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Sample records for preliminary studies suggest

  1. Preliminary Study Suggests Low Incidence of Gastric Carcinoma in Kelantan Relates To Low Rate of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Raj, S. Mahendra

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinoma is generally more common in the antrum/body and is of the intestinal type. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of gastric carcinoma in an area known to have a low prevalence of H. pylori. Pathology records of gastric carcinoma diagnosed at Hospital University Sains Malaysia between 1995 and 1999 were retrieved and studied. There were a total of 23 cases. The median age was 60 years. Eighteen patients were Malay and 5 were Chinese. The most common location of the tumour was the cardia/gastrooesophageal junction (61%, 14/23 patients). The majority was of the intestinal type (69.6%, 16/23). The frequency of gastric carcinoma appears to be exceptionally low in the area of study. The Chinese population was over-represented. The higher frequency of tumour in the cardia/gastro-oesophageal junction as compared to the antrum and body is in sharp contrast to most other studies. This reaffirms the notion that Helicobacter pylori infection is a causative agent for non-cardia gastric carcinomas. PMID:22973153

  2. Community study suggests segmentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, A

    1989-01-01

    Results of a sample survey commissioned by a voluntary health organization in a major metropolitan area describes why individuals give their time and money to charitable organizations and what approaches are likely to result in such donations. Within demographic subgroups, the variables of age and income proved to be important factors with respect to why people gave and what appeals they prefer. The variables of gender and education were found to be of somewhat less importance. Findings were compared with a national Gallup study conducted in 1987. In an era of increasingly specialized marketing for all organizations, the findings offer voluntary and fund-raising organizations a basis for determining appropriate appeals for demographic segments in a community.

  3. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  4. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  5. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  6. Muhammadiyah: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyumardi Azra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a collection of Bibliography reviewer that discuss Muhammadiyah. The following are some of the bibliography were reviewed:A.R. Sukrianta dan Abdul Munir Malkhan, Perkembangan Pemikiran Muhammadiyah dari Masa ke Masa: Menyambut Muktamar ke-41, (Yogyakarta: Dua Dimensi, 1985.A.R. Sukriyanto dan Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pergumulan Pemikiran dalam Muhammadiyah, (Yogyakarta: Sipress, 1990.Ruslan Abdul Gani. et.al., Cita dan Citra Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Panjimas, 1985.M.T. Arifin, Gagasan Pembaharuan Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1987.M.T. Arifin, Muhammadiyah: Potret yang Berubah, (Surakarta: Institut Gelanggang Pemikiran Filsafat Sosial Budaya dan Kependidikan, 1990.M. Yusron Asrofie, Kiyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan, Pemikiran dan Kepemimpinannya, (Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta Offset, 1983.Fathurrahman Djamil, Ijtihad Muhammadiyah dalam Masalah-masalah Fiqh Kontemporer, (Jakarta: Doctoral Dissertation the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN, 1994.Yunahar Ilyas. et.al., Muhammadiyah dan NU: Reorientasi Wawasan Keislaman, (Yogyakarta: LPPI UMY, LKPSM NU, & PP al-Muhsin, 1993.Musthafa kamal, Chusnan Yusuf, dan Rosyad Sholeh, Muhammadiyah sebagai Gerakan Islam, (Yogyakarta: Penerbit Persatuan, 1976.M. Rusli Karim, Muhammadiyah dalam Kritik dan Komentar, (Jakarta: Rajawali, 1986.Arbiyah Lubis, Pemikiran Muhammadiyah dan Muhammad Abduh: Suatu Studi Perbandingan, (Jakarta: Doctoral Dissertation the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN, 1989.Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pemikiran K.H. Ahmad Dahlan dan Muhammadiyah dalam Perspektif Perubahan Sosial, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 1990.Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Pak AR Menjawab 245 Permasalahan dalam Islam, (Yogyakarta: Sipress, 1990.M. Din Syamsuddin, Muhammadiyah Kini dan Esok, (Jakarta: Pustaka Panjimas, 1990.H.S. Prodjokusumo, Melestarikan Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pimpinan Pusat Muhammadiyah, 1985.Yusuf Abdullah Puar, Perjuangan dan Pengabdian Muhammadiyah, (Jakarta: Pustaka Antara, 1989.Sahlan Rosidi

  7. Biomarkers of teratogenesis: suggestions from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2012-09-01

    Biomarkers of effect are measurable biochemical, physiological or other alterations within an organism that can be recognized as causing an established or potential impairment of embryo-fetal development. They may be identified studying the mechanisms of action of teratogens. Hyperacetylation of histones, oxidative stress, cholesterol and retinoic acid unbalance are some of the identified mechanisms of action of some known teratogens. Nevertheless, their use is not currently applicable in human pregnancy because of the difficulty of the choice of biological material, the time when the material must be obtained, and the invasivity of methods. Furthermore, before using them in human pregnancy studies, biomarkers should be validated in experimental animals and in epidemiologic studies. On the contrary, some biomarkers could be useful in the screening of developmental toxicity of chemicals and drugs, comparing molecules of the same chemical class or with the similar pharmacologic activity, and using adequate in vitro tests, in order to reduce the use of experimental animals.

  8. Culture-Independent Study of the Late-Stage of a Bloom of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata: Preliminary Findings Suggest Genetic Differences at the Sub-Species Level and Allow ITS2 Structure Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available genomic data for the toxic, bloom-forming, benthic Ostreopsis spp. are traditionally obtained from isolates rather than from individuals originally present in environmental samples. Samples from the final phase of the first reported Ostreopsis bloom in European North Atlantic waters (Algarve, south coast of Portugal were studied and characterized, using a culture-independent approach. In the first instance, a microscopy-based analysis revealed the intricate complexity of the samples. Then, we evaluated the adequacy of commonly used molecular tools (i.e., primers and nuclear ribosomal markers for the study of Ostreopsis diversity in natural samples. A PCR-based methodology previously developed to identify/detect common Ostreopsis species was tested, including one new combination of existing PCR primers. Two sets of environmental rRNA sequences were obtained, one of them (1052 bp with the newly tested primer set. These latter sequences encompass both the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, leading us to an accurate identification of ITS2. In turn, this allowed us to predict and show for the first time the ITS2 secondary structure of Ostreopsis. With 92 bp in length and a two-helix structure, the ITS2 of this genus revealed to be unique among the dinoflagellates. Both the PCR approach as the phylogenetic analyses allowed to place the Ostreopsis cells observed in the samples within the O. cf. ovata phylospecies’ complex, discarding the presence of O. cf. siamensis. The (phylogenetic results point out a certain level of nucleotide sequence divergence, but were inconclusive in relation to a possible geographic origin of the O. cf. ovata population from the Algarve’s bloom.

  9. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  10. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  11. Urinary metabolomics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): preliminary data at birth suggest it is a congenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Vassilios; Pintus, Maria Cristina; Lussu, Milena; Atzori, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Stronati, Mauro; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Rocha, Gustavo; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Lacerenza, Serafina; Puddu, Silvia; Giuffrè, Mario; Serraino, Francesca; Mussap, Michele; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease is one of the principal causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications. The trigger cause of the disease comprehends the impairment of the alveolar development and the increased angiogenesis. Nevertheless, the molecular pathways characterizing the disease are still unclear. Therefore, the use of the metabolomics technique, due to the capability of identifying instantaneous metabolic perturbation, might help to recognize metabolic patterns associated with the condition. The purpose of this study is to compare urinary metabolomics at birth in 36 newborns with a gestational age below 29 weeks and birth weight congenital disease (genetics plus intrauterine epigenetics). Early identification of infants at the greater risk of developing BPD may allow a targeted approach for reducing disease severity and complications.

  12. Construction ages of the Upton Stone Chamber: Preliminary findings and suggestions for future luminescence research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Martin, Frederick; Taylor, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Upton Chamber in Massachusetts, an earth-covered stone structure 3.4 meters (m) in diameter, with a corbelled stone dome, and a 4.3 m long entrance passageway, is studied with the aim of determining whether optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods can be used to establish the approximate construction date of the entranceway. Three samples, taken from soil behind the lowest stones in the wall of the entrance passageway, returned OSL ages between 385 and 660 years ago (or from 1625 A.D. to 1350 A.D.; using the year 2011 as the 0 year). One sample, taken below the bottom of the artifact layers in an archeological test pit in front of the chamber entrance, returned OSL ages between 650 and 880 years ago. A modern sample collected from a nearby fluvial channel returned an age between 55 and 175 years. The Upton Chamber OSL sampling results are challenging to interpret because there are mixtures in the samples of both younger and older grains that likely result from human modification, root or soil processes, animal bioturbation (i.e. ants and worms), and/or partial bleaching. The ages were determined using the lowest component of the finite mixture model as applied to a distribution of quartz grains. Further research may enable us to determine whether older components are of anthropomorphic or geological origin.

