P300 responses to outcome feedback in the audience condition, presumably reflecting more elaborative and sustained evaluation of outcomes in the audience than alone context. This audience effect on the evaluative processes complements previous observations on the social nature of outcome evaluation and extends a traditional topic in social psychology to the neuroscientific field.

  8. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  9. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madlen ZIEGE; Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ; Frauke MUECKSCH; David BIERBACH; Ralph TIEDEMANN; Bruno STREIT; Martin PLATH

    2012-01-01

    Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior.Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented.This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk:interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions.In line with this hypothesis,a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice,but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests.Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs,but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior.Thus,we createl five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males' mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping) and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting).Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured,while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior.The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male's behavior.A reduction in the strength of focal males' preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male's preferred mate.In comparison,the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior.While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male's motivational state is reflected but also females' behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1):84-94,2012].

  10. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  11. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  12. HotTips for Speakers: 25 Surefire Ways To Engage and Captivate Any Group or Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Rob; Reardon, Mark

    From managing stage fright to keeping the audience hanging on their every word, experienced public speakers have the techniques to make every presentation memorable. This book contains a collection of 25 strategies for public speaking that have already worked for many people. Each "HotTip" (strategy) has been tested and used with…

  13. Changing Resistant Audience Attitudes Using Social Judgment Theory's "Anchor" Point Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salazar, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Public Speaking, Business and Professional Communication, Persuasion, or any other skill-based oral communication course. Objectives: Students will practice the development and demonstration of persuasive arguments in this single-class social judgment theory activity to improve their ability to change resistant audience attitudes.

  14. Heckling in Hyde Park: Verbal Audience Participation in Popular Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Speakers' Corner is a multicultural setting in a London park at which the general public can actively participate in popular debate. A successful 'soap-box' orator should attract and keep an audience, elicit support from the crowd and gain applause; indeed, a mastery of the crowd, the discourse a...

  15. What Makes a Skilled Writer? Working Memory and Audience Awareness during Text Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Caporossi, Gilles; Chesnet, David; Ros, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of working memory capacity as a factor for individual differences in the ability to compose a text with communicative efficiency based on audience awareness. We analyzed its differential effects on the dynamics of the writing processes, as well as on the content of the finished product. Twenty-five graduate…

  16. An Audience Response System May Influence Student Performance on Anatomy Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Amy; McNulty, John A.; Gruener, Gregory; Chandrasekhar, Arcot; Espiritu, Baltazar; Ensminger, David; Price, Ron, Jr.; Naheedy, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This study integrated an in-house audience response system (ARS) in the human anatomy course over two years to determine whether students performed better on high-stakes examinations following exposure to similar interactive questions in a large lecture format. Questions in an interactive ARS format were presented in lectures via PowerPoint…

  17. Taking the classical large audience university lecture online using tablet computer and webconferencing facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.

    2011-01-01

    ). This enables some extended possibilities as compared to the standard large audience university lecture: 1. Recording and subsequent online sharing of the entire lecture activity 2. Simultaneous (synchronous) viewing of the lecture on different locations (including smart phone based viewing) 3. Active student...

  18. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  19. Revising an Extension Education Website for Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Spend Smart Eat Smart (SSES), a unique website combining nutrition and food buying education for limited resource audiences (LRAs), was revised using social marketing theory to make it more appealing and relevant to LRAs (25-40 years). Focus groups and surveys identified the needs and preferences of LRAs. Needs were cooking, basic health, and…

  20. Is Extension Ready to Adopt Technology for Delivering Programs and Reaching New Audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Keith G.; Hino, Jeff; Martin, Dana; Meisenbach, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension System is at a crossroads regarding educational program delivery and clientele relationships in a digital age. To "help prepare counties for a future that demands increased use of technology for improving work efficiencies and expanding audience outreach," an assessment team was appointed to conduct a case study to…

  1. Move Your Audience to Action: Using YouTube to Teach Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 75 years, instructors have taught students to use Monroe's (1935) Motivated Sequence (MMS) when organizing speeches designed to move audiences to action. However, modern approaches to teaching the sequence are needed to help instructors remain relevant and effective. This activity advocates the use of constructivist pedagogical…

  2. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  3. The relation between social anxiety and audience perception: Examining Clark and Wells’ (1995) model among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöte, Anke W.; Miers, Anne C.; Heyne, David A.; Clark, David M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clark and Wells’ (1995; Clark, 2001) cognitive model of social anxiety proposes that socially anxious individuals have negative expectations of performance prior to a social event, focus their attention predominantly on themselves and on their negative self-evaluations during an event, and use this negative self processing to infer that other people are judging them harshly. Aims The present study tested these propositions. Method The study used a community sample of 161 adolescents aged 14-18 years. The participants gave a speech in front of a pre-recorded audience acting neutrally, and participants were aware that the projected audience was pre-recorded. Results As expected, participants with higher levels of social anxiety had more negative performance expectations, higher self-focused attention, and more negative perceptions of the audience. Negative performance expectations and self-focused attention were found to mediate the relationship between social anxiety and audience perception. Conclusion The findings support Clark and Wells’ cognitive model of social anxiety which poses that socially anxious individuals have distorted perceptions of the responses of other people because their perceptions are colored by their negative thoughts and feelings. PMID:23635882

  4. Move Your Audience to Action: Using YouTube to Teach Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 75 years, instructors have taught students to use Monroe's (1935) Motivated Sequence (MMS) when organizing speeches designed to move audiences to action. However, modern approaches to teaching the sequence are needed to help instructors remain relevant and effective. This activity advocates the use of constructivist pedagogical…

  5. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  6. Revising an Extension Education Website for Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Spend Smart Eat Smart (SSES), a unique website combining nutrition and food buying education for limited resource audiences (LRAs), was revised using social marketing theory to make it more appealing and relevant to LRAs (25-40 years). Focus groups and surveys identified the needs and preferences of LRAs. Needs were cooking, basic health, and…

