WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary study conducted

  1. A preliminary study on the thermal conductivity and flammability of WPC based on some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Chua, P.H.; Lee, E.E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Selected local woods and their wood-polymer combinations or composites (WPC) were tested for their thermal conductivity and their fire resistance. WPC were prepared by polymerizing monomers 'in situ' in oven dried woods by gamma radiation. The monomers included acrylonitrile (AN), 60% styrene-40% acrylonitrile (STAN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 95% methyl methacrylate-5% dioxane (MD), and vinylidene chloride (VDC). A reduction in thermal conductivity was exhibited by all the composites prepared. W-PAN showed the greatest reduction in thermal conductivity and W-PSTAN in general showed the least. An explanation is suggested for this behaviour. The polymers PMMA and PMD were found to enhance flammability of the woods while PVDC, PAN, and PSTAN imparted fire resistance to the woods. Of the six local woods studied, Ramin-and-Keruing-polymer composites showed the highest flammable tendencies obtained. The correlation of thermal conductivity to flammability is discussed. (author)

  2. An assessment of the preliminary microbiological studies on clay cores from Elstow conducted by the Universities of Leicester and Warwick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.

    1987-04-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to establish the presence or absence of micro-organisms in samples of Oxford Clay from Elstow. Bacterial colonies were the dominant organisms found. In addition, a limited series of tests was performed to assess the tolerance of specific bacterial sub-cultures to variations in two environmental parameters; pH and temperature. It was found that micro-organisms can survive and colonise at depth in Oxford Clay strata, but at an abundance of between two and four orders of magnitude below that of typical garden soil. Therefore, in the ''after closure'' phase of a repository where an environment of pH greater than 9 will probably exist, some localised micro-biological action may take place. However, from the data obtained, degradation by this mechanism is likely to be slower when compared to deterioration from physical and chemical mechanisms. (author)

  3. Comparison of ear-canal reflectance and umbo velocity in patients with conductive hearing loss: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko H; Pisano, Dominic V; Roosli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A; Merchant, Gabrielle R; Mahfoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F; Rosowski, John J; Merchant, Saumil N

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) in a population of patients with conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane and an aerated middle ear. We also sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of umbo velocity (VU) measurements and measurements of ECR in the same group of patients. This prospective study comprised 31 adult patients with conductive hearing loss, of which 14 had surgically confirmed stapes fixation due to otosclerosis, 6 had surgically confirmed ossicular discontinuity, and 11 had computed tomography and vestibular evoked myogenic potential confirmed superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD). Measurements on all 31 ears included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 to 8 kHz, ECR for 0.2 to 6 kHz using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and VU for 0.3 to 6 kHz using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc, Waldbronn, Germany). We analyzed power reflectance |ECR| as well as the absorbance level = 10 × log10(1 - |ECR|). All measurements were made before any surgical intervention. The VU and ECR data were plotted against normative data obtained in a companion study of 58 strictly defined normal ears (). Small increases in |ECR| at low-to-mid frequencies (400-1000 Hz) were observed in cases with stapes fixation, while narrowband decreases were seen for both SCD and ossicular discontinuity. The SCD and ossicular discontinuity differed in that the SCD had smaller decreases at mid-frequency (∼1000 Hz), whereas ossicular discontinuity had larger decreases at lower frequencies (500-800 Hz). SCD tended to have less air-bone gap at high frequencies (1-4 kHz) compared with stapes fixation and ossicular discontinuity. The |ECR| measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate 28 of the 31 cases into the three pathologies. By comparison, VU measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate

  4. Radiotherapy of macular lesions in age-related macular degeneration (A.M.D.): preliminary results of a clinical study conducted in Lyon, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Mauget, M.; Gerard, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate irradiation effects on functional signs and choroidal neo-vascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that does not respond to laser therapy. Since 1994, 250 consecutive AMD patients were treated by two radiotherapy teams for sub-foveal neo-vascular lesions. At the end of september 1996, 52 patients were evaluable with a 1-year follow-up. Group 1 (Department de Radiotherapie Oncologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lyon Sud) included 26 patients who were treated with a lateral beam of 6 MV photons. The irradiation dose were 20 Gy in five fractions for small lesions and 28.8 Gy in eight fractions for larger lesions. Group 2 (Centre Oncologie Radiotherapie Saint-Jean) was composed of 26 patients treated with a mini-beam of 25 MV photons via lateral arc-therapy. Beam diameters (14 and 18 mm) were adapted to the lesion size. The total dose was 16 Gy in four fractions or 20 Gy in five fractions. Functional and anatomical results were assessed at 3, 6, 9 months and 1 year after radiation therapy. Stable visual acuity was observed in 44 % (23/52) of the patients and visual acuity was improved in 35 % (18/52) of the patients at 6 months. Good functional results reached 79 % (41/52) at 6 months and 74 % (17/23) at 12 months. There was no statistical difference between the two groups and dose levels. All severe complications (1 cataract, 3 dilated choroidal vessels, and 2 papillitis) occurred in group 1. Though it is too early to conclude on the best dose level, radiotherapy of sub-foveal neo-vascular lesions of AMD that cannot be treated via laser therapy provides encouraging results. The technique used must be very precise to adequately irradiate the fovea and spare surrounding sensitive areas. Further studies and trials involving patients' randomization are necessary to confirm these preliminary results. (author)

  5. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS receiver. This research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between ECa and soil properties as well as the yield of rice (paddy in paddy’s farming fields. One study site was chosen. The sensor was pulled through a plotted area of 0.25 km2. The distribution map of ECa was developed to identify the contrast of ECa. More than 100 ECa of data points were collected in 3-hour for the large plot. The data was later transferred to a notebook computer for generation of ECa maps using Surfer 11 software. According to the data analyses, field and ECa showed positive correlation. The average values of ECa are significantly different between hilly area and drainage canal area signifying differences in soil structure. Soil ECa could provide a measure of the spatial differences associated with soil physical and chemical properties, which for paddy soil may be a measure of soil suitability for crop growth and its productivity. This sensor can measure the soil ECa through the field quickly for detailed features of the soil and can be operated by just one worker. The ECa map provides some ideas for future soil management

  7. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan,

    2015-01-01

    Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa) has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS) rec...

  8. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  9. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  10. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  11. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  12. Synthesis of dye linked conducting block copolymers, dye linked conducting homopolymers and preliminary application to photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Hagemann, O.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic approach to the synthesis of a large super molecule composed of two chemically different conducting polymer blocks with, respectively, high and low lying electronic energy levels linked through a porphyrin dye molecule is presented. The synthetic strategies to these molecular architec...

  13. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  14. Electrodiagnosis and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuniak, E A

    1984-08-01

    The use of electrodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of complaints in the lower extremities provides an objective method of assessment. A basic understanding of principles of neurophysiology, EMG and NCV methodology, and neuropathology of peripheral nerves greatly enhances physical diagnosis and improves the state of the art in treatment of the lower extremity, especially foot and ankle injuries. Familiarity with the method of reporting electrodiagnostic studies and appreciation of the electromyographer's interpretation of the EMG/NCV studies also reflects an enhanced fund of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as pertains to one's level of professional expertise. Information regarding the etiology of positive sharp waves, fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, and normal motor action potentials and conduction studies serves as a sound basis for the appreciation of the categories of nerve injury. Competence in understanding the degree of axonal or myelin function or dysfunction in a nerve improve one's effectiveness not only in medical/surgical treatment but in prognostication of recovery of function. A review of the entrapment syndromes in the lower extremity with emphasis on tarsal tunnel syndrome summarizes the most common nerve entrapments germane to the practice of podiatry. With regard to tarsal tunnel syndrome, the earliest electrodiagnostic study to suggest compression was reported to be the EMG of the foot and leg muscles, even before prolonged nerve latency was noted.

  15. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  16. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10 13 fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10 6 euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10 6 euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10 6 euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron

  17. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  18. Monetary Policy Committee and Monetary Policy Conduct in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekor, Maxwell; Saka, Jimoh; Adeniyi, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    The study provides an incisive but preliminary investigation into the activities of the monetary policy committee of the central bank of Nigeria and the implications for monetary policy, using the standard deviation measure of volatility and the ordinary least square method. The findings show that the ‘internal’ members and majority of the ‘external’ members have different preferences as shown in the voting patterns. Also, there has been reduction in inflation, money and stock markets vola...

  19. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Doses in mammography. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez P, F.; Acosta R, N.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Benavente, T.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Poma, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography is the most important method to detect lesions in the breast with this technique one can detect small tumours before clear clinical symptoms appear. Mammographic image of require high quality standards due that the extremely low contrast between the normal and pathological areas in the breast, eg.g., they have similar attenuation and absorption coefficient. The x-ray mammographic systems, used in this study are Senographe 500t and Senographe DMR, a detector with a RadCal ionization chambers calibrated to the qualities of mammographic x-ray beams, and a breast simulator that is a phantoms of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of several thicknesses with the equivalence of 50% of the glandular tissue. The results obtained indicate that the values of doses at the entrance surface of a breast (DES) are greater the reference value 20 mGy to 5,0 cm of PMMA and the values of the mean glandular dose (MGD) exceed the reference value of 2,1 mGy for 5,1 cm of compressed thick breast. We consider that the values high of the EDS and MGD are due that the x-ray systems no meeting in good condition or for used of x-ray spectra no suitable, so is recommendable be carried out test of quality control to the x-ray systems and also realize studies, or characterize the of x-ray mammographic spectra

  1. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  2. River Wyre preliminary feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A study undertaken in 1987 for the Department of Energy, of small estuaries and embayments around the coast of the United Kingdom, identified the Wyre as one of the most promising sites for the construction of a small tidal power barrage. Enquiries showed that Organisations with interests in and around the Wyre had carried out extensive surveys and investigations into the physical and environmental aspects of the estuary, many of which would be relevant to the development of a tidal power scheme. It was identified that a barrage constructed on the Wyre, in addition to generating clean renewable energy may also act as a road crossing between Fleetwood and Over Wyre, thereby avoiding the present diversion via the Shard Toll Bridge located some 8km upstream of the town of Fleetwood. (Author)

  3. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  4. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  5. Preliminary 2D design study for A ampersand PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design

  6. Preliminary simulation study of doppler reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yuta; Hojo, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Ichimura, Makoto; Haraguchi, Yusuke; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary simulation study of Doppler reflectometry is performed. The simulations solve Maxwell's equations by a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code method in two dimensions. A moving corrugated metal target is used as a plasma cutoff layer to study the basic features of Doppler reflectometry. We examined the effects of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the electromagnetic waves and the corrugation depth of the metal target. Furthermore, the effect of a nonuniform plasma is studied using this FDTD analysis. The Doppler shift and velocity are compared with those obtained from FDTD analysis of a uniform plasma. (author)

  7. Study of thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D; Sundaram, S; Nath, G K; Sethuram, N P; Chandrasekharan, T; Varadarajan, T G [Heavy Water Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents experimental determination of the apparent thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation for a cryogenic system. The variation of thermal conductivity with residual gas pressure is studied and the optimum vacuum for good insulating performance is determined. Evaporation loss technique for heat-inleak determination is employed. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Study of thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, D.; Sundaram, S.; Nath, G.K.; Sethuram, N.P.; Chandrasekharan, T.; Varadarajan, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental determination of the apparent thermal conductivity of multilayer insulation for a cryogenic system. The variation of thermal conductivity with residual gas pressure is studied and the optimum vacuum for good insulating performance is determined. Evaporation loss technique for heat-inleak determination is employed. (author)

  9. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  10. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  11. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  12. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de [Institute for Advanced Studies, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gianninocamillo@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  13. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  14. Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T.; Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R b ) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10 -4 Scm -1 for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH 4 NO 3 (50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH 4 NO 3 -PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10 -3 Scm -1 while for the MC-NH 4 NO 3 -EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10 -2 Scm -1 . The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

  15. Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains

  16. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  17. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  18. Preliminary conceptual studies of REX 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.; Baas, C.; Ballagny, A.; Chagrot, M.; Farny, G.; Barnier, M.; Pattou, A.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear R and D programs are, to some extent, completely dependent on research reactors availability. In France and others european countries, the major materials testings reactors were built in the sixties and are consequently ageing and reaching the end of their life, some of them having already been shut down. A situation with not a single large research reactor available in first half of next century cannot be imagined, given all the benefits drawn from the use of research reactors. The CEA has therefore started to evaluate the needs for neutron sources in the next four or five decades so as to design the most suitable new facilities to take over from the existing ones. REX 2000 is a new dedicated reactor project intended to meet the needs for fuels and materials testings after the year 2000. The preliminary conceptual studies which have been carried out along the last 18 months are presented and commented. (author)

  19. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  20. Corporate Social Disclosures in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD has been growing remarkably both in business and academic world.  Inevitably, this topic is also exposed in Southeast Asia, a big region that plays important role in global economic issue. Applying a content analysis method, this paper aims to provide preliminary findings in CSD practices throughout the companies‟ annual reports in 2007 and 2008 for countries located in Southeast Asia.  Samples were selected for listed and unlisted various type of industries, based on the information availability internet searching. The sample collection and the subjectivity during the content analysis process are the limitations in conducting this study. In general, the results show that „human resources‟ are the main information disclosed, while in contrast, „energy‟ is the main least issue disclosed in the annual reports.  However, the findings need to be interpreted with considerations since there are limited in samples. Basically, the outcomes support the major prior studies and enhancing the discussion of CSD conducting in developing countries, while at the same time describing some countries which obtained very limited in exposures. To respond the vast increasing issues of CSD practice, this preliminary study has provided a basis to see the role of every country in CSR reporting and how they could support the sustainability development globally.

  1. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  2. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  3. Electrical conductivity study on polythiophenes films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, I.; Cadene, M.

    1994-10-01

    The electrical conduction mechanism of two classes of polythiophenes: polythiophene (PT) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMT) films containing various levels of doping counter-ions was investigated. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity obeys the Mott equation based on variable range hopping. The dimension of the variable range hopping is correlated with the structure of the conducting polymer. It seems for these polymers that carrier transport via mobile conjugational defects does not play a detectable role. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M ampersand O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use)

  5. Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1980-07-01

    Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m 0 C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed

  6. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads from textile wastewater. SD Kumar, P Santhanam, R Nandakumar, S Anath, B Balaji Prasath, A Shenbaga Devi, S Jeyanthi, T Jayalakshima, P Ananthi ...

  7. Naphtha interaction with bitumen and clays : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afara, M.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a preliminary study conducted to characterize naphtha interactions with bitumen and clays. Coarse tailings, fluid-fine tailings, and froth treatment tailings are produced as a result of surface mine oil sands operations. Solvents are used to produce the bitumens, but the actual fraction of the solvent that evaporates and contributes to VOCs from tailing ponds is poorly understood. This study examined the interactions between the solvent, bitumen and mineral components in froth treatment tails. The study was conducted with aim of quantifying the VOC or solvent escaping from the froth treatment tailings. Samples containing bitumen, clay, a bitumen-clay mixture, or MFT were spiked with 3000 ppm of solvent. The amount of naphtha released was monitored by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flame ionization detection of the evolved gases. The results were expressed as a percentage of the total hydrocarbon peak area of the sample versus a control. Results of the study showed that the naphtha interacted more strongly with the bitumen than with kaolinite and the clay minerals from the oil sands. Although initial solvent evaporation was reduced in the presence of bitumens and clays, long-term solvent releases will need to be quantified. tabs., figs.

  8. Studies on conductance of uranyl soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Sharma, M.; Gahlaut, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Specific conductance of uranyl soaps in dimethylformamide indicates two critical micelle concentrations CMC(I) and CMC(II). The value of CMC(II) decreases with the increase in chain length of the soap, whereas CMC(I) does not vary at all. The results show that the soaps behave as simple electrolyte. The major conductance at infinite dilution (μsub(o)) and dissociation constant (K) of these soaps have been evaluated. (author). 12 refs

  9. Phonon studies of intercalated conductive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prassides, K; Bell, C J [School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dianoux, A J [Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Chunguey, Wu; Kanatzidis, M G [Dept. of Chemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The phonon density-of-states of FeOCl, the conductive form of polyaniline and the intercalation compound (polyaniline)[sub 0.20]FeOCl(I) have been measured by the neutron time-of-flight technique. The results are discussed in the light of the conducting and structural properties of the materials. Compound I is oxidised by standing in air and the neutron measurements reveal substantial changes in the inorganic host skeleton. (orig.).

  10. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  11. Preliminary study on AC superconducting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ishigohka, T.; Shimohka, T.; Mizukami, N.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the issues involved in developing AC superconducting machines. In the first phase, as a preliminary experiment, a 4kVa AC superconducting coil which employs 100A class 50/60Hz superconductors is made and tested. And, in the second phase, as an extension of the 4kVa coil, a model superconducting transformer is made and examined. The transformer has a novel quench protection system with an auxiliary coil only in the low voltage side. The behavior of the overcurrent protection system is confirmed

  12. Isotope angiocardiography. Method and preliminary own studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinska, J; Ruzyllo, W; Konieczny, W [Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness.

  13. Preliminary Development of Conductivity based Test Method for Industrial Radiography Film Developer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, N.S.; Manah, N.S.A.; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    The strength of industrial radiography film developer solution is one of the most important aspects in radiography film processing. The developer solution reacts with the exposed film to visualize the latent image through chemical-film reaction. As the developer is repeatedly used, the strength decreases until a point where it cannot yield the required film optical density value. This work attempts to investigate the developer solution strength through its conductivity. Obtained data are cross correlated to the required industrial radiography optical density range. Through the experiment, the conductivity of the developer solution decreased as the number of the film processed increase. Thus, the desired optical density of the film cannot be achieved. The conductivity of developer is measured and recorded at interval of six films developed. The optical density of every film is recorded to analyze the change in optical density as the conductivity decreases. Through the procedure, it is suggested that as the conductivity decreases, the optical density of film decreased. Ultimately, the strength level of the developer solution can be determined. (author)

  14. Conductivity studies on microwave synthesized glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found that conductivity in these glasses changes from the predominantly 'ionic' to predominantly 'electronic' depending upon the chemical composition. ... Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India; Department of Physics, Sree Siddaganga College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tumkur University, ...

  15. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of DNA conductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Král, Karel; Bunček, M.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Todorciuc, Tatiana; Weiter, M.; Navrátil, J.; Schneider, Bohdan; Pavluch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2008), s. 422-426 ISSN 1895-1082 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN401770651; GA MŠk OC 137; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : molecular electronics * DNA * scanning tunneling microscopy * conductivity * charge carrier transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.448, year: 2008

  17. Tritium oxidation and exchange: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    The radiological hazard resulting from an exposure to either tritium oxide or tritium gas is discussed and the factors contributing to the hazard are presented. From the discussion it appears that an exposure to tritium oxide vapor is 10 4 to 10 5 times more hazardous than exposure to tritium gas. Present and future sources of tritium are briefly considered and indicate that most of the tritium has been and is being released as tritium oxide. The likelihood of gaseous releases, however, is expected to increase in the future, calling to task the present general release assumption that 100% of all tritium released is as oxide. Accurate evaluation of the hazards from a gaseous release will require a knowledge of the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide. An experiment for determining the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide is presented along with some preliminary data. The conversion rates obtained for low initial concentrations (10 -4 to 10 -1 mCi/ml) indicate the conversion may proceed more rapidly than would be expected from an extrapolation of previous data taken at higher concentrations

  18. Endobronchial Occlusion Stent: A Preliminary Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yo Won; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Heo, Jeong Nam; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and the technical feasibility of the use of an endobronchial occlusion stent and to get preliminary data for the development of the optimal material required for endobronchial occlusions. A commercialized, self-expandable tracheobronchial stent was modified; one half had a polyurethane cover with an occluded end and the other half was uncovered with a flaring configuration. The occluded end was placed such that it would face the distal lung. Under fluoroscopic guidance, seven stents were placed at the lower lobar bronchus in 6 mini-pigs. The bronchial obstruction was examined immediately after stent placement. Chest radiographs were taken at days 1, 7, 14, and 28 after stent placement and the removed airways from two, two, one, and one mini-pigs sacrificed on corresponding days were examined for the maintenance of bronchial obstruction. Stents were successfully placed and induced the immediate bronchial obstruction in all mini-pigs. Five of seven airways with occlusion stents maintained an obstruction until the mini-pigs were sacrificed. Proximal stent migration occurred in two mini-pigs (29%), and pulmonary consolidations were observed distal to four of the stents (57%). The placement of an endobronchial occlusion stent and the obstruction of targeted bronchi seem to be feasible, but an add-on check valve should be considered to prevent stent migration and obstructive pneumonia

  19. Adult health study. Hiroshima preliminary report, 1958-1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-06-28

    The first 4151 clinical examinations of radiation exposed and nonexposed persons in the Hiroshima Adult Health Study have been tabulated and reviewed. No evident differences in past history, medical symptoms, physical examination, laboratory findings, nor disease incidence could be related to the atomic radiation in 1945. The sample is small and represents only a portion of the first cycle of an examination procedure that is planned to continue indefinitely at approximately two year intervals. This report, consisting of a review of the program and the findings in this preliminary sample, includes extensive tabular data (Tables 28-65) from the coded medical information. It was not expected that radiation induced changes would be evident from this sample unless they were of unexpected prominence. The report was prepared primarily to describe the problems inherent in an epidemiologic medical study of this sort, and to review the type of data that can be obtained for future analyses. This analysis was conducted to pinpoint some of the problems; to assist others contemplating this type of medical study; to illuminate for ABCC the data that are being collected; and to suggest ways to use these data most effectively. 16 references, 1 figure, 65 tables.

  20. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  1. Towards collaboration between professional caregivers and robots - A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Malaisé , Adrien; Nertomb , Sophie; Charpillet , François; Ivaldi , Serena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address the question of which potential use of a robot in a health-care environment is imagined by people that are not experts in robotics, and how these people imagine to teach new movements to a robot. We report on the preliminary results of our investigation , in which we conducted 40 interviews with non-experts in robotics and a focus group with professional caregivers.

  2. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  3. Hypoallergenic properties of donkey's milk: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow's milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey's milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk. In this work an in vitro study was performed in order to analyze the IgE reactivity to milk protein allergens from cow, donkey and goat. In particular, immunoblotting experiments using sera from milk-allergic and non-allergic adult volunteers were conducted with the aim of verifying the hypoallergenic property of donkey's milk. This study provided a preliminary evidence of the hypoallergenicity of donkey's milk when compared to bovine and goat milk. Considering the obtained results, it would be possible to develop a sensitive diagnostic method for CMPA detection, based on chromatographic and immunoblotting analysis.

  4. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-05

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin.

  5. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  6. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  7. Oxygenates in automotive fuels. Consequence analysis - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenates is used in gasoline due to several reasons. They are added as high-octane components in unleaded gasoline and as agents to reduce the emission of harmful substances. Oxygenates produced from biomass might constitute a coming market for alternative fuels. This preliminary study describes the prerequisites and consequences of such an oxygenate utilization. 39 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  8. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  9. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  10. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  11. Preliminary study and Identification of insects' species of forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proper identification of the insect and arthropod species of forensic importance is the most crucial element in the field of forensic entomology. The main objective in this study was the identification of insects' species of forensic importance in Urmia (37°, 33 N. and 45°, 4, 45 E.) and establishment of a preliminary ...

  12. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  13. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  14. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  15. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  16. Preliminary study of pur-revetment's application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, D.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van de Ven, M.

    2008-01-01

    PUR-revetment is a newly developed method for hydraulic application. Its structure is similar to that of open stone asphalt revetment, but the crushed stones are glued by polyurethane (PUR) instead of bitumen. To study the feasibility of applying PUR-revetment, a research based on the comparisons

  17. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  18. Preliminary study of some problems in deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis; Garderet, Philippe; Lecomte, Alain; Max, Jacques

    1975-07-01

    After defining convolution operator, its physical meaning and principal properties are given. Several deconvolution methods are analysed: method of Fourier Transform and iterative numerical methods. Positivity of measured magnitude has been object of a new Yvon Biraud's method. Analytic prolongation of Fourier transform applied to unknow fonction, has been studied by M. Jean-Paul Sheidecker. An important bibliography is given [fr

  19. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used

  20. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline sample of LiBaPO4 : Tb3+ (LBPT) was successfully synthesized by solution combustion synthesis and studied for its luminescence characteristics. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of LBPT material consists of two peaks at 204.54 and 251.21°C. The optimum concentration was 0.005 mol to ...

  1. Preliminary simulation studies of accelerator cavity loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.

    1980-06-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of loading effects in a 350 MHz accelerator cavity have been performed. Electron currents of 1-10 kA have been accelerated in 5 MV/m fields. Higher order cavity modes induced by the beam may lead to emittance growth. Operation in an autoaccelerator mode has been studied

  2. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables

  3. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept

  4. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers: preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited has embarked on a study of the mortality data among those of its workforce who were employed prior to 1 January 1976. The study covers a total population of about 41000 current and ex-employees, but is initially concerned with a radiation worker cohort of 7500 at the Sellafield establishment where the highest radiation doses are received. Tracing of the health status of ex-employees has been undertaken using the services provided by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and it is expected that ultimately the level of trace will be better than 97%. Mortality data not specifically related to radiation workers are included and relate to male deaths among serving staff and pensioners during the years 1962-1978. Those observed deaths (O) are compared on an age standardized basis with those expected (E) from the general population, the ratio O/E being about 1 for all cancers and less than 1 for non-cancer deaths. This pattern is consistent with the well known 'healthy worker' effect seen in industry. (author)

  5. Jaundice: a preliminary study with the ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Sun Jian; Liu Haiping; Luo Weiquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ultrasound in imaging diagnosis of jaundice. Methods: The changes of ultrasonography of 116 patients with jaundice were correlatively studied with the final diagnosis. Results: Hepatocellular jaundice was found in 27 cases out of 116; and obstructive jaundice was revealed in other 89 cases. The level of obstruction was correctly assessed by ultrasound in 94.2% of the patients. The primary lesion was successfully identified by ultrasound in 87.6% cases of obstructive jaundice. Misdiagnosis was made in 8 cases. Conclusion: Ultrasonography can confirm the obstructive jaundice. The level of obstruction can be precisely located and the primary lesions can be correctly identified in most cases. Better understanding the sonographic characteristics of benign disorder such as inflam-matory mass of caput of pancreas and inflammatory stricture of common bile duct results in a higher diagnostic accuracy. (authors)

  6. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem

  7. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  9. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  10. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DAEA cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species which absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the completed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (author)

  11. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DEAE cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species with absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the complexed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  13. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  14. Preliminary feasibility study of modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    In the future, electric utilities will be required to make a switch-over to a more flexible and dynamic form of power supply due to the slowing growth of power demand, increasing uncertainty, the stagnating economy of increasing scale, the bottleneck of transmission and so on. Nuclear technology would also be required to adapt to this changing environment surrounding its development. The long term prospect of energy demand and nuclear power growth, and the evolution of commercial reactors in Japan are shown. The design of 1,300 MWe advanced LWRs has been completed, and as the reactors of next generation, the ultralarge LWRs of 1,500 - 1,800 MWe are suggested. However, there can be an alternative future for nuclear power development, and in this paper, the possibility for altering the image of conventional nuclear power technology by developing modular reactors which are economical even at small capacity, and can be sited in urban areas just like conventional thermal power plants is examined. The factors for the economical evaluation of modular reactors, learning effect and scale effect on the economy, the case study on a modular high temperature reactor designed by Interatom-GHT, and the possibility of siting in urban areas due to the system of inherent safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Zr-Sn-Nb alloys. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, C.A.; Arias, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the Zr-Sn-Nb diagram have been started, focussing on the Zr-rich corner, near the composition of Zirlo commercial alloy, Zr-1Sn-1Nb, and with Fe and O contents usual in nuclear grade materials. Three alloys were melted, namely Zr-4Sn-2.4Nb (A), Zr-1Sn-3Nb (B) and Zr-2.1Sn-1Nb (C). α/β transformation temperatures were measured through the variation of electrical resistivity(p) vs temperature (T). Values of 560 deg C, 670 deg C and 750 deg C were measured for the α→α+β reaction and 980 deg C, 910 deg C and 1000 deg C for the α+β→β reaction, for the A, B and C alloys, respectively in that order. Some samples were submitted to heat treatments (62 and 216 hours at 825 deg C, 120 hours at 875 deg C). Optical and scanning electronic microscopy of those samples confirmed our resistivity results. (Author)

  16. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ''WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4)

  17. Preliminary design study for a corkscrew gantry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    For two years or more a group including the author has been working together to study some problems related to the design of a gentry system for flexible direction of a proton beam for clinical treatments. Some consideration was given to the classic gantry geometry. Attempting to reduce the radius of the gantry arm by reducing the drift space after the scattering foils led to an analysis of the significance of inverse square intensity effects. The conclusion reached is that a drift space of about 3 meters is required to preserve some skin sparing for larger targets. To circumvent this problem the scattering foils ere put somewhere inside or even before the gantry system, accepting the fact that magnet apertures would have to be increased. This gantry system has the interesting ability to produce oblong fields of excellent uniformity with reasonable efficiency, preferentially with the long axis of the field parallel to the axis of rotation. It was disappointing, however, to find that the overall size of the gantry with its counterweights remained very large. Another change in geometry was proposed therefore in order to reduce the space taken up by the gantry and its counterweight. The beam is bent 45 0 in the horizontal plane and then again by 45 0 so that it is pointing away from isocenter, but in the plan of rotation of the gantry. The beam is now bent in that plane of rotation until it is pointed at isocenter. This is accomplished by two bends of 135 0 each with a suitable drift space between them so that the beam is pointed vertically downward at isocenter. The three dimensional complexity of the beam trajectory led to the name Corkscrew Gantry

  18. Market based consumer adaptation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne

    2005-04-01

    This report is a foundation for further research in the project ''Market based consumer adaptation'', project period 2005-2008. The report describes characteristics of shortage periods for both energy and effects, low priority consumption, power products and network tariffs that may contribute to increased flexibility in consumption and limitations in the IT-systems of today and discusses what problems would be of interest for further studies. The reduction of low priority consumption and the activation of price elasticity would be challenges both for effect and energy shortages. Private consumption would however, partly be different due to the time perspective. It is expected that periods of effect shortages would be of only a few hours and the challenge would be to obtain sufficient response at an hourly basis at load disconnection. The energy shortage is expected to last longer which results in problems in obtaining sufficient and real consumer reduction over time in order to reduce the danger of critical shortage. Important elements in order to supply new power products and network tariffs which contributes to increased flexibility in the consumption, are technology for current registration and remote control of consumption, contracts between the involved parties and the framework conditions that gives incentives for establishing new network/power products. When several parties shall use the same measurements for accounting it would be necessary for all the figures to arrive in time and that corrections are avoided as much as possible. It would also be challenging for the parties whether new products satisfy the regulations. Pricing in network tariffs is subject to more legal public regulations than developing a power product. This may make it difficult to produce ''correct'' network tariffs due to regulation and at the same time interest more customers to making deals with such tariffs. Even if the power suppliers to a certain extent, are more free to develop

  19. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with c...