  13. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  14. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients: preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to cofactor treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, a repurposing approach of BH4 was suggested to increase cerebral neurotransmitter synthesis. To investigate whether BH4 may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, we investigated blood prolactin concentrations-as a parameter of brain dopamine availability. We retrospectively compared blood prolactin in relation to blood phenylalanine concentrations of nine (male) BH4-responsive PKU patients, when being treated without and with BH4. Blood prolactin concentrations positively correlated to blood phenylalanine concentrations (p=0.002), being significantly lower with than without BH4 treatment (p=0.047). In addition, even in this small number of male patients, blood prolactin concentrations tended to be lower at increasing BH4 dose (p=0.054), while taking blood phenylalanine concentrations into account (p=0.002). In individual BH4-responsive patients, median blood prolactin concentrations were significantly lower while using BH4 than before using BH4 treatment (p=0.024), whereas median blood phenylalanine concentrations tended to be lower, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.107). Therefore, these data show that high blood phenylalanine in BH4-responsive PKU male patients seems to be associated with increased blood prolactin concentrations, suggesting reduced cerebral dopamine availability. Moreover, these data suggest that BH4 treatment in itself could decrease blood prolactin concentrations in a dose-responsive way, independent of blood phenylalanine concentrations. We conclude that these preliminary data

  15. Preliminary Study on Airlift Membran—Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUNong; XINGWeihong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor named “airlift membrane-bioreactor”is discussed.For municipal wastewater reclamation,the preliminary study on airlift membrane-bioreactor shows its good performance such as high flux and lower energy consumption.The airlift membrane-bioreactor is potentially applicable in bioengineering and environmental protection fields.

  16. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-15

    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  17. Institutional Repositories in India: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates various aspects of institutional repositories (IR’s) developed in India. The present study has identified the existence of 16 functional IRs some of which were not registered in any of the directories such as ROAR, Open DOAR. The study explores the timeline involved in planning, pilot testing, to system implementation of IR, exploratory activities conducted before implementing IR, its anticipated benefits.

  18. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  19. Autocomplete as Research Tool: A Study on Providing Search Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the library website and on its online searching tools become the primary “branch” many users visit for their research, methods for providing automated, context-sensitive research assistance need to be developed to guide unmediated searching towards the most relevant results.  This study examines one such method, the use of autocompletion in search interfaces, by conducting usability tests on its use in typical academic research scenarios.  The study reports notable findings on user preference for autocomplete features, and suggests best practices for their implementation.

  20. Candidate Gene Studies in Hypodontia Suggest Role for FGF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; D’Souza, Rena N.; Mues, Gabriele; Deeley, Kathleen; Hsin, Hong-Yuan; Küchler, Erika C.; Meira, Raquel; Patir, Asli; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, Jose M.; Seymen, Figen; Modesto, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The majority of tooth agenesis cases are mild (hypodontia) and typically not associated with the gene mutations linked to oligodontia. From this, we hypothesize that most cases of tooth agenesis fit a polygenic mode of inheritance, where several genes with small effects cause a variety of varying phenotypes. In this study, we looked at 18 not typically studied genes in this condition, to ascertain their contribution to hypodontia. Our study subjects consisted of 167 patients with hypodontia and their parents from two cohorts (one from Brazil and one from Turkey). An additional 465 DNA samples (93 cases with hypodontia and 372 controls without family history for tooth agenesis or oral clefts) from Brazil were also available for this study. 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms that maximally represent the linkage disequilibrium structure of the genes for the 18 genes were selected and genotyped using Taqman chemistry. Chi-square was used to test if genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 24 markers that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had allele frequencies higher than 5% in a panel of 50 CEPH samples were further tested. Association between hypodontia and genetic variants was tested with the transmission disequilibrium test within the program Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) and by using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Alpha at a level of 0.05 was used to report results. Results suggest possible associations between several genes and hypodontia in the three populations. In the Turkish cohort (n=51 parent-affected child trios) the most significant results were as follows: FGF3 rs1893047, p=0.08; GLI3 rs929387, p=0.03; GLI3 haplotype rs929387-rs846266, p=0.002; and PAX9 rs2073242, p=0.03. In the Brazilian cohort (n=116 parent-affected child trios), the results were as follows: DLX1 rs788173, p=0.07; FGF3 rs12574452, p=0.03; GLI2 rs1992901, p=0.03; and PITX2 rs2595110, p=0.01. The second Brazilian cohort also suggested that FGF3

  1. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  2. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  3. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  4. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  5. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  6. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  7. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  8. Several Suggestions on the Climate Change and Its Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the abundant studies,the relevant information and comprehensive analysis of the climate changes,several important problems on the climate changes and its studies were proposed.Based on the temporal distribution of the meteorological disaster of agriculture,the wave theory was expounded so as to draw people's attention on climate changes and to be objective,just and careful about the study.

  9. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  10. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  11. Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study: 14 lean mice raised on a "normal diet" and 14 obese mice raised on a high-fat diet. At 4 months of age, half of the ... and whys behind exercise's impact on bone fat composition remains murky. She said her current focus is ...

  12. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  13. Study Review on Urban Village and Related Planning Policy Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the studies on urban village (chengzhongcun) in domestic and abroad from four perspectives including the concepts and definitions,the formation mechanism,the value orientations,and the renovation and reform strategies.Based on the summary,the paper states that a neutralized value orientation should be the logical starting point of analysis on urban village;the formation of urban village should be interpreted within the framework of "institution-action;" and the strategy of community management of urban village should be made from the angle of constructing city low-grade community and the restrictions of current institutions and various practical conditions.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL SUGGESTED FOR THE STUDY OF THE KNEE MECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GRĂMADĂ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the operated the knee biomechanical behavior is important during the life of the endoprosthesis,lifestyle changes and medical rehabilitation. One of the main causes of failure of a primary total prosthetic knee joint isthe instability. From the moment of its implantation, the endoprosthesis is subjected to external forces, which tend todestabilize it, while the muscles and pericapsulare ligaments oppose it. Theoretically there is a relationship between theexternal disturbing force, respectively ligament tension and the knee frontal plane deviation. The purpose of this paperis to test several mathematical models describing the biomechanical behavior of knee ligaments in relation todeviation. On a group of 39 patients we measured the torque of the joint capsule in relation to the deviation using apressure sensor tensor and a torque screwdriver, and we analyzed these data using a statistical program. We havedemonstrated the existence of this relationship as a function of degree 2 and we made predictions based on itcalculating ligament torque and ligament stiffness at 0 and 5 degrees of deviation. The conclusion of this study showsthat there is a strong relationship between ligament torque and deviation knee, which can be described mathematically.This model can be used to study the knee operated and improve the prosthetic devices.

  15. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    More and more attention has been focused on geological and geomorphological heritage in the past years, leading to several researches in the framework of conservation projects, both at administrative and at scientific level, involving national and international research groups whose purposes are the promotion of Earth Sciences knowledge and the conservation of geological heritage. This paper presents an overview of research and conservation projects in Italy, mainly focused on the geomorphological heritage. Members of the AIGEO Working Group on geomorphosites and cultural landscape analyzed the historical development, methodological issues and main results of these research projects in order to identify possible innovation lines to improve the awareness and knowledge on geodiversity and geoheritage by a wide public, including education, tourism and conservation sectors. In Italy numerous projects of research have been realized with the main aim of geomorphosites inventory and the proposal of assessment methodologies, and so to the improvement and to the analysis of risks and impacts related to their fruition. At an international level, many Italian researchers have also been involved in studies carried out in the Working Group "Geomorphological sites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG). At a national level several research lines are under development, offering different responses to methodological issues within the general topic of geodiversity and geoheritage: Geosites inventories and assessment activities are performed with powerful digital techniques and new reference models: among these, the investigation on the ecologic support role for increasing geomorphosites global value and the elaboration of quantitative assessment methods of the scientific quality of Geomorphosites, carried out specifically for territorial planning. Improvements in field data collection and visual representation of landforms lead to new findings in

  16. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  17. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  18. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients : Preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to c

  19. Preliminary study natural gas; Foerstudie naturgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamnevik, Stefan; Carlsson, Tomas; Dyhr, Kurt

    2000-09-01

    FOA has carried out a preliminary study on natural gas for the Swedish National Energy Administration. To use natural gas as an energy source could be one step towards use of carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen content. It has a high heat of combustion, 55 MJ/kg, and a low emission of carbon dioxide, 2.8 kg/kg fuel or 0.051 kg/MJ. The carbon dioxide emission per energy unit is twice as high for coal, 75% higher for wood fuels, and 27% higher for fuel oils. The Swedish natural gas network starts at Malmoe and ends at Hyltebruk. The natural gas used is imported from Denmark by Sydgas AB. It would be possible in the future to get connections to the Russian and the Norwegian networks and also to import LNG by ship and store it to buffer the different consumption demands during summer and winter. Natural gas is non-toxic but can be suffocating due to too low oxygen content at high concentrations. Combustion with an inadequate air supply will form toxic carbon monoxide like other carbonaceous fuels. Natural gas/air mixtures may explode like other gaseous fuels. The gas is lighter than air and is therefore dispersed better than heavier gases like LPG. Natural gas is difficult to detonate unlike other gases.