  7. Using the Front Page of "The Wall Street Journal" to Teach Document Design and Audience Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Explains an assignment for the audience analysis segment of a business writing course which compares the front page design of "The Wall Street Journal" with that of a local daily newspaper in order to emphasize the use of design devices in effectively writing to busy people. (SR)

  8. Imaginary Audience Behavior As A Function of Age, Sex and Formal Operational Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Luc

    1984-01-01

    The Situation Scale for Adolescents, an extended version of the Imaginary Audience Scale, was administered to several hundred youngsters in the seventh, ninth, and twelfth grades. The scale, assessing self-consciousness in two types of social situations, proved to be reliable, but yielded confused results regarding age and sex differences.…

  9. Audience Adaptation and Persuasive Strategies: A Study of Letters by Sixth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Marcia

    1992-01-01

    Letters from 18 average sixth-grade writers were analyzed for context-creating (background) and persuasive (strategic) text elements. Analysis revealed that sixth graders use context-creating elements to provide helpful background information for their audiences, rely on logical reasoning for persuasion, and have some understanding of text…

  10. Effects of online advertising format and persuasion knowledge on audience reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutaj, K.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an experiment (N = 99), effects of subtle and prominent online advertising formats, respectively sponsored content and banner ads, on audience reactions toward the advertisement are tested. In addition, the role of several persuasion knowledge elements such as understanding of persuasive intent a

  11. Audience and Authority in the Professional Writing of Teacher-Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Anne Elrod; Anderson, Katie; Dawson, Christine; Kang, Suyoung; Rios, Elsie Olan; Olcese, Nicole; Ridgeman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the ways issues of audience and authority are encountered and addressed by classroom teachers who write journal articles for publication. Drawing on an interview study of K-12 classroom teachers who have published articles in NCTE's journals Language Arts, Voices from the Middle, and English Journal, we show that teachers…

  12. Performing the Reflective Self: Audience Awareness in High-Stakes Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data from 31 interviews with teachers and students in higher education in the UK, this article demonstrates the extent to which students, when compelled to write reflectively for assessment purposes, perform their reflective writing for at least one of three audiences: their assessment criteria, their teachers, and a general…

  13. Effects of online advertising format and persuasion knowledge on audience reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutaj, K.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an experiment (N = 99), effects of subtle and prominent online advertising formats, respectively sponsored content and banner ads, on audience reactions toward the advertisement are tested. In addition, the role of several persuasion knowledge elements such as understanding of persuasive intent a

  14. Expanding the Reach of the Interview in Audience and Reception Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David; Brites, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interview method in relation to context, a central notion in audience studies. Through a critique of the traditional conception of the interview method as a question-answer model, the chapter suggests two different articulations of the interview method in the framework ...

  15. Using the Front Page of "The Wall Street Journal" to Teach Document Design and Audience Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Explains an assignment for the audience analysis segment of a business writing course which compares the front page design of "The Wall Street Journal" with that of a local daily newspaper in order to emphasize the use of design devices in effectively writing to busy people. (SR)

  16. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  17. Lecture-Free High School Biology Using an Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    Audience Response Systems (ARS) represent a powerful new tool for increasing student engagement. ARS technology (known variously as electronic voting systems, personal response systems, interactive student response systems, and classroom performance systems) includes one hand-held remote per student, a receiver (infrared or radio frequency,…

  18. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  19. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Audience's Perceptions of Creativity in Online Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I seek to inquire upon audience's perceptions of creativity in online advertising--a heretofore poorly understood area. This paper initially outlines current academic understanding of creativity in online advertising, mainly derived from quantitative assessments. It then advances a qualitative methodology including diary-interviews…

  20. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  1. An Investigation of Audience Receptiveness to Non-native Teaching Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Eunkyong Lee

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to look at the "International Teaching Assistants problem" from a communication perspective. Suggests that one form of intercultural training administered to the audience of undergraduate students results in significantly higher ratings of the nonnative speakers of English as competent speakers. Suggests that a disclosure statement may…

  2. Good experiences with an audience response system used in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Vad; Ostergaard, Doris; Faxholt, Anne-Kathrine Hove

    2011-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) are increasingly being used to heighten participants' involvement. Knowledge of technical and pedagogical challenges is, however, limited. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate ARS as a tool for 1) evaluation, 2) knowledge testing, 3) attention raising and 4) di...

  3. The Role of "Talking Physics" in an Undergraduate Physics Class Using an Electronic Audience Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ellen K.; Angell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The use of electronic audience response systems (ARS) in undergraduate science instruction is increasing. In this article, we argue for combining such a teaching approach with a more active use of student small-group discussions, demonstrating with examples from a Norwegian physics course how "talking physics" is central to the development of…

  4. Developing and delivering food systems training programs for 21st century audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expectations for training programmes today are very different from expectations for training programmes in the past, because today’s audiences are not only multigenerational, but the younger generations learn in distinctly different ways from older, more traditional audiences. To meet the needs of these multigenerational audiences, the Auburn University Food Systems Institute (AUFSI has developed on-demand, online courses that offer a variety of ways for learners to interact with training materials. For example, a typical course may offer not only traditional text, but audio, video, simulations, and more. In addition, AUFSI has developed supporting educational tools such as interactive virtual tours and video games. This approach to creating courses is a response to the  different levels of experiences of the generations as well as different expectations of how materials should be delivered. In order to be effective, training materials need to be designed to appeal to this multigenerational audience. Traditionalists (born before 1946 prefer face-to-face training programmes. Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964 are more accepting of technology. Generations X (born 1965-1980, Y (born 1981- 2000 and C (born after 2000, however, expect to receive training at their convenience, to have it delivered electronically, and to be entertained as well as educated.