  20. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)

    1992-09-01

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  1. Preliminary study of soil permeability properties using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, M.; Sudriani, Y.; Rustini, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Soil permeability measurement is undoubtedly important in carrying out soil-water research such as rainfall-runoff modelling, irrigation water distribution systems, etc. It is also known that acquiring reliable soil permeability data is rather laborious, time-consuming, and costly. Therefore, it is desirable to develop the prediction model. Several studies of empirical equations for predicting permeability have been undertaken by many researchers. These studies derived the models from areas which soil characteristics are different from Indonesian soil, which suggest a possibility that these permeability models are site-specific. The purpose of this study is to identify which soil parameters correspond strongly to soil permeability and propose a preliminary model for permeability prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 16 parameters analysed from 37 sites consist of 91 samples obtained from Batanghari Watershed. Findings indicated five variables that have strong correlation with soil permeability, and we recommend a preliminary permeability model, which is potential for further development.

  2. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  3. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  4. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  5. Preliminary study on tensile properties and fractography of the recycled aluminum cast product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishamuddin Hussain; Mohd Harun; Hafizal Yazid; Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2004-01-01

    Among many mechanical properties of materials, tensile properties are probably the most frequently considered, evaluated, and referred by the industry. This paper presents the result of preliminary study regarding the tensile properties and fractography of the recycled aluminum cast product. For this purpose, three sets of specimen were prepared for tensile testing by using permanent mold casting technique. The cast products are in durable shaped tensile specimens with the gauge length of 50mm. The tensile testing was conducted in accordance with BS EN 10002-1 and ISO 6892 standards. Fracture surface analysis was also conducted to understand materials behaviour. (Author)

  6. A preliminary conceptual design study for Korean fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keeman, E-mail: kkeeman@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan; Oh, Sangjun; Lee, Young Seok; Yeom, Jun Ho; Im, Kihak; Lee, Gyung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neilson, George; Kessel, Charles; Brown, Thomas; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present design guidelines and requirements of Korean DEMO reactor. ► Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) and CS (central solenoid) magnet. ► Present a preliminary result of the radial build scheme of Korean DEMO reactor. -- Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy, so called fast-track approach. Korean strategy for fusion energy can be regarded as a fast-track approach and one special concept discussed in this paper is a two-stage development plan. At first, a steady-state Korean DEMO Reactor (K-DEMO) is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used as a component test facility. Then, at its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electric generation on the order of 300 MWe and the competitiveness in cost of electricity (COE). The major radius is designed to be just below 6.5 m, considering practical engineering feasibilities. By using high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn-based superconducting cable currently available, high magnetic field at the plasma center above 8 T can be achieved. A design concept for TF magnets and radial builds for the K-DEMO considering a vertical maintenance scheme, are presented together with preliminary design parameters.

  7. Studies on conductivity and dielectric properties of polyaniline–zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. In the present paper, we report electrical conductivity and dielectric studies on the composites of conducting polyaniline (PANI) with crystalline semiconducting ZnS powder, wherein PANI has been taken as inclusion and ZnS crystallites as the host matrix. From the studies, it has been observed that the value of.

  8. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  9. A preliminary study on titanium-clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Grolimund, D.; Kumpulainen, S.; Brendle, J.; Snellman, M.

    2010-01-01

    bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) were characterized by XAS. Preliminary results can be summarized as: (1) Natural clay materials contain significant but variable amounts of Ti. The standard purification procedure for bentonites to remove accessories does not or only barely removes Ti. (2) The Ti in the natural clays materials Rokle bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy occurs as microcrystalline TiO 2 (presumably as anatase). On the other hand, the Ti spectra in MX-80 suggest the presence of structural Ti in the smectite, but the evidence is not conclusive so far. (3) The exposure of purified MX-80 to titanium powder at room temperature within a period of five months did not lead to measurable additional Ti in the clay. This was even true for samples exposed to acidic or alkaline conditions where corrosion rates and solubility of Ti are known to be higher. Thereof, the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: - The Ti content in natural bentonites is concentrated mainly in the so-called clay fraction. Ti occurs therein either as separate small TiO 2 particles (Rokle, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) or as structural Ti. As indicated by the study of Karnland et al. (2006), the properties of natural bentonites are not affected by the presence of Ti. In that study, the bulk properties (swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity) were very similar for the different bentonites containing variable Ti content, ranging from 0.1 to 4.8 weight % TiO 2 in the purified clay fractions. The transfer rates of Ti from the metallic source, even in reactive powder form, to the clay are very low and no enrichment above background concentrations after several months could be observed. In order to obtain measurable effects, both the corrosion process must be increased and the background concentration must be reduced. Tests with Ti-free clay material at increased temperature are still ongoing and will hopefully enable identification of reacted Ti species. (authors)

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  11. Focused Transhepatic Electroporation Mediated by Hypersaline Infusion through the Portal Vein in Rat Model. Preliminary Results on Differential Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañella, Clara; Castellví, Quim; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Villanueva, Alberto; Iglesias, Mar; Naranjo, Dolores; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Andaluz, Anna; Grande, Luís; Ivorra, Antoni; Burdío, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI) through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE) when applied in a transhepatic fashion. Sprague Dawley (Group A, n = 10) and Athymic rats with implanted hepatic tumour (Group B, n = 8) were employed. HI was performed (NaCl 20%, 3.8 mL/Kg) by trans-splenic puncture. Deionized serum (40 mL/Kg) and furosemide (2 mL/Kg) were simultaneously infused through the jugular vein to compensate hypernatremia. Changes in conductivity were monitored in the hepatic and tumour tissue. The period in which hepatic conductivity was higher than tumour conductivity was defined as the therapeutic window (TW). Animals were monitored during 1-month follow-up. The animals were sacrificed and selective samples were used for histological analysis. The overall survival rate was 82.4% after the HI protocol. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 2.7 and 3.5 times higher than the baseline value, in group A and B, respectively. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 1.4 times higher than tumour tissue in group B creating a TW to implement selective IRE. HI through the portal vein is safe when the hypersaline overload is compensated with deionized serum and it may provide a TW for focused IRE treatment on tumour nodules.

  12. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukur, M F; Yusof, Y M; Zawawi, S M M; Illias, H A; Kadir, M F Z

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH 4 SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10 −4  S cm −1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10 −3  S cm −1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (E a ) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH 4 SCN in the salted system obtained an E a value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH 4 SCN salt. Changes in the C–O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm −1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems. (paper)

  13. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukur, M. F.; Yusof, Y. M.; Zawawi, S. M. M.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH4SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10-3 S cm-1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH4SCN in the salted system obtained an Ea value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH4SCN salt. Changes in the C-O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm-1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems.

  14. Preliminary functional results and quality of life after implantation of a new bone conduction hearing device in patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihler, Friedrich; Volbers, Laura; Blum, Jenny; Matthias, Christoph; Canis, Martin

    2014-02-01

    To review functional results and quality of life of the first patients implanted with a newly introduced bone conduction implant system. Retrospective chart analysis of 6 patients (6 ears) implanted for conductive hearing loss (CHL) and mixed hearing loss (MHL) in 1 tertiary referral center between July 2012 and February 2013. Implantation of a new bone conduction hearing device. Pure tone audiometry (air conduction and bone conduction thresholds, pure tone average, air-bone gap, and functional gain), speech audiometry (Freiburg Monosyllabic Test), intraoperative and postoperative complication rate, and patient satisfaction (Glasgow benefit inventory [GBI]) were assessed. Air-conduction pure tone average (PTA) was 58.8 ± 8.2 dB HL. Unaided average air-bone gap (ABG) was 33.3 ± 6.2 dB. Aided air-conduction PTA in sound field was 25.2 ± 5.1 dB HL. Aided average ABG was -0.3 ± 7.3 dB. Average functional gain was 33.6 ± 7.2 dB. Mean improvement of GBI was +36.1. No intraoperative complications occurred. During a follow-up period of 8.5 ± 2.2 months, no device failure and no need for revision surgery occurred. Audiometric results of the new bone conduction hearing system are satisfying and comparable to the results of devices that have been applied previously for CHL and MHL. Intraoperatively and postoperatively, no complications were noted.

  15. Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)

  16. Studies on electrical conductivity of poly phenylene vinylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, Asaad F.; Ahmad, Saddam M.

    2009-01-01

    Four Pp polymers have been synthesized through Wit ting reaction, 1 poly(p-phenylene vinylene), 2 = poly(p phenylene vinylene-co-m-phenylene vinylene), 3 = poly(p-phenylene vinylene-co-o-phenylene vinylene) and 4 poly(p-phenylene-1,5-hexadiene). Electrical conductivity measurements show that the conductivity of polymer 3 is higher than that of polymers 1 and 2. The dihedral angle measurements indicates that the irregularity of polymer chains is the main reason for this fact. The interruption of chain conjugation by aliphatic segments (polymer 4) will increase the conductivity by increasing the chain mobility.The electrical conductivity of the polymers is increased by doping with iodine and by raising the temperature. The effect of annealing with different temperatures on conductivity was studied; the results show that structural conformation of polymeric chain is the main factor affecting electrical conductivity. (author)

  17. Focused transhepatic electroporation mediated by hypersaline infusion through the portal vein in rat model. Preliminary results on differential conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pañella Clara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE when applied in a transhepatic fashion.

  18. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  19. Radiology workstation for mammography: preliminary observations, eyetracker studies, and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David V.; Johnston, Richard E.; Pisano, Etta D.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.

    1991-07-01

    For the last four years, the UNC FilmPlane project has focused on constructing a radiology workstation facilitating CT interpretations equivalent to those with film and viewbox. Interpretation of multiple CT studies was originally chosen because handling such large numbers of images was considered to be one of the most difficult tasks that could be performed with a workstation. The authors extend the FilmPlane design to address mammography. The high resolution and contrast demands coupled with the number of images often cross- compared make mammography a difficult challenge for the workstation designer. This paper presents the results of preliminary work with workstation interpretation of mammography. Background material is presented to justify why the authors believe electronic mammographic workstations could improve health care delivery. The results of several observation sessions and a preliminary eyetracker study of multiple-study mammography interpretations are described. Finally, tentative conclusions of what a mammographic workstation might look like and how it would meet clinical demand to be effective are presented.

  20. Radiotherapy of macular lesions in age-related macular degeneration (A.M.D.): preliminary results of a clinical study conducted in Lyon, France; Radiotherapie des degenerescences maculaires liees a l`age (DMLA): resultats preliminaires d`une etude lyonnaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P. [Centre oncologie radiotherapie Saint-Jean, 69 - Lyon (France); Mauget, M. [Centre ophtalmologique d`imagerie, laser, 69 - Lyon (France); Gerard, J.P. [Service de radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France) (and others)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate irradiation effects on functional signs and choroidal neo-vascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that does not respond to laser therapy. Since 1994, 250 consecutive AMD patients were treated by two radiotherapy teams for sub-foveal neo-vascular lesions. At the end of september 1996, 52 patients were evaluable with a 1-year follow-up. Group 1 (Department de Radiotherapie Oncologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lyon Sud) included 26 patients who were treated with a lateral beam of 6 MV photons. The irradiation dose were 20 Gy in five fractions for small lesions and 28.8 Gy in eight fractions for larger lesions. Group 2 (Centre Oncologie Radiotherapie Saint-Jean) was composed of 26 patients treated with a mini-beam of 25 MV photons via lateral arc-therapy. Beam diameters (14 and 18 mm) were adapted to the lesion size. The total dose was 16 Gy in four fractions or 20 Gy in five fractions. Functional and anatomical results were assessed at 3, 6, 9 months and 1 year after radiation therapy. Stable visual acuity was observed in 44 % (23/52) of the patients and visual acuity was improved in 35 % (18/52) of the patients at 6 months. Good functional results reached 79 % (41/52) at 6 months and 74 % (17/23) at 12 months. There was no statistical difference between the two groups and dose levels. All severe complications (1 cataract, 3 dilated choroidal vessels, and 2 papillitis) occurred in group 1. Though it is too early to conclude on the best dose level, radiotherapy of sub-foveal neo-vascular lesions of AMD that cannot be treated via laser therapy provides encouraging results. The technique used must be very precise to adequately irradiate the fovea and spare surrounding sensitive areas. Further studies and trials involving patients` randomization are necessary to confirm these preliminary results. (author) 13 refs.

  1. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  2. Preliminary conceptual study of engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong-In; Chong, Won-Myung; You, Gil-Sung; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conceptual design of a pyroprocess demonstration facility was performed. ► The design requirements for the pyroprocess hot cell and equipment were determined. ► The maintenance concept for the pyroprocess hot cell was presented. -- Abstract: The development of an effective management technology of spent fuel is important to enhance environmental friendliness, cost viability and proliferation resistance. In Korea, pyroprocess technology has been considered as a fuel cycle option to solve the spent fuel accumulation problems. PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) has been developed from 2007 to 2012 in Korea as a cold test facility to support integrated pyroprocessing and an equipment demonstration, which is essential to verify the pyroprocess technology. As the next stage of PRIDE, the design requirements of an engineering-scale demonstration facility are being developed, and the preliminary conceptual design of the facility is being performed for the future. In this paper, the main design requirements for the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility were studied in the throughput of 10tHM a year. For the preliminary conceptual design of the facility, the design basis of the pyroprocess hot cell was suggested, and the main equipment, main process area, operation area, maintenance area, and so on were arranged in consideration of the effective operation of the hot cells. Also, the argon system was designed to provide and maintain a proper inert environment for the pyroprocess. The preliminary conceptual design data will be used to review the validity of the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility that enhances both safety and nonproliferation

  3. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  4. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  5. Studying sustainable development at the intersection of conduct and counter-conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    analyses how these documents are participating in the continuous negotiations of the governmental rationalities of global citizenship that are an inevitable part of the dispersed governing of sustainable development. In more detail, the paper analyses how the Danish transportation initiative is co......) that is sensitive to the subtle effects of counter-conduct. The paper reports on an empirical study that tracks the connections between the UN’s Agenda 21 and a ‘local’ Agenda 21 initiative in a rural Danish municipality aiming at ‘greening’ citizens’ everyday transportation practices, and, secondly, the paper...

  6. THE COMPATIBILITY STUDENT CHOICE OF UNIVERSITY MAJORING; A PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daharnis Daharnis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.

  7. Fundamental principles of conducting a surgery economic analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-02-01

    The use of economic evaluation in surgery is scarce. Economic evaluation is used even less so in plastic surgery, in which health-related quality of life is of particular importance. This article, part of a tutorial series on evidence-based medicine, focuses on the fundamental principles of conducting a surgery economic analysis. The authors include the essential aspects of conducting a surgical cost-utility analysis by considering perspectives, costs, outcomes, and utilities. The authors also describe and give examples of how to conduct the analyses (including calculating quality-adjusted life-years and discounting), how to interpret the results, and how to report the results. Although economic analyses are not simple to conduct, a well-conducted one provides many rewards, such as recommending the adoption of a more effective treatment. For comparing and interpreting economic analysis publications, it is important that all studies use consistent methodology and report the results in a similar manner.

  8. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Gowda, Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    Glasses in the system xLi 2 SO 4 -20Li 2 O-(80-x) [80P 2 O 5 -20V 2 O 5 ](5≥x≥20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li 2 SO 4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aω s where 's' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li 2 SO 4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  9. R and D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-State Studies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary Layout Option Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed RandD activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac

  10. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies.......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic...

  11. High pressure studies of ionic conductivity in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samara, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the ionic conductivity provides information about the volume relaxation associated with the formation of lattice defects as well as with the diffusive motion of these defects, and thereby helps elucidate the conduction process. Pressure results on a variety of crystals will be discussed with emphasis on recent results on crystals with large lattice polarizabilities and soft phonon modes. Pressure is shown to be an important--sometimes essential, variable in the study of ionic transport processes

  12. Preliminary audiologic and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Aren; Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Daniel, Sam J; Grolman, Wilko; Thomeer, Hans G X M

    2017-10-01

    To delineate the auditory functional improvement and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device. Eligible articles presenting patients implanted with the Sophono™ were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase electronic databases. All relevant articles were reviewed to justify inclusion independently by 2 authors. Studies that successfully passed critical appraisal for directness of evidence and risk of bias were included. From a total of 125 articles, 8 studies encompassing 86 patients using 99 implants were selected. Most patients (79.1%) were children. Ear atresia (67.5%) was the most frequently reported indication for Sophono™ implantation. Overall pure tone average auditory improvement was 31.10 (±8.29) decibel. During a mean follow-up time of 12.48 months, 25 patients (29%) presented with post-operative complications from which 3 were deemed as serious implant-related adverse events (3.5%). The Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device shows promising functional improvement, no intra-operative complications and minor post-operative skin related complications. If suitable, the device could be a proposed solution for the rehabilitation of hearing in children meeting eligibility criteria. A wearing schedule must be implemented in order to reduce magnet-related skin complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary study on the establishment of the radionuclide declaration methods for radionuclides in LILW radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary study on declaration methods has been done for each radionuclide in LILW radwaste drum in Korean NPPs. View from the preliminary establishment of radio nuclide declaration methods, The selection of assessment target nuclide through the qualitative method and preliminary criteria for routine declaration methods in each radio nuclide was derived. First of all, selection criteria and preliminary assessment method for each target radionuclide was surveyed and investigated. And, the selection criteria and selected the target radio nuclides from the basis on criteria was derived. And the preliminary suggestion about the declaration methods for each target radio nuclide was established

  14. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  15. Preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epel, L.G.; Majeski, S.J.; Schweitzer, D.G.; Sheehan, T.V.

    1979-08-01

    A preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop was performed in order to assess feasibility and to estimate capital costs. The nominal design operates at 50 atmospheres helium and 1800 F with a graphite specimen 30 inches long and 10 inches in diameter. It was determined that a simple single walled design was not practical at this time because of a lack of commercially available thick walled high temperature alloys. Two alternative concepts, at reduced operating pressure, were investigated. Both were found to be readily fabricable to operate at 1800 F and capital cost estimates for these are included. A design concept, which is outside the scope of this study, was briefly considered

  16. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  17. Microangiographic study of the canine dental tissues: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A microangiographic study of the dental tissues was performed on one adult mongrel dog to examine the usefulness of the technique. This preliminary study used 30% wt/vol Micropaque suspension which was perfused into the common carotid arteries. After the complete perfusion, the specimen was fixed into a mixture of 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and 95% ethyl alcohol. The mandibular bone with teeth in situ was decalcified. The specimen was embedded in methyl methacrylate. One mm slab sections were made, and then the microangiographs were made. Adequate filling of arterioles was evident on the microangiographs. This technique is shown to be useful in characterizing the nature of the blood supply to the bone and teeth that might be involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury in the canine dental and periodontal tissues

  18. Radiological follow-up of uncemented knee prostheses. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Hervas, C.; Gomez Barrena, E.; Marquez Moreno, I.; Calle Yuste, F.; Ordonez Parra, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary results of a prospective study of 40 uncemented total knee prostheses (TKP) are presented following a radiological protocol with fluoroscopic control and follow-up of over 2 years. The prosthesis-bone interface and the components alignment were assessed. Several radiological signs were studied to assess this interface with respect to the fixing of the component, but they showed little clinical correlation. Statistical significance (p<0.05, chisquare) was found only in the observation of sclerosis in areas of support for the tibital tray as a reaction of the bone. This radiological follow-up is of interest to determine the evolution of the interface and position of the implant to prevent complications (especially loosening) in patients, particularly those under 60 years old, who represent the group that can most benefit from prosthetic systems with uncemented anchorage because of their life expectation and level of activity. Author

  19. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, G. H.; O, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer), which is used liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed. To do this, this study was estimated the IRR(Internal Rate of Return) and PBP(Pay-back Period) about optimistic and pessimistic cases for market penetration of Asia and U.S.A. isotope markets. And sensitivity analysis is also performed about capital cost and price of Mo-99 and Sr-89. According to the results, IRR was between 14.9% and 24.3%, and PBP was between 4.8 years and 7.8 years. These suggest that MIP has economic merits. MIP can produce other medical isotopes such as Sr-90, I-131, Xe-133, Cs-137. So, it is necessary to do cost-benefit analysis considering production of these other isotopes

  20. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

  1. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  2. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  3. Computational study of NMDA conductance and cortical oscillations in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubra eKomek Kirli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The illness is also characterized by gamma oscillatory disturbances, which can be evaluated with precise frequency specificity employing auditory cortical entrainment paradigms. This computational study investigates how synaptic NMDA hypofunction may give rise to network level oscillatory deficits as indexed by entrainment paradigms. We developed a computational model of a local cortical circuit with pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons (FSI, incorporating NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA synaptic kinetics. We evaluated the effects of varying NMDA conductance on FSIs and pyramidal cells, as well as AMPA to NMDA ratio. We also examined the differential effects across a broad range of entrainment frequencies as a function of NMDA conductance. Varying NMDA conductance onto FSIs revealed an inverted-U relation with network gamma whereas NMDA conductance onto the pyramidal cells had a more monotonic relationship. Varying NMDA vs. AMPA conductance onto FSIs demonstrated the necessity of AMPA in the generation of gamma while NMDA receptors had a modulatory role. Finally, reducing NMDA conductance onto FSI and varying the stimulus input frequency reproduced the specific reductions in gamma range (~40 Hz as observed in schizophrenia studies. Our computational study showed that reductions in NMDA conductance onto FSIs can reproduce similar disturbances in entrainment to periodic stimuli within the gamma range as reported in schizophrenia studies. These findings provide a mechanistic account of how specific cellular level disturbances can give rise to circuitry level pathophysiologic disturbance in schizophrenia.

  4. Study on thermal conductive BN/novolac resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shasha; Qi, Shuhua; Liu, Nailiang; Cao, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. → BN particles were pretreated by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. → The thermal conductivity trend of composite almost agrees with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model. → At BN concentration of 80 wt.%, thermal conductivity value of composite is 4.5 times that of pure novolac resin. → Combined use of the larger and smaller particles with a mass ratio of 1:2 provides the composites with the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. → The composite thermal property also increases with an increase in the BN concentration. - Abstract: In this study, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated boron nitride (BN) particles were used to modify novolac resin. The effect of varying the BN concentration, particle size, and hybrid BN fillers with the binary particle size distribution on the thermal conductivity of the composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed homogeneously dispersed treated BN particles in the matrix. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity increased as the BN concentration was increased. This behavior was also observed when the filler size was increased. Experimentally obtained thermal conductivity values agree with the predicted data from the Maxwell-Eucken model well at less than 70 wt.% BN loading. A larger particle size BN-filled novolac resin exhibits a higher thermal conductivity than a smaller particle size BN-filled one. The combined use of 0.5 and 15 μm particles with a mass ratio of 2:1 achieved the maximum thermal conductivity among the testing systems. The thermal resistance properties of the composites were also studied.

  5. Multi-channel grouping techniques for conducting reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    In conducting safety studies for postulated unprotected accidents in an LMFBR system, it is common practice to employ multi-channel coupled neutronics, thermal hydraulics computer programs such as SAS3A or MELT-III. The multichannel feature of such code systems is important if the natural fuel failure incoherencies and the resulting sodium void/fuel motion reactivity feedbacks--which have strong spatial variations--are to be properly modeled. Because of the large amounts of computer time associated with many channel runs, however, there is a strong incentive to conduct parametric studies with as few channels as possible. The paper presented is focused on methods successfully employed to accomplish this end for a study of the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident conducted for the FFTF

  6. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.

    1996-05-01

    Understanding the structure - conductivity relationship is of paramount importance for the development of polymer electrolytes. The present studies present the techniques found useful in the elucidation of structure - conductivity relationship in PEO n :ZnBr 2 (n = 8, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000) and PEO n :FeBr x (n= 8, 20 and 50; x = 2 and 3). Local structural studies have been undertaken using X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) which includes extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). EXAFS provides interatomic distance and coordination numbers of the nearest neighbours and results from the EXAFS studies showed that high conductivity is associated with stretched M - O interatomic distance. In the studies on ultra dilute Zn samples it was found that the cation is highly solvated by the heteroatom forming a tightly bound environment which inhibits local segmental motion thus impeding ion migration. XANES studies on the PEO and modified PEO complexes of NiBr 2 revealed the sensitivity of XANES to the structural differences. XANES on Zn and Fe samples also revealed the sensitivity to changes in interatomic distances reflected in shifts of the white line. The complementary nature of EXAFS and XANES was reflected in the studies conducted. Morphological studies were undertaken employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature polarising microscopy (VTPM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO 8 :FeBr 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle

  7. Preliminary studies on a plasma focus opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C S; Moo, S P; Singh, J P [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Physics Dept., Plasma Research Laboratory; Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The small plasma focus device UNU/ICTP PFF has been modified to assess the operation of a plasma focus based long conduction (> 2 {mu}s) opening switch, with a plasma filled diode as the load. The UNU/ICTP PFF is a Mather type plasma focus device powered by a single 15 kV, 30 {mu}F capacitor delivering a peak current of 150 kA when discharged at 15 kV. The device has been optimized for reproducible focusing in various gases including deuterium, argon, carbon dioxide, helium as well as in air. In particular, the optimum operating pressure for air is between 0.5 to 1.1 mbar, whereas for argon it is between 0.3 to 3 mbar. For the operation of the UNU/ICTP PFF as an opening switch, the electrode geometry is modified to redirect the plasma motion at the end of the axial rundown phase to avoid the normal plasma focus action, and the operating regime is shifted to low pressure to favour plasma opening switch action. With air as the working gas, pressure as low as 10{sup -3} mbar was tested. At such a low pressure, a set of 12 plasma injection cable guns is used to initiate breakdown of the discharge. The design and operating principle is presented and some preliminary results obtained on the operational characteristics of this device are discussed. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Preliminary Clinical Study On Ms Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulewicz Kazimierz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted the preliminary clinical investigation on 16 multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex patients of median disease duration 9.33 years and symptoms evaluated on Kurtzke’s scale. The patients underwent between 25 and 30 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at a pressure of 2 ata in intervals spread over a few days. The patients were qualified and classified to the treatment symptomatologically according to Fisher but the obtained results were evaluated according to the standardised Disability Status Scale by Kurtzke. During the investigations the authors carried out additional quantitative immunoglobulin and complement activity determination, lymphocyte T and B determinations as well as the usually applied clinical and laboratory investigations. Evident clinical improvement was observed in 14 patients, but in the case of one patient a deterioration was observed after 15 hyperbaric expositions (resulting in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment being stopped, whilst in another case no curative effect could be observed. By utilising the 50% haemolysis method, within the examined immunological parameters the authors observed an increase of complement fractions and its activity, white lymphocytes T and B examined qualitatively did not maintain the characteristic shift. The authors are still discussing the obtained results.

  9. Preliminary study on metallic inclusion in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Imoto, Shosuke

    1984-01-01

    In recent postirradiation tests, metallic fission products such as Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd are known to precipitate as metallic inclusions in the fuel. These inclusions remain as insoluble residues and provide various problems in different fields of the reprocessing. In this report are presented preliminary results of the study on the ternary phase diagram of Mo-Ru-Pd system and on their properties in nitric acid or various oxidative environments. It is concluded that (1) most of metallic inclusions which are insoluble in nitric acid show epsilon phase, Ru base hcp alloy, in which a large amount of Mo and Pd are soluble, (2) Pd, however, seems to deposit separately in the fuel pin because of its high vapor pressure, (3) Mo fraction in the inclusion would be highly dependent on oxygen potential in the fuel pin. (author)

  10. Preliminary Study of RFID System for the LILW Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Choi, Kyusup

    2008-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. In Korea, Low-to-Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes (LILW) are planed to be disposed at Kyeonju disposal repository, and 100,000 LILW drums will be disposed for the first 10 years of disposal. Tracking of these LILW drums is one of the important parts for safe transportation. To track the LILW drums during the transport as well as storage and disposal, RFID can be the prospective method for tracking the LILW drums. In this report, RFID system is introduced to the LILW transport from the generation site to disposal site, and one possible RFID system is suggested as a preliminary study

  11. Preliminary study of magnet design for an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Meuser, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    The overriding design consideration for the SSC magnets is that cost of the facility be minimized; at 8 T, approximately 40 km of bending magnets is required for each ring of a 20 TeV collider. We present some results of a parametric study of two-in-one, iron-core magnets for an SSC. These results are necessarily preliminary in nature, and are intended only to show some of the trade-offs for a wide range of the variables. We show also some results for a reference design that produces 6.5 T in the aperture at 4.4 K for a coil inside diameter of 40 mm. It is not to be inferred that we have established this to be an optimum in any sense

  12. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader; Lee, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed

  13. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed.