  20. Recurrent laryngeal nerve histopathology in spastic dysphonia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedo, H H; Izdebski, K; Townsend, J J

    1977-01-01

    Spastic dysphonia is a severe voice disorder ordinarily described as psychogenic. Organic-neurologic changes secondary to central or peripheral nervous system involvement have also been postulated and led recently to the surgical treatment of spastic dysphonia by unilateral section of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study reports the histologic findings from these resections of the RLN from patients with an average 9.5 years duration of spastic dysphonia. Thirty percent of the RLNs examined demonstrated significant abnormalities as compared to age-matched controls. Although no reactive changes were noted by light microscopy, groups of fibers which did not stain for myelin or axons were found in RLNs from patients with spastic dysphonia. A preliminary ultrastructural study of these areas in one RLN revealed sheets of unmyelinated axons. These findings suggest an organic basis for spastic dysphonia at least in some patients.

  1. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  2. A biogeographic study of intermountain leeches : Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary report for a five year study on leeches in the intermountain west. This work began out of curiosity to determine what, besides fishes, occurred in the...

  3. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  4. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  5. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  6. Competence-Based System Self-Study System for Suggesting Study Materials Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitchot, Athitaya; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    The article proposes a self-study system which suggests web links to learners. The suggestions depend upon the learner's chosen competences selected from a competence structure for a particular knowledge domain. Three experiments were conducted, where the first compared the perceived usefulness and value of the links generated by different…

  7. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... the use of herbal medicinal products and therapy for the treatment of most .... The freeze dried 70% methanol extract was screened for antimicrobial .... leaves suggests it can be used in natural body cosmetic and scents.

  9. Modular endoprosthesis for mandibular reconstruction: a preliminary animal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Goh, B.T.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of a mandibular modular endoprosthesis after segmental resection of part of the body of the mandible was studied. This preliminary study was carried out on four pigs and four monkeys. The devices were made of a titanium alloy and were cemented in the prepared medullary spaces with polymethyl

  10. A study on efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system: A case study of oil products distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amaneh Bahraminasab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tools for improving the relative efficiencies of any organization is to establish suggestion system. Having a reliable system, which could reflect all employees’ comments and concerns, helps managers take necessary actions to remove any possible obstacle in the system. In this paper, we measure efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system in the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution. We also provide practical suggestions for improvement and necessary actions required to review the system. The proposed study of this paper uses a sample of 297 people from 1294 employees who work in different position for some of the regional offices of this firm in north part of Iran. The study has used two separate questionnaires, where the first one consists of 40 questions in Likert scale trying to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the suggestion system. In addition, we use another questionnaire to rank important factors detected in the first stage. The results of questionnaires have been analyzed using different statistical tests.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on bee venom: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, H.; Boni-Mitake, M.; Souza, C.F.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. several works utilizing ionizing radiation showed that it is able to modify protein structures, and successfully detoxify snake venoms toxins, although maintaining its immunological properties. The main objective of this paper was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding some biochemical and toxicological aspects. Africanized Apis melllifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M Na Cl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60} Co source. Preliminary studies has been carried out in order to identify some biochemical changes after irradiation. Concerning this, irradiated and native venom were submitted to a molecular exclusion chromatography (Sephadex G-100), UV absorption spectrum and protein concentration analysis. It could be seen that irradiated bee venom spectrum presented differences when compared to native bee venom, suggesting that some structural alterations has occurred. Protein concentration and chromatography profiles were not changes after irradiation. In order to evaluate the toxicity a lethality assay (L D{sub 50}) has been performed with both venoms, and irradiated venom showed to be less toxic than native one. (author) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  13. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  14. Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in children: a preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Maria, B. de; Tielens, L.K.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blockade is a well-established technique in upper limb surgery. Among the infraclavicular approaches, the vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus (VIP) block is easy to perform and has a large spectrum of nerve blockade. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine

  15. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  16. Preliminary study to AP mine neutralisation by EFP impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study has been conducted into the response of anti-personnel mines at the impact of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP). The objective was to obtain a low order reaction (preferably a deflagration) to minimise collateral damage. Further the method should be capable to neutralise min

  17. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  18. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  19. Preliminary toxicological study of Irganox 1010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    Acute oral LD/sub 50/30/ values for mice and rats receiving Irganox 1010 were found to be greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, this material would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin applicaton studies in rabbits showed the material to be nonirritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Irganox 1010 was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitizaton study in guinea pigs did not show the material to be deleterious.

  20. Preliminary toxicological study of Silastic 386 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; Holland, L.M.; Jackson, D.E.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Silastic 386 catalyst were 1225 mg/kg in mice and 4350 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be slightly to moderately toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing conjunctivitis, photophobia, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, anterior uveitis, and keratitis. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show Silastic 386 catalyst to be deleterious in this regard.

  1. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  2. Preliminary study of pur-revetment's application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, D.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van de Ven, M.

    2008-01-01

    PUR-revetment is a newly developed method for hydraulic application. Its structure is similar to that of open stone asphalt revetment, but the crushed stones are glued by polyurethane (PUR) instead of bitumen. To study the feasibility of applying PUR-revetment, a research based on the comparisons be

  3. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  4. Preliminary Study of Performance of TTA Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Kun; MAO; Guo-shu

    2013-01-01

    TTA(thenoyl trifluoroacetone)extraction can effectively remove large amounts of uranium in the analysis of trace neptunium in the presence of large amounts of uranium.While it is not conducive to achieve the automation of the rapid analysis of neptunium with the TTA solution,the TTA resin was prepared and its properties were studied in this work.TTA resin in this work was a kind of mixture combining styrene-divinylbenzene skeleton with TTA

  5. Microwave Influence in Fungi a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoliu, A. I.; Tufescu, F. M.; Oprica, L.; Olteanu, Z.; Creanga, D. E.

    2004-07-01

    The behavior of two cellulolytic fungus species under the influence of low intensity microwaves was studied: Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternata. Enzyme activity of dehydrogenase complex was investigated by spectrophotometric method in order to real the effect of relatively short daily exposure times. Inhibitory effect was noticed for malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in both fungi while differentiated influence was revealed in alpha ceto glutarate dehydrogenase (inhibitory in Chaetomium globosum but stimulatory in Alternaria alternata). Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was significantly stimulated in both fungi for 3 hours exposure time. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. [Preliminary study on the pharmacological action spicatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, H; Shou, Y; Wang, J; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    In this report the pharmacological action of Spicatus was studied. The results insicated that it had diureric, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory effects, yet had Iittle toxic side-effect. It had significant inhibitory effect on crofon oil-caused mice ear swell. It also had marked diuretic effect in orcinary rats, but had Iittie effect on uric pH the rats. It exhibited certain inhibition of Staphycoloccus aureus, Eschrichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. The maximum tolerable dose test in mice showed no marked toxic effect, LD50 > 80 g/kg.

  7. A preliminary ultrasound study of velar fronting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzinski, Sylvie M.; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging to measure velar consonant closure location, and (2) conduct a thorough study of velar fronting by measuring several productions of velar stops in the context of every English vowel. Word onset velar stops were measured in both words (CV or CVC) and nonwords (VCV) within a carrier phrase. Other coarticulatory influences were minimized by using words with no coda or labial coda consonants (e.g., ``Say a gap again,'' ``Say /oIkoI/ again''). Measurements were made at the point of maximal closure. Closure location was measured using the radial angle from the center of the ultrasound probe to the center of the velar closure. Pilot data for one subject has been analyzed to date. Closure location appears consistent across all central and back vowels. For front vowels, the degree of fronting of the velar appears to be correlated with the frontness of the vowel. Measures of closure location for diphthongs followed the back vowel pattern in the word targets. For nonwords, the closure location was influenced by the preceding diphthong offset quality and the following diphthong onset quality. Theoretical implications for the phonetics/phonology interface will be discussed.