  5. Value and Audience Relationships: Tate’s Ticketed Exhibitions 2014–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Dima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report Mariza Dima sets out the findings of a research project examining the experiential and educational value of Tate’s ticketed exhibitions to its audiences. Exhibition planning, the contributions of small and medium-sized enterprises and the museum’s data-gathering practices are explored, taking the 2014 exhibitions Late Turner and Malevich as case studies.

  6. Changing Resistant Audience Attitudes Using Social Judgment Theory's "Anchor" Point Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salazar, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Public Speaking, Business and Professional Communication, Persuasion, or any other skill-based oral communication course. Objectives: Students will practice the development and demonstration of persuasive arguments in this single-class social judgment theory activity to improve their ability to change resistant audience attitudes.

  7. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  8. Developing and delivering food systems training programs for 21st century audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Hahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Expectations for training programmes today are very different from expectations for training programmes in the past, because today’s audiences are not only multigenerational, but the younger generations learn in distinctly different ways from older, more traditional audiences. To meet the needs of these multigenerational audiences, the Auburn University Food Systems Institute (AUFSI has developed on-demand, online courses that offer a variety of ways for learners to interact with training materials. For example, a typical course may offer not only traditional text, but audio, video, simulations, and more. In addition, AUFSI has developed supporting educational tools such as interactive virtual tours and video games. This approach to creating courses is a response to the  different levels of experiences of the generations as well as different expectations of how materials should be delivered. In order to be effective, training materials need to be designed to appeal to this multigenerational audience. Traditionalists (born before 1946 prefer face-to-face training programmes. Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964 are more accepting of technology. Generations X (born 1965-1980, Y (born 1981- 2000 and C (born after 2000, however, expect to receive training at their convenience, to have it delivered electronically, and to be entertained as well as educated.

  9. Let's Talk about Sex: Audience Research of Flemish Teenage Television Viewers and Their View on Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Elke; Biltereyst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Teenage sexual identity is shaped within a complex cultural landscape in which the issue of protecting the "innocent" (children/teens) from sexually suggestive images is high on the public agenda. Intimate relationships and sexuality have entered the public domain and are presented on the screen, offering audiences possible roles to play…

  10. Communicating Astronomy with a Mass Audience — BBC's Stargazing Live goes Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, M.

    2015-06-01

    Following on from the hugely successful airing of Heel Nederland Kijkt Sterren — a Dutch stargazing event modelled on the BBC's programme Stargazing Live — this article explores some of the issues involved in communicating astronomy directly to a mass audience. This includes the production process, co-sponsorship, content, the reach and lessons learned.

  11. Promoting the Audience Awareness of EFL Writing in Chinese Communicative Context: A Case Study of "Notice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the audience awareness through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is crucial for effective writing both in mother and in foreign language. And it is widely acknowledged that the cultivation of social…

  12. Adjusting a Business Lecture for an International Audience: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiciottoli, Belinda Crawford

    2005-01-01

    It is widely known that L2 audiences continue to experience comprehension difficulties when listening to content lectures in English, regardless of proficiency level. For this reason, NS lecturers should be aware of potential obstacles to comprehension and the need to make appropriate adjustments. In order to understand how such adjustments may be…

  13. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological discussion of the potential and challenges of involving mobile eye-tracking technology in studies of knowledge generation and learning in a science centre context. The methodological exploration is based on eye-tracking studies of audience interaction...

  14. Performing the Reflective Self: Audience Awareness in High-Stakes Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data from 31 interviews with teachers and students in higher education in the UK, this article demonstrates the extent to which students, when compelled to write reflectively for assessment purposes, perform their reflective writing for at least one of three audiences: their assessment criteria, their teachers, and a general…

  15. Who wants to know? The effect of audience on identity expression among minority group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, M; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Shahinper, K

    2003-01-01

    Statements of social identification among ethnic minority members were examined as a function of group membership of the participants, group membership of the audience, and personal identifiability. In Study 1, Turkish migrants and Iranian refugees in the Netherlands expressed their identification w

  16. Zipcar Theater: The Tacoma Theater Project as an Anchor for Audience Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As theater audiences decline society-wide, university theater programs have felt the impact, with many being cut back as institutions face difficult economic decisions. The Tacoma Theater Project at the University of Washington-Tacoma is an innovative effort to resist this trend. By working with professional theater groups in a partnership…

  17. Imaginary Audience and Voice in Emerging Adulthood: The Undergraduate Student Experience. Volume 756

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyszig, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    The author explores the experiences and beliefs of emerging adult students, concerning their sense of voice and use of imaginary audience. Quantitative analyses revealed differences in voice and academic standing, and women reported higher feminine gender orientation than did men. Through qualitative analyses, participants stressed a need for…

  18. Gaze alternation in dogs and toddlers in an unsolvable task: evidence of an audience effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, S; Colombo, E; Passalacqua, C; Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E

    2013-11-01

    Dogs have been shown to use human-directed gazing behaviour and gaze alternation in numerous contexts; however, it is still unclear whether this behaviour can be considered an intentional and referential communicative act. In the current study, adult dogs and preverbal toddlers were tested using the classic unsolvable task paradigm, but varying the attentional stance of the participating audience (the experimenter and the caregiver). The aims were to assess (1) whether dogs and toddlers would use gaze alternation behaviour in similar manners when the task became unsolvable, and (2) whether both dogs and toddlers would take into account the attentional stance of the audience when initiating a communicative interaction. Results indicated that both toddlers and dogs increased their gaze alternation behaviour between the apparatus and caregiver when the task became unsolvable, and toddlers also showed an increase in pointing behaviour. Furthermore, both species showed a capacity to take into account the attentional stance of the audience when manifesting gaze alternation behaviours towards them. Taken together, these results suggest that gaze alternation is both an intentional and referential communicative act and that both species can take into account the need for audience attention when communicating with them.