  14. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  15. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  16. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  17. Electrical spectroscopy studies of two new siloxanic proton conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Noto, Vito [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35135 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: vito.dinoto@unipd.it; Vittadello, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35135 Padova (Italy); Zago, Vanni [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35135 Padova (Italy); Pace, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35135 Padova (Italy); Vidali, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35135 Padova (Italy)

    2006-01-20

    This contribution is focused on the conductivity study and the protonic transfer investigation of two new siloxanic membranes. The conductivity of the systems has been studied within the temperature range 5 deg. C {<=} T {<=} 145 deg. C, both for pristine and hydrated membranes. Membrane A has been hydrated up to 33.12% in weight, while in B up to 27.76%. The conductivity of these membranes has shown a temperature dependence of the Arrhenius type variable in the interval 1.6 x 10{sup -4} {<=} {sigma} {sub A} {<=} 2.3 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} and 1.3 x 10{sup -5} {<=} {sigma} {sub B} {<=} 2.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}, respectively, for A and B. In particular, conductivities of 2 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} (A) and of 2 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} (B) at 125 deg. C were observed. The conductivity mechanism was investigated by using broad band electrical spectroscopy in the region between 40 Hz and 10 MHz. This study, for both the materials has shown the presence at low frequencies (10{sup 2} {<=} f {sub {beta}} {<=} 10{sup 4} Hz) of {beta} relaxations related to the sulphonic side chain dynamics. The activation energy measured for this molecular dynamics is about {approx_equal}30 kJ mol{sup -1} and corresponds to the typical interaction energy associated with hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation energies determined from the conductivity measurements are 12 and 14 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, for A and B. This shows that the protonic conductivity is strongly influenced by the side chain dynamics and that the charge migration occurs through an ion hopping mechanism between different regions, consisting of micro-clusters of hydration water coordinated with the polar sulphonic groups of the side chains. The comparable activation energies and the values of the conductivity demonstrate that in these systems the conductivity is proportional to the concentration of the sulphonic groups. This shows also that these kinds of membranes, with a high

  18. Electrical spectroscopy studies of two new siloxanic proton conducting membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Noto, Vito; Vittadello, Michele; Zago, Vanni; Pace, Giuseppe; Vidali, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    This contribution is focused on the conductivity study and the protonic transfer investigation of two new siloxanic membranes. The conductivity of the systems has been studied within the temperature range 5 deg. C ≤ T ≤ 145 deg. C, both for pristine and hydrated membranes. Membrane A has been hydrated up to 33.12% in weight, while in B up to 27.76%. The conductivity of these membranes has shown a temperature dependence of the Arrhenius type variable in the interval 1.6 x 10 -4 ≤ σ A ≤ 2.3 x 10 -3 S cm -1 and 1.3 x 10 -5 ≤ σ B ≤ 2.9 x 10 -4 S cm -1 , respectively, for A and B. In particular, conductivities of 2 x 10 -3 S cm -1 (A) and of 2 x 10 -4 S cm -1 (B) at 125 deg. C were observed. The conductivity mechanism was investigated by using broad band electrical spectroscopy in the region between 40 Hz and 10 MHz. This study, for both the materials has shown the presence at low frequencies (10 2 ≤ f β ≤ 10 4 Hz) of β relaxations related to the sulphonic side chain dynamics. The activation energy measured for this molecular dynamics is about ≅30 kJ mol -1 and corresponds to the typical interaction energy associated with hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation energies determined from the conductivity measurements are 12 and 14 kJ mol -1 , respectively, for A and B. This shows that the protonic conductivity is strongly influenced by the side chain dynamics and that the charge migration occurs through an ion hopping mechanism between different regions, consisting of micro-clusters of hydration water coordinated with the polar sulphonic groups of the side chains. The comparable activation energies and the values of the conductivity demonstrate that in these systems the conductivity is proportional to the concentration of the sulphonic groups. This shows also that these kinds of membranes, with a high concentration of SO 3 H are necessary in order to obtain materials with a high protonic conductivity with the capacity to

  19. Considerations when conducting e-Delphi research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronto, Coleen

    2017-06-22

    Background E-Delphi is a way to access a geographically dispersed group of experts. It is similar to other Delphi methods but conducted online. E-research methodologies, such as the e-Delphi method, have yet to undergo significant critical discussion. Aim To highlight some of the challenges nurse researchers may wish to consider when using e-Delphi in their research. Discussion This paper provides details about the author's approach to conducting an e-Delphi study in which a group of health literacy nurse experts (n=41) used an online survey platform to identify and prioritise essential health literacy competencies for registered nurses. Conclusion This paper advances methodological discourse about e-Delphi by critically assessing an e-Delphi case study. The online survey platform used in this study was advantageous for the researcher and the experts: the experts could participate at any time and place where the internet was available; the researcher could efficiently access a national group of experts, track responses and analyse data in each round. Implications for practice E-Delphi studies create opportunities for nurse researchers to conduct research nationally and internationally. Before conducting an e-Delphi study, researchers should carefully consider the design and methods for collecting data, to avoid challenges that could potentially compromise the quality of the findings. Researchers are encouraged to publish details about their approaches to e-Delphi studies, to advance the state of the science.

  20. Conduction disturbances after TAVR: Electrophysiological studies and pacemaker dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Nader; Dollery, Jenn; Jones, Danielle; Crestanello, Juan; Lilly, Scott

    Permanent pacemaker (PPM) placement occurs in 5-20% of patients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Although predictors of pacemaker implantation have been established, features that predispose patients to pacemaker utilization on follow up have not been widely reported. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing commercial TAVR between 2011 and 2016. We collated patients that underwent in-hospital PPM implantation and had a follow up of at least 3months. Data abstraction was performed for electrophysiological studies (EPS), pacemaker indication, timing, and device interrogation for pacemaker dependency on follow up. A total of 24 patients received in-hospital PPM post-TAVR (14% of total cohort), and mean follow up was 22months. Indications for PPM included resting complete heart block (CHB; 15/24, 63%), left bundle branch block and abnormal electrophysiological study (EPS; 7/24, 29%), alternating bundle branch block (1/24, 4%) and tachy-brady syndrome (1/24, 4%). Pacemaker dependency (underlying ventricular asystole, complete heart block, or >50% pacing) occurred in 8/24 patients (33%) during follow-up, 7 of whom had resting CHB, and one with CHB invoked during EPS. Pacemaker dependency after TAVR is common among those that exhibited CHB, but not among those with a prolonged HV delay during EPS. Although preliminary, these observations are relevant to management of rhythm disturbances after TAVR, and may inform the practice of EPS-based PPM implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary feasibility study on natural analogue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary study on the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out. The project on natural analogue study in other countries are introduced. The uranium-bearing deposit in Okcheon belt are summarized, which reported to be uranium-bearing minerals in order to assess to feasibility for natural analogue study in Korea. Among the uranium-bearing deposits, the Deokpyeong area, reported to be the highest reservoir and grade, are selected as the study site, and the elementary investigation, including survey of radioactivity and geochemistry are carried out. According to the investigation of surface environment, the radioactivity and uranium content in the surface water and shallow groundwater does not show any anormal values. However, the radioactivity is expected to be increased in depth and the groundwater reacted with uranium-bearing graphite formation shows high unanium content, indicating the potential possibility for natural analogue study in Korea. In future, if more detail study are performed, the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea are expected.

  2. Comparative study of electron conduction in azulene and naphthalene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    tional or electronic devices. Recent advances in experi- mental techniques have allowed ... stimulates us to study the electronic conduction in azulene molecule and to compare that with its isomer, naphthalene. ..... ernment of India, for funding and (SD) acknowledges CSIR,. Government of India, for a research fellowship.

  3. [Stress at work among military doctors: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezević, Bojana; Belosević, Ljiljana

    2006-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the sources of work stress in military physicians. Forty-eight medical doctors (24 military and 24 civilian) completed a questionnaire on stressors at the work place. The participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. Out of 24 military physicians, 14 were military general practitioners (mean age 40.5, 14 female), and 10 were consultants of different specialties (mean age 43.5, 7 male and 3 female). Civilian physicians included 13 general practitioners working at primary health care system (mean age 37, 3 male and 10 female), and 11 consultants of different specialties working at out of hospital practice (average age 37, 6 male and 5 female). The questionnaire included items aiming to obtain demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, children, academic degree, clinical specialty, work place, average time in practice, average time at current position) and 37 items to determine occupational stressors. The stressors were related to work management, professional demands, interpersonal and patient-doctor relationship. Differences in recognizing work stressors between the groups of civilian and military physicians were statistically analyzed by using chi-squared-test. The leading work stressors identified by military physicians were inadequate salary, being bypassed for promotion, inadequate continuous education, poor resources, poor communication with superiors, poor management, trouble with superiors, excessive paperwork, unpredictable situations, and 24-hour standby. Civilian physicians reported inadequate salary, poor resources, poor management, misinformed patients, lack of co-workers, lack of time, unpredictable situations, exposure to indictment, dealing with incurable patients and exposure to public criticism and judgment. In comparison with civilian physicians, military physicians significantly more frequently reported inadequate salary (pcommunication with superiors (pcommunication with superiors (12

  4. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials

  5. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, P.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2009-02-01

    This final report deals with the results of a feasibility study concerning the development of a Code of Conduct for wind-power projects. The aim is to strengthen the acceptance of wind-power by the general public. The necessity of new, voluntary market instruments is discussed. The urgency of development in this area is quoted as being high, and the authors consider the feasibility of the definition of a code of conduct as being proven. The code of conduct can, according to the authors, be of use at various levels but primarily in project development. Further free-enterprise instruments are also suggested that should help support socially compatible and successful market development. It is noted that the predominant portion of those questioned are prepared to co-operate in further work on the subject

  6. a.c. conductance study of polycrystal C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Feng; Wang Yening; Huang Yineng; Gu Min; Zhang Qingming; Shen Huimin

    1995-01-01

    The a.c. (1 60 polycrystal (grain size 30 nm) has been studied from 100 to 350 K. Below 150 K, the a.c. conductance is nearly proportional to the temperature and frequency. This is proposed to be due to the hopping of localized states around the Fermi level. Above 200 K, the a.c. conductance exhibits a rapid increase with temperature, and shows a thermally activated behaviour with an activation energy of 0.389 eV below a certain temperature and 0.104 eV above it. A frequency dependent conductance at a fixed temperature is also obtained with a power law σ similar ω s (s∼0.8). For a sample of normal grain size, we have measured a peak near 250 K and a much smaller conductance. These results indicate that the defective na ture of our sample (small grain size, disorder or impurities) plays an important role for the transport properties. The existence of nanocrystals in the sample may give rise to localized states and improve its a.c. conductance. The two activation energies can be attributed to the coexistence of the crystalline and amorphous phases of C 60 . ((orig.))

  7. Cadmium Telluride and Grain Boundaries: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Michael Evan

    The efficacy of the CdCl2 treatment on polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells was discovered over a quarter of a century ago; and yet, the exact mechanism of this treatment is still not fully understood to this day. In fact, the lack of understanding stems from a debate on the exact role of grain boundaries in CdCl2-treated CdTe solar cells. Some hypothesize that the CdCl2-treatment causes grain boundaries to become beneficial to solar cell performance while others disagree and claim that the treatment simply mitigates the harmful effects of grain boundaries via passivation. A future goal of this project is to determine which, if either, hypothesis is correct by direct wafer bonding single crystalline CdTe. Direct wafer bonding of single crystalline materials would create only one grain boundary at the bonded interface. This approach allows the orientation and surface chemistry of interfaces to be controlled in order to study the chemistry of grain boundaries methodically. However, before any direct wafer bonding can be done, a preliminary study of single crystalline CdTe is necessary. High-quality direct wafer bonding can only be achieved if the surfaces of each wafer satisfy certain requirements. Additionally, analyzing single crystalline CdTe materials prior to bonding is crucial in order to make any insightful connections between results found from direct bonding of single crystalline CdTe and what is observed in polycrystalline CdTe. First, the surface of an (001) CdTe layer epitaxially grown on an (001) InSb substrate is studied using atomic force microscopy. Stacking faults on the CdTe surface are observed and the thickness of the grown CdTe epilayer is calculated by considering the interplanar angles between the (001) and (111) crystallographic planes as well as the dimensions of the stacking faults. While the stacking faults will inhibit successful wafer bonding, the roughness of the regions outside the stacking faults is 0.9 nm, which is an acceptable

  8. Synthesis, characterization and DC conductivity studies of conducting polyaniline/PVA/Fly ash polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, M.; Swamy, D. Siddalinga; Vinay, K.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Raghavendra, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is an investigation of dc conduction behaviour of conducting polyaniline/fly ash nano particles blended in polyvinyl Alcohol (PANI/PVA/FA) synthesized via in-situ polymerization technique using (NH4)2S2O8 as an oxidising agent with varying fly ash cenosphere by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%. The structural characterization of the synthesised polymer composites was examined using FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Dc conductivity as a function of temperature has been measured in the temperature range from 302K - 443K. The increase of conductivity with increasing temperature reveals semiconducting behaviour of the composites and shows an evidence for the transport properties of the composites.

  9. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  10. Subseabed radionuclide migration studies and preliminary repository design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Geochemical research carried out by the US Subseabed Disposal Program is described. Data from studies of high-temperature interactions between sediments and pore water (seawater) and from studies of sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in oxidized, deep-sea sediments are used, along with results from heat transfer studies, to predict migration rates of raionuclides in a subseabed repository. Preliminary results for most radionuclides in oxidized sediments are very encouraging. Fission products with moderate K/sub D/ values (10 2 to 10 5 ml/g) and actinides with high K/sub D/ values (10 3 to 10 6 ml/g) would not migrate significant distances before decaying to innocuous concentrations. Among this group are 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 239 Pu. The results for anionic species in oxidized sediments are less encouraging. Planning for field verification of these laboratory and modeling studies is currently under way. Conceptual repository designs and emplacement options are also described. 33 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  11. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  12. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  13. Preliminary study on lithium-salt aqueous solution blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Naruse, Yuji; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Ohara, Atsushi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-06-01

    Aqueous solution blanket using lithium salts such as LiNO 3 and LiOH have been studied in the US-TIBER program and ITER conceptual design activity. In the JAERI/LANL collaboration program for the joint operation of TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly), preliminary design work of blanket tritium system for lithium ceramic blanket, aqueous solution blanket and liquid metal blanket, have been performed to investigate technical feasibility of tritium demonstration tests using the TSTA. Detail study of the aqueous solution blanket concept have not been performed in the Japanese fusion program, so that this study was carried out to investigate features of its concept and to evaluated its technical problems. The following are the major items studied in the present work: (i) Neutronics of tritium breeding ratio and shielding performance Lithium concentration, Li-60 enrichment, beryllium or lead, composition of structural material/beryllium/solution, heavy water, different lithium-salts (ii) Physicochemical properties of salts Solubility, corrosion characteristics and compatibility with structural materials, radiolysis (iii) Estimation of radiolysis in ITER aqueous solution blanket. (author)

  14. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  15. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  16. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum us Saqib, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation. This study determines various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant G. trichophylla. Intact aerial parts, powdered materials, and extracts were examined macro- and microscopically and pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined in accordance with the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters including extractive values, ash values, and loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the identification and standardization of G. trichophylla. The shape, size, color, odor, and surface characteristics were noted for intact drug and powdered drug material of G. trichophylla. Light and scanning electron microscope images of cross section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical, and fluorescence analysis proved useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. The data generated from the present study help to authenticate the medicinally important plant G. trichophylla. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic features may be helpful for establishing the pharmacopeia standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and described along with phytochemical and physicochemical parameters, which could be helpful in further isolation and purification of medicinally important compounds.

  17. Caligula-Christ: Preliminary Study of a Parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene M. Birden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caligula, at the very beginning of the Albert Camus play, conceives a very ambitious project; to surpass the gods and take their place in his empire, in order to decree impossibility. Camus has, however, gone a step further in developing the god-image of his main character through the incorporation of much Christian imagery into the scenes. This aspect of the play seems not to have been noticed by Camus scholars; there is no in-depth study of the use of this imagery. However, Camus scholar Patricia Johnson and the members of the Société des études camusiennes have noted the usefulness of the analysis presented here and the absence of it in previous research. This study, designated as “preliminary,” attempts to prompt further analyses of the question and offers different approaches. It proceeds by intertextual study of Caligula and the gospels (here referred to in Revised Standard Version and brings out aspects of the emperor’s intentions that expose a combination of perversion and similarity in relation to deity. It briefly outlines the sources of this parallel and the reasons for creating it, then details the parallels that show first the reversal of the image of Jesus, then the striking consonance. It ends with interpretations of the parallels and concludes with commentaries on the use of irony to create them.

  18. Whole plantar nerve conduction study with disposable strip electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Shoji; Kurokawa, Katsumi; Nagai, Taiji; Okamoto, Toshio; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    A new method to evaluate whole plantar nerve conduction with disposable strip electrodes (DSEs) is described. Whole plantar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) were recorded at the ankle. DSEs were attached to the sole for simultaneous stimulation of medial and lateral plantar nerves. We also conducted medial plantar nerve conduction studies using an established method and compared the findings. Whole plantar CNAPs were recorded bilaterally from 32 healthy volunteers. Mean baseline to peak amplitude for CNAPs was 26.9 ± 11.8 μV, and mean maximum conduction velocity was 65.8 ± 8.3 m/s. The mean amplitude of CNAPs obtained by our method was 58.2% higher than that of CNAPs obtained by the Saeed method (26.9 μV vs. 17.0 μV; P < 0.0001). The higher mean amplitude of whole plantar CNAPs obtained by our method suggests that it enables CNAPs to be obtained easily, even in elderly people. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Conductivity studies on commercially available proton-conducting membranes with different equivalent weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Buechi, F N; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Two perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, Nafion{sup R} 105 and Nafion{sup R} 115 with the same thickness but different equivalent weights (EW = 1000 g/eq. resp. 1100 g/eq.) were characterised by conductivity measurements at different water vapour activities in the temperature range of 25-70{sup o}C. The results demonstrate that a lower membrane equivalent weight opens the possibility to obtain the needed proton conductivity at lower water vapour activity. This is especially important for those fuel cell applications, in which the cell is operated without external humidification of the fuel gases. (author) 5 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  1. Emergent Literacy in Thai Preschoolers: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya

    To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.

  2. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented

  3. MR evaluation of renal function. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beomonte Zobel, B; Giammarile, F; Matarese, A; Gallucci, M; Mascicchi, C; Passariello, R; Di Renzi, P; Splendiani, G; Casciani, C U

    1988-01-01

    The amount of functioning renal parenchyma can be estimated by MRI by considering the ratio between the mean intensities of cortical and medullar zones of the kidney. Fifty-six patients and 5 healthy volunteers were studied by MRI in our department. Scanning was performed with a superconductive magnet system operating at 0.5 Tesla. Pulse sequence was Spin-Echo with TR 300/TE 30 ms. The cortimedullary ratio (CMR) and differentiation (CMD) were standardized and related with creatine blood levels. CMR data ranged from 1.05 to 3.00, while CMD data ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. High values (good cortico-medullary contrast) were observed in subjects with normal renal function. Patients with renal diseases had low CMR and CMD, proportionally to the degree of renal failure, as proved by laboratory findings. Our preliminary study seems to demonstrate that MRI is an useful technique in the follow-up of patients with chronic renal disease. 19 refs.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60 Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D 50 ) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author)

  5. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60} Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D{sub 50}) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  10. Paper use in research ethics applications and study conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M

    2011-02-01

    Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees.

  11. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  12. Location and social context does matter when conducting consumer studies!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Kraggerud, Hilde; Bruun Brockhoff, Per

    2015-01-01

    an adequate level of research conducted in realistic eating contexts. In the aim to study how location and social context affected consumers’ feeling of food satisfaction and physical well-being a study was set up with, combined yoghurt with muesli products in two settings; a) in a sensory lab facility (n...... of food satisfaction. Test products were two variants of yoghurt (differing in protein content) and two variants of muesli (a berry and a nut variant) eaten as combined products. An effect of location context (lab- vs. natural context) was found for immediate post intake rating of hunger, fullness...

  13. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  15. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  16. Primary contraction of skin grafts: a porcine preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bogdanov Berezovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin grafting is a common clinical practice for plastic surgeons, yet primary contraction of these grafts is a neglected topic. This study was designed to investigate primary contraction and introduce the shape of skin graft as a possible factor that modifies primary contraction behavior, using porcine models. Methods: In the first series, full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs were compared. In a second series, how the shape of the skin graft affected the degree of contraction was examined. Results: The mean percentage of FTSG shrinkage was 12.04%, and the median was 12.18%. The mean percentage of STSG shrinkage was 6.87%, and the median was 5%. Circle-shaped and square-shaped FTSGs showed mean/median graft shrinkage of 5.83%/6.93% and 4.15%/3.75%, respectively. In STSGs, the circle-shaped and square-shaped grafts had mean/median graft shrinkage of 1.07%/0% and 0.31%/0%, respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary report revealed an expected greater shrinkage of FTSGs compared with STSGs. Furthermore, in a limited number of specimens, the shape of the skin graft seemed to affect the primary contraction of the STSGs.

  17. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  18. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ropert-Coudert

    Full Text Available Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  19. [Resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Crespo López, María; Cáceres, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Poyo, María

    2012-01-01

    Caring for a relative with dementia often has negative effects on the caregiver's physical and psychological health. However, many caregivers successfully cope with the stress factors arising from care, and even have uplifts during their experience, showing high resilience levels. This study presents a preliminary analysis of resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia, exploring its relationship with different variables. Resilience was assessed (by CD-RISC) in 53 family caregivers of patients with dementia. Resilience was correlated to the following variables: caregiving context, stressors (e.g., cognitive impairment), appraisals (e.g., burden), moderators (e.g., personality traits and resources), and caregiving consequences (physical and psychological health). The participants showed moderate scores on resilience. Resilience was associated with poor emotional and physical status (significant inverse correlations with anxiety, depression, psycho-active drug use, health habits…). High resilience scores were significantly correlated to burden, neuroticism and extraversion, self-efficacy, self-esteem and less use of emotion focused coping strategies. Higher resilience relates to a good emotional and physical status in caregivers. Moreover, resilience is more associated with caregiver variables (e.g., appraisal and coping with care, personality features), than to situational variables. The data highlight the strengthening of these types of appraisal and coping as a way to improve caregivers' resilience and, consequently, their health. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that validated concepts in a framework for viewpoint development in requirements definition. The other is a single case study that examined the role of social enablers in enterprise resource planning systems implementation. A number of guidelines for successfully undertaking positivist case study research are identified including developing a clear understanding of key concepts and assumptions within the positivist paradigm; providing clear and unambiguous definitions of the units and interactions when using any theory; carefully defining the boundary of the theory used in the case study; using hypotheses rather than propositions in the empirical testing of theory; using fuzzy or probabilistic propositions in recognising that reality can never be perfectly known; selecting case studies carefully, particularly single case studies; and recognising that generalisation from positivist, single case studies is inherently different from generalisation from single experiments. When properly undertaken, positivist, deductive case study research is a valuable research approach for information systems researchers, particularly when used within pluralist research programs that use a number of different research approaches from different paradigms.

  1. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  2. Electrochemical and Thermal Studies of Prepared Conducting Chitosan Biopolymer Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Hlaing Oo; Kyaw Naing; Kyaw Myo Naing; Tin Tin Aye; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, chitosan based conducting bipolymer films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporating technique. All prepared chitosan films were of pale yellow colour, transparent, and smooth. Sulphuric acid was chosen as the cross-linking agent. It enhanced conduction pathway in cross-linked chitosan films. Mechanical properties, solid-state, and thermal behavior of prepared chitosan fimls were studied by means of a material testing machine, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By the XRD diffraction pattern, high molecular weight of chitosan product indicates the semi-crystalline nature, but the prepared chitosan film and doped chitosan film indicate significantly lower in crystallinity prove which of the amorphous characteristics. In addition, DSC thermogram of pure chitosan film exhibited exothermic peak around at 300 C, indicating polymer decomposition of chitosan molecules in chitosan films. Furthermore, these DSC thermograms clearly showed that while pure chitosan film display exothermal decomposition, the doped chitosan films mainly endothermic characteristics. The ionic conductivity of doped chitosan films were in the order of 10 to 10 S cm , which is in the range of semi-conductor. These results showed that cross-linked chitoson films may be used as polymer electrolyte film to fabricate solid state electrochemical cells

  3. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  5. Preliminary study on the development of EFB Fibre-sago starch composites: impact and flexural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hasimah Mohamed; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of natural fibres as the reinforcements for polymer composites in the automotive industry and as matrix for composites in building products application to replace synthetic fibres. In this respect the aim of this study is to develop an environmental friendly composites for furniture industry based on EFB fibres and sago starch. In this preliminary study, a basic composition and processing of EFB fibres-sago starch composites were established and the properties of the composites were determined. EFB fibre content was varied between 50-80% by weight. The amount of sago starch in liquid form was also varied and final weight percentage of sago starch added into the EFB fibres was adjusted accordingly. The mixtures of EFB fibres and sago starch were blended using Haake Rheomixer. The preliminary results indicate that the impact and flexural strengths increased up to 33.58 J/m 2 and 18.92 Mpa, respectively at 70% fibres contents. Further study is now being conducted to improve the processability of the composites by adding plasticisers and processing aids and to incorporate certain reactive additives that can enhance electron beam cross linking for further improvement on the mechanical properties of the composites. (Author)

  6. Study of conduction aphasia by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Mikio; Harigawa, Yasuo; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Hirai, Shunsaku; Tamada, Junpei.

    1988-04-01

    We reported two cases of conduction aphasia with distinctive language disorder from early stage of stroke, as well as their cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption investigated with PET. The case was a 72-year-old right handed man whose speech disturbance began acutely. On admission, neurological examination revealed hand pronation sign on the right and speech disturbance. Other neurological findings including cortical functions were normal. Brain CT scan showed low density area in the white matter of the left supramarginal gyrus. The diagnosis was cerebral infarction. The case 2 was a 64-year-old right handed man. He suffered right hemiparesis 2 months before. Neurological examination revealed mild right hemiparesis and speech disturbance. Other cortical functions were noncontributory. Brain CT scan showed old subcortical infarction of the left frontal lobe and new cerebral infarction. with supramarginal gyrus. The low density area of the supramarginal cortex extended into the subcortical white matter. The language performances in these two cases were similar. Two patients were definitely fluent, but the verbal output was contaminated by paraphasias which were predominantly literal. They performed poorly when attempting to repeat despite good comprehension. Thus, the primary characteristics of conduction aphasia were present. PET studies resulted as follows. 1) rCBF reduced 36 % in the supramarginal cortex, 50 % in the white matter. 2) rCMRO/sub 2/ reduced 37 % in the supramarginal cortex, 45 % in the white matter. 3) The CBF and the CMRO/sub 2/ images indicated that cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption reduced in wider range of area than that shown by brain CT. These results indicated that not only the cortex but also the white matter were damaged in conduction aphasia and several methods including PET should be used to determine the locus of abnormality in conduction aphasia.

  7. A study of conduction aphasia by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Mikio; Harigawa, Yasuo; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Hirai, Shunsaku; Tamada, Junpei.

    1988-01-01

    We reported two cases of conduction aphasia with distinctive language disorder from early stage of stroke, as well as their cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption investigated with PET. The case was a 72-year-old right handed man whose speech disturbance began acutely. On admission, neurological examination revealed hand pronation sign on the right and speech disturbance. Other neurological findings including cortical functions were normal. Brain CT scan showed low density area in the white matter of the left supramarginal gyrus. The diagnosis was cerebral infarction. The case 2 was a 64-year-old right handed man. He suffered right hemiparesis 2 months before. Neurological examination revealed mild right hemiparesis and speech disturbance. Other cortical functions were noncontributory. Brain CT scan showed old subcortical infarction of the left frontal lobe and new cerebral infarction. with supramarginal gyrus. The low density area of the supramarginal cortex extended into the subcortical white matter. The language performances in these two cases were similar. Two patients were definitely fluent, but the verbal output was contaminated by paraphasias which were predominantly literal. They performed poorly when attempting to repeat despite good comprehension. Thus, the primary characteristics of conduction aphasia were present. PET studies resulted as follows. 1) rCBF reduced 36 % in the supramarginal cortex, 50 % in the white matter. 2) rCMRO 2 reduced 37 % in the supramarginal cortex, 45 % in the white matter. 3) The CBF and the CMRO 2 images indicated that cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption reduced in wider range of area than that shown by brain CT. These results indicated that not only the cortex but also the white matter were damaged in conduction aphasia and several methods including PET should be used to determine the locus of abnormality in conduction aphasia. (author)

  8. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  9. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  10. Study of growth mechanism of conducting polymers by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Today conductive polymers have many applications in several devices. For these reasons they have received much attention in recent years. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of conducting polymers growth is still poorly understood and the methods of polymerization are limited to two principal ways: chemical and electrochemical synthesis. On the other hand, the complex properties of polymers can be controlled only if a good knowledge of polymerization process is acquired. In this case, it is possible to control the process during the synthesis (functionalization, hydrophilicity, chain length, doping level), and consequently to improve the conductive properties of the synthesized polymers. Water radiolysis represents an easy and efficient method of synthesis comparing to chemical and electrochemical polymerization routes. It enables the polymerization under soft conditions: ambient temperature and pressure, without any external dopant. Among all conductive polymers, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) (PEDOT, a derivative of poly-thiophene) and poly-Pyrrole (PPy) have gained some large scale applications for their chemical and physical proprieties. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of PEDOT and PPy in aqueous solution and the study of their growth mechanism by pulsed radiolysis. Thanks to the electron accelerator ELYSE, the use of pulsed radiolysis coupled with time-resolved absorption spectroscopy allowed to study the kinetics of polymerization. The first transient species involved in the mechanism were identified by time resolved spectroscopy and the rate constants were determined. First, the reaction of hydroxyl radicals onto EDOT and Py monomers was studied, as well as the corresponding radiation induced polymerization. Then, the study was transposed to others oxidizing radicals such as CO3 .- , N 3 . and SO 4 .- at different pHs. This approach allowed to check and to highlight the influence of oxidizing species onto the first transient species

  11. Electronic conductivity studies on oxyhalide glasses containing TMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayatha, D. [R& D Center, Bharatiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Gurunanak Institute of Technology, Hyderabad -040 (India); Viswanatha, R. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sujatha, B. [Department of Electronics and Communcation, MSRIT, Bangalore 560054 (India); Narayana Reddy, C., E-mail: nivetejareddy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Siddaganga College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tumkur 572102 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Microwave-assisted synthesis is cleaner, more economical and much faster than conventional methods. The development of new routes for the synthesis of solid materials is an integral part of material science and technology. The electronic conductivity studies on xPbCl{sub 2} – 60 PbO – (40-x) V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1 ≥ x ≤ 10) glass system has been carried out over a wide range of composition and temperature (300 K to 423 K). X-ray diffraction study confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the formation of cluster like morphology in PbCl{sub 2} containing glasses. The d.c conductivity exhibits Arrhenius behaviour and increases with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. Analysis of the results is interpreted in view Austin-Mott’s small polaron model of electron transport. Activation energies calculated using regression analysis exhibit composition dependent trend and the variation is explained in view of the structure of lead-vanadate glass.

  12. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated

  13. Preliminary study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on an ambulatory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tabey, Magdy Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Osama Abdel-Wahab; Ahmed, Ahmed Sebaey; El-Barky, Ehab Mohammed; Noureldin, Yasser Abdel-Sattar

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary study to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as an ambulatory procedure. Between February 2011 and September 2012, 84 patients with renal calculi fulfilling the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Urology Department of Benha University Hospitals for PCNL. All patients were subjected to a full medical history, clinical, laboratory and radiological examinations. Tubeless PCNLs were done in the supine position, and an antegrade double-J stent was inserted. Operative time and intraoperative complications were recorded. Postoperatively, the hematocrit value, postoperative pain and analgesics, need of blood transfusion, stone-free rate, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Stable patients that could be safely discharged within 24 hours after surgery were considered ambulatory. All cases of tubeless PCNL were successfully done and no cases converted to open surgery. The overall stone-free rate was 91.7%, the mean postoperative pain score measured by the visual analog scale was 4.4 ± 1.2, the mean overall hematocrit deficit was 4.8 ± 2.2% and the mean hospital stay was 33.4 ± 17.5 hours. Ambulatory PCNL was accomplished in 60 out of 84 patients (71.4%) and double-J stents were removed 7-10 days postoperatively. In the non-ambulatory cases, double-J stents were removed after auxillary procedures were done according to each case. PCNL can be safely done on an ambulatory basis under strict criteria, but further studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings.