  8. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  9. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Fake Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is a widely used biometrics. Its extensive usage motivates imposter to fabricate fake fingerprints. Vitality detection has been proposed to prevent counterfeit finger attack. Currently the detection can be done either during the process of acquiring fingerprint image or by comparing multiple sequentially acquired images. It is an ongoing research problem to detect whether a given fingerprint image is obtained from a real or a fake fingertip. In this paper we look into the differences between real and fake fingerprints as the first step to approach this problem. Specifically, we study the effects of different imaging sensors on the sizes of templates and on the matching scores between real and fake fingerprints. We also compare the fake fingerprints made from different materials. Experiments are carried out with two publicly available fingerprint databases and the findings are reported.

  11. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  12. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  13. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...

  14. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  15. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  16. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  17. Finite element modelling of the tricuspid valve: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanella, Marco; Votta, Emiliano; Lemma, Massimo; Antona, Carlo; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The incomplete efficacy of current surgical repair procedures of the tricuspid valve (TV) demands a deeper comprehension of the physiological TV biomechanics. To this purpose, computational models can provide quantitative insight into TV biomechanical response and allow analysing the role of each TV substructure. We present here a three-dimensional finite element model of the tricuspid valve that takes into account most of its peculiar features. Experimental measurements were performed on human and porcine valves to obtain a more detailed TV anatomical framework. To overcome the complete lack of information on leaflets mechanical properties, we performed a sensitivity analysis on the parameters of the adopted non-linear hyperelastic constitutive model, hypothesizing three different parameter sets for three significant collagen fibre distributions. Results showed that leaflets' motion and maximum principal stress distribution were almost insensitive to the different material parameters considered. Highest stresses (about 100kPa) were located near the annulus of the anterior and septal leaflets, while the posterior leaflet experienced lower stresses (about 55kPa); stresses at the commissures were nearly zero. Conversely, changes in constitutive parameters deeply affected leaflets' strains magnitude, but not their overall pattern. Strains computed assuming that TV leaflets tissue are reinforced by a sparse and loosely arranged network of collagen fibres fitted best experimental data, thus suggesting that this may be the actual microstructure of TV leaflets. In a long-term perspective, this preliminary study aims at providing a starting point for the development of a predictive tool to quantitatively evaluate TV diseases and surgical repair procedures.

  18. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged. Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective.

  19. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  20. Identifying the management barriers for establishing suggestions system: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Suggestions system is one of the new cooperative management plans, which affects making good decisions, self-confidence and employees occupational approval. The aim of this research is to survey the barriers for establishment of suggestion system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 195 out of 26550 managers who work for educational system in city of Kermanshah, Iran. The primary purpose of this survey is to learn whether lack of accepting any risk on behalf of management team, conflict of interest in management style, lack of belief on suggestions system in an organization are important barriers of executing suggestions system in an organization or not. The results of Freedman test confirm all seven components of the hypothesis. As a result, lack of accepting risk among management team is number one barrier in having suggestion system followed by existing conflict between management style and suggestions system and lack of management's belief to suggestions system, weakness in education for suggestions system and fear in management disruption because of having suggestions system. The other barriers coming in the last priority in terms of their relative importance include lack of management's support to suggestions system and weakness in management position because of accepting suggestions system.

  1. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  2. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  3. Preliminary study on rockfall for Al Gayah site in Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aref M. O. Al-Jabali; WANG Xi-kui

    2004-01-01

    Studying the landslide and rockfall in Yemen still in its preliminary stage. Al Gayah rockfall site is a chronic problem as many other areas in the Republic of Yemen. The present authors have tried to highlight, and find best solution for this problem for the first time. Field work, collecting data and laboratory test for many rock samples such physical properties, chemical for major elements and thin section have been carried out. The physical properties performed according to ASTM, and then the result have been gotten and discussed.

  4. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND GENOTYPING OF CIAUSCOLO AUTOCHTHONOUS MICROFLORA: PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petruzzelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results of a preliminary characterization of the bacterial population of Ciauscolo, a typical Italian fermented sausage, traditionally manufactured in Marche region. The bacterial community involved in Ciauscolo fermentation was investigated using both molecular and culturebased methods. The estimation of genotypic intra-species variation of the autochthonous bacteria isolated was also evaluated by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis. Our findings revealed an high diversity of the autochthonous bacterial population investigated, both at species and strain level.

  5. Preliminary Studies on Chlorimuron Degradation in Soil by Effective Microogranisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaguang

    2006-01-01

    A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bioassay method was used for preliminary determination of chlorimuron degradation in soil by EM (effective microorganisms). Under the conditions of this study, chlorimuron half-life was greater than 30-50 days in soil containing different initial concentrations of chlorimuron. After adding EM, chlorimuron degradation half-life ranged from 10-15 days, which was about 15-30 days shorter than without EM. Chlorimuron phate and urea enhanced the ability of EM to degrade chlorimuron, but brown sugar had no significant effect.

  6. Corporate Social Disclosures in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD has been growing remarkably both in business and academic world.  Inevitably, this topic is also exposed in Southeast Asia, a big region that plays important role in global economic issue. Applying a content analysis method, this paper aims to provide preliminary findings in CSD practices throughout the companies‟ annual reports in 2007 and 2008 for countries located in Southeast Asia.  Samples were selected for listed and unlisted various type of industries, based on the information availability internet searching. The sample collection and the subjectivity during the content analysis process are the limitations in conducting this study. In general, the results show that „human resources‟ are the main information disclosed, while in contrast, „energy‟ is the main least issue disclosed in the annual reports.  However, the findings need to be interpreted with considerations since there are limited in samples. Basically, the outcomes support the major prior studies and enhancing the discussion of CSD conducting in developing countries, while at the same time describing some countries which obtained very limited in exposures. To respond the vast increasing issues of CSD practice, this preliminary study has provided a basis to see the role of every country in CSR reporting and how they could support the sustainability development globally.

  7. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  8. Preliminary study of quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with malaria-HIV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayentao, Kassoum; Guirou, Etienne A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Venkatesan, Meera; Plowe, Christopher V; Parsons, Teresa L; Hendrix, Craig W; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2014-03-01

    Pregnant women bear the greatest burden of malaria-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Previous studies suggest that interaction with antiretroviral drugs may compromise antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. We conducted a preliminary clinical study to assess quinine pharmacokinetics in Malian pregnant women with acute malaria who reported taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Of seven women, six had stable concentrations of nevirapine in the plasma and one had none. Quinine concentrations were lower, and its metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine higher, in the six women with nevirapine than in the one without, and quinine concentrations were below the recommended therapeutic range in 50% of the women. This preliminary observation warrants further research to understand the impact of long-term antiretroviral therapy on the treatment of acute malaria.

  9. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  10. Water on Mars: A status report and suggestions for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John; McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-07-01

    The most recent MEPAG review of Mars Special Regions (Rummel et al., 2014) contained the following statement, "Mars' average atmospheric pressure allows for liquid water when it exceeds that of the triple point of water, and at lower altitudes (e.g., Hellas and Argyre Basins) that is commonly the case. Higher temperatures and/or insolation may allow melting or condensation over limited areas for short time periods." Nonetheless, the US National Academies - European Science Foundation review of the MEPAG report disagreed with a preliminary statement regarding the potential for snow fallen on Mars to melt, and thus stated that, "The review committee asserts that pure liquid water simply cannot exist on Mars because the atmosphere is too dry to allow it. The partial pressure of atmospheric water vapor is typically less than 1 Pa near the surface of Mars, whereas the partial pressure of water vapor at the triple point of water is about 600 Pa." This paper will address the discrepancies between what the MEPAG paper actually asserted, and the validity of the arguments in each report and in the literature for and against liquid water on Mars - whether salty or pure (as the Mars-driven snow). Refs: Committee to Review the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions; Space Studies Board; The [US] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; European Space Sciences Committee; European Science Foundation. (2015). Review of the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Rummel, J. D., Beaty, D. W., Jones, M. A., Bakermans, C., Barlow, N. G., Boston, P. J., ... & Wray, J. J. (2014). A New Analysis of Mars "Special Regions": Findings of the Second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2). Astrobiology, 14, 887-968.