  19. ePortfolios and Audience: Teaching a Critical Twenty-First Century Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Chris W.; Poklop, Laurie L.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a three-year investigation into how and to what extent ePortfolios sponsor teacher and student learning about audience in first-year writing classes at a mid-sized research university. Through interviews with students and instructors and detailed analysis of students' ePortfolios, we found that, more often than not, the…

  20. Martin Luther King, Jr. Borrows a Revolution: Argument, Audience, and Implications of a Secondhand Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Keith D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines features of and sources for the discourse of Martin Luther King, Jr., as they relate to the language and assumptions favored by his listeners and readers in an effort to understand how speakers and writers can successfully argue from premises that audiences accept. Indicates how an understanding of King can help in composition…

  1. Communication Problems in a Mass Society: Mass Audience, Mass Communication and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemeka, Andrew A.

    This paper examines the problem of how to reconcile the practical realities of the nature of the mass audience with the demands of personal and social development, particularly in Africa and other Third World Countries, where the demands of modernization have confronted traditional norms and values. After defining and clarifying key concepts such…

  2. 32 CFR 705.9 - Availability of motion pictures to external audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of motion pictures to external... motion pictures to external audiences. (a) Public access. Navy and Marine Corps general motion pictures and motion picture projects not previously cleared for public exhibition will require clearance by...

  3. Let's Talk about Sex: Audience Research of Flemish Teenage Television Viewers and Their View on Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Elke; Biltereyst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Teenage sexual identity is shaped within a complex cultural landscape in which the issue of protecting the "innocent" (children/teens) from sexually suggestive images is high on the public agenda. Intimate relationships and sexuality have entered the public domain and are presented on the screen, offering audiences possible roles to play…

  4. Evaluation of an Audience Response System for the Continuing Education of Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Redonda G.; Ashar, Bimal H.; Getz, Kelly J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) for physicians and other health personnel is becoming increasingly important in light of recertification requirements. Interactive learning is more effective and may be useful in a continuing education setting. This study examines the use of an audience response system (ARS) as an interactive…

  5. Use of virtual microscopy for didactic live-audience presentation in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, David J; Suster, Saul

    2003-02-01

    Didactic presentations on the topic of anatomic pathology in front of a live audience have been largely dependent on the use of standard 2 x 2 inch projection slides (Kodachromes) of selected still images from the topic at hand. Because of the highly visual nature of the specialty of anatomic pathology, this method has had some serious limitations. With the advent of digital imaging techniques and the availability of new electronic software for the projection of images, new possibilities have become available for didactic presentations in anatomic pathology in front of a large, live audience. We describe a method whereby large digital images or "virtual slides" were produced from digitally scanned whole-mount sections of histologic glass slides and projected using a combination of PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) and virtual microscopy in front of a live audience. To provide a seamless transition between the two presentation formats, the personal computer-based PowerPoint slides were hyperlinked to a browser-based virtual microscope viewer. The presenter, with the use of a mouse, was able to "move" the image of the scanned slide on the screen, to transition seamlessly among various magnifications, and to rapidly select from the whole-mount scanned slide among any areas of interest pertinent to the topic. Thus, the visual experience obtained by the audience simulated that of viewing a glass slide at a multi-headed microscope during a glass slide tutorial. Because this most closely approximates the experience of reviewing glass slides under the microscope for practicing pathologists, the educational experience of the presentation is greatly enhanced by the use of this technique. Also, this method permits making this type of presentation available to a much larger group of individuals in a live audience.

  6. "Tele Pour Tous" in Rural Ivory Coast: Audience, Impact, Perceptions: Report of Two Surveys Conducted in January and April, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaix, Mireille; Lenglet, Frans

    This report presents the results of two surveys conducted in January and April 1977 in the Ivory Coast to assess the impact of the "Tele Pour Tous" programs on rural audiences in terms of awareness, learning, and action. Descriptions of the socio-economic characteristics of the audience and their viewing patterns were sought, and…

  7. As Conversations Unravel: A Reflection on Learning to Teach Adult Audiences Using Experience from School, Teacher, and Family Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Teaching general adult audiences in art museums requires the teacher to consider different goals and priorities than those of school, teacher, or family programs. In this reflective essay, one gallery educator whose primary museum teaching experiences had been with the latter audiences discusses a transition to leading public tours. He describes…

  8. The Impact of Identifying a Specific Purpose and External Audience for Writing on Second Graders' Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (CCSS) emphasize the importance of writing and specify that students should write for external, and, at times, unfamiliar audiences. Given the relationship between audience specification and quality writing in older…

  9. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  10. Creating a Library of Climate Change Education Resources for Audiences in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J.; McNeal, K. S.; Williams, C. C.; Paz, J. O.; Cho, H. "; Nair, U. S.; Geroux, J.; Guthrie, C.; Wright, K.; Hill, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) is a part of the Climate Change Education Program supported by the National Science Foundation (http://CLiPSE-project.org). The established CLiPSE partnership is dedicated to improving climate literacy in the southeast and promoting scientifically accurate, formal educational resources for the K-12 classroom audience, as well as informal educational resources for audiences such as agriculture, education, leisure, and religious organizations, to name a few. The CLiPSE project has been successful in creating partnerships with the National Geographic Alliances, Departments of Education, and Mississippi Environmental Education Alliance, among others, to determine an effective strategic plan for reaching K-12 audiences. One goal in the strategic plan is to create a catalog of climate change education resources that are aligned to state standards in the SE. Eighty-seven resources from the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (http://cleanet.org) have been aligned with the state education standards for grades six through twelve in the southeast, beginning with science in Mississippi and expanding to include science and math in the remaining SE states. The criteria for aligning the existing resources includes: matching key terms, topics, and lesson activities with the content strands and essential skills included in the state science framework. By developing a searchable database containing climate resources already aligned with state standards, CLiPSE will have made these resources more appealing to educators in the SE, increasing the likelihood of resources being implemented in the classroom. The CLiPSE Climate Science Team has also created an inventory of scientifically sound, informal resources, which will be available for dispersion to appropriate audiences and communities. Cataloged resources, both formal and informal, grouped by a variety of means, to include audience, grade level, and resource