  14. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  15. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  16. Bioactivities in the tamarind seed extracts: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage

  17. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  18. Preliminary Study on Testicular Germ Cell Transplantation of Endemic Species Oryzias celebensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, I.; Agustiani, F.; Hassan, M.; Parenrengi, A.; Inoue, K.

    2018-03-01

    The research has been conducted to study some technical steps for male germ-plasm from endemic fish species such as some species of Oryzias fish in Indonesia to preserve and propagate through germ cell transplantation technology. For preliminary research, the study was started with germ cell characterization of testes, cryopreservation of TGC and the transplantation of Oryzias celebensis as candidates for surrogate broodstock of Oryzias fish male germ plasm. The data analized included the potential number of TGC as donor, the viability of cryopreserved TGC in two types of cryoprotectans and the survival rate of O.celebensis larvae as recipient after transplantation. The result showed that the average amount of TGC yielded after dissociation was 131000 ± 31349 with 74.2 % viability of TGC each. Cryoprotectan10% DMSO +glucose yielded higher viable of TGC. More than 80 % of O.celebensis larvae survived after transplantation. In conclusion, these preliminary data of O.celebensis as surrogate broodstock candidate will support the application of TGC transplantation technology in Oryzias endemic species.

  19. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analucia Abreu Maranhão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Methods: Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. Results: The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv, latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms, area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms. Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv, latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms, area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms. Conclusion: The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  20. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Analucia Abreu; Carvalho, Sonia Regina da Silva; Caetano, Marcelo Ribeiro; Alamy, Alexandre Hofke; Peixoto, Eduardo Mesquita; Filgueiras, Pedro Del Esporte Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv), latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms), area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv) and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms). Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv), latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms), area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv) and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms). The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  1. Preliminary study on the feasibility of ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Itaru; Enokido, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary study on the feasibility of ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors has been conducted. The primary concern is with forecasting the thermal hydraulic characteristics and the heat removal efficiency from the core. The thermal hydraulic analysis revealed the coolant mixing in the core at steady state operating condition was not intensive and the coolant temperature increase was almost proportional to the power of each assembly. The hot spot analysis of the ductless core indicated that the hottest temperature in the core could be comparable with the temperature of the conventional ducted core, even in case the radial power flattening was not actively pursued but with adopting ducted radial blanket assemblies. Under off-normal conditions, the ductless core had improved heat removal capability which was caused by inter-assembly coolant flow. The study has indicated the feasibility of the ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors. The experiments to demonstrate the feasibility will be the next key process for the development. (author)

  2. Preliminary study on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plant for cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Koichiro; Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary study was made on technology required to recycle of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask and on quantity of the cask which can be produced by the metallic waste. The technical and institutional issues for the recycling were studied. The metallic waste from decommissioning may be technically used to a certain degree for manufacturing the casks. However, there were some technical issues to be solved. For example, the manufacturing factories should be established. The radioactive waste from the factories with radiation control should be handled and treated carefully. Quality of the cask should be properly controlled. The 'Clearance Levels' which allows to recycle decommissioning waste have been hardly enacted in Japan. Technical and economic evaluation on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask should be conducted again after progress in recycling of radioactive waste of which radioactivity is below the 'Clearance Levels' in Japan. (author)

  3. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  4. Preliminary studies on the behavioural effects of the methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural tests employed were diazepam-induced sleep onset and duration, hole board assay for exploratory activity, mouse beam walk assay for motor coordination, and the staircase test for the detection of anxiolytic compounds. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the extract. Results: The ...

  5. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  6. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in

  7. Conductive Education: Feasibility Study on Developing a National Curriculum Plan for Those Working in Conductive Education in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Graham A.

    This study sought to determine whether there are national training needs among staff of conductive education programs in New Zealand. Conductive education is a unified system of education for children and adults with a motor disorder whose disability has been caused by damage to the central nervous system. The study, which focuses primarily on…

  8. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Pisciotta, P., E-mail: pietro.pisciotta@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Acquaviva, R. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Cuttone, G. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-21

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  9. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  10. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M.C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  11. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Hallgren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtainingaccurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted toresearchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulationstudies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates throughbootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  12. Thermal conductivity at the nanoscale: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyver, John W., IV

    With the growing use of nanotechnology and nanodevices in many fields of engineering and science, a need for understanding the thermal properties of such devices has increased. The ability for nanomaterials to conduct heat is highly dependent on the purity of the material, internal boundaries due to material changes and the structure of the material itself. Experimentally measuring the heat transport at the nanoscale is extremely difficult and can only be done as a macro output from the device. Computational methods such as various Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) techniques for studying the contribution of atomic vibrations associated with heat transport properties are very useful. The Green--Kubo method in conjunction with Fourier's law for calculating the thermal conductivity, kappa, has been used in this study and has shown promise as one approach well adapted for understanding nanosystems. Investigations were made of the thermal conductivity using noble gases, modeled with Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions, in solid face-centered cubic (FCC) structures. MC and MD simulations were done to study homogeneous monatomic and binary materials as well as slabs of these materials possessing internal boundaries. Additionally, MD simulations were done on silicon carbide nanowires, nanotubes, and nanofilaments using a potential containing two-body and three-body terms. The results of the MC and MD simulations were matched against available experimental and other simulations and showed that both methods can accurately simulate real materials in a fraction of the time and effort. The results of the study show that in compositionally disordered materials the selection of atomic components by their mass, hard-core atomic diameter, well depth, and relative concentration can change the kappa by as much as an order of magnitude. It was found that a 60% increase in mass produces a 25% decrease in kappa. A 50% increase in interatomic strength produces a 25% increase in

  13. Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on domestication of coconut crab (Birgus latro had been done since June - November 2004 and December - 2005 February 2006.  Study was carried out in two locations namely Laboratory of Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu to study adult crab, and Laboratory of Ecobiology of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University to study crab in clomang stage.  Adult crabs were collected by using some fishing gears namely trap, net and directly using bamboo stick.  Domestication was done in rearing batch sized 1x1x1 m3 with artificial nests (30x15x15 cm3, and small batch for water (7x10x10 cm3.  While for clomang stage, crabs were reared in aquarium (80x40x40 cm3 with debris and small water batch.  Result showed that adult crab had a survival rate around 12.5-0%, and mortality around 50-87.5%.  A similar result was also in clomang stage, which was 12.5% for survival rate and 87.5% for mortality.  Adult coconut crab was preferred to feed coconut than other food likely vegetable and chick. Keywords: domestication, coconut crab, Birgus latro, food habit   ABSTRAK Penelitian awal mengenai kajian awal penangkaran kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan pada bulan Juni - November 2004 dan Desember 2005 Februari 2006.  Pelaksanaan penelitian di lakukan di dua tempat, yaitu Laboratorium Sekolah Tinggi Kelautan dan Perikanan, Palu untuk percobaan kepiting dewasa, dan Laboratorium Ekobiologi Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan IPB Bogor,  untuk percobaan kepiting tahap klomang.  Kepiting dewasa ditangkap dengan menggunakan beberapa peralatan a.l. perangkap, jaring dan secara langsung dengan tongkat.  Penangkaran dilakukan di bak-bak peliharaan berukuran 1x1x1 m3 yang dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (30x15x15 cm3, dan bak kecil tempat air (7x10x10 cm3.  Sedangkan kepiting tahap klomang dipelihara di akuarium (80x40x40 cm3 yang diberi daun/serasah dan tempat air.  Hasil uji coba penangkaran

  14. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  15. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  16. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobina, L V; Orlovskaia, L S; Sokov, S L; Sabaeva, G F; Kondé, L A; Iakovlev, A A

    1990-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

  17. Preliminary study on acceptability of scope of thermal discharge mixing zone for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongye; Yang Yang; Wang Liang; Chen Xiaoqiu; Liu Senlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the situation that the existing domestic temperature control standards are not performable, the preliminary study on the acceptability of the mixing zone scope of thermal discharge for nuclear power plant was conducted in this paper, taking a coastal power station SNP as a case. The following preliminary conclusions could be drawn from the results of cluster analysis of the SNP site under different results of mathematical modeling and physical model test: 1) The influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) operating condition; 2) the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is small and the scope of thermal discharge mixing zone is acceptable in spring under SNP-1 (Unit 1 and 2) and SNP-2 (Unit 3 and 4) operating condition, while the influence intensity of ecological function of the SNP site seawater is large and the scope of mixing zone is unacceptable in autumn under the same operating condition. (authors)

  18. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  19. A preliminary study on butterflies of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary, Pathankot, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of the butterfly diversity of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary (Pathankot, Punjab India was conducted from 10–11 November 2011.  A total of 40 species belonging to 31 genera was recorded, including Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer, a new species added to the butterfly fauna of Punjab.  Species richness was greatest for the family Nymphalidae, with 22 species, followed by Pieridae with 10 species,  Lycaenidae with four, and Papilionidae and Hesperiidae with two each.  An analysis of relative abundances revealed that of the 40 species reported, 19 were classed as common, 15 as less common and the remaining six species as uncommon.  Observations on their occurrence in different habitats revealed 13 species prefer scrubby habitat, 13 scrubby and grassy habitat, seven grassy habitats and the remaining seven scrubby and riverine habitats. 

  20. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement

  1. Preliminary study of the nuclear power option in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Malykhin, A.P.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Yakushau, A.P.; Yaroshevich, O.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Republic of Belarus possesses an economy with many energy intensive branches. At the same time the share of domestic energy resources is about 15% of total energy demand. The share of the payment for primary energy resources reaches 60% or USD 2 billion of the total energy import. That is comparable with the annual state budget. In addition to that, about half of the installed capacities have reached their operation life and 90% of the units have to be retrofitted or replaced until 2010. Thus, the problem of energy supply is one of the most important ones for Belarus' economy. The nuclear power appears to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy demand problem in Belarus which has, as in case of many countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe, limited energy resources. In 1992 - 1994 the works for studying the possibility of NPP siting were recommenced and six relatively competitive sites have been chosen out from 54 possible locations for NPP siting. Parallely, works on assessment of environmental NPP effect in these sites were carried out. As concerning the reactors to be purchased and installed in the sites selected, the following options were taken into consideration: PWR of American Company WESTINGHOUSE; PWR N4 of France Company FRAMATOME; PWR KONVOI of German Company SIEMENS. Also promising are the new generation of Russian Reactor NPP, namely NPP - 91, NPP - 92 and NPP with NGWWER - 640 reactors. Preliminary assessment having in view the feasibility characteristics, safety, reliability as well as the degree of completion shows the Russian projects NPP - 92 and NGWWER - 640 as more preferably at present. Concerning the radioactive waste management, sites for storing low and medium active waste have been determined as well as regions for high active waste disposal. At present Belarus Republic disposes of a definite production, engineering and scientific potential, which can be used when the nuclear power program will be launched. Construction

  2. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, heat transfer and rock-waste compatibility studies conducted by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company to evaluate the feasibility of storing nuclear wastes in caverns mined out into the Columbia River basalts are discussed. The succession of Columbia River Plateau flood basalts was sampled at various outcrops and in core holes and the samples were analyzed to develop a stratigraphic correlation of the various basalt units and sedimentary interbeds. Hydrologic tests were made in one bore hole to assess the degree of isolation in the various deep aquifers separated by thick basalt accumulations. Earthquake and tectonic studies were conducted to assess the tectonic stability of the Columbia River Plateau. Studies were made to evaluate the extent of heat dissipation from stored radioactive wastes. Geochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the compatibility between the radioactive wastes and the basalt host rocks. Data obtained to-date have allowed development of a hydrostratigraphic framework for the Columbia River Plateau and a preliminary understanding of the deep aquifer systems. Finally, the compilation of this information has served as a basis for planning the studies necessary to define the effectiveness of the Columbia River basalts for permanently isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere

  3. A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jan Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish Zero anaphora is an element of the coreference resolution task that has not yet been directly addressed in Polish and, in most studies, it has been left as the most challenging aspect for further investigation. This article presents an initial study of this problem. The preparation of a machine learning approach, alongside engineering features based on linguistic study of the KPWr corpus, is discussed. This study utilizes existing tools for Polish coreference resolution as sources of partial coreferential clusters containing pronoun, noun and named entity mentions. They are also used as baseline zero coreference resolution systems for comparison with our system. The evaluation process is focused not only on clustering correctness, without taking into account types of mentions, using standard CoNLL-2012 measures, but also on the informativeness of the resulting relations. According to the annotation approach used for coreference to the KPWr corpus, only named entities are treated as mentions that are informative enough to constitute a link to real world objects. Consequently, we provide an evaluation of informativeness based on found links between zero anaphoras and named entities. For the same reason, we restrict coreference resolution in this study to mention clusters built around named entities.   Wstępne studium rozwiązywania problemu koreferencji anafory zerowej w języku polskim Koreferencja zerowa, w języku polskim, jest jednym z zagadnień rozpoznawania koreferencji. Dotychczas nie była ona bezpośrednim przedmiotem badań, gdyż ze względu na jej złożoność była pomijana i odsuwana na dalsze etapy badań. Artykuł prezentuje wstępne studium problemu, jakim jest rozpoznawanie koreferencji zerowej. Przedstawiamy podejście wykorzystujące techniki uczenia maszynowego oraz proces tworzenia cech w oparciu o analizę lingwistyczną korpusu KPWr. W przedstawionej

  4. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-04-03

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  5. Biogas production from pineapple core - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, O. S.; Sanusi, S. N. A.; Sukor, M. Z.; Noraini, M.; Buddin, M. M. H. S.; Hamid, K. H. K.

    2017-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pineapple waste was investigated by using pineapple core as the sole substrate. Pineapple core was chosen due to its high total sugar content thus, indicating high amount of fermentable sugar. As digestion process requires the involvement of microorganisms, wastewater from the same industry was added in the current study at ratio of 1:1 by weight. Two different sources of wastewater (Point 1 and Point 2) were used in this study to distinguish the performance of microorganism consortia in both samples. The experiment was conducted by using a lab scale batch anaerobic digester made up from 5L container with separate gas collecting system. The biogas produced was collected by using water displacement method. The experiment was conducted for 30 days and the biogas produced was collected and its volume was recorded at 3 days interval. Based on the data available, wastewater from the first point recorded higher volume of biogas with the total accumulated biogas volume is 216.1 mL. Meanwhile, wastewater sample from Point 2 produced a total of 140.5 mL of biogas, by volume. The data shows that the origin and type of microorganism undeniably play significant role in biogas production. In fact, other factors; pH of wastewater and temperature were also known to affect biogas production. The anaerobic digestion is seen as the promising and sustainable alternatives to current disposal method.

  6. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HUMOUR IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIOW C. LIM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that humour has an implication on the process of teaching and learning. However, there is still limited study done on the implication of humour in teaching and learning engineering courses. This paper studies the perception and experience of engineering lecturers and students towards the incorporation of sense of humour in the teaching and learning of engineering courses. Online and offline surveys were conducted on the students and lecturers from the school of engineering, Taylors’ University respectively. Several interesting insights were drawn from the responses with the general consensus from both students and lecturers that humour helps in enhancing the teaching and learning process. Real case examples of how the lecturers deliver their lectures with humour were also presented.

  7. Developing a Physiotherapy-Specific Preliminary Clinical Decision-Making Tool for Oxygen Titration: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Bertin, Kendra; Henry, Renee; Singh, Deepti; Timmins, Nolla; Brooks, Dina; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop and evaluate a preliminary clinical decision-making tool (CDMT) to assist physiotherapists in titrating oxygen for acutely ill adults in Ontario. Methods: A panel of 14 experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists was recruited. Factors relating to oxygen titration were identified using a modified Delphi technique. Four rounds of questionnaires were conducted, during which the goals were to (1) generate factors, (2) reduce factors and debate contentious factors, (3) finalize factors and develop the preliminary CDMT, and (4) evaluate the usability of the tool in a clinical context. Results: The panel reached consensus on a total of 89 factors, which were compiled to create the preliminary CDMT. The global tool reached consensus for sensibility, receiving a mean score of 6/7 on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1=unacceptable; 7=excellent). Five of the nine individual components of evaluation of the tool achieved scores ≥6.0; the remaining four had mean scores between 5.4 and 5.9. Conclusion: This study produced a preliminary CDMT for oxygen titration, which the panel agreed was highly comprehensible and globally sensible. Further research is necessary to evaluate the sensibility and applicability of the tool in a clinical setting. PMID:25125782

  8. Preliminary studies on the closed cycle magneto aerodynamic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1964-01-01

    Besides the open cycle MHD converters which convert the thermal energy contained in combustion gases, a closed cycle converter which can work with any high temperature heat source and specially with nuclear sources is being very carefully studied. Before proceeding to a practical study of the power station as a whole the performances of the converter itself must be fully investigated. These performances are largely a function of the conductivity of the gas, but this conductivity must not be repaid by a temperature technically unacceptable for the heat exchanger. In the conversion fluid an ionizable seeding vapour such as caesium or potassium is mixed with a carrier gas, helium or argon. Purely thermal ionization is only efficient above 2 500 deg. K, whereas the electric field obtained by Induction in the converter can, under given conditions, increase the electron temperature and produce an ionization rate well above the equilibrium value. This allows the gas to be ionized at moderate temperature. Studies are under way in order to clarify the conditions required to produce extra-thermal ionization in seeded rare gases. Measurements have been performed with a 3-phase 500 kVA plasmatron with potassium-seeded argon. The outgoing gas is fed into a channel where the tensor components of conductivity are measured in the presence of a magnetic field. The values found under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions confirm the simple theory. This is not the case when the electrons are heated. Measurements of the same kind have been made by another method in caesium-seeded helium contained in an isothermal vessel at 1 900 deg. K. There also the equilibrium values are in good agreement, but non-equilibrium ionization seems to be lower than expected. The effect of electron heating inside the converter in the case of argon-. potassium mixture has been considered in a theoretical study. It is shown that the electrode set must be carefully subdivided along the channel, and that

  9. In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of JP-8 and a Fischer- Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci 116(1): 239-248. Gallinat, J...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0084 IN VITRO STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR JET FUEL AND NOISE INDUCED AUDITORY IMPAIRMENT...April 2014 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory

  10. A preliminary study on radiation damage effect in ceramics composite materials as innovative basic research using the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Aihara, Jun; Arai, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ishino, S.

    1999-01-01

    An innovative basic research concerning with the basic science and applied technology is planned using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which provides the advantage of not only a high temperature irradiation field above 400degC but also a large irradiation space. The first irradiation experiment is to be performed in 2001. Many research themes with a wide variety of scientific and technological interests are proposed as the innovative basic research. For the purpose of demonstration of scientific feasibility and advantages in the HTTR irradiation, several research themes have been being conducted as the preliminary studies. In this paper the outline of the innovative basic research is described, and the preliminary study on the radiation damage mechanism of ceramic composite materials is presented. (author)

  11. Traffics and wildlife: A preliminary study on road-kill

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiati, Elly Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary finding on road kill survey by direct observations onthe high ways. The road-kills recorded of small wildlife, including medium size-mammal (2.50%, n =1), birds (5.00%, n = 2) and small mammals (92.50%, n = 37). The small mammals include the mostcommon mammals in the areas, squirrels, raccoons, skunks and woodchuck. Of mammals, squirrels(35.00%) were the highest recorded, followed by woodchucks (25.00%), mice/shrew (17.50%),raccoons (10.00%), skunk (5.00%) ...

  12. Preliminary study of a flux converter for experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malouch, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to define the characteristics of a flux converter dedicated to increase the fast neutron flux in irradiation devices placed in the core of Osiris experimental reactor. This preliminary work has dealt with the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic aspects of this problem. The synthesis of the results produced by the codes APOLLO2, DAIXY, MERCURE5.3 and FLICA-3M shows that a cylindrical converter equipped with 5 fissile rings can enhance the fast flux by a 35% factor in an experimental device set in its center. (A.C.)

  13. Preliminary feasibility study of the heat - pipe ENHS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratoni, M.; Kim, L.; Mattafirri, S.; Petroski, R.; Greenspan, E.

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study assesses the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor [1] to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP). Like the SAFE space nuclear reactor core [2], the HP-ENHS core is comprised of fuel rods and HPs embedded in a solid structure arranged in a hexagonal lattice in a 3:1 ratio. The HPs extend beyond the core length and transfer heat to a secondary coolant that flows by natural circulation. The HP-ENHS reactor is designed to preserve many features of the ENHS reactor including 20-year operation without refueling, very small excess reactivity throughout life, natural circulation cooling, walk-away passive safety, and robust proliferation resistance. The target power level and specific power of the HP-ENHS reactor are those of the reference ENHS reactor [1]. Compared to previous ENHS reactor designs utilizing a lead or lead-bismuth alloy natural circulation cooling system, the HP-ENHS reactor offers a number of possible advantageous features including: (1) significantly enhanced decay heat removal capability; (2) no positive void reactivity coefficients; (3) no direct contact between the fuel clad and coolant, hence, relatively lower wet corrosion of the clad; (4) a core that is more robust for transportation; (5) higher temperature potentially offering higher efficiency and hydrogen production capability. The study focuses on four areas: material compatibility analysis, HP performance analysis, neutronic analysis and thermal-hydraulic analysis. Of four high-temperature structural materials evaluated, Mo TZM alloy is the preferred choice; its upper estimated feasible operating temperature is 1350 K. HP performance is evaluated as a function of working fluid type, operating temperature, wick design and HP diameter and length. Sodium is the preferred working fluid and the HP working temperature is 1300 K. The neutronic analysis found that it is possible to achieve criticality

  14. Studies on Enhancing Transverse Thermal Conductivity Carbon/Carbon Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manocha, Lalit M; Manocha, Satish M; Roy, Ajit

    2007-01-01

    The structure derived potential properties of Graphite such as high stiffness coupled with high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion have been better achieved in Carbon fibers...

  15. Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S; Nika, D L; Pokatilov, E P; Balandin, A A

    2009-01-01

    We review the results of our experimental investigation of heat conduction in suspended graphene and offer a theoretical interpretation of its extremely high thermal conductivity. The direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of graphene were performed using a non-contact optical technique and special calibration procedure with bulk graphite. The measured values were in the range of ∼3000-5300 W mK -1 near room temperature and depended on the lateral dimensions of graphene flakes. We explain the enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene as compared to that of bulk graphite basal planes by the two-dimensional nature of heat conduction in graphene over the whole range of phonon frequencies. Our calculations show that the intrinsic Umklapp-limited thermal conductivity of graphene grows with the increasing dimensions of graphene flakes and can exceed that of bulk graphite when the flake size is on the order of a few micrometers. The detailed theory, which includes the phonon-mode-dependent Gruneisen parameter and takes into account phonon scattering on graphene edges and point defects, gives numerical results that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for suspended graphene. Superior thermal properties of graphene are beneficial for all proposed graphene device applications.

  16. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  17. Determination of PCDDs in spider webs: preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Justyna; Rutkowski, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The application of spider webs for determination of polichlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) has been studied for the first time. The aim of the studies was to find out if spider webs are suitable for such examinations as it was proved in the previous research they are excellent indicators of air pollutants. Spiders are ubiquitous, thus collection of samples is easy and non-invasive. Studies were conducted within the city of Wrocław and surroundings, one of the biggest and at the same time heaviest polluted city in Poland. Five research sites have been chosen, where spider webs were collected after 60 days of continuous exposure time. Webs belonging to two genera Tegenaria sylvestris and Tegenaria ferruginea (family Agelenidae) have been chosen as they are large and very dense, thus they are very suitable for such examinations. Webs were found to retain dioxins probably mainly by external exposure. These promising results should be continued and expanded in the future research.

  18. A study of frequency effects on conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Mahmood Dollah; Mohd Khidir Kamaron; Suaib Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In eddy current testing (ET), different measurement can be carry out through the selection of the test frequency. In conductivity measurement, the selection of eddy current test frequencies permits to select the specific material properties to be measured. The test frequency selected should be sufficient high that eddy current penetration is limited only to fraction of the test material thickness. This paper describes the effects of test frequency on the conductivity measurement. This experiment done by applying different values of test frequency which is 20 kHz, 100 kHz and 1 MHz. (author)

  19. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  20. Conductivity studies in SnO–NaPO 3 glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D.c. activation barriers seem to reflect the structural changes in system. A.c. conductivity analysis has revealed that while the power law exponent, , seem to bear correlation to the structural changes, the exponent of the stretched exponential function describing the dielectric relaxation is largely insensitive to the structure.

  1. Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Values of activation energy derived from σd.c., ωh and τ are almost equal within the ... materials can be changed by varying the proportion of the .... The solid line is a guide to the eye. ... does not show a maximum as d.c. conductivity drops to a.

  2. Comparative study of ion conducting pathways in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Adams, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The conduction pathways in metal-halide doped silver, lithium, and sodium diborate glasses have been examined by bond valence analysis of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) produced structural models of the glasses. Although all glass compositions have basically the same short-range structure of the boron-oxygen network, it is evident that the intermediate-range structure is strongly dependent on the type of mobile ion. The topography of the pathways and the coordination of the pathway sites differ distinctly between the three glass systems. The mobile silver ions in the AgI-doped glass tend to be mainly iodine-coordinated and travel in homogeneously distributed pathways located in salt-rich channels of the borate network. In the NaCl-doped glass, there is an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of pathways that reflects the inhomogeneous introduction of salt ions into the glass. However, since the salt clusters are not connected, no long-range conduction pathways are formed without including also oxygen-rich regions. The pathways in the LiCl-doped glass are slightly more evenly distributed compared to the NaCl-doped glass (but not as ordered as in the AgI-doped glass), and the regions of mainly oxygen-coordinated pathway sites are of higher importance for the long-range migration. In order to more accurately investigate how these differences in the intermediate-range order of the glasses affect the ionic conductivity, we have compared the realistic structure models to more or less randomized structures. An important conclusion from this comparison is that we find no evidence that a pronounced intermediate-range order in the atomic structure or in the network of conduction pathways, as in the AgI-doped glass, is beneficial for the dc conductivity

  3. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  4. Cross-cultural aspects of ICT use by older people: preliminary results of a four-country ethnographical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blat, Josep; Sayago, Sergio; Kälviäinen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    addresses this issue by drawing on an ethnographical study of ICT use conducted with over 120 people, aged 67-71, in four European countries: Finland, Denmark, Italy and Spain, over a 6-month period. The preliminary results show that making a social, independent and worth use of ICT are common aspects...... across the four countries, despite the so-called heterogeneity of older people as ICT users. This short paper also touches on two key aspects which emerged from the study, engaging older people in research and the evolution of some barriers to technology use....

  5. Conduction mechanism studies on electron transfer of disordered system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 宋祎璞; 李新梅

    2002-01-01

    Using the negative eigenvalue theory and the infinite order perturbation theory, a new method was developed to solve the eigenvectors of disordered systems. The result shows that eigenvectors change from the extended state to the localized state with the increase of the site points and the disordered degree of the system. When electric field is exerted, the electrons transfer from one localized state to another one. The conductivity is induced by the electron transfer. The authors derive the formula of electron conductivity and find the electron hops between localized states whose energies are close to each other, whereas localized positions differ from each other greatly. At low temperature the disordered system has the character of the negative differential dependence of resistivity and temperature.

  6. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Ritamara I.; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E.

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents results of "1H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T_2) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticized with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T_2). The two short T_2 components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T_2 can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10"-"4 S cm"-"1 for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T_2 continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of collage activity based on a life review in elderly cancer patients: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Satoko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Much of the cancer rehabilitation research that has been conducted has consisted of relatively early recovery-of-function rehabilitation, and little attention has been paid to the psychosocial aspects of palliative rehabilitation. The aim of the present preliminary study was to examine the "narratives" of elderly cancer patients that emerged as a result of a life review performed in association with collage activity and to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. We conducted a collage activity based on a life review in two sessions. Some 11 cancer patients who were 65 years of age or older and receiving palliative care participated. Evaluations using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual (FACIT-Sp) Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Self-Efficacy Scale for Terminal Cancer (SESTC) were administered before and immediately after the intervention. The mean scores for the FACIT-Sp and affect regulation efficacy on the SESTC significantly increased, while the mean HADS score significantly decreased. Regarding the impressions after completion of the intervention, generally favorable evaluations were heard from families and medical staff members as well as from the subjects. A collage activity based on a life review may be effective for improving spiritual well-being, mitigating anxiety and depression, and improving self-efficacy. The collage itself was also useful in facilitating interactions with others, including family members, and the activity provided psychological support for families.

  8. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF QUALITY STUDY OF WATER FROM SMALL MICHALICE RESERVOIR ON WIDAWA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wiatkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water quality of the small Michalice reservoir. A preliminary assessment of the reservoir water quality and its usability was made. The quality of water in the reservoir is particularly important as the main functions of the reservoir are agricultural irrigation, recreation and flood protection . The following physico-chemical parameters of the Widawa River were analyzed: NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, COD, water temperature, pH and electrolytic conductivity. Main descriptive statistical data were presented for the analyzed water quality indicators. The research results indicate that the reservoir contributed to the reduced concentrations of the following water quality indicators: nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, electrolytic conductivity and COD (in the outflowing water – St.3 in comparison to the water flowing into the reservoir – St.1. In the water flowing out of the Psurów reservoir higher values of the remaining indicators were observed if compared with the inflowing water. It was stated, as well, that analised waters are not vulnerable to nitrogen compounds pollution coming from the agricultural sources and are eutrophic. For purpose obtaining of the précised information about condition of Michalice reservoir water purity as well as river Widawa it becomes to continue the hydrological monitoring and water quality studies.