  11. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  12. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  14. Results of preliminary Microwave Multi-Applications Payload (MMAP) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the microwave multi-applications payload (MMAP) system for the Spacelab has been carried out. The initial objectives of this study have been to determine the minimum equipment requirements of the MMAP and the feasibility of placing the numerous large aperture antennas in the Spacelab. The study was begun by reviewing the experimental objectives and techniques and determining areas of commonality. Emphasis was given to the determination of common RF equipment requirements. These requirementers were considered after agreement among the experiments had been reached on limiting the number of frequencies to be used in the system. This was done so that the number of antennas, transmitters, and receivers could be minimized. The electronics system block diagram and the antenna configurations were considered in some details. It was concluded that the MMAP is feasible and can be an economical method of achieving a large number of experimental goals.

  15. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF STEREOSELECTIVITY OF MEFLOQUINE ENANTIOMERS IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Souri.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity of mefloquine enantiomers were studied in rats after oral administration of a single 50mg/Kg dose of the racemate. Pharmacokinetic parameters of (+-(RS-MFQ in blood and plasma showed no significant difference. The concentration, AUC , CLIF and VdlF of (+-(RS-enantiomerin blood were significantly higher than those for the (--(SR-enantiomer. Tlie results obtained from this study showed a reverse stereoselectivity of MFQ as compared with what reported for human. A very low amount of enantiomers excreted in urine and the excretion was not stereoselective. A preliminary study in different blood fractions showed that the accumulation of MFQ enantiomers in blood cells is stereoselective with a tendency of ( + -(RS-enatiomer for leukocytes and (--(SR-enantiomer for erythrocytes.

  16. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  17. A Study on the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Performance and a Model Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yildiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is defined as set of goals and values shared by employees in the organization. Recently it has also come to be perceived as a resource of knowledge in the organization. In the literature, along with the studies aiming at identifying the elements of organizational culture, there are some research that study the relationship between organizational culture and performance. This article is a theoretical study of the two concepts and suggests a research model for further research. Recently, knowledge management and innovation strategy have started to be regarded as features of organizational culture. Research shows that these two variables also have significant impacts on organizational performance. Our model suggests measuring the effect of organizational culture on performance along with the supportive impacts of knowledge management and innovation strategy.

  18. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  19. Computational Biology Study of S100 Family with Suggestions for Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The S100 family is a class of calcium-regulated proteins with EF-hand. They are widely distributed and are implicated in diverse intracellular and extracellular physiological processes. A study of the S100 family using computational biology methods such as multiple sequence alignment, structural alignment and the construction of an evolutionary tree will promote understanding of S100 protein structures and their function, and could provide suggestions for crystallization.

  20. Studies suggest alternatives to amalgam as a retrograde filling material for apicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Sources were Medline and the Cochrane Library. Studies included were in vivo with human subjects, had experimental and control groups, and gave quantitative results in English, German or French. Success and failure rates were derived from randomised controlled trials (RCT), clinical controlled trials (CCT), cohort studies (CS) and case-controlled studies (CCS). Qualitative synthesis of results was performed. Two RCT, six CCT and 14 CCS were identified. The two RCT suggest that glass ionomer may be more effective than amalgam, conversely one CCT showed amalgam to be more effective. CCTs also suggest that EBA (reinforced zinc oxide eugenol) cement, composite with GLUMA (Bayer AG., Leverkusen, Germany) and gold leaf retrograde filling may be more effective than amalgam. A further CCT suggested that gutta-percha used as a retrograde filing is less effective than when used following an orthograde approach. Based on the outcome of two RCT, glass ionomer appears as effective as amalgam. EBA cement, composite with GLUMA and gold leaf and orthograde gutta-percha may also be as effective as amalgam. Evidence is limited, however, and further research is needed.

  1. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXTRACTABLE PROTEIN BINDING USING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirawan Nipithakul; Ladawan Watthanachote; Nanticha Kalapat

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of using maleic anhydride copolymer for protein binding has been carried out.The polymeric films were prepared by compression of the purified resin and annealing the film to induce efficient back formation of the anhydride groups.The properties of the film surface were analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements.The protein content was determined by Bradford assay.To obtain optimum conditions,immersion time for protein binding was examined.Results revealed that proteins can be successfully immobilized onto the film surface via covalent linkage.The efficiency of the covalent binding of the extractable protein to maleic anhydride-polyethylene film was estimated at 69.87 μtg/cm2,although the film had low anhydride content (3%) on the surface.

  3. Proscriptive Bayesian Programming and Maximum Entropy: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Carla Cavalcante

    2008-11-01

    Some problems found in robotics systems, as avoiding obstacles, can be better described using proscriptive commands, where only prohibited actions are indicated in contrast to prescriptive situations, which demands that a specific command be specified. An interesting question arises regarding the possibility to learn automatically if proscriptive commands are suitable and which parametric function could be better applied. Lately, a great variety of problems in robotics domain are object of researches using probabilistic methods, including the use of Maximum Entropy in automatic learning for robot control systems. This works presents a preliminary study on automatic learning of proscriptive robot control using maximum entropy and using Bayesian Programming. It is verified whether Maximum entropy and related methods can favour proscriptive commands in an obstacle avoidance task executed by a mobile robot.

  4. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  5. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  6. Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Oreja-Guevara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord syndromes, 5 brainstem symptoms and 5 with sensory and other syndromes were prospectively studied. The main outcome evaluated was RNFL thickness at CIS onset. Secondary objectives were to study the relationship between RNFL thickness and MRI criteria for disease dissemination in space (DIS as well as the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen patients had decreased RNFL thickness in at least one quadrant. Mean RNFL thickness was 101.67±10.72 µm in retrobulbar ON eyes and 96.93±10.54 in unaffected eyes. Three of the 6 patients with myelitis had at least one abnormal quadrant in one of the two eyes. Eight CIS patients fulfilled DIS MRI criteria. The presence of at least one quadrant of an optic nerve with a RNFL thickness at a P<5% cut-off value had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 56% for predicting DIS MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study show that axonal damage measured by OCT is present in any type of CIS; even in myelitis forms, not only in ON as seen up to now. OCT can detect axonal damage in very early stages of disease and seems to have high sensitivity and moderate specificity for predicting DIS MRI. Studies with prospective long-term follow-up would be needed to establish the prognostic value of baseline OCT findings.

  7. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  8. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  9. Field study suggests that sex determination in sea lamprey is directly influenced by larval growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in fishes lie along a genetic-environmental continuum and thereby offer opportunities to understand how physiology and environment interact to determine sex. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of sex determination in fishes are primarily garnered from teleosts, with little investigation into basal fishes. We tagged and released larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into unproductive lake and productive stream environments. Sex ratios produced from these environments were quantified by recapturing tagged individuals as adults. Sex ratios from unproductive and productive environments were initially similar. However, sex ratios soon diverged, with unproductive environments becoming increasingly male-skewed and productive environments becoming less male-skewed with time. We hypothesize that slower growth in unproductive environments contributed to the sex ratio differences by directly influencing sex determination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that growth rate in a fish species directly influences sex determination; other studies have suggested that the environmental variables to which sex determination is sensitive (e.g. density, temperature) act as cues for favourable or unfavourable growth conditions. Understanding mechanisms of sex determination in lampreys may provide unique insight into the underlying principles of sex determination in other vertebrates and provide innovative approaches for their management where valued and invasive.

  10. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  11. Caligula-Christ: Preliminary Study of a Parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene M. Birden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caligula, at the very beginning of the Albert Camus play, conceives a very ambitious project; to surpass the gods and take their place in his empire, in order to decree impossibility. Camus has, however, gone a step further in developing the god-image of his main character through the incorporation of much Christian imagery into the scenes. This aspect of the play seems not to have been noticed by Camus scholars; there is no in-depth study of the use of this imagery. However, Camus scholar Patricia Johnson and the members of the Société des études camusiennes have noted the usefulness of the analysis presented here and the absence of it in previous research. This study, designated as “preliminary,” attempts to prompt further analyses of the question and offers different approaches. It proceeds by intertextual study of Caligula and the gospels (here referred to in Revised Standard Version and brings out aspects of the emperor’s intentions that expose a combination of perversion and similarity in relation to deity. It briefly outlines the sources of this parallel and the reasons for creating it, then details the parallels that show first the reversal of the image of Jesus, then the striking consonance. It ends with interpretations of the parallels and concludes with commentaries on the use of irony to create them.

  12. A two-stage association study suggests BRAP as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Zhang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67. In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73. Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2 (P  =  0.0039 and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2 (P < 1.0E-4. Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness.