  11. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  12. A Brief Analysis on the Audience Questionnaire Referring to Documentary on Tibetan Subject%西藏题材纪录片受众问卷调查浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小次央

    2016-01-01

    在当下电视节目形态多元化的形势下,区外受众更多地通过纪录片了解西藏,认为录片更为真实、全面、生动地反映了西藏的情况。然而目前西藏题材纪录片在题材选取、表形式、叙事方式、传播渠道等方面还存在诸多问题,主创方仍需紧紧抓住当前所处的优势市环境,继续以人文地理、历史风俗作为西藏题材纪录片的主打内容,兼顾新的题材方向,运用际化的表达方式,全方位利用传统和新媒体多个平台,向外界展示西藏的真实形象,讲述西的生动故事。%The questionnaire investigates from three aspects , such as the characteristics of audience , and he making of documentary as well as the dissemination function .It shows that documentary on Tibetan ubject are very popular among the audience from mainland china , who is targeted audience in this uestionnaire .They reckon documentary as the best media product to learn about Tibetan culture and istory as well as other information about Tibet .It suggests that documentary on Tibetan subjects need o pay more attention on theme chosen ,narrative pattern ,the way of representation in terms of technique aspect .Besides ,it also advises that the distribution channel and the market place are also two important aspects to draw attention .

  13. Translating health psychology into effective health communication: the american healthstyles audience segmentation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E W; Maxfield, A; Ladin, K; Slater, M

    1996-07-01

    This article presents a health lifestyle audience segmentation analysis based primarily on social cognitive theory. Two linked mail surveys were conducted among a representative group of US adults (N = 2967). Segmentation variables included data on five health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, nutrition and weight control), internal personal and social/ environmental variables associated with each of the health behaviors, as well as health value, sensation- seeking, life satisfaction and age. K-means classification analysis was employed; seven health lifestyles were identified. The majority of the health lifestyles are reliable, and as a whole, all demonstrate both discriminative, construct and predictive validity. The health-lifestyle audience segments are briefly profiled, and an argument is made that health- lifestyle segmentation, more than demographic or behavioral segmentation alone, can advance the goals of public health communication.

  14. Identity Struggles of Museum Professionals: Autonomous Expertise and Audience Participation in Exhibition Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Tatsi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The established identity of a museum professional is that of a traditional modernist cultural expert, deploying hegemonic power stemming from institutionalised legitimate knowledge. At the same time, its identity work bastions its components against diverse forms of structural audience participation. The museum professional's identity responds to the challenge of structural audience participation with resistance, anxiety and othering. The museum professional's identity work involves a considerable amount of bastioning in that regard, and after participatory intervention has taken place, it works towards marking clearer frontiers between the legitimate expert and idealised amateur. With the experience, a small amount of assimilation of participatory diversification also appears, while the possibilities remain of a 'third expertise' emerging through future collaborative processes.

  15. Scientific dissemination discourse a study of specialized magazines disseminating science to lay audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience.

  16. SCIENTIFIC DISSEMINATION DISCOURSE A STUDY OF SPECIALIZED MAGAZINES DISSEMINATING SCIENCE TO LAY AUDIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience

  17. Watching the dead speak: the role of the audience, imagination, and belief in late modern spiritualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Goldingay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of everyday experience take place in a variety of other locations, domestic and corporate, urban and rural. Moreover, the role of the audience, and the individuals within it, is not constant across all performances, nor is it fixed within discrete performances: it has an inherent potential for fluidity. This article considers the author's experience of this fluidity as a member of a late-modern audience during two performances of psychic mediumship. It describes them, drawing on narration provided by the author's field notes, and analyses them through theoretical discourses, provided by the discipline of performance studies. It goes on to consider how post-modern, or for the purpose of this paper, late-modern audiences, are connected to their modern antecedents. The term ‘late-modern’ is used as opposed to ‘post-modern’, because the paper sets out to explore contemporary society’s ongoing continuity with its past, rather than its disjuncture. A late-modern focus suggests a society that is a development of what has gone before rather than a reaction against it—as one aspect of post-modern theory might propose. And, with this connection in mind, the paper explores a preoccupation attributed to modern society, an emergent sense of self-identity and self-consciousness that was synchronic with the ‘golden age’ of spiritualism (1880–1914. It considers this modern self-awareness in relationship to an examination of the role of the late-modern audience at contemporary demonstrations of psychic mediumship. It focuses on how the performance conditions of these events stimulate the audience’s imagination and beliefs and consequently affect their sense of self.

  18. Gaining trust as well as respect in communicating to motivated audiences about science topics

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Susan T.; Dupree, Cydney

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is a prerequisite for communicator credibility, entailing the knowledge and ability to be accurate. Trust also is essential to communicator credibility. Audiences view trustworthiness as the motivation to be truthful. Identifying whom to trust follows systematic principles. People decide quickly another’s apparent intent: Who is friend or foe, on their side or not, or a cooperator or competitor. Those seemingly on their side are deemed warm (friendly, trustworthy). People then decid...

  19. Relativity as a General Audience Course: The Inventor's Paradox and the Explainer's Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Through a decade of teaching special relativity to general-audience students, I have evolved a teaching strategy that combines numerical, algebraic, and qualitative reasoning. The course treats only space-time aspects of relativity, with no mention of momentum-energy. The non-science majors taking this course leave with an understanding of relativity that is in some ways demonstrably superior to the understanding shown by physics graduate students.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF DETECTIVE GENRE IN MEDIA STUDIES IN THE STUDENT AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of skills for the critical analysis of media texts - an important task of media education. However, media literacy practice shows that students have the problems with the discussion / analysis of entertainment genres in the early stages of media studies, for example, the difficulties in the process of understanding and interpreting the author's conception, plot and genre features. This article substantiates the methodological approaches to the analysis skills of detective/thriller genre in media studies in the student audience.