  9. Cernavoda NPP impact study on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, Elena; Bucur, Cristina; Popescu, Ion; Simionov, Vasile; Titescu, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against industrial pollutants has been recognized. The concept of sustainable development, requires new and developing international policies for environmental protection. See 'Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation' IAEA-TECDOC-1091, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. As it is recommended in 'Cernavoda Unit No. 2 NPP Environmental Impact Assessment CES-03702-IAD-006', it is Cernavoda NPP responsibility to conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment study, mainly to assess the impact of nuclear power plant operation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Long records from normal operation of Cernavoda Unit 1, wind pattern, meteorological conditions, and source terms data were used to evaluate areas of interest for environmental impact, conducting to a circle of 20 km radius around mentioned nuclear objective. The screening campaign established tritium level (because Cernavoda NPP is a CANDU type reactor, and tritium is the most important radioisotope evacuated in the environment) in air, water, soil and vegetation, focusing the interest area on particular ecosystem. Using these primary data it was evaluated which are the monitored ecological receptors and which are the measurement endpoints.This paper presents the Ecological Risk Assessment at Cernavoda NPP technical requirements, and the preliminary results of evaluating criteria for representative ecosystem components at Cernavoda NPP. (authors)

  10. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, E.H. [The Faculty of Liberal Arts (Chemistry), Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Lim, S.A. [Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Park, J.H. [Department of Herbal Medicine, Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Kim, D.W. [Department of Chemical Technology, Han Bat National University, Daejon 305-719 (Korea); Macfarlane, D.R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2008-04-01

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N{sub 1134}TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N{sub 1134}TCM (2.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N{sub 1134}TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species. (author)

  11. Preliminary Study on the Development of Quantitative Safety Culture Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Hun Sil; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Because it needs to be recognized as the most significant consciousness to achieve the nuclear safety performance, Korean government and nuclear power generation company have tried to develop the practical method to improve the safety culture from the long term point view. In this study, based on the site interviews to define the potential issues on organizational behavior for the safe operation and the survey on the level of safety culture of occupied workers are conducted. Survey results are quantified as a few indicators of nuclear safety by the statistical method and it can be simulated by the dynamic modeling as time goes on. Currently index and dynamic modeling are still being developed, however, results can be used to suggest the long term strategy which safety is clearly integrated into all activities in the nuclear organization

  12. [The aggression in SPDC: an observational study. Preliminary data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutolo, Giuseppe; Cannavò, Dario; Petralia, Antonino; Gandolfo, Liliana; Palermo, Filippo; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In the different psychiatric disorders the aggression often leads to uncontrolled events, taking aspects of impulsiveness and irrationality. Our research proposes the assessment of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with a psychiatric disorder, who presented an aggressive event. The observational study was conducted on a sample of 50 patients (34 men and 16 women), hospitalized following the manifestation of an aggressive event. For each patient was provided an assessment of socio-demographic and clinical variables and a psychometric investigation through: the OAS, for the analysis of aggressive episodes; the BDHI, for the hostile behavior and attitudes; the BIS-11, for the impulsiveness and the BPRS for the psychopathological aspects. Among the socio-demographic features investigated, the highest correlation with aggressive behavior was related to the concomitant substance abuse, type of admission to psychiatric hospital and the male gender. The OAS has shown a greater propensity to directed-aggression in males with schizophrenia, and self-directed in females with major depression. The BPRS has shown a positive correlation between hetero-directed aggressive behavior and positive symptomatology, and between the self-directed and depression, risk of suicide, feelings of guilt and somatic concerns. The BDHI has indicated greater suspicion in women's group. The hypothesis that aggression is otherwise related to specific socio-demographic and clinical characteristics was confirmed by our study. The data suggest that early identification and assessment of potential risk factors involved in the genesis of aggressive episodes would allow the clinician to implement a better strategy for prevention and intervention.

  13. Acoustical study of electro- and thermal conductivity of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Rygalov, L.N.; Ivanova, I.V.; Barashkov, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    One established a link between electrical, elastic and structural properties of electronic smelts. One calculated polyterms of resistance and thermal conductivity of liquid metals (Be, Cd, U, V, Mo, Cr, rare-earth metals) on the basis of data covering both melting and boiling points. For some metals the values were obtained for the first time. To analyze kinetic properties of metals under high temperatures one should apply complex many-particles model representations and efficient computing equipment. It is pointed out that essential problems blocking efforts to tackle the mentioned task result in necessity to find simple though approximate models describing satisfactorily properties of metals [ru

  14. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [Rust Geotech, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Environmental Sciences Lab.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunter, C.R. [Cascade Earth Sciences, La Grande, OR (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  15. Factors influencing childhood conduct disorders: Study of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili B

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorders are a group of behavior disorders in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate social norms or rules are violated. To evaluate the factors influencing childhood conduct disorders, we reviewed records of 43 cases (84% boys, mean age 11 years referred to Shahid Esmaili psychiatric hospital, Tehran. All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of DSMIV. 15 variables were included; Age and sex and step of patient among sibling, parental educational level, social class of the family, medical and psychiatric history of entire family members and the kind of therapy. The most frequent complaints were aggressiveness, stealing and lying. The dominant age group was 10-14 years. The most frequent family members were 5. Most of the children were 2nd child of the family. The most often educational level of the parents were illiteracy followed by primary school educated. Most of the patients were of low to intermediate socioeconomic classes. The most effective therapy was behavior modification along with appropriate medications.

  16. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for Studying Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard D. Dietzel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM is a scanning probe technique that utilizes the increase in access resistance that occurs if an electrolyte filled glass micro-pipette is approached towards a poorly conducting surface. Since an increase in resistance can be monitored before the physical contact between scanning probe tip and sample, this technique is particularly useful to investigate the topography of delicate samples such as living cells. SICM has shown its potential in various applications such as high resolution and long-time imaging of living cells or the determination of local changes in cellular volume. Furthermore, SICM has been combined with various techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or patch clamping to reveal localized information about proteins or protein functions. This review details the various advantages and pitfalls of SICM and provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of SICM in biological imaging. Furthermore, we show that in principle, a combination of SICM and ion selective micro-electrodes enables one to monitor the local ion activity surrounding a living cell.

  17. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  18. Preliminary studies of monoclonal antibody lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.; Eary, J.F.; Jones, R.F.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.; Beaumier, P.L.; Krohn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy was performed at 3 and 20 hr following subcutaneous injection of 131 I anti-melanoma antibody (Fab) in 11 patients who had surgical resection of lymph nodes (neck, axilla, groin) at 24 hr for suspected metastatic melanoma. Comparable amounts of 125 I nonspecific control antibody (Fab) were co-administered. Six patients had nodal metastases and three showed positive images at both time periods. Five patients had no metastases though one was image positive. Four other nondiseased inguinal node groups were image negative. A total of 28 tumored nodes and 110 normal nodes were removed, counted and histologically examined. All metastatic tumors expressed antigen against which the specific Fab was directed. The concentrations of both specific and nonspecific Fab were similar in tumored nodes and both were significantly greater than in normal nodes showed essentially identical intranodal spatial distribution of the specific and control Fab in areas containing tumor. These preliminary results suggest the increased concentration of murine immunoglobulin (Fab) retained in diseased nodes was a nonspecific phenomenon

  19. Preliminary studies of the plasma focus as an opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Gerdin, G.

    1983-01-01

    Sharp current interruption at pinch time suggests the possible application of the plasma focus as an opening switch. Switch impedances on the order of 0.5 ohms or greater would be of interest to pulsed power applications if the rise time for the impedance is sufficiently short. The experimental determination of the magnitude of the plasma focus impedance at pinch time and its nature (R or L) are obviously important in assessing the feasibility of this application. An experimental estimate of the Spitzer resistance of the plasma focus based on soft-X-ray measurements indicates a Spitzer resistance of 9 mΩ. Estimates of resistance based on the maximum particle energy observed 4 (V about E /sub MAX/ /e) and the current at pinch time (R about E /sub MAX/ /eI /sub p/ ) would indicate an effective resistance of about one ohm. Estimates of resistance based on circuit parameters (L, I, q/C) yield about one third of an ohm. To resolve these discrepancies a exclamationBexclamation probe 5 is being developed to get a better estimate of L(t), L(t) and I(t) through spatially resolved measurements. Preliminary results are reported

  20. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clive, P J M; Chindurza, I [SgurrEnergy Ltd, 79 Coplaw Street, Glasgow G42 7JG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ravey, I; Bass, J [RES Group Ltd, James Blyth House, 7000 Academy Park, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Boyle, R J; Jones, P [TUV NEL Ltd, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lang, S J [Sustainable Energy Research Group, University College Cork (Ireland); Bradley, S [Mighty River Power, Level 14, 23-29 Albert Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, L [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd, 2064 Maryhill Road, Glasgow G20 0AB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Oldroyd, A [Oldbaum Services Ltd, Schoolhouse, Brig o' Turk, Callander, Scotland (United Kingdom); Stickland, M [University of Strathclyde, 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.clive@sgurrenergy.com

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  1. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  2. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Feasibility study; Code of Conduct fuer windkraftprojekte. Machbarkeitsstudie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, freischaffender Berater, Binningen (Switzerland); Ziegler, Ch. [Inter Act, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This final report deals with the results of a feasibility study concerning the development of a Code of Conduct for wind-power projects. The aim is to strengthen the acceptance of wind-power by the general public. The necessity of new, voluntary market instruments is discussed. The urgency of development in this area is quoted as being high, and the authors consider the feasibility of the definition of a code of conduct as being proven. The code of conduct can, according to the authors, be of use at various levels but primarily in project development. Further free-enterprise instruments are also suggested that should help support socially compatible and successful market development. It is noted that the predominant portion of those questioned are prepared to co-operate in further work on the subject

  3. Design study of a normal conducting helical snake for AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Luccio, Alfredo U; Takano, Koji

    2004-01-01

    A new normal conducting snake magnet is being fabricated for the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project, a superconducting type helical dipole magnets had been developed and it performed successfully in high-energy polarized proton acceleration. The new AGS helical snake has the same basic magnetic structure but is more complicated. To achieve no beam shift and no beam deflection in one magnetic device, helical pitches and rotating angles were carefully calculated. Compared to a superconducting magnet, a normal warm magnet must have a large cross- sectional area of conductors which make it difficult to design a magnet with large helical pitch. We developed a modified window frame structure to accommodate the large number of conductors. Its three dimensional magnetic field was simulated by using OPERA3D/TOSCA. 3 Refs.

  4. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence

  5. Long-distance transportation of primate embryos developing in culture: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Stephanie; Harvey, Alexandra; Gierbolini, Lynette; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Brenner, Carol; Bavister, Barry

    2010-03-01

    Non-human primate embryos are invaluable for conducting research relevant to human infertility and stem cells, but their availability is restricted. In this preliminary study, rhesus monkey embryos were produced by IVF at the Caribbean Primate Research Centre and shipped in tubes of gassed culture medium within a battery-powered transport incubator by overnight courier to Wayne State University in Michigan. Upon arrival, the embryos were incubated in fresh culture medium to evaluate further development. In 11 shipments comprising 98 cleavage-stage embryos developing from oocytes that were mature (MII) upon collection, 51 (52%) reached advanced preimplantation stages (morula to hatched blastocyst) during prolonged culture following transportation. However, most embryos produced from oocytes that were immature (MI) at collection arrested and only 5/51 (10%) reached advanced stages of development. This study demonstrates that non-cryopreserved primate embryos can be routinely transported between distant sites without loss of developmental ability. In this way, the processes of production and study of non-cryopreserved primate embryos need not be restricted to the same or nearby laboratories. This will expand the use of these embryos for research and facilitate generation of translationally relevant information. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Preliminary study on biosynthesis and characterization of bacteria cellulose films from coconut water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingsih, A. W.; Rosyida, V. T.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Prasetyo, D. J.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Apriyana, W.; Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Hernawan; Darsih, C.; Pratiwi, D.; Suwanto, A.; Ratih, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a unique type of bacterial cellulose. It contains more than 90% of water. A preliminary study had shown that bacterial cellulose films has remarkable mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum condition such as percentage of carbon source, time of cultivation, and pH to produce bacterial cellulose films from local coconut water, and its characterization on morphology, swelling ability and tensile strength of dried bacterial cellulose. A. xylinum was grown on coconut water culture medium with addition of 3%, 5%, and 7% of sugar, while the cultivation time was vary from 3 days, 5 days and 7 days. pH condition was conducted in pH 3, pH 5 and pH 7. Bacterial cellulose samples were dried using oven with temperature of 100°C until the moisture content reached 4-5%. This study showed that several parameters for optimum condition to produce bacterial cellulose films from local waste of coconut water had been obtained (5% of carbon source; pH 5; and 7 day of incubation period). The electron microscopy also showed that dried bacterial cellulose films had pores covered by fibrils on the surface. Therefore, the present work proposes the optimum formula and condition that can be used based on properties of end product needed.

  7. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Northern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Vertical gradients in fog chemistry and physics were measured from a 430 m television broadcast tower in the northern San Joaquin Valley near Walnut Grove, California. Fog was collected on the ground and at two elevations on the tower using Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors Version 2 (CASCC2). Work was conducted as part of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). Results will be used to evaluate the need to make measurements aloft in future regional studies of fog processing of atmospheric particles and for testing whether vertically resolved fog models provide realistic simulations of fog physics and chemistry above the ground. Two fog/low cloud events were sampled during the tower study. Preliminary results show concentrations of major species in the fogwater typically decreasing with altitude, while liquid water contents increase. Fogwater loadings of major species, the total amount of a species in the aqueous phase per unit air volume, were observed to increase with altitude. Major species concentrations were typically quite stable at a given elevation, while significant decreases were observed over time in liquid water content. Fogwater concentrations of soluble hydroperoxides were highest near the surface and increased with time after sunrise and were observed to coexist in the high pH fog with S(IV). Time lapse video footage of the top of the fog/cloud layer revealed a very dynamic interface, suggesting entrainment of material from the clear air into the fog/cloud may be significant. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  8. A preliminary study of muscular artifact cancellation in single-channel EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Peng, Hu; Ward, Rabab K

    2014-10-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with muscular artifacts that strongly obscure the EEG signals and complicates their analysis. For the conventional case, where the EEG recordings are obtained simultaneously over many EEG channels, there exists a considerable range of methods for removing muscular artifacts. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use EEG information in ambulatory healthcare and related physiological signal monitoring systems. For practical reasons, a single EEG channel system must be used in these situations. Unfortunately, there exist few studies for muscular artifact cancellation in single-channel EEG recordings. To address this issue, in this preliminary study, we propose a simple, yet effective, method to achieve the muscular artifact cancellation for the single-channel EEG case. This method is a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the joint blind source separation (JBSS) techniques. We also conduct a study that compares and investigates all possible single-channel solutions and demonstrate the performance of these methods using numerical simulations and real-life applications. The proposed method is shown to significantly outperform all other methods. It can successfully remove muscular artifacts without altering the underlying EEG activity. It is thus a promising tool for use in ambulatory healthcare systems.

  9. MHD studies conducted at the U-25 Facility (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The U-25 facility research status is summarized. The main rated parameters of the U-25 facility have been attained, and the main stages of the facility shakedown are briefly discussed. Experimental studies have recently been focused on design of the RM frame channel, development of a method for processing experimental data obtained at the U-25 facility, study of the seed injection/removal system, and steam generator studies

  10. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  11. Correlation of Salivary Statherin and Calcium Levels with Dental Calculus Formation: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa Pateel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salivary constituents have a wide range of functions including oral calcium homeostasis. Salivary proteins such as statherin inhibit crystal growth of calcium phosphate in supersaturated solutions and interact with several oral bacteria to adsorb on hydroxyapatite. Concurrently, saliva, which is supersaturated with respect to calcium phosphates, is the driving force for plaque mineralization and formation of calculus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to estimate and correlate salivary statherin and calcium concentration to the dental calculus formation. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship between salivary statherin, calcium, and dental calculus among 70 subjects, aged 20–55 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on the calculus scores as interpreted by Calculus Index which was followed by collection of whole saliva using Super•SAL™. Salivary calcium levels were assessed by calorimetric method using Calcium Assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Michigan, USA and statherin levels by using ELISA Kit (Cusabio Biotech. Results. Statherin levels showed a weak negative correlation with the calcium levels and with calculus formation. The mean salivary statherin and calcium concentration were found to be 0.96 μg/ml and 3.87 mg/ml, respectively. Salivary statherin levels differed significantly among the three groups (p<0.05. Conclusions. Our preliminary data indicates that statherin could possibly play a role in the formation of dental calculus.

  12. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  13. Surveillance of nosocomial infections: a preliminary study on hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, L; Santoro, E; De Caro, F; Cavallo, P; Boccia, G; Capunzo, M; Motta, O

    2006-06-01

    The observance of hand hygiene compliance is important to reduce cross-infection by micro-organisms. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the level of hand hygiene in healthcare workers from different departments, with particular emphasis on transient flora. The study was conducted in three departments (Surgery, Intensive Care Unit, Obstetrics and Gynecology) of a hospital in Campania, southern Italy. Over a six-month period, 50 healthcare workers were randomly tested. Imprints of palms and fingertips were taken monthly during the morning shift. The number of colonies per plate was counted and transient pathogens were identified. Risk factors for hand contamination were determined. Total flora was found in the following CFU means per palm and per five fingertips (95% CI): Obstetrics and Gynecology [palms 130 CFUs (95% CI 85-180); fingertips 125 CFUs (95% CI 92-160)]; ICU [palms 80 CFUs (95% CI 58-99); fingertips 62 CFUs (95% CI 45-82)]; Surgery [palms 75 CFUs (95% CI 41-120); fingertips 70 CFUs (95% CI 52-90)] Transient flora was found on 39% of healthcare workers' hands. The only factor associated with hand contamination by transient flora was the absence of gloving during healthcare procedure (P = 0.02).

  14. Comparative study of atrial fibrillation and AV conduction in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der

    1987-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one ofthe most common cardiac arrhythmias in humans. It a1so occurs quite frequent1y in dogs and horses. Comparative study of this arrhythmia may contribute to better understanding of the pathophysiologica1 mechanisms involved. In this study, we present a quantitative

  15. Common fluoroscopic studies in radiology : conduct and analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Sanchez, Allan

    2011-01-01

    A countless number of radiological procedures, that have involved the use of fluoroscopy and contrast media of different indole, have been carried out in all radiology services and medical images of Costa Rica for the diagnosis of diseases or conditions, in both adults and in children. Fluoroscopic studies, often called special or contrast studies, have had particular conditions for its realization. Some from the medical point of view: adequate training in the technical and cognitive development when evaluating the images to not miss important details. Other by the patient: adequate preparation to achieve the best images for optimal diagnosis. For example, adequate bowel preparation is essential for a barium enema, to cooperation by the patient to meet specific indications that the physician dictates when swallowing postures or just when you are prompted. Criteria have been met and unified for contrast studies in different hospitals and clinics. The indications, contra, method, technique of procedure, points to remember, number of images or projections minimum required in the interpretation of contrast studies, as well as a report template of standard and ideal study are presented in a simple, systematic and logical. The manual is intended for residents and attending physicians specialists in radiology and medical imaging including contrast studies more common. Spaces are promoted with current technology studies to set aside more complicated and less sophisticated as have been the fluoroscopic studies; however, in the national reality, access to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is not as easy. Radiological studies with fluoroscopy performed by trained staff led the treating physician to make sound decisions based on studies relatively simple and easy to do. The tests with the use of fluoroscopic have been named: the esophagogram, gastroduodenal series, gastro intestinal transit, the hysterosalpingography, the cystography and the

  16. A Preliminary study on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infection in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamze, M.; Mallat, H.; Mokhbat, J.

    2009-01-01

    After the first outbreak of Legionnaire disease was described for the first time in1976, legionellosis has been increasingly recognized in association with many outbreaks, both community and hospital acquired. This disease remains a model of water borne transmission. In Lebanon, no report has yet been published on the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila infections. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of legionellosis in hospitalized patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (HAP). The study was conducted between April 2004 and August 2007. Eleven community hospitals participated to this endeavour. Laboratory evaluation was conducted in two centers (Middle East Health Institute, Bsalim, Lebanon and Nini Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon). Two hundred and forty two urinary samples and ninety one pulmonary samples from 242 patients were analyzed. The age range was 16 to 71 years. Two hundred and fifteen were from community acquired pneumonias and twenty seven were nosocomially acquired in intensive care units. The urinary antigen was investigated in 242 patients; the Binax kit ® was used in this research. In lung secretions of 91 patients, the presence of Legionella pneumophila was searched for using direct immunofluorescence method and culture. Among the 215 urinary samples from patients with CAP, three were positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 1.4 %. Among the 27 patients with HAP, one was positive for Legionella antigen with a prevalence of 3.7%. This preliminary study reveals the fact that legionellosis is indeed present in Lebanon, hence the importance of considering it in the work-up and the management of patients with pneumonia. Hospital laboratories should therefore routin ely search for this pathogen through at least urinary antigen detection. Health authorities should also enforce microbiological regulations concerning water sanitation in hospitals and in the community to prevent the

  17. Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintino, L.; Costa, A.; Miranda, R.; Yapp, D.; Kumar, V.; Kong, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of high power fiber lasers presents several benefits for industrial purposes, namely high power with low beam divergence, flexible beam delivery, low maintenance costs, high efficiency and compact size. This paper presents a brief review of the development of high power lasers, and presents initial data on welding of API 5L: X100 pipeline steel with an 8 kW fiber laser. Weld bead geometry was evaluated and transition between conduction and deep penetration welding modes was investigated

  18. A preliminary study of variation of Trapa in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Yasuro; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Lai, Vincent

    2018-05-31

    SummaryFrequent occurrence of intermediate forms and poor knowledge on the variability of characters have caused some difficulties in the taxonomy of Trapa in Japan. Thus I made a preliminary analysis on the variation of nuts collected from 21 populations in Southwestern Japan. Attention was paid to some morphometrical characters of the nut and development of lower spines or “pseudohorns.” Each population usually contained different forms of nuts. Among them, however, several entities could be recognized based on the shape of nut as follows. 1) Two-spined form: This included nuts of middle size (width 30–50 mm) and ones of big size (width over 45 mm). In case of the former ones, the nuts with pseudohorns of varying degree of development usually occurred together within one population and even on a single plant. I propose to treat them as one taxon, Trapa japonica, sensu OHWI (1965), without inventing varieties. But at the same time, it was remarkable that the tendency of development of pseudohorns was apparently different from population to population. The bigger ones included two types, that is, one without pseudohorns and the other with pseudohorns. The former one may be identified as T. bispinosa ROXB., but the latter one has not been described in literature. 2) Four-spined form: The nuts of small size (width of about 20 mm) were well definable and thought to be T. incisa SIEB. et ZUCC. The nuts of bigger size showed some variations with respect to their size and/or stoutness of lower spines. The big ones (width over 45 mm) may be treated as one taxon, T. natans or its variety. The nuts of middle size have been named T. natans var. pumila NAKANO. But so far as present materials were concerned, its entity seemed dubious. They might be immature nuts of bigger ones. The different patterns of variation among populations were ascribed to genetic differentiation. Predominance of self-pollination and isolation of habitats were thought to promote genetic isolation

  19. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain: A preliminary study on a Gaussian hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    this problem for WFs in flat terrain or offshore has been investigated in many studies, it is still a challenging problem for WFs in complex terrain. In this preliminary study, the wind flow conditions of complex terrain without WTs are first obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...

  20. Thermal treatment of recycled concrete aggegate for general use in concrete. A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.; Brouwer, J.P.; Mulder, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a preliminary laboratory study to assess the effectiveness of thermally treating recycled concrete aggregate for genera) use in concrete are presented. The samples used for the study consisted of sieved fractions of crushed concrete that were subjected to various

  1. Morphology and conductivity studies of a new solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... formation of the polymer–salt complex. The samples with higher salt concentration are softer, less opaque and less smooth compared to the low salt concentration samples. DSC studies show an increase in the glass transition temperature and a decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increase in the salt concentration.

  2. Field emission study of MWCNT/conducting polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, M.A., E-mail: maalvee@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Husain, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2014-12-01

    MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method. These synthesized nanocomposites were studied carefully by Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The field emission study of MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were performed in diode arrangement under vacuum of the order of 10{sup −5} Torr. The emission current under exploration depends on applied voltage. The prepared nanocomposites depict low turn-on field at 1.4 V/μm that reaches to a maximum emission current density 0.020 mA/cm{sup 2} at 2.4 V/µm, which is calculated from the graph of current density (J) against the applied electric field (E) and from Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) plot.

  3. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  4. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  5. Preliminary study of nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ogawa, Masuro; Ogata, Kann; Yamada, Seiya

    1995-12-01

    The Nuclear power generation plant (NPGP) releases smaller amount of carbon dioxide than the fossil power plant for the generation of the unit electrical power. Thus, the NPGP is expected to contribute resolving the ecological problems. It is important to investigate the nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process from the view point that it is better to produce electricity in high thermal efficiency from the high temperature energy. We carried out, in the current preliminary study, the survey and selection of the candidate cycles, then conducted the evaluation of cycle efficiency, the selection of R and D items to be solved for the decision of the optimum cycle. Following this, we evaluated nuclear heat application for intermediate and low temperature level released from gas turbine process and overall efficiency of cogeneration system. As a result, it was clarified that overall efficiency of the direct regenerative cycle was the highest in low temperature region below 200degC, and that of the direct regenerative inter cooling cycle was the highest in middle and high temperature region. (author).

  6. Preliminary study on flexible core design of super FBR with multi-axial fuel shuffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarman; Yamaji, Akifumi; Someya, Takayuki; Noda, Shogo

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary study has been conducted on developing a new flexible core design concept for the Supercritical water-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (Super FBR) with multi-axial fuel shuffling. The proposed new concept focuses on the characteristic large axial coolant density change in supercritical water cooled reactors (SCWRs) when the coolant inlet temperature is below the pseudocritical point and large coolant enthalpy rise is taken in the core for achieving high thermal efficiency. The aim of the concept is to attain both the high breeding performance and good thermal-hydraulic performance at the same time. That is, short Compound System Doubling Time (CSDT) for high breeding, large coolant enthalpy rise for high thermal efficiency, and large core power. The proposed core concept consists of horizontal layers of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels and depleted uranium (DU) blanket layers at different elevation levels. Furthermore, the upper core and the lower core are separated and independent fuel shuffling schemes in these two core regions are considered. The number of fuel batches and fuel shuffling scheme of the upper core were changed to investigate influence of multi-axial fuel shuffling on the core characteristics. The core characteristics are evaluated with-three-dimensional diffusion calculations, which are fully-coupled with thermal-hydraulics calculations based on single channel analysis model. The results indicate that the proposed multi-axial fuel shuffling scheme does have a large influence on CSDT. Further investigations are necessary to develop the core concept. (author)

  7. Preliminary study of nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto; Ogawa, Masuro; Ogata, Kann; Yamada, Seiya.

    1995-12-01

    The Nuclear power generation plant (NPGP) releases smaller amount of carbon dioxide than the fossil power plant for the generation of the unit electrical power. Thus, the NPGP is expected to contribute resolving the ecological problems. It is important to investigate the nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process from the view point that it is better to produce electricity in high thermal efficiency from the high temperature energy. We carried out, in the current preliminary study, the survey and selection of the candidate cycles, then conducted the evaluation of cycle efficiency, the selection of R and D items to be solved for the decision of the optimum cycle. Following this, we evaluated nuclear heat application for intermediate and low temperature level released from gas turbine process and overall efficiency of cogeneration system. As a result, it was clarified that overall efficiency of the direct regenerative cycle was the highest in low temperature region below 200degC, and that of the direct regenerative inter cooling cycle was the highest in middle and high temperature region. (author)

  8. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcheva, Kristina P; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B; Rahbar, Mohammad H

    2016-04-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epidemiologic studies. We used simulated datasets and real life data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort to demonstrate the adverse effects of multicollinearity in the regression analysis and encourage researchers to consider the diagnostic for multicollinearity as one of the steps in regression analysis.

  9. Conducting field studies for testing pesticide leaching models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles N.; Parrish, Rudolph S.; Brown, David S.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of predictive models are being applied to evaluate the transport and transformation of pesticides in the environment. These include well known models such as the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), the Risk of Unsaturated-Saturated Transport and Transformation Interactions for Chemical Concentrations Model (RUSTIC) and the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems Model (GLEAMS). The potentially large impacts of using these models as tools for developing pesticide management strategies and regulatory decisions necessitates development of sound model validation protocols. This paper offers guidance on many of the theoretical and practical problems encountered in the design and implementation of field-scale model validation studies. Recommendations are provided for site selection and characterization, test compound selection, data needs, measurement techniques, statistical design considerations and sampling techniques. A strategy is provided for quantitatively testing models using field measurements.

  10. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  11. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  12. Preliminary study on zinc-carbon battery performance by using neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Nor Abidin Ashari; Mohd Zaid Abdullah; Junita Mohamad Saleh; Azraf Azman; Megat Harun AlRashid Megat Ahmad; Rafhayudi Jamro

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes on the discharging characteristic of zinc-carbon batteries (dry cells) by using a neutron imaging technique called a monochromatic neutron tomography. Experiment was conducted on the Nuclear Malaysia neutron tomography prototype instrument which based on 1-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector. The instrument is constructed at the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) beam line built at the one of the beam ports of TRIGA MARK II Research reactor, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor. The main aim of this preliminary experiment was to test the instrument capability on a real industrial component. It was also aimed to understand structural and chemical changes of these battery particles after experiencing a discharging process. In this preliminary work, new and used batteries used were the products of Eveready company. (Author)

  13. Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

  14. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  15. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  16. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  17. Preliminary studies of soil erosion in a valley bottom in Ibadan under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies of soil erosion in a valley bottom in Ibadan under some tillage practices. EA Aiyelari, SO Oshunsanya. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.221-228. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  18. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  19. A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Racial Diversity in Environmental Education: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy James; Leo H. McAvoy

    1992-01-01

    This study presents preliminary result interviews with people of color working in environmental education and interpretation throughout the United States. The three primary questions asked were these? (1) What path led each individual to a career in environmental education; (2) How does each individual define environmentalism? and (3) What are the primary issues this...

  20. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  1. ICT and UD: Preliminary Study for Recommendations to Design Accessible University Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sánchez Utgé, Marta; De Anna, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the Universal Design in the educational context principles, the experiences gained during the FIRB project "Net@ccessibility" and the high-education courses for teachers' specialization on special education, this research will focus on preliminary studies in order to define the recommendations for designing accessible university courses.

  2. Good Feedback for bad Players? A preliminary Study of ‘juicy’ Interface feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper; Jason, Begy

    2016-01-01

    The theories of game feel and juiciness claim that players will feel more competent, and that a game will be perceived as being of higher quality, when players are given large amounts of redundant audiovisual feedback in response to their actions. This poster describes a preliminary empirical study...

  3. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the ag...