  13. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  14. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

  15. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  16. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  17. A Preliminary Study of Bryophytes in Enggano Island, Bengkulu, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainun Nadhifah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enggano Island is one of the outer islands  that belongs to the Province of Bengkulu. Furthermore, there is very limited information about the diversity of bryophyte from Sumatera, especially in lowland forest, Enggano Island. The aim of this research was to provide the initial information related to the diversity of bryophytes in Enggano. The research was conducted in six forests i.e. primary, secondary and degraded forests. The results showed that 32 number of collection from 14 families, 21 genera, and 32 species were identified. Leceuneaceae was common family for liverworts while the mosses family was dominated by Hypnaceae. None of the hornworts were found in this study. Some species identified (Taxyphyllum sp., Vesicularia sp., Riccardia sp., and Thuidium sp. have the potential benefit and biological activity. Two genera were new records to Sumatra, Gongylanthus, and Symphyogyna. Moreover, Gongylanthus sp. and Symphyogyna sp. have important records related to the habitat.How to CiteNadhifah, A., & Surya, M. I. (2016. A Preliminary Study of Bryophytes in Enggano Island, Bengkulu, Indonesia. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 201-205.

  18. Preliminary Study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of any Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for geodetic applications. Therefore, this work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan. The model is created using gravimetric data and the GravSoft program. The validation of this model is done by using GPS measurements and precise leveling at Amman area. However, a comparison between the Global Geopotential Models OSU91A and EGM96 showed great discrepancies through the presented results. Also, presenting the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. Nevertheless, the error margin; obtained in this initial study of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurement; is about (10cm, in tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40cm.

  19. Suggestions for Formulating Collaborative Remote Sensing Emergency Plan Based on Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Wang, F.; Zheng, X.; Qi, M.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of the Remote Sensing (RS) technology, Remote Sensing Services for Emergency Monitoring (RSSEM) are playing a more and more important role in the field of emergency management, where the collaborative RS approaches (including such as Space-Air-Ground platforms) can provide the decision-makers a quick access to the detailed, real-time information about the emergencies. However, there are still some problems in the current mechanism of RSSEM, for example, the inappropriate choices of the collaborative RS approaches, the miscellaneous procedures and so on. It is urgent to formulate a collaborative RS emergency plan for regulating the applications of the RS monitoring approaches in order to be well prepared for the emergency management. In our studies, creating a good collaborative RS emergency plan is the main research objective. This paper is divided into four parts. The Part Ⅰ gives a brief introduction about the research background. The Part Ⅱ investigates four case studies to analyze the applications of the RS technologies under the guidance of the available RS related emergency plans, and then points out the existing problems in the mechanism of the RSSEM. The Part Ⅲ proposes our suggestions for formulating the collaborative RS emergency plan to explore the countermeasures of the problems pointed out in the Part Ⅱ. The last part concludes this paper and discusses the future work of the collaborative RS emergency plan.

  20. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ropert-Coudert

    Full Text Available Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  1. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  2. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  3. Preliminary Study on Diverse Carbon Utilization by Transformant Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger have been widely recognized as producer of metabolites and reported as good expression hosts for homologous and heterologous proteins. For recombinant expression systems, nature of metabolite production would change when the expression host system is modified via plasmid development. In order to study the diversity of carbon utilization of transformant A.niger and their relation to specific carbon sources that could trigger mannanase production, a new screening system was introduced using Biolog technique to evaluate the growth of the transformant performed on 95 carbon sources. As a result, the transformed A.niger were found able to utilize dextrin and other 27 carbohydrates with majority preferred carbohydrates were identified as monosaccharide, oligosaccharides and some sugar alcohols as the best chosen carbon sources for growth. The relative simplicity and global carbon sources underlying in the biolog system for screening of carbon source make it as a useful tool for the preliminary screening and identification of carbon sources in order to select the best carbon source for medium development.

  4. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  5. A preliminary study looking at parental emotions following cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Flora; Graham, John; Crocker, Susan

    2007-06-01

    This preliminary research investigated the emotions of parents with cochlear implanted children. The object for the research was first to compare four emotions engendered in parents of deaf children before and after cochlear implantation. Second, to monitor changes in these emotions during a period of up to four years after implantation. Third, to see whether any of the emotions studied was significantly more prominent than the others, and fifth to identify any differences in emotions that were related to the gender of parents. A self-report questionnaire was given to 112 participants of whom 53 replied. There were equal groups of parents in two categories, those with children up to two years after implantation, and those two to four years after implantation. The responses were interpreted using parametric statistics. The results highlight that grief is the strongest emotional condition that parents experience before and up to two years after implantation, alongside family adjustments. Parents of the up to two years after implantation group generally have stronger feelings and are less satisfied than parents in the over two years implanted group. Finally, fathers use denial more than mothers. Considerations for future research and implications for paediatric cochlear implant teams will be discussed.

  6. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-10-12

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  7. VEGF Expression in Patellar Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027

  8. Platform for dynamic tests: preliminary studies, design and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Campuzano

    . The platform was built and has been done a preliminary experimental study to obtain the first natural frequencies.

  9. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  10. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  11. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA.

  12. A preliminary model to avoid the overestimation of sample size in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E; Abraira, V; Guerra, P; Borobia, A M; Duque, B; López, J L; Mosquera, B; Lubomirov, R; Carcas, A J; Frías, J

    2013-02-01

    Often the only available data in literature for sample size estimations in bioequivalence studies is intersubject variability, which tends to result in overestimation of sample size. In this paper, we proposed a preliminary model of intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for Cmax and AUC data from randomized, crossovers, bioequivalence (BE) studies. From 93 Cmax and 121 AUC data from test-reference comparisons that fulfilled BE criteria, we calculated intersubject variability for the reference formulation and intrasubject variability from ANOVA. Lineal and exponential models (y=a(1-e-bx)) were fitted weighted by the inverse of the variance, to predict the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability. To validate the model we calculated the coefficient of cross-validation of data from 30 new BE studies. The models fit very well (R2=0.997 and 0.990 for Cmax and AUC respectively) and the cross-validation correlation were 0.847 for Cmax and 0.572 for AUC. A preliminary model analyses allow us to estimate the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for sample size calculation purposes in BE studies. This approximation provides an opportunity for sample size reduction avoiding unnecessary exposure of healthy volunteers. Further modelling studies are desirable to confirm these results especially suggestions of the higher intersubject variability range.

  13. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  14. Preliminary Analysis of the Nonsynonymous Polymorphism rs17563 in BMP4 Gene in Brazilian Population Suggests Protection for Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Kawasaki Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without palate (CL±P is common congenital anomalies in humans. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (Bmp4 is involved in the etiology of CL±P in animal models. The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs17563 T>C (p.V152A in the BMP4 gene has been associated to the risk of nonsyndromic CL±P in Chinese population and microforms from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMP4 gene in CL±P in Brazilian sample using genetic association approach. Our sample was composed by 123 patients with nonsyndromic CL±P and 246 controls, in which absence of CL±P was confirmed in 3 generations. The rs17563 polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association. Our data showed statistical power to detect association (86.83% in this sample. Logistic regression results showed significant association between C allele and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.40, and 95% CI = 0.25–0.65, as well as CC genotype and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.35, and 95% CI = 0.19–0.66. So, there is a strong association between nonsyndromic CL±P and BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism in our sample and the C allele had a protective effect against the occurrence of nonsyndromic CL±P.

  15. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  16. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  17. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in reinfo

  18. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  19. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  20. Grasslands contaminant study selenium in algae and wintering and resident waterfowl and waterbirds : preliminary summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary summary of a study of contaminants in waterbirds and in the western grasslands of Merced County. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to...

  1. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  2. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-08-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube.

  4. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-02-15

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk.

  5. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERVICOVAGINAL PEROXIDASES AS INDICATORS FOR OVULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANGHong-Fa; HANZi-Yan; LIANGZang-Guang; XIESu-Xiang

    1989-01-01

    There were many studies using cervicovaginal peroxidases to predict ovulation. Some resuits suggested that cervieovaginal peroxidases are reliable indicators for ovulation; but others did not. The present study was designed to determine whether the change patterns of ccrvicovaginal guaiacul peroxidase activity in fertile period of Chinese women can also be served as a basis for development of a technique to predict ovulation time in natural family planning.

  7. A Study on the Standardization of Court Interpretation and Suggestions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2016-01-01

    In order to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of all parties, ensure the justice of legal proceedings and main-tain the Chinese judicial system's positive international image, high quality interpretation of legal proceedings is extremely im-portant. This paper will analyze the nature of court interpreting and draw lessons from successful foreign practices. Moreover, some thoughts and suggestions will be presented for the establishment of national court interpreting standards in China.