  1. A tale of two audiences: spectators, television viewers and outcome uncertainty in Spanish football

    OpenAIRE

    R Simmons; B Buraimo

    2007-01-01

    This paper tests for the impact of match outcome uncertainty on two types of audience for Spanish football, fans at the stadium and television viewers. We find that fans inside the stadium prefer games that are less and not more likely to finish with a close score. This is contrary to much theoretical literature in sports economics which argues that fans prefer close contests and imposes this assumption in formal modelling. We also find that television viewers prefer close contests to more pr...

  2. Investigating the effect of empathy on word order in audience design

    OpenAIRE

    Marcar, Genevieve

    2006-01-01

    Exploration into the field of empathy has indicated its association with helpful behaviour. In doing so it has brought to attention the possibility that empathy may be associated with the practice of audience design (i.e. the practice of adapting one’s language for the benefit of an addressee) and may therefore affect our language. The present study will explore this possibility, and will investigate whether empathy affects speakers’ word order during communication. Participant...

  3. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  4. Audience effect alters male mating preferences in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Belzile, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals' attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males' choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution.

  5. Tangential symbols: using visual symbolization to teach pharmacological principles of drug addiction to international audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, A J

    1993-12-01

    Visual art was used to teach the biopsychiatric model of addiction to audiences in the Caribbean, Europe and Mideast. Art slides were tangentially linked to slides of pharmacological data. Stylistically dense art was processed by the intuitive right brain while spare notational pharmacological data was processed by the intellectual (rationalistic) left brain. Simultaneous presentation of these data enhanced attention and retention. This teaching paradigm was based on the nonliterate methods developed by Medieval architects and refined by Italian Renaissance philosopher, Marsilio Ficino.

  6. Audience status moderates the effects of social support and self-efficacy on cardiovascular reactivity during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Christenfeld, Nicholas; Kulik, James A

    2002-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure responses to stress are implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, and an effort has been made to identify factors associated with such responses. One situational factor that impacts cardiovascular responses to stress is the presence of other people and their behavior. Here, we manipulated the status of the audience during a stressful public speaking task to explore its impact on reactivity and its possible role in moderating the effects of the speaker's confidence and the audience's response during the speech. Sixty-four normotensive female undergraduates, classified as having high or low self-efficacy for public speaking, gave a 5-min speech to an audience that responded positively or negatively. Half of the audiences were presented as public speaking experts and half as novices. Cardiovascular reactivity was greater for low-efficacy speakers and for those receiving positive feedback. Reactivity was also greater facing an expert audience. Furthermore, the effects of both self-efficacy and audience feedback were intensified before an expert audience. To understand social support effects, we must attend not only to characteristics of the recipient but also to those of the provider.

  7. Using video playback to study the effect of an audience on male mating behavior in the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowicz, A M; Plath, M; Schlupp, I

    2010-09-01

    Sexual conflict in poeciliid fishes is well-documented, particularly male sexual harassment and its effects on females. For instance, male attempts to force copulations influence female feeding, energy allocation, and preference for shoaling partners. However, there has been little research conducted to determine how the social environment shapes the occurrence and intensity of sexual harassment. In this study we ask whether an audience male influences the sexual behaviors of a focal male, the correlated feeding time reduction of female Poecilia latipinna, and if the size of the audience male (larger or smaller than the focal male) influences these behaviors. We presented a video of a male, either smaller or larger than the focal male, or an empty tank (control) to a female interacting with a male or female partner and measured feeding times and sexual behaviors. We found that male sexual behaviors increased in the presence of an audience male, especially if the audience male was larger than the focal male. Females fed more in the presence of a partner female than in the presence of a male, which was independent of the audience (i.e., video treatment). Focal female aggression towards the partner female increased with the size of the audience male. The present study shows that an audience male has multiple interacting influences on both male and female behavior.

  8. The Role of Intended Audience in Determining Modality Type: A Study in Relation to the Iranian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Naghizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Language, as a means of communication, offers its speakers some tools by which they can convey the meanings they intend to. One of these tools is the use of modals. Modals help the speakers to express their attitudes and opinions, regarding what is going on in a sentence. Epistemic modality deals with possibility and prediction and deontic modality concerns permission and obligation. This study aims to figure out whether Iranian constitution, as a sample of the laws set by the governments, seems likely more to convey the sense of obligation and permission to the audience(applying deontic modality,or the writers of these laws are just narrating a piece of information. For this purpose, the frequency of each modal type within Iranian constitution is evaluated and considered as an indicator of the writers' attitudes. Modal verbs, auxiliary modals and adverbs in the text of Iranian constitution are analyzed and different types and subtypes of modals are distinguished. The results have shown that in 83% of the applied modals, the spirit of permission and obligation for implementing these laws is very crucially and fully presented by the tool of deontic modality which is used for such purposes. Most of these obligations target the government and the permissions are mostly dedicated to people.

  9. TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERACTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY WITH AN AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Kontsevaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of transformation of the interaction of public relations and public diplomacy with an audience. Since 1980-s, experts have noted strengthening of the role of public in the communication process of PR and Public Diplomacy. Analysis of the work in this direction has revealed changes in the communication world order, due to several factors, which caused the transformation. These factors are: globalization of society (active tourism, developing from the end of the ХХ century, communication without geographical boundaries allowing people to send and receive information outside the country, technological development (penetration of Internet, in particular social networks, in the communication process and changed attitude of the audience to information (also due to the widespread use of social networks, allowing open access to personal information for strangers. Experts evaluate positively the changes in public relations and public diplomacy that have occurred under the influence of transformation of their interaction with the audience. The analysis made in the article is based on the works of renowned experts in this field.