  4. LM-OSL from single grains of quartz: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Solongo, S.

    2002-01-01

    the easy-to-bleach component, those with only the hard-to-bleach component, and those exhibiting all components. The results of this preliminary study show that LM-OSL experiments carried out at the single grain level may give important insights into the luminescence properties observed when viewing...

  5. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  6. Fire behaviour - A preliminary study. | W.S.W. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fire behaviour - A preliminary study. ... be taken cognisance of in any future research on fire in relation to vegetation. Keywords: behaviour; botany; environmental conditions; fire; fire behaviour; fire ecology; fires; grass; grasses; management; rate of spread; recovery; south africa; vegetation; veld; veld management; yield ...

  7. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the

  8. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was successfully cultured in a rainfed lowland rice farm, although no additional care was provided for fishes. The highest ...

  9. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  10. Usability studies on e-learning platforms: Preliminary study in USM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emang, Devinna Win Anak Boniface; Lukman, Raja Nurul Izzati Raja; Kamarulzaman, Muhammad Izzat Syafiq; Zaaba, Zarul Fitri

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores the end-users' experienced in regards to the usability issues in E-learning platform. An online survey utilising 116 participants were conducted to investigate the end-users understanding and satisfaction on E-learning platform in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The results indicates that mainly students still experiencing significant challenges in E-learning platform in regards to accessibility, technical terminologies and functionality. On the other hand, the 10 heuristic guideline is chosen to be a referral point to compare five E-learning platforms in order to assess each performance on regards to the usability criteria. Overall, USM E-learning platform can be considered in a good shape. However, there are more works to be done to improve the delivery system of the E-learning if it would like to sustain for a long period of time. Although the result is at the preliminary stage, it provides useful insights to improve the E-learning platform as one of the most popular education platform in Malaysia.

  11. A preliminary study of the moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America A preliminary study of the moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireland Robert R.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio taxonómico preliminar del género Isopterygium (Hypnaceae, musgo pleurocárpico, en Latinoamérica. Se localizaron y examinaron 78 ejemplares tipo de los 92 taxa reconocidos, de acuerdo con el Index Muscorum, para México, Centro y Sur América. El detallado estudio nomenclatural permitió reconocer para la región siete especies: Isopterygium affusum Mitt., I. byssobolax (C. Müll. Par, I. miradoricum (C. Müll. Jaeg. & Sauerb, I. subbrevisetum (Hampe Broth., I. sobglobosum Herz., I. tenerifolium Mitt. e I. tenerum (Sw. Mitt. Se provee una clave para la identificación de las especies, su distribución conocida y la lista de sinónimos para cada una de ellas.  Algunos taxa anteriormente ubicados en Isopterygium fue necesario transferirlos a otros taxa, lo cual requiere las siguientes combinaciones nuevas: Wijkia alstonii (Bartr. Irel. (Isopterygium alstonii Bartr., Pseudotaxiphyllum homomallifolium (Redf. Irel. (Isopereygium homomallifolium Redf., Pseudotaxiphyllum machrisianum (Crum Irel. (Taxiphyllum machrisianum Crum, Pseudotaxiphyllum richardsii (Bartr. Irel. (Isopterygium richardsii Bartr. A preliminary taxonomic study was conducted on the pleurocarpous moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America. The types of 78 the 92 taxa recognized for Mexico, Central and South America by Index Muscorum were located and examined. Synonymy was found to be extensive with only seven species presently being recognized for the region, including Isopterygium affusum Mitt., I. byssobolax (C. Müll. Par .. I. miradoricum (C. Müll. Jaeg. & Sauerb., I. subbrevisetum (Hampe Broth., I. subglobosum Herz., I. tenerifolium Mitt. and I. tenerum (Sw. Mitt. A key to the identification of the species, their known distribution and a list of synonyms for each species is provided. It was necessary to transfer some of the taxa formerly placed in Isopterygium into other genera which required the following new combinations: Wijkia alstonii (Bartr. Irel

  12. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  13. National Plutonium Workers' Study: considerations and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.F.; Wilkinson, G.S.

    1983-03-01

    The National Plutonium Workers' Study developed from the clinical follow-up of workers with body burdens in excess of 10 nCi. The importance of plutonium to energy and weapons development and the uncertainty about its biological effects motivated the formation of an epidemiologic study of more than 125,000 workers at six Department of Energy facilities. This report reviews recent results from The National Plutonium Workers' Study, including an analysis of cancer mortality among workers at the Rocky Flats Plant and a study of malignant melanoma among employees at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The problems inherent in large-scale epidemiologic studies, as well as the future directions for the study, are discussed

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  15. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  16. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  17. PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY OF KALANCHOE SPATHULATA DC. ON INFLAMMATORY WOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C. L.; Yadav, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Here, an attempt is made to study the clinical aspect of Kalanchoe spathulata Dc. It has been observed that would heals rapidly leaving no scar. The study clearly validates the ancient concept of Ayurveda, that without taking the help of surgery, there are several medicinal plants which may cure diseases very well. PMID:22557495

  18. Understanding of motherhood and parenthood over time – Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jug Došler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical overview and analysis of the current understanding of the concept of motherhood and related facts. Besides, it presents the results of a research obtained through a questionnaire designed and administered for this purpose. A theoretical overview of the perception and experience of femininity and motherhood in history is given in the introduction. Further, the role of motherhood and parenting is defined and an attempt is made to under- stand in what direction motherhood will develop in the future. The empirical part shows the ideas of young people (students on motherhood, their opinion on the current situation and the role of women and mothers in relation to the maternal myth. The survey, conducted in 2012, included 100 full-time students (N = 100, 50 male (50% and 50 female (50%, from four faculties of the University of Ljubljana. Statistically significant differences have been found in their views on the future of maternity. Most male students (60.0% believe that in the future mothers will be more focused on their careers and less on their families, whereas fewer female students share this view (38.0%. The survey made it evident that yo- ung people are aware of the changes occurring over time, although the traditional view of the role of motherhood and the family is still predominant. The results also show that the respondents are aware of the need for gender equality and equal division of family roles between men and women. Our research revealed that women are more aware of this than men.

  19. Effects of Palliative Care Training Program on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Experiences Among Student Physiotherapists: A Preliminary Quasi-experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Senthil P; Jim, Anand; Sisodia, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic...

  20. Attachment-security prime effect on skin-conductance synchronization in psychotherapists: An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Kleinbub, Johann R; Calvo, Vincenzo; Benelli, Enrico; Messina, Irene; Sambin, Marco; Voci, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Physiological synchronization (PS) is a phenomenon of simultaneous activity between two persons' physiological signals. It has been associated with empathy, shared affectivity, and efficacious therapeutic relationships. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible connections between PS and the attachment system, seeking preliminary evidence of this link by means of an experimental manipulation of the sense of attachment security in psychotherapists according to a protocol by Mikulincer and Shaver (2001), which has been proven to elicit empathetic behavior. We compared the synchronization of skin-conductance signals in brief psychological interviews between 18 psychodynamic therapists and 18 healthy volunteers. A sense of attachment-security priming was administered to half of the therapists, whereas the other half received a positive-affect control prime. Lag analysis was performed to investigate the "leading" or "following" attitudes of the participants in the two conditions. Mixed-model regressions and evidence-ratio model comparisons were used to investigate the effects of the manipulation on PS. Therapist attachment anxiety and avoidance traits were considered covariates. The attachment-security prime showed a significant effect on PS lag dynamics, but not on overall PS amount. Lag analysis showed that the therapists in the attachment-security condition were significantly more prone to assume a leading attitude in the physiological coupling than the therapists in the control condition. Therapist attachment anxiety and avoidance had no apparent effect. Our result paves the way for further exploration of the clinical relationship from a physiological standpoint. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adenosine-deaminase (ADA activity in Psoriasis (A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Chaudhry

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of adenosine-deaminase activity ′in 23 patients hav-mg psoriasis compared with an equal number of healthy controls revealed significantly high ADA-activity in the psotiatic patients.

  2. Radioiodination of melagenine-II with I-125 (preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.; Ruiz, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radioiodination of Melagenine-II with I-125 farmacokinetic studies was made, using Chloramine-T method. Radiochemical purity and stability of the labelled product were determined by radiochromatography. The labelled Melagenine-II showed two radioactive fractions

  3. Preliminary study of the efficacy of the combination of tamsulosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S. Abdelaziz

    2016-12-13

    day) and combinations of it with trospium .... Hence, we left with a total of. 126 patients: ..... symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU Int.

  4. Are thiazides effective on hypertensive vertigo? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Esra; Gökcan, Gökçen; Parmaksız, Ergün; Acar, Nurhan Ozdemir; Ozlüoğlu, Levent Naci

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the symptoms of vertigo related to hypertension resulted from endolymphatic hydrops and the efficacy of the thiazides in the treatment. A total of 24 vertigo patients without peripheric or central vestibular pathologies or hyperlipidemia were included. The study group comprised 15 patients with hypertension, including nine with regulated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). The control group comprised nine patients without hypertension or DM. The patients in the study group received hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The European Evaluation of Vertigo Scale (EEVS) and Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ), puretone audiometry, tympanometry, electronystagmography (ENG) for nystagmus tests, oculomotor tests, and caloric test were carried out initially and at three weeks for both groups. The results of the study group were compared to those of the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in the scores of EEVS and VHQ at three weeks in the study group, compared to the baseline scores (for both groups p≤0.01). Our study results showed that thiazides alleviated vertigo symptoms in hypertensive patients, as measured by qualitative methods (i.e. EEVS, VHQ), but not with quantitative measurements (i.e. ENG).

  5. Ten Years toward Equity: Preliminary Results from a Follow-Up Case Study of Academic Computing Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L. Crenshaw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Just over 10 years ago, we conducted a culture study of the Computer Science Department at the flagship University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, one of the top five computing departments in the country. The study found that while the department placed an emphasis on research, it did so in a way that, in conjunction with a lack of communication and transparency, devalued teaching and mentoring, and negatively impacted the professional development, education, and sense of belonging of the students. As one part of a multi-phase case study spanning over a decade, this manuscript presents preliminary findings from our latest work at the university. We detail early comparisons between data gathered at the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2005 and our most recent pilot case study, a follow-up research project completed in 2016. Though we have not yet completed the full data collection, we find it worthwhile to reflect on the pilot case study data we have collected thus far. Our data reveals improvements in the perceptions of undergraduate teaching quality and undergraduate peer mentoring networks. However, we also found evidence of continuing feelings of isolation, incidents of bias, policy opacity, and uneven policy implementation that are areas of concern, particularly with respect to historically underrepresented groups. We discuss these preliminary follow-up findings, offer research and methodological reflections, and share next steps for applied research that aims to create positive cultural change in computing.

  6. Anaerobic culture by Total Air Barrier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sarkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor study with obligate anaerobes, inoculated platescontaining suitable reduced media need handling andincubation under strict anaerobic condition. Instead ofensuring a confined oxygen free chamber for placing seededplates, same purpose may be achieved by creating total airbarrier to the surface.MethodUpper moist surface of freshly prepared anaerobic media inPetri plates were intimately covered with very thintransparent bacteriological inert sterile polyester sheets.Stock culture of Bacteroides fragilis, ATCC 23745 andClostridium sporogenes, ATCC 11437 were grown in cookedmeat broth and then sub-cultured on respective plates, afterlifting the cover sheets. Sheets were again covered andincubated at 37oC ordinary incubator. To performantimicrobial susceptibility test, similarly covered seededplates with well inoculums were inverted en-block afterstripping sides with the help of a spatula. Now antibiotic diskswere placed on upper bare surfaces. After short pre-diffusion,plates were incubated keeping inoculated surface below.Same study was performed by conventional method usingGaspak.ResultsGood growths were noted in both sets of the study;however discrete colonies appeared more flat in nature intest set. Almost identical zones of inhibition were noted inboth sets of sensitivity study. Seven days old growths incovered blood agar plates were found viable when subculturedin cooked meat broths.ConclusionIsolation, identification and susceptibility study for mostclinically important obligate anaerobes may be performedby simple barrier method after appropriatestandardization.

  7. A preliminary study of mercury exposure and blood pressure in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Jean

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish is considered protective for coronary heart disease (CHD, but mercury (Hg intake from fish may counterbalance beneficial effects. Although neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg are well established, cardiovascular effects are still debated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate blood pressure in relation to Hg exposure and fish consumption among a non-indigenous fish-eating population in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study was conducted among 251 persons from six communities along the Tapajós River, a major tributary of the Amazon. Data was obtained for socio-demographic information, fish consumption, height and weight to determine body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and Hg concentration in hair samples. Results Results showed that overall, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were relatively low (mean: 113.9 mmHg ± 14.6 and 73.7 mmHg ± 11.0. Blood pressure was significantly associated with hair total Hg (H-Hg, age, BMI and gender. No association was observed between fish consumption and blood pressure, although there were significant inter-community differences. Logistic regression analyses showed that the Odds Ratio (OR for elevated systolic blood pressure (≥ 130 mmHg with H-Hg ≥ 10 μg/g was 2.91 [1.26–7.28], taking into account age, BMI, smoking, gender and community. Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study add further support for Hg cardiovascular toxicity.

  8. Preliminary analysis of K-DEMO thermal hydraulic system using MELCOR; Parametric study of hydrogen explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Lim, Soo Min; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) is future reactor for the commercializing the fusion power generation. The Design of K-DEMO is similar to that of ITER but the fusion energy generation is much bigger because ITER is experimental reactor. For this reason, K-DEMO uses more fusion reaction with bigger amount of tritium. Higher fusion power means more neutron generation that can irradiate the structure around fusion plasma. Fusion reactor can produce many kinds of radioactive material in the accident. Because of this hazard, preliminary safety analysis is mandatory before its construction. Concern for safety problem of accident of fusion/fission reactor has been growing after Fukushima accident which is severe accident from unexpected disaster. To model the primary heat transfer system, in this study, MARS-KS thermal hydraulic analysis is referred. Lee et al. and Kim et al. conducted thermal hydraulic analysis using MARS-KS and multiple module simulation to deal with the phenomena of first wall corrosion for each plasma pulse. This study shows the relationship between vacuum vessel rupture area and source term leakage after hydrogen explosion. For the conservative study, first wall heating is not terminated because the heating inside the vacuum vessel increase the pressure inside VV. Pressurizer, steam generator and turbine is not damaged. 6.69 kg of tritiated water (HTO) and 1 ton of dust is modeled which is ITER guideline. The entire system of K-DEMO is smaller than that of ITER. For this reason, lots of aerosol is release into environment although the safety system like DS is maintained. This result shows that the safety system of K-DEMO should use much more safety system.

  9. Preliminary Laboratory-scale Study Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Sensor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widespread uses of radiotracers in the industrial applications is the leak detection of the systems. This technique can be applied, for example, to detect leak in heat exchangers or along buried industrial pipelines. Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) is currently conducting R&D on this technique aiming to promote the radiotracer use in Thailand. In this paper, a preliminary study of the leak detection using radiotracer on laboratory-scale was presented. Br-82 was selected for this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. The radiotracer in form of NH4Br powder was irradiated in Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) to produce Br-82. The irradiated target was subsequently prepared in the form of aqueous solution in a hot cell ready for injection into the experimental system as the radiotracer. A relatively simplified experimental setup was used with three NaI detectors being placed along the pipelines to measure system flow rate and to detect the leakage from the piping system. The results obtained from the radiotracer technique were compared to those measured by other methods. It is found that the flow rate obtained from the radiotracer technique agreed well with the one obtained from the flow meter. The leak rate result, however, showed discrepancy between results obtained from two different measuring methods indicating that the simplified experimental setup was not adequate for the leak rate study. Hence, further study with more elaborate experimental setup was required before applying this technique in the actual industrial system.

  10. Preliminary cutting and drilling studies using new generation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Sze, J.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    High power and radiance dye lasers developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show promise for material processing tanks. Evaluation using welding heat flow models suggest significant increases in precision and speed are expected. We developed tooling and instrumentation to diagnose important parameters including spot geometry and optical train quality. We started processing studies to determine the viability of these lasers of cutting and drilling. We used titanium alloys first in the studies due to the availability of comparable parametric studies in the technical literature. Results show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye lasers. The high radiance beam produces low distortion and small heat-affected zones. We have accomplished very high aspect ratios and micron scale kerfs and holes. Through continued system improvement and process optimization, we believe that submicron levels will be achieved

  11. Overeruption of teeth opposing removable partial dentures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Miyashita, Yuji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Enoki, Kaori; Kurushima, Yuko; Mihara, Yusuke; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    One of the purposes of prosthodontic treatment is to prevent overeruption of opposing teeth, but there is currently minimal literature describing the efficacy of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in performing this function. This study investigated overeruption following RPD treatment. The study participants were 33 patients treated with RPDs, and overeruption was evaluated by comparing the surface computeraided design data of dental casts made at two different time points-before and after RPD treatment. Overeruption was observed in 38.1% of teeth opposed by the RPD, which was much less than the proportion of teeth that overerupted when not opposed by the RPD.

  12. Preliminary studies for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Doets, M; Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; van den Brand, Jo

    2000-01-01

    We lay down some general considerations which will serve as a starting point for design studies of a realistic LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. Based on these considerations, we propose a design strategy and identify issues to be further studied. In particular we try to outline some boundary conditions imposed by LHC and LHCb on the vacuum system. We discuss two possibilities for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. The preferred strategy uses a differentially pumped vacuum system with the silicon detectors separated from the beam line vacuum. Some estimations on static vacuum pressures and gas flows are presented.

  13. Theoretical provisions for the discharge at TJ-1 (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1981-01-01

    Using the transport code PLASMATOR a numerical study about the TJ-1 discharge (a Tokamak close to be installed at JEN) has been made, observing the behaviour under huge variations on the transport coefficients as well as on density and current. Noteworthy a scaling law of the kind τ E ∼n θ has been contested at not too high density, The model insensibility upon the initial values has been confirmed and the effects of variations on the recycling coefficient and the rate rise of current studied too. Finally comparisons with alternative models have been accomplished. (Author) 29 refs

  14. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  15. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  16. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  17. Stability notions in synthetic graph generation: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, W.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Yakovets, N.; Bonifati, A.; Markl, Volker; Orlando, Salvatore; Mitschang, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    With the rise in adoption of massive graph data, it be- comes increasingly important to design graph processing algorithms which have predictable behavior as the graph scales. This work presents an initial study of stability in the context of a schema-driven synthetic graph generation. Specifically,

  18. Market for small waste gasification projects - preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a market analysis for small waste gasification/pyrolysis plant in the UK. The overall objectives of the study are to assess the potential merits in establishing a demonstration plant in the UK, and to identify the size, profile and characteristics of the potential market based on municipal solid waste (MSW) feedstock. (author)

  19. Preliminary study on sterilization effect of irradiation on dry vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jianqing; Bao Jianzhong; Cao Hong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2004-01-01

    The number of surviving germs relationship to irradiation dose for several species dry vegetable was studied, and the original value D 10 of the dry vegetable was given. The value will provide a theoretical reference to ascertain the appropriate irradiation dose in the irradiation process of the dry vegetable

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea in epilepsy: a preliminary Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Hala A; Abd El-Kader, Ann A; El Gohary, Amira M; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Afifi, Lamia M

    2012-09-01

    The extent and clinical relevance of the association between epilepsy and sleep apnea are not previously studied in Egypt. What we wanted to know was the frequency of sleep apnea in Egyptian children with epilepsy and its influence on seizure frequency, other seizure characteristics, sleep complaint, and architecture. All patients with epilepsy, aged up to 18 years, who underwent polysomnography were studied. Patients with any neurological disease apart from epilepsy, with psychiatric illness, had hypnotics, or sedatives or those with liver or kidney failure were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to apnea/hypopnea index: group (1) patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and group (2) patients with OSA. For control group, we choose 12 healthy individuals, with age and sex matched to that of our patients. We studied the clinical characteristics of epilepsy, sleep history, and polysomnographic recording of the patients with epilepsy and the control. EEG digital and video monitoring was done for all patients. Eleven patients (42.3%) were found to have obstructive sleep apnea. Seizure frequency was significantly higher in the patients with OSA. Apart from apnea and hypopnea indices, all other sleep parameters did not differ between patients' subgroups. Hypopnea index in REM positively correlates with number of awaking. Apnea index in REM positively correlates with latency to deep sleep and to periodic leg movement. Sleep apnea is frequent in patients with epilepsy. OSA may contribute to increase seizure frequency. We recommend investigating sleep apnea in all patients with epilepsy.

  1. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response of...

  2. A Preliminary Trypanocidal Study of Natural and Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy Wistar albino rats were used to investigate the trypanocidal effect of natural and synthetic supplements of zinc and magnesium in combination with diminazene aceturate in Trypanosoma congolense-inoculated rats. The rats were randomly divided into eight groups in study '1' (involving the natural ...

  3. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  4. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  5. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Meat Balls | Igene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UUFB sample was rated highest in terms of overall likeness and may economically complement some of the existing popular meat-based snacks in Nigeria. The significance of the study is discussed. @JASEM Keyterms: Meat, Meat ball, Quality, Product development. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2012, Vol.

  6. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report; Foerstudie Malaa. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  7. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  8. Preliminary studies on ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    A study on yeast fermentation of bitter kola pod( agricultural waste) was ... optimization of the ethanol production were investigated. ... components of biomass to produce a liquid .... Mani, S., Tabil, L. G. and Opoku, A. (2002). Ethanol from Agricultural crop residues-An. Overview. ... Effect of acid hydrolysis of Garcinia kola.

  9. Preliminary study on irradiation breeding of ornamental lotus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Bao Jianzhong; Liu Chungui; Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of γ-ray irradiation on seeds and stems of ornamental lotus were studied. The results show that the mutation rate of seeds is higher than that of stems, and 30-60 Gy is the appropriate irradiation dose. The varieties with red or multi-color flower are more mutable than those with white flower. Two varieties were selected

  10. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were carried out using urea activated melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husks as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium from industrial effluents. Bioabsorption parameters considered were as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be ...

  11. preliminary geological and radiometric studies of granitoids of zing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    laboratory of Geology Department, Federal University of. Technology, Yola where they were thin sectioned and petrographically studied using a high magnification polarising microscope. Canada balsam was used as the mounting medium. Radiometric survey was carried out using a McPhar model TC-33A portable gamma ...

  12. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with diabetes: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Mariko; Miwa, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Odawara, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Some studies report that complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in non-diabetic patients. This study used transnasal endoscopy to elucidate the current status of concurrent GERD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to examine the associations between intraesophageal pressure and GERD, as well as other neuropathic conditions. The study included 57 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 67 years and the duration of DM was 13 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c was 6.8%. Transnasal endoscopic evaluation items were (i) the presence or absence of esophagitis and its severity; (ii) intraesophageal pressure; and (iii) Helicobacter pylori status, which was evaluated by endoscopic findings, such as the presence or absence of gastritis and peptic ulcer, and by urea breath test. Of 57 patients, 24 (42.1%) were given a diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy. Patients with concurrent GERD were younger, had shorter duration of DM, and were taller and heavier. Interestingly, no difference in body mass index was observed. There was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and diabetic complications, including peripheral neuropathy, and infection or non-infection with H. pylori. Although there was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and intraesophageal pressure values, we found aging, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the presence of autonomic nerve symptoms to correlate with reduced intraesophageal pressure. The results of this study could be used to answer the question of whether or not endoscopic GERD is a diabetic complication; however, further study is required. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Preliminary modulation transfer function study on amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ab Razak Hamzah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Modulation Transfer Function, (MTF) is the scientific means of evaluating the fundamental spatial resolution performance of an imaging system. In the study, the modulation transfer function of an amorphous silicon (aSi) sensor array is measured by using Edge Spread Function (ESF) Technique which is extracting a profile from the linearised image of the sharp edge. The Platinum foil is used to determine the ESF. The detector under study was a 2,304 (h) x 3,200 (v) total pixel matrix, 127 μm2 pixel pitch, 57% fill factor and using Gd2O2S:Tb Kodak Lanex Regular as the conversion screen. The ESF measurement is done by using 75 - 100 kV range of x-ray with constant mA. (Author)

  15. Preliminary questions before studying mild traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Dumond, J-J

    2009-07-01

    To point out from the literature the issues in mild traumatic brain injury outcome. METHODOLOGY-RESULTS: The literature review allows to point out several different factors involved in the difficulty to study mild traumatic brain injury: mild traumatic brain injury definition, postconcussional syndrome definition, diagnosis threshold, severity and functional symptoms outcome, neuropsychological tests, unspecific syndrome feature, individual factors, confounding factors and treatment interventions. The mild traumatic brain injury outcome study is complicated by the definitions issues and especially their practical use and by the multiplicity and the intricate interrelationships among involved factors. The individual outcome and social cost weight is widely emphasized for an event still considered as medically trivial. The well-ordered preventive interventions necessity and the targeted treatment programs need for the persisting postconcussive symptoms complete our critical review.

  16. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  17. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment

  18. Mathematical preliminaries for a study of waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1965-01-01

    This report contains the detailed proofs of mathematical results which are used in a study of the linear and 'quasi-linear' approximation for 'electrostatic' waves in a uniform plasma. Certain classes of functions of a complex variable, which are analytic in a strip parallel to the real axis, are defined and studied. In particular, properties of convergence of a sequence and of continuity with respect to a parameter are established for functions remaining inside one such class. The results are used to prove an existence theorem for the simplest equation in the quasi-linear theory of plasma waves. A number of elementary lemmas are used in the text and proved in an appendix. (author) [fr

  19. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  20. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  1. V. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ISOZYMES OF SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  2. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  3. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the occurrence of stem-borers and the incidence of stalk rot under varying population densities (64,000, 32,000, and 21,333 plants/ha) of two common cultivars (TZSR-Y and DMRZ-Y) of maize. Whereas the percentage of plants with stem borers infestation and those with stem ...

  4. Preliminary study of coach verbal behaviour according to game actions

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Calpe Gómez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction between game actions in high-level handball and verbal behaviour performed by the coach. For this purpose, a match of the 1st National Division of male Spanish handball was analysed. The type of behaviour and the content of the message reported by the coach were recorded using a modified version of Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS) and Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS). About game actions, they were grouped into positi...

  5. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies

  6. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HERZEGOVINIAN DONKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herzegovinian donkey is a very important animal resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There have been no works attempted at determining the normal values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to investigate some hematological parameters in Herzegovinian donkey. The research was performed on 30 apparently healthy donkeys (18 female and 12 male of ages from 1 to 20 years. Blood samples (3 ml were obtained by jugular vein puncture (vena jugularis externa in vacuum tubes with EDTA. The mean value of hematocrit was 29.19 %, hemoglobin concentration 10.6 g/dl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 36.33 g/dl, white blood cells 9.33 x109/L, granulocytes (109/L 5.45 x109/L, granulocytes (% 59.47%, lymphocyte/monocyte (109/L 3.89 x109/L, lymphocyte/monocyte (% 40.53% and platelet cells 148.97 x109/L. Parameters were determined using an automated analyzer IDEXX QBC VET AutoRead. Data were analyzed by SPSS V 15. All hematological parameters (except platelet cells were consistent with the recommended reference ranges for donkeys, and the values found in literature so far. Platelet cells values were much lower than in the literature for the other donkey breeds and the recommended reference ranges for donkeys. The slight differences found between our results and those reported in the previous works confirm the need for further studies to investigate the reference values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. This work is a contribution to the study of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey, and we expect these data to be applied to the further studies.

  7. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  8. High-repetition-rate hydrogen chamber: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This report is a conclusion to the tests realised with an experimental bubbles chamber in view to study the possibilities to increase the repetition rate. The more important parameters (the evolution of the bubbles, the expansion system) are considered in a theoretical way. Then the hardware is described. To end, experimental results are compared with the first evaluations. The calculations and the experimentation are against an oscillation system for the expansion. A system with a locking is to he considered. (authors) [fr

  9. Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods: Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years) underwent brain MRE studies. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. A dedicated external force actuator for brain MRE study was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the patients' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and caused shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence used in the study was phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence. Phase images of the brain were obtained and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity image. Consistency of brain tumors was evaluated at surgery and was classified as soft, intermediate, or hard with comparison to the white matter of the brain. Correspondence of MRE evaluation with operative results was studied. Results: The elastic modulus of the tumor was lower than that of white matter in 1 patient, higher in 11 patients, and similar in 2 patients. At surgery, the tumor manifested a soft consistency in 1 patient, hard consistency in 11 patients, intermediate consistency in 2 patients. The elasticity of tumors in 14 patients evaluated by MRE was correlated with the tumor consistency on the operation. Conclusion: MRE can noninvasively display the elasticity of brain tumors in vivo, and evaluate the brain tumor consistency before operation. (authors)

  10. Potential of ricehull communal power generation in the Philippines - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.F.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary feasibility study of utilizing ricehulls as fuel for power generation in a communal set-up involving ricemills was completed by PNOC-ERDC for the EC-AIT COGEN Programme. The study assessed the market, evaluated the patterns and level of ricehull availability, and their implications on plant operation characteristics and financial viability. Ten potential areas were studied more closely for their suitability as pilot demonstration sites. (auth.). 8 tabs.; 4 figs.; 1 ref

  11. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeli, Norsyakilah; Muhamad Halil, Faridah; Ismail, Faridah; Sufian Hasim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  12. Infrastructure Joint Venture Projects in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeli Norsyakilah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As many developed country practise, the function of the infrastructure is to connect the each region of Malaysia holistically and infrastructure is an investment network projects such as transportation water and sewerage, power, communication and irrigations system. Hence, a billions allocations of government income reserved for the sake of the infrastructure development. Towards a successful infrastructure development, a joint venture approach has been promotes by 2016 in one of the government thrust in Construction Industry Transformation Plan which encourage the internationalisation among contractors. However, there is depletion in information on the actual practise of the infrastructure joint venture projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study attempt to explore the real application of the joint venture in Malaysian infrastructure projects. Using the questionnaire survey, a set of survey question distributed to the targeted respondents. The survey contained three section which the sections are respondent details, organizations background and project capital in infrastructure joint venture project. The results recorded and analyse using SPSS software. The contractors stated that they have implemented the joint venture practice with mostly the client with the usual construction period of the infrastructure project are more than 5 years. Other than that, the study indicates that there are problems in the joint venture project in the perspective of the project capital and the railway infrastructure should be given a highlights in future study due to its high significant in term of cost and technical issues.

  13. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  14. Preliminary study for pixel identification on a modular gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soluri, A., E-mail: soluri@isib.cnr.it; Atzeni, G.; Ucci, A.; Cusanno, F.; Massari, R.