  8. Comparing to Prepare: Suggesting Ways to Study Social Media Today—and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Olof Larsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the two currently most popular social media services – Twitter and Facebook – are different in terms of technical and end-user details, this paper suggests that a series of similarities can also be found regarding different modes of communication offered by both services. These modes are labeled as Broadcasting, Redistributing, Interacting and Acknowledging. The argument is put forward that such synthesis of communication modes across platform could prove useful for longitudinal and comparative research efforts.

  9. Using hypnotic suggestion to model loss of control and awareness of movements: an exploratory FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinton Deeley

    Full Text Available The feeling of voluntary control and awareness of movement is fundamental to our notions of selfhood and responsibility for actions, yet can be lost in neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. delusions of control, non-epileptic seizures and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g. attributions of spirit possession. The brain processes involved remain poorly understood. We used suggestion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate loss of control and awareness of right hand movements in 15 highly hypnotically suggestible subjects. Loss of perceived control of movements was associated with reduced connectivity between supplementary motor area (SMA and motor regions. Reduced awareness of involuntary movements was associated with less activation in parietal cortices (BA 7, BA 40 and insula. Collectively these results suggest that the sense of voluntary control of movement may critically depend on the functional coupling of SMA with motor systems, and provide a potential neural basis for the narrowing of awareness reported in pathological and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena.

  10. A preliminary study for spatial representiveness of flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The results of eddy covariance observation system could represent the physical process at certain area of the surface. Thus point-to-area representativeness was of primary interest in flux observation. This research presents a preliminary study for flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites by the use of observation data and Flux Source Area Model (FSAM). Results show that the footprint expands and is further away from flux tower when atmosphere becomes more stable, the observation height increases, or the surfaces become smoother. This suggests that the area represented by the flux observation becomes larger. The distances from the reference point to the maximum point Smax and the minimum point x1 of source weight function (Dmax and Dmin, respectively) can be influenced by atmosphere stability which becomes longer when atmosphere is more stable. For more rough surfaces and lower observation point Dmax and Dmin become shorter. This research gives the footprint at level P=90% at ChinaFLUX sites at different atmosphere stability. The preliminary results of spatial representiveness at ChinaFLUX sites were given based on the dominant wind direction and footprint response to various factors. The study also provides some theoretical basis for data quality control and evaluating data uncertainty.

  11. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  12. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    1/2 OS CO ton NO. S3L TECHNICAL REPORT 4991 PRELIMINARY SUJDfES ON PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD BREAKDOWN OF LEAD AZIDE L AVRAMI M. BUMS D. DOWNS...Introduction Background A. Contact Effects B. Pulsed Electric Field Measurements Experimental A. Contact Effects B. Pulsed Electric Fields Discussion...B. Pulsed Electric Field Measurements The application of pulsed electric fields to lead azide does not exactly simulate the conditions experienced

  13. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  14. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  15. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  16. Physiological and Behavioural Responses in Piglets Submitted to Castration: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lonardi

    2011-12-01

    Movement latency was measured for all treatments. Rectal temperature was measured before treatments H and CTD, and 1, 3, 5, 24 hours later. Blood samples for cortisol and lactate determination were collected 1 hour before treatments H and CTD, right after and 3, 5, 24 hours later. The significant increase of movement latency for CTD compared to H showed that pain can be assessed by this type of measure. Rectal temperature was significantly affected by time (P < 0.01 but not by treatment likely due to several factors that might have confounded the studied effect. Cortisol was significantly affected by interaction time*treatment (P < 0.01 particularly due to the high peak for CTD right after the surgical procedure. Lactate was modified only by time (P < 0.01. This preliminary study suggests that a non invasive and easy measure such as movement latency is a promising method to assess pain in piglets after surgical castration and tail docking.

  17. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  18. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  19. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI. We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients.

  20. E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163433.html E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study ... 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers who switch to e-cigarettes can substantially reduce their intake of toxic ...

  1. Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn D

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed.

  2. Confirmation Bias and the Open Access Advantage: Some Methodological Suggestions for the Davis Citation Study

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, Stevan

    2008-01-01

    Davis (2008) analyzes citations from 2004-2007 in 11 biomedical journals. 15% of authors paid to make them Open Access (OA). The outcome is a significant OA citation Advantage, but a small one (21%). The author infers that the OA advantage has been shrinking yearly, but the data suggest the opposite. Further analyses are necessary: (1) Not just author-choice (paid) OA but Free OA self-archiving needs to be taken into account rather than being counted as non-OA. (2) proportion of OA articles per journal per year needs to be reported and taken into account. (3) The Journal Impact Factor and the relation between the size of the OA Advantage article 'citation-bracket' need to be taken into account. (4) The sample-size for the highest-impact, largest-sample journal analyzed, PNAS, is restricted and excluded from some of the analyses. The full PNAS dataset is needed. (5) The interaction between OA and time, 2004-2007, is based on retrospective data from a June 2008 total cumulative citation count. The dates of both...

  3. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph (Giuseppe) Zaccai

    2008-10-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37°C) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4°C, 37°C, 75°C and 85°C. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells.

  4. Software Architecture and Framework for Programmable Logic Controllers: A Case Study and Suggestions for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. George Walters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs are widely used for control and automation of machines and processes, so the quality of PLC software has a direct impact on production efficiency. This paper describes a PLC program for a food production line that was completely rewritten using a different software architecture and framework. The PLC hardware and the production line equipment were not changed, so this project provides an opportunity to quantify the impact of different PLC software architecture on production efficiency. The average number of cases of products produced per production hour during the first ten months with the new program was 6.1% higher than the average during the previous ten months with the old program. PLC software, unlike most other software, is often used by the end-user for troubleshooting. In this case, a relatively simple architecture and framework that favors the end-user significantly improved production efficiency over a more sophisticated architecture and framework that favors the software developer. Suggestions for further research on software architecture and framework are given.

  5. Studies suggest an association between maternal periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    In this systematic review, several types of infections are identified and investigated: urinary tract infection, periodontal disease, Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, HIV infection, malaria and other persistent bacterial and viral infections. Separate analyses were conducted for each of them. This summary review will only focus on the link between pre-eclampsia and periodontitis, which was just a part of the original systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, LILACS (all from inception to June 30, 2007), proceedings of international meetings on pre-eclampsia, bibliography of the retrieved articles, reviews, chapters in standard textbooks on hypertension in pregnancy, and contact with investigators involved in the field were used to identify relevant studies. No language restrictions were imposed. Cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies with original data that evaluated the association between maternal periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia were included. Cases were defined as women suffering from hypertension plus proteinuria, after 20 weeks' gestation. Data were extracted from each study according to design, geographic location, sample size, gestational age when periodontal disease was diagnosed, definition and severity of pre-eclampsia, confounding factors controlled for, temporality of the association, and report of dose-response gradient. Studies included in the systematic review were also included in the meta-analysis if they reported Odds Ratio (OR) or Relative Risk (RR) estimates with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs), or provided the information necessary to calculate them. Results from different reports were combined to produce a pooled OR according to the Mantel-Haenszel method, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified with I(2) statistics. Studies were also quality assessed. Seven case-control studies and 2 cohort studies evaluated the association between periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia. Six

  6. Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8. The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

  7. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J;

    2014-01-01

    in ARNTL (P=3.78 × 10(-6)) and rs8057927 in CDH13 (P=1.39 × 10(-5)). Both genes have previously been linked to schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The strongest associated SNP in the combined analysis, including Danish and German-Dutch samples, was rs12922317 in RUNDC2A (P=9.04 × 10...... was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies.......Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals...

  8. SUMMARY OF THE EAU CLAIRE COUNTY YOUTH STUDY AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THURSTON, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES A RESEARCH STUDY IN WHICH THE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR OF EQUAL NUMBERS OF TEACHER-APPROVED AND TEACHER-DISAPPROVED YOUNGSTERS WAS ANALYZED IN RELATION TO FAMILY BACKGROUNDS. THE STUDENTS WERE FURTHER DIVIDED EVENLY INTO RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS AND END OF YEAR THIRD-, SIXTH-, AND NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. A SECOND LIST WAS GENERATED 2…

  9. Preliminary study of superconducting bulk magnets for Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    Recent development shows that melt-processed YBaCuO (Y123) or Rare Earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field, leading to high field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train. We discuss a superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train in the aspect of a preliminary design of the bulk magnet and also processing for (L)REBaCuO bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties.