  10. Using Globe Browsing Systems in Planetariums to Take Audiences to Other Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    For the last decade planetariums have been adding capability of "full dome video" systems for both movie playback and interactive display. True scientific data visualization has now come to planetarium audiences as a means to display the actual three dimensional layout of the universe, the time based array of planets, minor bodies and spacecraft across the solar system, and now globe browsing systems to examine planetary bodies to the limits of resolutions acquired. Additionally, such planetarium facilities can be networked for simultaneous display across the world for wider audience and reach to authoritative scientist description and commentary. Data repositories such as NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP), NASA GSFC's LANCE-MODIS, and others conforming to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard of Web Map Server (WMS) protocols make geospatial data available for a growing number of dome supporting globe visualization systems. The immersive surround graphics of full dome video replicates our visual system creating authentic virtual scenes effectively placing audiences on location in some cases to other worlds only mapped robotically.

  11. Effectiveness of an audience response system in teaching pharmacology to baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E; Muzyka, Diann; Hirani, Lorraine M

    2011-06-01

    It has been proposed that students' use of an audience response system, commonly called clickers, may promote comprehension and retention of didactic material. Whether this method actually improves students' grades, however, is still not determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a lecture format utilizing multiple-choice PowerPoint slides and an audience response system was more effective than a lecture format using only multiple-choice PowerPoint slides in the comprehension and retention of pharmacological knowledge in baccalaureate nursing students. The study also assessed whether the additional use of clickers positively affected students' satisfaction with their learning. Results from 78 students who attended lecture classes with multiple-choice PowerPoint slides plus clickers were compared with those of 55 students who utilized multiple-choice PowerPoint slides only. Test scores between these two groups were not significantly different. A satisfaction questionnaire showed that 72.2% of the control students did not desire the opportunity to use clickers. Of the group utilizing the clickers, 92.3% recommend the use of this system in future courses. The use of multiple-choice PowerPoint slides and an audience response system did not seem to improve the students' comprehension or retention of pharmacological knowledge as compared with those who used solely multiple-choice PowerPoint slides.

  12. When Is Humiliation More Intense? The Role of Audience Laughter and Threats to the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta H. Fischer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In personal accounts, humiliation is often reported as a very intense, painful, negative emotion. We report two scenario studies in which we explored two factors that may contribute to the intense character of humiliation: (1 unwanted, negative public exposure, and (2 a threat to central aspects of one's identity. Study 1 (N = 115 assessed emotional reactions to a public insult when an audience responded with either laughter or not and when someone from the audience offered support after the insult or no support was offered. Results showed that the intensity of humiliation increased when people laughed after the insult. However, support offered after the insult had no effect on reported humiliation. Study 2 (N = 99 focused on threats to different self-related values and showed stronger reports of humiliation when central self-related values were threatened than when less central self-related values were threatened. Study 2 also replicated the audience-effect from Study 1, but only when central self-related values were threatened and not when less central self-related values were threatened. Limitations of these studies (e.g., the use of scenarios and potential avenues for future research, such as the (long-term consequences of humiliation and humiliation in the context of social media, are discussed.

  13. Acute exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol disrupts audience effect on male-female interactions in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forette, Lindsay M; Mannion, Krystal L; Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can negatively impact the morphology and behavior of organisms inhabiting polluted waters. Male-typical behaviors are often reduced after exposure, suggesting that exposure may have population-level effects. One way in which exposure may exert population-level effects is by interfering with communication within a network of individuals. Acute exposure to the estrogen mimic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) disrupts the ability of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, to modify their behavior during male-male interactions when an audience is present. However, it is unknown whether audience effects during male-female interactions may be similarly altered. To examine this, male-female pairs that were given an acute exposure to EE2 or remained unexposed interacted in the presence of a female, male, or no audience. Sex differences were found between unexposed males and females. More interactant-directed gill flaring was displayed by control males when a male audience was present while control females performed this behavior more in the presence of an audience, regardless of sex. Both males and females in the control group performed more interactant-directed tail beats in the presence of a female audience. EE2 exposure made all audience effects disappear as treated males and females did not differ in their responses between audience types. These results demonstrate that acute exposure to EE2 may disrupt behavioral adjustments to audience type within a social network. This disruption may, in turn, influence population dynamics in this species as both males and females use information obtained from observing interactions in later encounters with the observed individuals.

  14. The use of audience response system technology with limited-english-proficiency, low-literacy, and vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Reyes, Iris; Liebman, Amy K; Juarez-Carrillo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) have long been used to improve the interactivity of educational activities. Most studies of ARS have addressed education of literate trainees. How well these devices work with low-literacy subjects is not well studied. Information gathering on the training audience is an important use of ARS and helpful in improving the targeting of training information. However, obtaining demographic information from vulnerable populations with reasons to be concerned about divulging information about themselves has not been tested. In addition, a culturally competent method to effectively collect demographic and evaluation data of this growing population is essential. This project investigated the use of ARS to gather information from Hispanic immigrant workers, many of whom are socially vulnerable and have limited English proficiency (LEP) and low-literacy. Workers attended focus groups and were asked to use ARS devices or clickers to respond to questions. Questions were both categorical (multiple choice) and open-ended numerical (text entry), and varied from simple queries to more sensitive points regarding immigration. Most workers answered the one-key response categorical questions with little difficulty. In contrast, some participants struggled when responding to numerical questions, especially when the response required pressing multiple clicker keys. An overwhelming majority of participants reported that the clickers were comfortable and easy to use despite the challenges presented by the more complex responses. The error rate increased as question complexity increased and the trend across three ordered categories of response complexity reached statistical significance. Results suggest that ARS is a viable method for gathering dichotomous or higher-order categorical information from LEP and low-literacy populations in a group setting while assuring anonymity. However, it is recommended that clickers be developed and tested with fewer, bigger

  15. Gene cuisine or Frankenfood? The theory of reasoned action as an audience segmentation strategy for messages about genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kami J; Weiner, Judith; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are currently a controversial topic about which the lay public in the United States knows little. Formative research has demonstrated that the lay public is uncertain and concerned about GM foods. This study (N = 858) extends focus group research by using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to examine attitudes and subjective norms related to GM foods as a theoretical strategy for audience segmentation. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four unique audiences based on their attitude and subjective norm toward GM foods (ambivalent-biotech, antibiotech, biotech-normer, and biotech individual). Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical significance for audience segmentation.