    2014-02-01

    Our group has recently investigated and produced new scintigraphic prototypes based on advanced scintillation structure. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the use of scintillation matrices with size equal to the overall area of the Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (PSPMT), to design a modular gamma camera and study the solution of the dead area problems optimizing the overall pixel identification. In this paper we investigate the response of different combinations with crystals integrated within tungsten structure, coupled with H8500, R8900-C12 and R11265-M64 Hamamatsu PSPMTs. Several scintillation matrices, whose dimensions match to the physical area of the PSPMT, have been analysed so that we have also studied limits of detection for the elements of the matrix in the critical zones of the PSPMT, i.e. corners and borders. In order to enhance the detectability of scintillation elements we improved the light collection by depositing metallic layers or treating the tungsten structure with different coating materials, and shaping the external elements of the scintillation matrices. The results have shown good energy resolution and the proposed method can be applied in medical imaging for obtaining high efficiency scintillation devices.

  15. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  16. FAIR imaging of the liver. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryu, Shigeru; Machida, Toru; Noda, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    Flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique has recently been introduced for perfusion or functional MR studies of the brain. In the imaging of liver neoplasms, the evaluation of tumor vascularity is important for diagnosis, and therefore the FAIR technique may potentially complement liver MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a FAIR sequence in MR imaging of the liver and to compare it with arterial-phase images of dynamic MR imaging. One volunteer and six patients with focal hepatic lesions (one with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), three with metastasis, and two with cavernous hemangioma) underwent FAIR. Short TI (600 ms) and long TI (1200 ms) images were obtained during breath-hold. In normal volunteers, the vessels generated remarkably bright signal in both short and long TI. Signal intensity of liver parenchyma was low in short TI, and became stronger in long TI. Two HCC (in one patient) (100%), one hemangioma (50%), and three metastases (100%) were well delineated as bright lesions. One HCC produced peripheral high intensity in short-TI FAIR image, and this finding was consistent with the result of dynamic MR study. Another HCC, which showed no clear enhancement in the arterial-phase dynamic MRI, was visualized only in long-TI FAIR. One hemangioma, which was clearly seen in FAIR image, showed rapid and strong enhancement on dynamic MRI. It is concluded that FAIR is a promising technique for evaluation of vascularity of hepatic tumors without using contrast materials. (author)

  17. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  18. Preliminary Study of Mental Retardation in Rovira (Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Celis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available limitationsin performance, significant deficiencyin intelligence and adaptative behavior, causingclinical and social disability. Most patients withmental retardation in Colombia do not receiveclinical genetics evaluation. The aims of thepresent study are to evaluate and characterizea group of patients with mental retardationfrom the population of Rovira. The presentstudy included twenty five patients with mentalretardation from Rovira (Tolima whichwere studied by clinical examination, metabolicscreening (ferric chloride, nitrosonaphtol,silver nitroprusiate, dinitrophenylhydrazineand benedict and cytogenetics (G-Bandingkariotype. Pesticide detection was perfomedby random sampling of water and tomatoes intwenty different places of water distribution,the center of the town and crop fields. A familywith three affected sibs (two females, onemale with mental retardation was identified,suggesting a genetic component. Metabolicscreening was negative and karyotypes werenormal. The analyses performed for organophosphateswere positive in 100% of the samples.Carbamates were positive in 60% of thewater source and 100% of tomato samples. Allthe samples tested were negative for organochlorides.Further studies as molecular fragile-X test, will be performed.

  19. Numerical study for enhancing the thermal conductivity of phase change material (PCM) storage using high thermal conductivity porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesalhy, Osama; Lafdi, Khalid; Elgafy, Ahmed; Bowman, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the melting process inside an irregular geometry filled with high thermal conductivity porous matrix saturated with phase change material PCM is investigated numerically. The numerical model is resting on solving the volume averaged conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy with phase change (melting) in the porous medium. The convection motion of the liquid phase inside the porous matrix is solved considering the Darcy, Brinkman and Forchiemer effects. A local thermal non-equilibrium assumption is considered due to the large difference in thermal properties between the solid matrix and PCM by applying a two energy equation model. The numerical code shows good agreement for pure PCM melting with another published numerical work. Through this study it is found that the presence of the porous matrix has a great effect on the heat transfer and melting rate of the PCM energy storage. Decreasing the porosity of the matrix increases the melting rate, but it also damps the convection motion. It is also found that the best technique to enhance the response of the PCM storage is to use a solid matrix with high porosity and high thermal conductivity

  20. Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BiBi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.

  1. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broeckx

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease (DJD is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1 PRP; 2 MSCs; 3 MSCs and PRP; or 4 chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1, 12 weeks (T2, 6 months (T3 and 12 months (T4 post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  2. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    FBS) were purchased from ATCC and used for growing cells. 5.2.3 Positive Control The positive control, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), (Cat. # 71736 for 10...Inc.; New Castle, DE). Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-0EJ5-11 (FY12 Continuation) 5 5.1.2 Positive Control Zinc sulfate is recommended as a standard or...Inc.(Austin, TX). • Nano Sodium Bicarbonate is a component in the formulation being investigated as a replacement fire extinguishing agent for the Halon

  3. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  4. Preliminary study of post mortem identification using lip prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kanoh, Takashi; Tadokoro, Osamu; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2005-05-10

    Identification using lip prints was first performed in the 1950s and was the subject of much research in the 1960s and 70s, leading to the acceptance of this technique as evidence in the criminal justice system. Previous research has focused on identifying lip print types or on methods of obtaining hidden lip prints left at the crime scene. The present study aimed to clarify characteristics of lip prints from cadavers with various causes of death (including drowning and hanging) and to determine the effects of fixation on post mortem changes in lip impressions.

  5. Health Anxiety in Young Indonesian Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venie Viktoria Rondang Maulina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In young adulthood most people begin to realize the meaning of health. The amount of costs to be incurred for the treatment of a person when they are suffering from a disease also affects a person's health concern. According to Taylor and Asmundson (2004, most people feel anxious about their health. Anxiety about health can differ from one person to another. Through this study a general overview of health anxiety for young adults in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta, can be seen. Participants in this study consisted of 263 people, aged 20-40 years (M = 27.23 , SD = 5.50. Sociodemographic variables include ages, gender, and marital status, level of education, employment status, and ethnicity. Researcher used Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI; Salkovskis, Rimes, & Warwick, 2002, Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15; Kroenke, Spitzer, & William, 2002. For data analysis, researcher used The Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results showed significant correlation between health anxiety and somatic symptoms.

  6. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N; Enseling, A; Werner, P; Flade, A; Greiff, R; Hennings, D; Muehlich, E; Wullkopf, U; Sturm, P; Kieslich, W; Born, R; Grossklos, M; Hatteh, R; Mueller, K; Ratschow, A; Valouch-Fornoff, C

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac pathology in chronic alcoholics: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vaideeswar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethyl alcohol exerts both positive and negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, produced by direct or indirect mechanisms, is well-documented. An important, but seldom appreciated effect is an increase in iron deposition in the myocardium, which can add to the cardiac dysfunction. The present study was planned to document the pathological features and iron levels in the cardiac tissue of patients who were chronic alcoholics and correlate these characteristics with the liver pathology and iron content. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based prospective study of 40 consecutive patients compared with ten age matched controls (no history of alcohol intake. Histopathological changes like the morphology of the cardiac myocytes, degree of fibrosis (interstitial, interfiber, perivascular, and replacement, presence of inflammatory cells, increased capillary network, and adipose tissue deposition were noted and graded. These were also correlated with the liver pathology. The iron content in the heart and liver were measured by using calorimetry. Results: All cases had increased epicardial adipose tissue with epicardial and endocardial fibrosis, prominence of interstitial and interfiber fibrosis, myofiber degeneration, and increased capillary network; this was particularly prominent in patients with cirrhosis. Elemental iron level in heart tissue was raised in the cases relative to controls. Conclusions: Alcohol produces subclinical changes in the myocardium, with an increased iron content, which may be the forerunner for subsequent clinical cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  9. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  10. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  11. Preliminary study on solar-assisted tobacco curing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamrungwong, S [Chiang Mai Univ.; Suchinda, B; Malila, D

    1982-04-01

    A solar heating system for assisting flue curing of Virginia tobacco leaf was studied. The equipment consisted of a brick and mortar tobacco curing barn of 3.6 m/sup 3/ volume. The solar air heater of 2.8 m/sup 2/ was a non-focus type, made from corrugated galvanized stel sheet coated with flat-black paint. The collector had a single glass cover on top and a 25 mm layer of styrofoam at the bottom. Electrical heating was utilized inside the bar to simulate the main heat source. The system under study had no thermal storage, therefore it was extremely difficult to regulate the temperature inside the barn precisely. Consequently, the solar assisting mode is not recommended during the yellowing stage of curing where very precise temperature control is required. Utilization of solar energy during other stages of curing showed a saving of the main conventional energy up to 33 to 15 percent. The average thermal efficiencies of the collector varied from 70 percent at high flow rate to 67 percent at low flow rate. 6 references.

  12. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e

    2013-01-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  13. Preliminary study of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yukuan; Chen Hanwei; Li Kaifang; Jiang Zaibo; Ma Zhuang; Liu Huanling

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value and methods of interventional treatment for tubal pregnancy. Methods: Two different methods were used in the interventional treatment of 18 patients with tubal pregnancy, which were transvaginal tubal intra-gestational methotrexate (MTX) injection and intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion. The former was selected for the treatment of 8 patients and the latter for 10 patients. Cook-fallopian tube catheterization set and the general angiographic catheters of 4.1 Fr Cobra were used. After the treatment, conditions of the patients, β-HCG level and ultrasound changes of the pregnant bladder were the main indexes for monitoring the therapeutic effect in this study. Results: The successful rate, cure rate, embryo killing rate reached 100%, 88.9%(16/18) and 94.4% (17/18) respectively. Two cases of intra-utero-arterial MTX infusion treatment failed, β-HCG was reduced to normal level with an average of 11.2 +- 11.6 d (3-28 d). In 10 cases, the ultrasound showed that the pregnancy bladder disappeared in 2-3 weeks, accounting for 76.9% (10/13). The longest time was 60 days. The range of menstruation recovery was 37 +- 9 d (21-50 d). Conclusions: Interventional treatment of tubal pregnancy is effective, reliable and easy for operation. It will be especially effective by arterial procedure. Interventional treatment will be a important method for terminating tubal pregnancy

  14. Septin 7 immunoexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Erkilic, Suna; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type among thyroid cancers. The diagnosis of PTC may be challenging when follicular variant (FVPTC) of this disease is present due to the resemblance of nuclear properties of the classical type (CVPTC). However, making use of ancillary molecular markers in the diagnosis of PTC may help. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the SEPT7 protein expression in PTC. A total of 55 paraffin block tissue samples comprising encapsulated FVPTC (FVPTC(e), n=25), and CVPTC (n=15), and benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HypN, n=15) were used in this study. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall (total) SEPT7 protein expression levels were determined by using immunohistochemistry. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, and overall SEPT7 expressions (p=0.02, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively) were significantly lower in FVPTC(e) tissues when compared to HypN. In CVPTC group, nuclear expression was significantly lower (p=0.004) while overall and cytoplasmic expressions were not changed (p>0.05). In HypN group, highest nuclear (mean=2.73), cytoplasmic (mean=2.86), and overall (mean=2.86) expression scores were detected. Significantly lower SEPT7 expression in all expressional categories in FVPTC(e) group may be a sign of different molecular signature in this type of tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Psychopathology in online pathological gamblers: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, S; Varescon, I

    2012-04-01

    The rapidly expanding gambling offline and online have resulted in an increasing number of gamblers and the problem is likely to get worse in the future. However, online pathological gambling is a not well known. This rapidly developing modality of gambling, which requires to be studied, notably in its links with regular pathological gambling and Internet addiction. Depression and personality disorders are known to be often associated with pathological gambling. Personality disorders have an influence on pathological gambling, increasing its severity. Online gamblers seem to have a particular personality profile, compared to offline gamblers, and could present different personality disorders. Depression is a common comorbidity among online gamblers, as well as offline gamblers. Both types of gamblers have personality disorders, but the nature of these disorders differs: prevalency of personality disorders of cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders) is more important in offline gamblers, whereas cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders) is more present in online pathological gamblers. In France, few studies have specifically examined this subject. The objective of the study is to evaluate scores on depression, personality disorders and internet addiction in online pathological gamblers. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) is used to assess pathological gambling, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure depression, the Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ 4) to assess personality disorders and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) to assess internet addiction. Participants completed the self-report scales. Questionnaires were strictly confidential. The participants were recruited in gambling places (cafés) and Internet forums. Two groups of pathological gamblers were formed: online gamblers (N=15) and offline gamblers (N=15). Participants gave their informed consent. Participation was voluntary and anonymous and no payment was made. ANALYSIS OF THE

  16. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  17. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P jojoba esters) than with glycerol alone in a standard base skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Time Projection Chamber Simulation for Fission Cross Section Measurements with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Youngouk; Kim, Jae Cheon

    2014-01-01

    We present the details of the TPC simulation with Geant4 and show the results. TPC can provide more information than a fission chamber in that it is possible to distinguish different particle types. Simulations are conducted for uranium and plutonium targets with 20MeV neutrons. The simulation results are compared with the reference and show reasonable results. This is the first phase of study for realizing a TPC in the NFS at RAON, and we have more work to do, such as applying an electric field, signal processing in the simulation, and manufacturing of a TPC. The standard in fission cross section measurement is a fission chamber. It is basically just two parallel plates separated by a few centimeters of gas. A power supply connected to the plates sets up a moderate electric field. The target is deposited onto one of the plates. When fission occurs, the fragments ionize the gas, and the electric field causes the produced electrons to drift to the opposite plate, which records the total energy deposited in the chamber. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a gas ionization detector similar to a fission chamber. However, it can measure the charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions by adding several readouts on the pad plane (fission chamber has only one readout one a pad plane). The specific ionization for each particle track enables the TPC to distinguish different particle types. A TPC will be used for fission cross section measurements in the Neutron Science Facility (NSF) at RAON. As a preliminary study, we present details of TPC simulation with Geant4 and discuss the results

  19. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  20. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  1. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  2. Radial electrical field effects in TJ-II. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the radial electric field upon the neoclassical transport coefficients of TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been calculated as well on the microwave heating stage (ECRH) as on the neutral injection one (NBI). The influence of the solutions for the self-consistent ambipolar field on confinement times and temperatures has been studied by means of a zero-dimensional energy balance. The simultaneous presence of two roots, the electronic and the ionic one, is observed for the ECRH phase, while for NBI only the ionic root appears, although with a strong field intensity that could produce a favourable effect on confinement. The interest and need of the extension of these calculations to include radial profile effects by using spatial dependent transport codes in stressed

  3. Portuguese Version of Teacher Feedback Scale: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Laranjeira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Teacher feedback in the classroom has a powerful influence on pupils’ performance and motivation. The study aims to analyze psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Teacher Feedback Scale (TFS in a sample of 228 children in the 4th grade of schooling. Exploratory factor analysis shows similarities with the original version, and the differences observed were based on the children’s cognitive development characteristics and cultural specificities of the two samples. The relationship between teacher feedback and students’ motivational variables was confirmed, such as the preference that the children expressed for the school subjects. The possibility to make some changes in the items is contemplated, in order to increase validity and reliability of the measure. The data highlight the potential of using the TFS in schools, which could contribute towards clarifying the teachers’ role in the formation of pupils’ self-concept.

  4. Low density lipoprotein receptors: preliminary results on 'in vivo' study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Li, S.R.; Sinzinger, H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmatic levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are regulated by the receptor pathway and most LDL receptor are located in the liver. A receptor defect due to genetic mutations of the LDL receptor gene is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (F.H.), a disease characterized by high cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. Injections of autologous radiolabelled LDL, followed by hepatic scintiscanning, can be used to obtain 'in vivo' quantification of hepatic receptor activity, both in normal and hypercholesterolemic patients. In this study we observe no hepatic increase of radioactivity in patients affected by F.H., confirming the liver receptor defect. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique which can be used to diagnose this disease and to monitor the efficiacy of hypolipidemic therapy. (Authors)

  5. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  6. Clinical and imaging characteristics of the vascular dementia. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Viera, Nelson; Rivero Arias, Edmundo; Perez Nellar, Jesus; Begueria Santos, Ramon; Arias Sifontes, William; Raiteris Flores, Juan

    1997-01-01

    A descriptive prospective study was carried out in 41 patients presenting with vascular dementia from Habana Vieja municipality, Havana City, in order to know some of the clinical and imaging characteristics of this disease. The main risk factors observed were the history of cerebrovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Depression, sleeping disorders and focal and pseudo bulbar neurologic signs were the most frequent clinical findings. Folstein neuropsychological test evidenced an important disorder of attention, calculation, the evocation memory and orientation. According to this test, 29 % of the patients had a severe dementia and nearly 50 % showed a severe handicap. The most frequent imaging findings observed in the computerized axial tomography of the cranium were cerebral atrophy, and single or multiple infarctions. Multiple cerebral infarctions, the lacunar status, subcortical encephalopathy of Binswanger, and single infarction located in cerebral areas related to cognition were considered as possible psychopathological mechanisms associated with the disease

  7. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  8. A preliminary study of landslide gouge dating by TL technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengju, Ji; Jianping, Li [Inst. of Geology, National Seismological Bereau, Beijing (China); Mingda, Liu [Inst. of Crustal Dynamics, SSB, Beijing (China)

    1993-04-01

    The key to date slipping of landslide by TL method is whether the temperature and pressure caused by slipping can lead the original TL to 'zero'for some minerals within the slipping band. For this purpose, the simulated experiments under different temperature-pressure were made and the TL annealing effect of landslide gouge was studied. The results show that the frictional heating caused during slipping is a main factor leading the mineral's TL to decrease on the slip plane and that increment of temperature is in close relation with strength of shear stress, thickness of landslide gouge and amount of displacement. As an example, the slipping age of a paleo-landslide at Huangtupo, Hubei Province, has been dated to be about 140 ka.

  9. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  10. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.H.

    1977-11-01

    A reconnaissance study of middle and upper Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary and silicic volcanic rocks in Malheur County, Oregon, indicates that, based upon the data available: (1) it is unlikely that sandstone-type uranium deposits exist in sedimentary rocks of north-central Malheur County; and (2) favorable uranium environments are more likely to exist in and adjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers and plugs. Some rhyolites in the northern part of the county contain marginally anomalous uranium abundances (6 to 8 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 ), compared with similar rocks in southeastern Oregon. Available uranium from these rocks, as determined by nitric-acid leaching, approaches 50 to 75 percent of the total chemical U 3 O 8 present. One Pliocene rhyolite vitrophyre sample from Duck Butte in western Malheur County contains 9 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 . The uranium contents of these rhyolites approach those found in silicic plugs spatially related to uranium deposits in the Lakeview district, Oregon (Erikson and Curry, 1977). It is possible that undiscovered epithermal and (or) supergene uranium deposits may exist in favorable wall rocks subjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers (Duck Butte), calderas (McDermitt caldera to the south and others identified in western Owyhee County, Idaho), and silicic plugs (as in the Lakeview district). With the exception of one small uranium anomaly found in unconsolidated sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation, the sedimentary rocks observed in the study area did not possess abnormal radioactivity or exhibit evidence of uranium mobility and enrichment. Carbonaceous trash is uncommon in these rocks. Gently dipping sandstone members of the Deer Butte Formation (upper Miocene) and local channel sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation (Pliocene) may have once been the most permeable rocks in the Tertiary section; but, there is no evidence to suggest that they were conduits for uranium-bearing solutions

  11. Hydrothermal reactions of nuclear waste solids . A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1978-09-01

    A simulated high-level waste glass, Supercalcine, and some common ceramic and metallic solids were exposed to hydrothermal conditions at 250 and 350 0 C for time periods ranging from three days to three weeks. Most of the experiments were done in salt brine, but the glass study did include deionized water tests so that the influence of salt could be better understood. Under the extreme hydrothermal conditions of these tests, all of the materials examined underwent measurable changes. The glass is converted to a mixture of crystalline phases, depending upon conditions, giving NaFeSi 2 O 6 as the primary alteration product. The rate of alteration is higher in deionized water than in salt brine; however, under equivalent test conditions, 66% of the Cs originally in the glass is released to the salt brine, while only 6% is released to deionized water. Rb and Mo are the only other fission product elements significantly leached from the glass. Evidence is presented which shows that sintered Supercalcine undergoes chemical changes in salt brine that are qualitatively similar to those experienced by glass samples. High concentrations of Cs enter the aqueous phase, and Sn and Mo are mobilized. Scouting tests were made with a variety of materials including commercial glasses, granite, UO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , steel, and waste glasses. Weight losses under hydrothermal conditions are in a relatively narrow band, with glass and ceramic materials showing 3 to 20 times greater weight losses than 304L stainless steel in the 250 0 C test used. The conclusion from these studies is that virtually all solid materials show hydrothermal reactivity at temperatures between 250 and 350 0 C, and that these extreme conditions are not desirable

  12. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  13. Wind energy in electric power production. Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lento, R; Peltola, E

    1984-01-15

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics also estimates on the available wind energy were made. 800 wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics include is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions causes extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of a plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  14. Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self

  15. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  16. Preliminary Study of Potential Market for Small Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Brown, N. W.

    2008-01-01

    Small reactors are an energy supply for a specific purpose and oriented for a different market than large reactors. Small reactors will provide a local solution for developed and developing countries, such as, in remote areas, on small grids, or for non-electricity applications such as, district heating, seawater desalination and process heat. Single or medium sized power stations with small reactors should be compared with single fissile or renewable energy source and not be compared with large reactors. CRIEPI and LLNL have studied the business opportunities for small reactors. The small reactor concept is planned for initial use in small remote communities and in developing countries with small power distribution grid. Rapid installation and simple operation of the small plants is intended to support use in these communities without requiring development of a substantial nuclear technology infrastructure. In this study, two approaches were used in the assessment of the potential market. The first approach took a global look at the need for small nuclear plants. Then selected countries and sites were identified based on countries expressing interest in small reactors to the IAEA and consideration of sites in the US and Japan. (1) Tunisia, Mexico, Indonesia, Uruguay, Egypt and Argentina have demonstrated interest in nuclear power. Selecting one of these is dependent on political and socioeconomic factors, some of which have been identified, that require direct interaction with the countries to establish if they represent real opportunities. (2) The states of Hawaii and Alaska in the United States have high power cost and remote or island communities that may benefit from small nuclear plants. Alaska has shown greater interest in power alternatives including small than Hawaii and there is clearly less public resistance to nuclear power in Alaska. (3) The countries in Central America are actively expanding their power grids but have not demonstrated great interest

  17. Episodic and Binge Gambling: An Exploration and Preliminary Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

  18. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  19. A preliminary study of DTI Fingerprinting on stroke analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heather T; Ye, Chenfei; Wu, Jun; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xuhui; Yang, Zhengyi; Ma, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) is a well-known MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) technique which provides useful structural information about human brain. However, the quantitative measurement to physiological variation of subtypes of ischemic stroke is not available. An automatically quantitative method for DTI analysis will enhance the DTI application in clinics. In this study, we proposed a DTI Fingerprinting technology to quantitatively analyze white matter tissue, which was applied in stroke classification. The TBSS (Tract Based Spatial Statistics) method was employed to generate mask automatically. To evaluate the clustering performance of the automatic method, lesion ROI (Region of Interest) is manually drawn on the DWI images as a reference. The results from the DTI Fingerprinting were compared with those obtained from the reference ROIs. It indicates that the DTI Fingerprinting could identify different states of ischemic stroke and has promising potential to provide a more comprehensive measure of the DTI data. Further development should be carried out to improve DTI Fingerprinting technology in clinics.

  20. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de São Paulo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  1. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF RIVETED JOINTS AT FEED FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Bielawski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints in composites materials. Static tensile test method was used. In the test one type of glass fabric was used (Interglas 92140 from which two types of composite samples were prepared. In each sample the same type of fiber with the same fiber orientation – 3 layers - was used. The samples had dimensions of 100×100 mm and thickness of approximately 1 mm. The composite probes were located in a metal frame with a screw connection which was made of screws with nominal thread pitch M5. Screws were tightened with constant torque. It was to provide an axial force to the sample during the tensile test. The frame was placed between cross-bars of tensile machine INSTRON 8516. The samples were stretched at a speed of 0.05 mm/s at a distance up to 16 mm. During the tensile test displacement of the samples and pull force were registered. Depending on the fibre orientations and the value of feed force, damage models were described. On the basis of the results the possibility of usage of aluminium rivet nuts connections in composite materials was determined.

  2. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  3. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  4. Preliminary clinical study on non-transecting anastomotic bulbomembranous urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Wei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinfu; Wu, Denglong; Liu, Bo

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture. A total of 23 patients with traumatic posterior urethral stricture were enrolled and then divided into two groups. In one group, 12 patients underwent non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty. In the other group, 11 patients underwent conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis. The effect of operation was evaluated using the following parameters: the bleeding amount during operation, operation time, IIEF-5 scores after operation, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and rating scale of quality of life (QoL). The comparison between the conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis group and the non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty group showed no significant difference with regard to average operation time. However, a significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the bleeding amount during operation. The patients in the group of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty urinated smoothly after the removal of catheter. Meanwhile, one patient from the group of conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis had difficulty urinating after the removal of catheter. Furthermore, significant differences in the operation time, bleeding amount during operation, IIEF-5 scores after operation, and rating scale of QoL were observed, whereas no significant difference was observed between urine flow rates of the two groups after operation. Overall, nontransecting anastomotic urethroplasty is effective for posterior urethra reconstruction, and it can reduce the occurrence rate of erectile dysfunction after operation.

  5. Preliminary study of radioactive concentration in treated sewage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elassaly, F M; Beal, A D.R. [Ministry of Health P.O. Box 1853 Dubai, (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-10-01

    Water from sewage treatment plant is used after processing for irrigation. Two water samples and one consolidated sludge (waste treatment products) were taken each day for period of months. Medical applications and research are the main sources of radioactivity such as Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Se-75, Tc-99 m, In-111, Au-198 and Tl-201. Measurements were carried out using Hp Ge spectrometer with one liter Marinelli breaker. The maximum detected activity was 5.7 Bq.liter with a daily average of 2.4 Bq/liter for water. In the second period maximum activity was found to be 5 Bq/liter with an average daily activity 1.8 Bq/liter. The maximum activity recorded in the sludge during this period was 352 Bq/liter of which 343 Bq/liter was from I-131. The average daily activity was 162 Bq/liter. From these studies the levels of radioactivity concentration were 5 Bq/liter with an average 2 Bq/1 compared level 10 Bq/1 set for drinking water for Gcc countries. Although the sludge show higher activity of 353 Bq/liter it is kept for about year before being disposed. The maximum level for animal fodder is 300 Bq/kg for Gcc countries. These results indicate that radioactive concentration (2 Bq/liter) in the treated waste water present hazard to the public and environment. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  7. Left nucleus accumbens atrophy in deficit schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Pietro; Dacquino, Claudia; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-08-30

    A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. To determine if DSZ is associated with structural alterations in specific deep grey matter structures linked to its key clinical features, 22 DSZ patients, 22 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDSZ) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for a case-control cross-sectional study. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects and volumes of deep grey matter structures were measured using FreeSurfer. DSZ patients displayed smaller left accumbens volumes compared to both NDSZ patients and HC. Moreover, age and duration of illness were significantly associated with lower volume of the left accumbens in DSZ but not in NDSZ. Findings indicate that DSZ is associated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens in the dominant hemisphere. This is consistent with the psychopathological features and functional impairments present in DSZ and thus indicates a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetski, M; Tourinho Moretto, M L; Correia de Araujo, R P; de Carvalho, J F

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To detect the frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients. Methods Thirty-six primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients were analyzed by a psychological interview using a standard protocol and review of medical charts. Clinical manifestations, associated comorbidities, antiphospholipid antibodies, and treatment were also evaluated. Results The mean age was 44.2 ± 10.8 years, 29 (80%) were women and 29 (80%) were of Caucasian race. The mean duration of disease was 7.3 ± 5.2 years. The frequency of the presence of psychological alterations was 97.1%. Family dependence was observed in 14 (40%), memory loss in 12 (34.3%), social losses in 12 (34.3%), sexual limitations in seven (20%), sadness in six (17.1%), severe speech limitation in four (11.4%), anxiety in three (8.6%), learning difficulty in two (5.7%), generalized phobia in two (5.7%), suicide ideation in one (2.6%), agoraphobia in one (2.6%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in one (2.6%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that almost all primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients have psychological alterations. These data reinforce the need for psychological evaluation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

  9. Preliminary study of pseudorandom binary sequence pulsing of ORELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) pulsing might enhance the performance of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) for neutron-induced, time-of-flight (TOF) cross-section measurements. In this technical memorandum, equations are developed for expected count rates, statistical variances, and backgrounds for a pulsing scheme in which a PRBS is superimposed on the periodic equalintensity ORELA bursts. Introduction of the PRBS modification permits neutrons of different energies originating from different bursts to reach the detector simultaneously, and the signal corresponding to a unique flight time to be extracted mathematically. Relative advantages and disadvantages of measurements from conventional and PRBS pulsing modes are discussed in terms of counting statistics and backgrounds. Computer models of TOF spectra are generated for both pulsing modes, using as examples a 20-meter 233 U fission-chamber measurement and a 155-meter 238 U sample-in transmission measurement. Detailed comparisons of PRBS vs conventional results are presented. This study indicates that although PRBS pulsing could enhance ORELA performance for selected measurements, for general ORELA operation the disadvantages from PRBS pulsing probably outweigh the advantages

  10. Interviewing German scientists on climate change. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, S. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Toronto Univ., Scarborough (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This study is based on in-depth interviews with 25 German scientists at the Coastal Research Institute of the GKSS-Forschungszentrum. It takes as its context the differential rhetoric and planning on climate change found in Germany and North America. The interviews try to throw light on the early German decision to address climate change, and to assess the current attitudes, beliefs and experiences of these German scientists. The results reveal a degree of complacency among these scientists, including a sense that Germany is not particularly threatened by climate change and has the capacity to adapt to it. The scientists are critical of inaction among the German population, but themselves uphold a ''light version'' of the precautionary principle. They have great difficulty translating the idea of climate change into popular metaphors that can be grasped by children. They strongly reject any link between German leadership on the issue as a result of a sense of guilt about the German past. (orig.)

  11. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina

    2014-06-01

    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  12. Preliminary studies on hoof characteristics in Amiata donkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Giorgetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the biometrical, physical and chemical characteristics of Amiata donkey hoof were studied. The Amiata donkey is a local endangered breed and derives from the homonym mountain in Tuscany. This donkey, which was once used as pack animal in farms and in mines, is now involved in trekking, onotherapy and milk production. The mean hoof biometrics and its standard deviation were calculated. The physical and chemical characteristics were also estimated, through ANOVA, considering the hoof region as fixed effect: wall, white line and sole for hardness, wall and sole for chemical characteristics. The small size and healthy hoof, was basically cylindrical (crown cir./Foot plantar circ. ratio=0.9 and it showed higher hardness in wall (H=126.5± 3.3, followed by sole (H=105.2±3.3, and white line (H=74.0±3.3. The wall has shown the lower moisture content (%=11.7±3.2 and the higher content in Al, Mn, Li, Ni, Pb, Se. The positive correlation between Al, Li, Pb and Hardness has shown the hoof high resistence to toxic elements. Very interesting has seemed the negative correlation between K vs Li and Pb, to indicate the tendency of K to remove potentially harmful elements.

  13. Preliminary Study of ONB in Narrow-Vertical Rectangular Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S. AL-Yahia; Jo, Daeseong

    2015-01-01

    The location where the vapor bubble can first exist at the heated surface is called 'onset of nucleate boiling (ONB). The subcooled boiling is highly efficient to remove the heat owing to the high heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer is affected by the motion of the bulk liquid as well as the latent heat transport of the liquid microlayer between the bubble and the heated wall. However, with increasing in the wall temperature, the bubble growth will increase and may they aggregate at the heated surface forming a vapor film, which will prevent the heat transport from the wall and that leads to highly rise in wall temperature. This phenomenon called departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). Many experimental and numerical CFD methods were carried out to investigate the subcooled boiling because of its importance in the industrial applications. In the present study, vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both side was simulated by using CFX-14 to investigate the subcooled wall boiling, and identical simulation is done by using TMAP to compare the ONB location between numerical simulation and empirical correlations that implemented in TMAP. The numerical results using CFX-14 are discussed and compared with the results obtained from TMAP. The coolant temperature increases gradually (linearly) in the downward direction owing to the uniform applied heat flux.

  14. Preliminary Study of ONB in Narrow-Vertical Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, S. AL-Yahia; Jo, Daeseong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The location where the vapor bubble can first exist at the heated surface is called 'onset of nucleate boiling (ONB). The subcooled boiling is highly efficient to remove the heat owing to the high heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer is affected by the motion of the bulk liquid as well as the latent heat transport of the liquid microlayer between the bubble and the heated wall. However, with increasing in the wall temperature, the bubble growth will increase and may they aggregate at the heated surface forming a vapor film, which will prevent the heat transport from the wall and that leads to highly rise in wall temperature. This phenomenon called departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). Many experimental and numerical CFD methods were carried out to investigate the subcooled boiling because of its importance in the industrial applications. In the present study, vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both side was simulated by using CFX-14 to investigate the subcooled wall boiling, and identical simulation is done by using TMAP to compare the ONB location between numerical simulation and empirical correlations that implemented in TMAP. The numerical results using CFX-14 are discussed and compared with the results obtained from TMAP. The coolant temperature increases gradually (linearly) in the downward direction owing to the uniform applied heat flux.

  15. Preliminary Study on the Revision of Nuclear Safety Policy Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.; Chang, H. S.; Choi, K. S.; Jung, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear safety policy in Korea is currently declared in the Nuclear Safety Charter as the highest tier document and safety principles and directions are announced in the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement. As the circumstances affecting on the nuclear safety policy change, it needs to revise the Statement. This study aims to develop the revised Nuclear Safety Policy Statement to declare that securing safety is a prerequisite to the utilization of nuclear energy, and that all workers in nuclear industry and regulatory body must adhere to the principle of priority to safety. As a result, two different types of revision are being prepared as of August. One is based on the spirit of Nuclear Safety Charter as well as the direction of future-oriented safety policies including the changes in the environment after declaration of the Statement. The other is to declare the fundamental safety objective and safety principles as the top philosophy of national nuclear safety policy by adopting the '10 Safety Principles in IAEA Safety Fundamental' instead of the current Charter. Both versions of revision are subject to further in-depth discussion. However once the revision is finalized and declared, it would be useful to accomplish effectively the organizational responsibilities and to enhance the public confidence in nuclear safety by performing the regulatory activities in a planned and systematic manner and promulgating the government's dedication to priority to safety

  16. Preliminary study on the flow field over Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissimanis, D; Karras, G; Notaridou, V; Bartzis, J.G.

    1989-02-01

    Full text: For radiation risk assessment from long distance sources, the knowledge of the synoptic air flow field patterns over the territory under consideration is required. In the present study a first representation of the air flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer over Greece is attempted. For this purpose, synoptic weather maps at 850mb available for a ten-years period, as well as sounding data from six meteorological stations were utilized, while the Greek territory was divided into four parts, i.e. NW, NE, SW, SE, with a number of stations in each sector. It was shown that the prevailing wind directions of the upper flow are either of the W/SW sector (winter, spring) or the northern sector (summer, autumn). In the SE sector a stronger tendency towards winds from the nothern sector was shown, due to the thermal low near Cyprus. The main characteristics of the surface flow is the strong influence by topographical features. Typical examples are the strong NW winds in Northern Greece due to the Vardar Valley, and the sea breeze circulations at coastal environments. (author)

  17. Proton MR spectroscopy in solitary pulmonary nodules: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunshan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Li Shenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and the regularities of the metabolites in solitary pulmonary nodules with proton MR spectroscopy, and to investigate the clinical value of MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with solitary pulmonary nodules underwent routine MRI and single-voxel MR spectroscopy using Siemens Vision 1.5 T MR system. MR spectroscopy characteristics and parameters of the metabolites were observed and recorded. Ten pathologic specimens were examined with single-voxel MR spectroscopy. The MR spectroscopy results of the pathologic specimens were compared with those of the solitary pulmonary nodules in vivo. Results: The Cho peak (2.86 ± 1.89) of the malignant nodules was higher than that of the inflammatory (0.87 ± 0.74), tuberculous nodules (0.97 ± 1.09), and hamartoma (0.42 ± 0.53) (P 0.05). Conclusion: MR spectroscopy is reliable in evaluating pulmonary nodules in vivo. The Cho peak, Cho/Cr, and Lac peak of the malignant nodules were higher than those of inflammatory, tuberculous nodules, and hamartoma. MR spectroscopy is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. (authors)

  18. Preliminary study on computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanfu; Zhou Kangyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the variability of normal brain volume with the sex and age, and put forward an objective standard for computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy. Methods: The cranial volume, brain volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) of 487 cases of brain atrophy (310 males, 177 females) and 1901 cases of normal subjects (993 males, 908 females) were calculated with the newly developed algorithm of automatic quantification for brain atrophy. With the technique of polynomial curve fitting, the mathematical relationship of BPF with age in normal subjects was analyzed. Results: The cranial volume, brain volume and BPF of normal subjects were (1 271 322 ± 128 699) mm 3 , (1 211 725 ± 122 077) mm 3 and (95.3471 ± 2.3453)%, respectively, and those of atrophy subjects were (1 276 900 ± 125 180) mm 3 , (1 203 400 ± 117 760) mm 3 and BPF(91.8115 ± 2.3035)% respectively. The difference of BPF between the two groups was extremely significant (P 0.05). The expression P(x)=-0.0008x 2 + 0.0193x + 96.9999 could accurately describe the mathematical relationship between BPF and age in normal subject (lower limit of 95% CI y=-0.0008x 2 +0.0184x+95.1090). Conclusion: The lower limit of 95% confidence interval mathematical relationship between BPF and age could be used as an objective criteria for automatic quantification of brain atrophy with computer. (authors)

  19. Human immunotoxicologic markers of chemical exposures: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, D; Laskin, D; Kipen, H

    1993-01-01

    The circulating cells of the immune system are sensitive to environmental contaminants, and effects are often manifested as changes in the cell surface differentiation antigens of affected populations of cells, particularly lymphocytes. In this investigation, we explore the likelihood that variation in the expression of the surface markers of immune cells can be used as an index of exposure to toxic chemicals. We recruited 38 healthy New Jersey men to study pesticides effects: 19 orchard farmers (high exposure); 13 berry farmers (low exposure); and 6 hardware store owners (no exposure). Immunophenotyping was performed assaying the following cell surface antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD20, CD26, CD29, CD45R, CD56, and PMN. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to routine medical histories, physical examinations, or routine laboratory parameters. No striking differences between groups were seen in univariate tests. Multivariate tests suggested some differences among groups and limited ability to correctly classify individuals based on immunophenotyping results. Immunophenotyping represents a fruitful area of research for improved exposure classification. Work is needed both on mechanistic understanding of the patterns observed and on the statistical interpretation of these patterns.

  20. Influence of study satisfaction on academic procrastination in psychology students: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alexis Dominguez-Lara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this predictive study was to analyze the degree of influence of study satisfaction (SS on academic procrastination (AP. One hundred forty- eight (148 psychology students (111 women between 18 and 32 years old (M = 22.41 were evaluated using the Brief Scale of Study Satisfaction and the Academic Procrastination Scale. After preliminary analyses focused on the scores reliability (α > 0.70 and correlations between dimensions, a regression analysis was performed to determine how much of the variability in the AP dimensions’ scores is explained by the variations in the SS. For that purpose, a method that uses bivariate correlations corrected for attenuation and provides confidence intervals under a bootstrap approach of the associated statistics was applied. All analyses were assessed from an effect size approach. The results indicate that the influence of SS on AP was not significant. These findings provide new ways to implement studies in order to understand the procrastinating behavior in the university setting.

  1. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  2. Radiolabeling, characterization and preliminary studies of 90Y-octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klementyeva, O.E.; Bruskin, A.B.; Larenkov, A.A.; Kodina, G.E.; Korsunsky, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Overexpression of the somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine tumors has become the molecular basis for the use of somatostatin analogues in diagnosis and therapy for these neoplasms. The high energy (maximum 2.2 MeV) and penetration range (R 95 5.7 mm) of β-particles from 90 Y are advantageous, with a direct killing of somatostatin receptor positive cells and a crossfire effect which hits nearby receptor-negative tumour cells [Ref. 1]. Aim: the investigation of the reaction conditions for the preparation of 90 Y-Octreotate and its in vitro characterization. Materials and methods: DOTA-Octreotate (Farm-Syntez Ltd.) and 88 YCl 3 (V/O Isotop) were used without purification. 88 Y-Octreotate was prepared in acetate buffer solution and its radiochemical purity was controlled by ITLC. In-vitro experiments were carried out with melanoma B16. Studies of internalization were performed as described in [Ref. 2]. Results: the maximal accumulation in the cells was observed after 90 min from the beginning of incubation and was about 3.9%. In our experiments, we found high level of internalization of the surface-bound 88 Y-Octreotate into B16 cells. Maximal internalization level was 80% after 60 min of incubation. Conclusion: the optimal conditions for effective labeling (> 95%) of DOTA-Octreotate were found. The results obtained using the gamma-emitting 88 Y, provide a basis for in vivo research 90 Y octreotate as radiotherapeutic agent. References: [Ref. 1] Bodei, L.; Pepe, G.; Paganelli, G.; Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogues. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2010; v. 14: 347-351. [Ref. 2] Garcia Garayoa E., Allemann-Tannahill L., et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of new radiolabeled neurotensin (8-13) analogs with high affinity for NT1 receptors. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2001; 28: 75-84. (authors)

  3. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  4. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb 3 Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given

  5. Magnetization transfer analysis of cartilage repair tissue: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, F.; Keyzer, F. de; Maes, F.; Breuseghem, I. van

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) after two different cartilage repair procedures, and to compare these data with the MTR of normal cartilage. Twenty-seven patients with a proven cartilage defect were recruited: 13 were treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and 14 were treated with the microfracture technique (MFR). All patients underwent MRI examinations with MT-sequences before the surgical treatment, after 12 months (26 patients) and after 24 months (11 patients). Eleven patients received a complete follow-up study at all three time points (five of the ACI group and six of the MFR group). All images were transferred to a workstation to calculate MTR images. For every MT image set, different ROIs were delineated by two radiologists. Means were calculated per ROI type in the different time frames and in both groups of cartilage repair. The data were analyzed with unpaired t- and ANOVA tests, and by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant differences were found in the MTR of fatty bone marrow, muscle and normal cartilage in the different time frames. There was a significant but small difference between the MTR of normal cartilage and the cartilage repair area after 12 months for both procedures. After 24 months, the MTR of ACI repaired cartilage (0.31±0.07) was not significantly different from normal cartilage MTR (0.34±0.05). The MTR of MFR repaired cartilage (0.28±0.02), still showed a significant difference from normal cartilage. The differences between damaged and repaired cartilage MTR are too small to enable MT-imaging to be a useful tool for postoperative follow-up of cartilage repair procedures. There is, however, an evolution towards normal MTR-values in the cartilage repair tissue (especially after ACI repair). (orig.)

  6. Vessel encoded arterial spin labeling with cerebral perfusion: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bing; Xiao Jiangxi; Xie Cheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang; Wong, E.C.; Wang Jing; Guo Jia; Zhang Beiru; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a noninvasive vessel encoded imaging for selective mapping of the flow territories of the left and fight internal carotid arteries and vertebral-basilar arteries. Methods: Seven volunteers [(33.5 ± 4.1) years; 3 men, 4 women] and 6 patients [(55.2 ± 3.2) years; 2 men, 4 women] were given written informed consent approved by the institutional review board before participating in the study. A pseudo-continuous tagging pulse train is modified to encode all vessels of interest. The selectivity of this method was demonstrated. Regional perfusion imaging was developed on the same arterial spin labeling sequence. Perfusion-weighted images of the selectively labeled cerebral arteries were obtained by subtraction of the labeled from control images. The CBF values of hemisphere, white matter, and gray matter of volunteers were calculated. The vessel territories on patients were compared with DSA. The low perfusion areas were compared with high signal areas on T 2 -FLAIR. Results: High SNR maps of left carotid, right carotid, and basilar territories were generated in 8 minutes of scan time. Cerebral blood flow values measured with regional perfusion imaging in the complete hemisphere (32.6 ± 4.3) ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 , white matter (10.8 ± 0.9) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and gray matter (55.6±2.9) ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 were in agreement with data in the literature. Vessel encoded imaging in patients had a good agreement with DSA. The low perfusion areas were larger than high signal areas on T 2 -FLAIR. Conclusion: We present a new method capable of evaluating both quantitatively and qualitatively the individual brain- feeding arteries in vivo. (authors)

  7. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  8. Paraconsistent artificial neural networks and Alzheimer disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Minoro Abe

    Full Text Available Abstract EEG visual analysis has proved useful in aiding AD diagnosis, being indicated in some clinical protocols. However, such analysis is subject to the inherent imprecision of equipment, patient movements, electric registers, and individual variability of physician visual analysis. Objectives: To employ the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network to ascertain how to determine the degree of certainty of probable dementia diagnosis. Methods: Ten EEG records from patients with probable Alzheimer disease and ten controls were obtained during the awake state at rest. An EEG background between 8 Hz and 12 Hz was considered the normal pattern for patients, allowing a variance of 0.5 Hz. Results: The PANN was capable of accurately recognizing waves belonging to Alpha band with favorable evidence of 0.30 and contrary evidence of 0.19, while for waves not belonging to the Alpha pattern, an average favorable evidence of 0.19 and contrary evidence of 0.32 was obtained, indicating that PANN was efficient in recognizing Alpha waves in 80% of the cases evaluated in this study. Artificial Neural Networks - ANN - are well suited to tackle problems such as prediction and pattern recognition. The aim of this work was to recognize predetermined EEG patterns by using a new class of ANN, namely the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network - PANN, which is capable of handling uncertain, inconsistent and paracomplete information. An architecture is presented to serve as an auxiliary method in diagnosing Alzheimer disease. Conclusions: We believe the results show PANN to be a promising tool to handle EEG analysis, bearing in mind two considerations: the growing interest of experts in visual analysis of EEG, and the ability of PANN to deal directly with imprecise, inconsistent, and paracomplete data, thereby providing a valuable quantitative analysis.

  9. Endometrial preparation with desogestrel before Essure hysteroscopic sterilization: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovich, Sergio; Mancebo, Gemma; Alameda, Francesc; Agramunt, Silvia; Hernández, José Luis; Carreras, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of desogestrel on endometrial preparation for transcervical sterilization using the Essure device. Prospective nonrandomized clinical study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Acute-care university-affiliated hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Women undergoing sterilization using the Essure device between January 2010 and January 2011. Participants were offered desogestrel, 75 μg/d, for 6 weeks before the procedure. Sixteen who accepted were included in the desogestrel group, and 18 who refused were allocated to the no-treatment group. Endometrial biopsy samples were also obtained. In women who received desogestrel, decidual transformation was observed in eight, glandular atrophy in three, and proliferative endometrium in five. In the no-treatment group, two women had menstruation, nine had proliferative endometrium, and seven had secretory endometrium. In the desogestrel group, the procedure was successful in all women. In the no-treatment group, the procedure was cancelled in two women because of menstruation and in four women with secretory endometrium in whom the tubal ostia were difficult to visualize because of endometrial thickness and bleeding. The median (interquartile range, 25th-75th percentile) duration of the procedure was shorter in the desogestrel group than in the no-treatment group (7 [6-7] minutes vs 8 [7-12] minutes; p = .002). Desogestrel, 75 μg/d, could be an alternative to combined hormonal contraception before placement of Essure inserts, facilitating the procedure and serving as a contraceptive method during the following 12 weeks until occlusion of the tubes. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic resonance elastography in normal human brain: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human brain. Methods: An external force actuator was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During MRE scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the volunteers' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and generated shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence of MRE was designed. A modified gradient echo sequence was developed with motion sensitizing gradient (MSG) imposed along X, Y or Z direction. Cyclic displacement within brain tissue induced by shear waves caused a measurable phase shift in the received MR signal. From the measured phase shift, the displacement at each voxel could be calculated, and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. By adjusting the phase offset, the dynamic propagation of shear waves in a wave cycle was obtained. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity images. Shear waves at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, and 200 Hz were applied. Results: The phase images of MRE directly imaged the propagating shear waves within the brain. The direction of the propagation was from surface of the brain to the center. The wavelength of shear waves varied with the change of actuating frequency. The change of wavelength of shear waves in gray and white matter of the brain was identified. The wavelength of shear waves in gray matter was shorter than that in white matter. The elasticity image of the brain revealed that the shear modulus of the white matter was higher than that of gray matter. Conclusion: The phase images of MRE can directly visualize the propagation of shear waves in the brain tissue. The elasticity image of the brain can demonstrate the change of elasticity between gray and white matter. (authors)

  11. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica de Cordoba, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: aiquiroga@famaf.unc.edu [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  12. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, A.; Vedelago, J.; Valente, M.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  13. Second vowel formant relationship to adduction: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Kevin G.

    cases, but overall the data was inconclusive. Further study is needed to clarify.

  14. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, R.M.E.

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  15. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, R M.E. [Agricultural Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  16. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  17. Preliminary study of flotation behavior of Besham Lead-Zinc ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Din, F.; Rafiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the flotation behavior of the mineral galena from Besham Lead-Zinc ore samples with reference to the particle size, collector types such as Ethyl and Propyl xanthates and depressants. The comminution of the as mined ore was carried out in the laboratory jaw crusher and disc mill as well as in a laboratory ball mill. The material having size range between-90 microns and +63 microns was selected for flotation studies. (author)

  18. A preliminary study on the dielectric constant of WPC based on some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Chua, P.H.; Hon, Y.S.; Lee, E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of WPC as an important insulating material is studied by determining its dielectric constant. The variation of dielectric constant with moisture content is also investigated. Preliminary results show that all untreated woods studied have a higher dielectric constant than their polymer composites with the exception of Kapur and Keruing. It is therefore postulated that the presence of polymers has led to a decrease in the number of polarizable units. Such a material may be useful commercially. (author)

  19. Journal of Island Studies: preliminary ideas from 1991, and comments from 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some preliminary thoughts were penned in 1991, on the founding of an academic journal devoted to the study of the world’s islands. This collated contribution is an opportunity to look back critically at what was advised then, and what has actually come to pass through Island Studies Journal. Russell King’s prescient report from 1991 is followed by a series of candid reflections by members of ISJ’s International Editorial Board.

  20. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Preliminary neutronic study on Pu-based OTTO cycle pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiadipura, Topan; Zuhair [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Selatan (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Irwanto, Dwi [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia). Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group

    2017-12-15

    The neutron physics characteristic of Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) allows a better incineration of plutonium (Pu). An optimized design of simple PBR might give a symbiotic solution of providing a safe energy source, effective fuel utilization shown by a higher burnup value, and incineration of Pu stockpiles. This study perform a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt Once Through Then Out (OTTO) cycle PBR with Pu-based fuel. The safety criteria of the design were represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. In this preliminary phase, the parametric survey is limited to the heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum high burnup of 419.7 MWd/kg-HM was achieved in this study. This optimum design uses a HM loading of 2.5 g/pebble with average axial fuel velocity 0.5 cm/day.

  2. A study on the development plan and preliminary design of proton accelerator for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Choi, B H; Park, C K; Chung, K S. and others

    1997-11-01

    A study on the development plan and preliminary design for the realisation of high current proton accelerator to be used as an essential component for the R and D of accelerator-driven system (ADS) for energy production and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides. Various fields of application of the accelerator such as basic nuclear physics, material science, biology, high energy physics, medicine, etc. were also investigated. From the preliminary design study, 1 GeV (20 mA) - Linac is required for the purposed of transmutation and energy production. Specification of injector, RFQ, CCTL and SL was also suggested. For the case study, a duoplasmatron ion source was designed by KAERI and fabricated by a domestic manufacturer, and the performance was also tested. (author). 71 refs., 61 tabs., 131 figs

  3. Improving maintenance of lost weight following a commercial liquid meal replacement program: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Thomas, Colleen S; Crook, Julia E; Lynch, Scott A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Clinic-based liquid meal replacement (800kcals/day) programs produce substantial weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term maintenance remains a challenge. A limitation of maintenance programs is that they continue to promote large behavior changes that are initially required to induce weight loss which may be unsustainable long-term. The study aims were to conduct a preliminary assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a small changes maintenance intervention (SCM) for 30 patients who completed liquid meal replacement program (LMR). The 20-session SCM delivered over 52 weeks offered no preset goals for maintenance behaviors and all changes in behavior were self-selected. Participants had a median BMI of 40.9 kg/m(2) and weight of 111 kg at the start of LMR. At LMR completion, they lost 18% (21 kg) of body weight. The SCM was completed by 22 patients (73%); 19 completers (86%) attended ≥ 17 of 20 sessions with a median satisfaction rating of 9 (on a scale of 1 to 9). Completers were asked to record self-selected maintenance behaviors daily (median 351 days recorded). The most commonly reported daily behaviors were self-weighing, use of meal replacements and step counting. Median percent regain at week 52 was 14% (2.8 kg) of lost weight (range, -42 to 74%), significantly less than a median of 56% (11 kg) percent regain of lost weight (range, -78 to 110%) in a demographically similar historical control group with no maintenance intervention after LMR completion (P<0.001). Thus, SCM holds promise for improving weight maintenance. Future research should compare SCM to standard maintenance programs that promote large program-directed changes. © 2013.

  4. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, C.R.; Hawke, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille

  5. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille.

  6. Attitudes and awareness of web-based self-care resources in the military: a preliminary survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Armstrong, Christina M; Fantelli, Emily E; Thomas, Elissa K

    2011-09-01

    Web-based self-care resources have a number of potential benefits for military service members (SMs) and their families such as convenience, anonymity, and immediate 24/7 access to useful information. There is limited data available, however, regarding SM and military healthcare provider use of online self-care resources. Our goal with this study was to conduct a preliminary survey assessment of self-care Web site awareness, general attitudes about use, and usage behaviors of Web-based self-care resources among SMs and military healthcare providers. Results show that the majority of SMs and providers use the Internet often, use Internet self-care resources, and are willing to use additional Web-based resources and capabilities. SMs and providers also indicated a preference for Web-based self-care resources as adjunct tools to face-to-face/in-person care. Data from this preliminary study are useful for informing additional research and best practices for integrating Web-based self-care for the military community.

  7. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  8. Preliminary calculations of stress change of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites for GFR with changing of thermal conductivity degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Naganuma, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is being researched as a candidate concept of Generation IV international Forum. As a main feature of GFR, it should be maintained high temperature and pressure of coolant gas for heat transfer efficiency. Such a demanding environment requires high-temperature-resistant structural materials distinguished from traditional steel material. Consequently, ceramics are promising candidate material of core components. Especially, Silicon Carbide fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide composites (SiC/SiC) have encouraging characteristics such as refractoriness, low activation and toughness. Application of new material to core components must be explained by the viewpoint of engineering validity. Therefore, present study surveyed that current report for mechanical strength and thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites. According to the reports, neutron irradiation environment degraded mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites. To confirm applicability to core components, model of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites was assumed with feasible mechanical properties. Furthermore, it was calculated and estimated that the stress caused by temperature variation of inner and outer side of assumed model of cladding tube. Stress was calculated by changing of input date such as thickness of cladding tube, temperature variation, thermal conductivity and linear power. In the range of this study, the most important factor was identified as degradation of thermal conductivity by irradiation. It caused a significant stress and limited a geometrical design of fuel pin. It was discussed that the differences of heat transfer between isotropic and anisotropic materials like a metal and composites. These results should be helpful not only to determine a design factor of core component but also to indicate an improvement direction of SiC/SiC composites. Through these work, reliability and safety of GFR will be increased

  9. Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Gabriel; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Fainer, Gerson; Angelo, Edvaldo

    2009-01-01

    As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFX R code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimohan, S M; Naresh, M D; Arumugam, V; Mandal, A B

    2009-10-01

    Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 A resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 A, beta = 109.35 degrees . Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  11. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  12. Preliminary results from a study of the double beta decay of 150Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, I.M.C.; Chan, Y.D.; Hurley, D.; Lesko, K.T.; McDonald, R.J.; Moorhead, M.E.; Norman, E.B.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the preliminary results from a study of the double beta decay of 150 Nd to the first 0 + excited state of 150 Sm. Our data consists of 50 days of counting 5 kg of natural Nd 2 O 3 at the LBNL-Oroville low background facility. The deduced lower limit for the half life of this decay mode is 4.9.10 19 years. (orig.)

  13. Reliability of the Filipino version of the Parent Satisfaction Scale: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Palad, Yves Y.; Madriaga, Gilbert O.

    2014-01-01

    Parent satisfaction is vital in improving the delivery of paediatric health care. However, there are no linguistically appropriate instruments that measure parent satisfaction among Filipino parents of children receiving occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech pathology services. This study aimed to provide preliminary information about the reliability of the Filipino version of the Parent Satisfaction Scale (F-PSS). Research procedures included forward- and backward-translation of...

  14. Preliminary study of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the binary breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Luz, M. da; Ferreira, W.J.

    1984-06-01

    Continuing the development of the Binary Breeder Reactor, its physical configuration and the advantages of differents types of spacers are analysed. In order to simulate the thermo-hydraulic behaviour and obtain data for a preliminary evaluation of the core geometry, the COBRA III C code was used to study the effects of the lenght and diameter of the fuel element, the coolant inlet temperature, the system pressure, helicoidal pitch and the pitch to diameter ratio. (Author) [pt

  15. Preliminary Study of 20 MWth Experiment Power Reactor based on Pebble Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto, Dwi; Permana, Sidik; Pramuditya, Syeilendra

    2017-07-01

    In this study, preliminary design calculations for experimental small power reactor (20 MWt) based on Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) are performed. PBR technology chosen due to its advantages in neutronic and safety aspects. Several important parameters, such as fissile enrichment, number of fuel passes, burnup and effective multiplication factor are taken into account in the calculation to find neutronic characteristics of the present reactor design.

  16. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  18. A Preliminary Study of the Use of Conjunctions and the Quality of Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Taeko, Fujisaku

    1999-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that investigates the correlation between the use of conjunctions and the evaluation of writing by examining density and frequency of conjunctions used in student essay writing. Essays written by first-year university students are examined as the end product of high school English teaching in Japan. The results with the current data indicate that the quality of the written texts does not relate to mere density of the use of conjunctions or the use of complex conjun...

  19. Structural and ionic conductivity studies on proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated DTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. H.; Bakar, N. Y.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose (2HEC) complexes with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) salt in various composition (wt. %) were successfully prepared by using solution casting technique. The ion - polymer interaction and structural studies have been reported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported with X - ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FTIR spectral shows interaction of 2HEC with DTAB happen at peak 2914cm-1, 2848cm-1, 2353cm-1, 2328cm-1, 1720cm-1, 1437cm-1, 1344cm-1, 1198cm-1 1095cm-1 1051cm-1, 912cm-1 and 872cm-1. The interaction of complexes leads to an increase in number of ion jump into neighboring vacant sites until it reaches the highest conductivity at room temperature which is 2.80 x 10-5 Scm-1 for sample containing 9wt. % of DTAB. The temperature dependence of the SBEs system exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the XRD spectral analysis shows the higher salt loading the crystallinity of the SBEs which also increased.

  20. Behaviour health pregnant women with secondary and higher education – preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pieszko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special physiological condition in a woman’s life. It usually involves a substantial change in health behaviour and lifestyle. The aim of rational nutrition among pregnant women is to prevent complications during pregnancy and ensure normal development of the foetus. Practical realisation of the principles of rational nutrition involves the application of a balanced diet. It limits both shortages and excessive amount of nutrients in the body. The aim of the paper was to evaluate health behaviour of pregnant women with secondary and higher education and the level of knowledge about healthy lifestyle and its impact on child development. The study included 43 pregnant women aged 20–40 years from Gdańsk birth schools of higher and secondary education. The study based on questionnaire provided information about the current state of knowledge about nutrition while pregnant and assessed the health behaviour of women: nutrition, substance abuse and physical activity. A pilot study reported that 84% of pregnant women were interested in proper nutrition while pregnant. An increased amount of food consumed per day (69% and portions of fruit and vegetables (98% was noticed. Also, it was noted that 58.1% of the respondents did not increase the consumption of sweets. Good appetite was observed only in the case of 53% of studied women, 47% presented loss of appetite; 19% of the respondents occasionally consumed alcohol, 30% drank coffee once per day and 9% several times a day. There was no woman smoking tobacco. Among the respondents, physically active ones included 51.2% and 39.5% did physical activity occasionally. The studied group of pregnant women with secondary and higher education changed their eating habits during pregnancy. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates the validity of conducting nutrition education in antenatal classes, which raises the nutritional knowledge and