  16. 'You're in FunDzaland': Pre-service teachers (reimagine audience on a creative writing course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Mendelowitz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how collaborative writing for a digital platform can enable students to (re imagine audience. Although in the context of process writing peer feedback is foreground, in practice, its effectiveness is uneven. The digital revolution offers new opportunities for alternative peer feedback through collaborative writing and re-imagining self and other in the process. This study examines data from a creative writing course in which pre-service teachers wrote collaborative short stories for the FunDza digital site and individual reflective essays about the process. The study’s research questions are the following: (1 what were the affordances of this multilayered audience for engaging the students’ imaginations? (2 How did this process of (reimagining audience impact on students’ conceptions of themselves as writers? The data set comprised 16 collaboratively authored stories (published on the site and 34 individual reflective essays. Six of the latter were selected for detailed analysis. Hence, the data for this study encompass detailed analysis of two groups’ reflective essays on the process of writing their stories. These groups were selected because they exemplified contrasting collaborative, imaginative writing processes. Group 1 was familiar with the FunDza audience and context, while Group 2 struggled to imagine it. Thematic content analysis was used for analysis. Each essay was read first in relation to the entire data set, then in relation to the other reflections in the author’s group. The combination of gearing stories towards the FunDza audience and writing stories collaboratively created two sets of audiences that writers needed to hold in mind simultaneously. Analysis indicates that both audiences challenged students to make imaginative leaps into the minds of an unfamiliar audience, deepening their understanding of the writing process. It also highlights students’ mastery of writing discourses and increasing

  17. "POLAR-PALOOZA" and "International POLAR-PALOOZA": Taking Researchers on the Road to Engage Public Audiences across America, and Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2010-12-01

    POLAR-PALOOZA and its companion project, "International POLAR-PALOOZA" shared the same central premise: that polar researchers, speaking for themselves, could be powerful communicators about the science and mission of the 4th International Polar Year, and could successfully engage a wide variety of public audiences across America and around the world. Supported for the US tour by NSF and NASA, and internationally by NSF alone, the project enlisted more than forty American researchers, and 14 polar scientists from Brazil, China and Australia, to participate in events at science centers and natural history museums, universities, public libraries and schools, and also for targeted outreach to special audiences such as young female researchers in Oklahoma, or the Downtown Rotary in San Diego. Evaluations by two different ISE groups found similar results domestically and internationally. When supported by HD video clips and presenting informally in teams of 3, 4, 5 and sometimes even 6 researchers as part of a fast-paced "show," the scientists themselves were almost always rated as among the most important aspects of the program. Significant understandings about polar science and global climate change resulted, along with a positive impression of the research undertaken during IPY. This presentation at Fall AGU 2010 will present results from the Summative Evaluation of both projects, show representative video clips of the public presentations, share photographs of some of the most dramatically varied venues and candid behind-the-scenes action, and share "Lessons Learned" that can be broadly applied to the dissemination of Earth and space science research. These include: collaboration with partner institutions is never easy. (Duh.) Authentic props (such as ice cores, when not trashed by TSA) make a powerful impression on audiences, and give reality to remote places and complex science. And, most importantly, that since 85% of Americans have never met a scientist, that

  18. Building the Bridge to Help Engage your Audience to your Science and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K.

    2014-12-01

    When we talk about NASA and how NASA is contributing to societal benefits, such as education, what do we really mean? How do we know that we are doing something right? And how do we know that we are making a difference? With just over a dozen NASA Earth remote sensing missions flying, NASA is providing remote sensing data on a daily basis, where the data and information can contribute to the relevancy of science in our daily lives and bring perspective to common knowledge. To date, we are seeing a widening gap in the general awareness and understanding of the basic science and concepts among the formal and informal audiences. At a time when we are discovering and understanding more about our home planet, using cutting edge technologies that should inspire people, we have also discovered that we have estranged a generation of potentital users. The reality is that NASA data is being used by a relatively small group of people and they are nearly all scientists. Even when we "collaborate" with other federal agencies or universities, the actual work and impact remains on a scale that is only statistically significant. This is a far cry from being socially significant. There are key factors that are essential for success in communicating and working with both the technical and less technical audiences; they are the foundation to bridging the audience gaps and ultimately, truly engaging them. We need to show that the content is important and meaningful in our everyday lives by appealing to the audiences' sensibilities, packaging the content in a format that will be used by the audience, and we need to encourage and support people to create and innovate with this data and information. When you come right down to it, NASA is still the only agency that is continually putting up the new technologies, enabling and maintaining that crucial data flow, and supporting the umbilical cord of global data sets to the science community world-wide. But times have changed. It is not

  19. Results and summary of voting among the audience during presentation and discussion of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma clinical guidelines prepared by American Thyroid Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Soderstrom, Folke

    2013-01-01

    , related to the specific aspect, were presented to the audience. The responses from the audience were collected by an AudioResponseSystem (ARS voting system). The results of the voting showed in summary that European expert opinion leaders and an audience of specialists in treatment of Medullary Carcinoma...

  20. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-07-24

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children's exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children's ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children's vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change.