  10. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  11. Structural study and preliminary biological evaluation on the collagen hydrogel crosslinked by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Xin; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    Under γ-irradiation, concentrated collagen solutions yielded collagen hydrogels and liquid products. The molecular structure of collagen hydrogels and the source of the liquid products were studied. Furthermore, preliminary biological properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that crosslinking occurred to form collagen hydrogel and the crosslinking density increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose, and the collagen hydrogels showed enhanced mechanical properties. Meanwhile, collagen underwent radiation degradation and water was squeezed out from hydrogel by contraction of hydrogel, yielding liquid products. Collagen hydrogels induced by γ-irradiation maintained the backbone structure of collagen, and tyrosine partially involved in crosslinking. The irradiated collagen hydrogels have higher denatured temperature, can promote fibroblasts proliferation, and their degradation rate in vivo depended on the absorbed dose. The comprehensive results suggested that the collagen hydrogels prepared by radiation crosslinking preserved the triple helical conformation, possessed improved thermal stability and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, which is expected to favor its application as biomaterials.

  12. Mobile biofeedback of heart rate variability in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschky, Katrin; Druschky, Achim

    2015-09-01

    Biofeedback of heart rate variability (HRV) was applied to patients with diabetic polyneuropathy using a new mobile device allowing regularly scheduled self-measurements without the need of visits to a special autonomic laboratory. Prolonged generation of data over an eight-week period facilitated more precise investigation of cardiac autonomic function and assessment of positive and negative trends of HRV parameters over time. Statistical regression analyses revealed significant trends in 11 of 17 patients, while no significant differences were observed when comparing autonomic screening by short-term HRV and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline and after the 8 weeks training period. Four patients showed positive trends of HRV parameters despite the expected progression of cardiac autonomic dysfunction over time. Patient compliance was above 50% in all but two patients. The results of this preliminary study indicate a good practicality of the handheld device and suggest a potential positive effect on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  14. Study of the integration of public and school libraries: a methodological strategy as a suggestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Marisol Rodríguez González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a theoretical foundation from the philosophical, social and pedagogic perspectives it is offered the theoretical budgets that sustain the integration between the Systems of Public Libraries and School Libraries. The recognition of inadequacies -by means of a previous diagnosis - in the relationships of these two systems it directed the study of this problem and it took to the proposal of a methodological strategy that facilitates the integration among the Systems of Public and School Libraries. Their application demonstrated to be effective and pertinent starting from the transformations that were achieved in those subjects of experimentation.

  15. Motor Empathy in Individuals With Psychopathic Traits: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvatskaya, Yelena; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2016-10-01

    The present laboratory study examined motor empathy in male and female individuals, who were either high or low on psychopathic traits, drawn from a nonclinical university population. Past findings suggest that psychopathic individuals are impaired in affective empathy, but findings on impairments in cognitive empathy are mixed. Research on motor empathy in psychopathy is scarce. The authors hypothesized that individuals high on psychopathic traits would have deficient motor empathy (similar to affective empathy) related to valenced emotion stimuli because of the automatic nature of motor empathy. Potential participants completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). Participants were chosen for the study on the basis of their PPI-R scores. All participants viewed photographic images drawn from a well-established set of stimuli (the International Affective Picture System) and were video recorded while doing so. Intensity for eight emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sad, joy, surprise, and neutral) in participants' facial expressions was measured objectively using an automated program, the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox. Individuals high on psychopathic traits as compared with low PPI-R scorers displayed significantly less emotional congruence when viewing negative images. The study results suggest that deficits in motor empathy related to psychopathic trait levels are relatively restricted to negative emotions.

  16. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0, followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00. Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree–Fock–based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds.

  17. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  18. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  19. Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids causing Cushing Syndrome: Results from a Multicentric Study Suggesting a More Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Margaritora, Stefano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Filosso, Perluigi; Novellis, Pierluigi; Rapicetta, Cristian; Carleo, Francesco; Bora, Giulia; Cesario, Alfredo; Stefani, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio; Paci, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BCs) is a very rare entity. The aim of this study was to revisit the features of a multicenter clinical series to identify significant prognostic factors. From January 2002 to December 2013, the clinical and pathological data of 23 patients (treated in five different institutions) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed to explore the relative weight of potential prognostic factors. Median age and male/female ratio were 48 years and 14/9, respectively. Most (> 80%) of the patients presented with CS-related symptoms at diagnosis. Tumor location was peripheral in 13 patients (57%) and central in 10 (43%). All patients but two (treated with chemotherapy) underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Definitive cyto/histology was indicative of typical carcinoid (TC) in 16 cases (70%) and atypical carcinoid (AC) in 7 cases (30%). A complete remission of CS was obtained in 16 cases (70%). Lymph nodal involvement was detected in 11 cases (48%), with N2 disease occurring in 7 (∼ 30% of all cases). Four patients (22%) experienced a relapse of the disease after radical surgery. Overall 5-year survival (long-term survival, LTS) was 60%, better in TCs when compared with AC (LTS: 66 v s. 48%, p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis identified ECOG performance status, cTNM and cN staging, pTNM and pN staging, persistence of CS and relapses (local p = 0.006; distant p = 0.001) as significant prognostic factors in this cohort of patients. BCs causing CS are characterized by a high rate of lymph-nodal involvement, a suboptimal prognosis (5-year survival = 60%, 66% in TCs) and a remarkable risk of relapse even after radical resection. Advanced stage, lymph-nodal involvement and the persisting of the CS after treatment correlate with a poor prognosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  1. Preliminary study on the RF tuning of CSNS DTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Li, A.-Hong; Xiao, Yong-Chuang; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Hua-Chang; Gong, Ke-Yun; Fu, Shi-Nian

    2014-02-01

    In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2 MV/m to 3.1 MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than ±2% with the standard deviation of 1% for the beam dynamics; the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After successful alignment, RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and eleven post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped field and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.

  2. Preliminary Study on the RF tuning of CSNS DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xuejun; Xiao, Yongchuang; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Huachang; Gong, Keyun; Fu, Shinan

    2013-01-01

    In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2MV/m to 3.1MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than 2 % with the standard deviation of 1 % for the beam dynamics. And the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After the successful alignment, the RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and 11 post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped filed and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.

  3. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  4. A Preliminary Study of Active Region Canopies With AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Scott; Saar, S.; Muglach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Active region canopies are areas frequently accompanying active regions which have extensive horizontal magnetic fields. The large-scale canopy fields have a significant effect on the kinds of structures which can exist beneath them, and how they evolve. Using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), we developed methods to automatically identify these regions. A Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis is consistent with the idea that the long, hotter active region loops overlie quite cool, small-scale features ("fibrils"). We suggest that the overlying loops restrict the growth of underlying structures to mostly very short, cool features. We also studied evolution of canopy regions over time. In several cases, a large quiescent filament formed out of the former canopy region over the course of a few solar rotations, confirming previous suggestions. The canopy remains visible for several rotations after its active regions have begun to decay; in this time, the fibril magnetic fields gradually align in such a way as to form a filament channel. Further analysis of our large canopy database should uncover more information on the frequency and characteristics of these canopy-to-filament evolutions, as well as other canopy properties. This work is supported by the NSF REU program at SAO (grant ATM-0851866) and contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed Martin to SAO for SDO research.

  5. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  6. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  7. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Eduardo G. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnolgia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: egneves@usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: poliver@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  8. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  9. Preliminary Study of Mental Retardation in Rovira (Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Celis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available limitationsin performance, significant deficiencyin intelligence and adaptative behavior, causingclinical and social disability. Most patients withmental retardation in Colombia do not receiveclinical genetics evaluation. The aims of thepresent study are to evaluate and characterizea group of patients with mental retardationfrom the population of Rovira. The presentstudy included twenty five patients with mentalretardation from Rovira (Tolima whichwere studied by clinical examination, metabolicscreening (ferric chloride, nitrosonaphtol,silver nitroprusiate, dinitrophenylhydrazineand benedict and cytogenetics (G-Bandingkariotype. Pesticide detection was perfomedby random sampling of water and tomatoes intwenty different places of water distribution,the center of the town and crop fields. A familywith three affected sibs (two females, onemale with mental retardation was identified,suggesting a genetic component. Metabolicscreening was negative and karyotypes werenormal. The analyses performed for organophosphateswere positive in 100% of the samples.Carbamates were positive in 60% of thewater source and 100% of tomato samples. Allthe samples tested were negative for organochlorides.Further studies as molecular fragile-X test, will be performed.

  10. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  11. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  12. Improving decision making for massive transfusions in a resource poor setting: a preliminary study in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth D Riviello

    Full Text Available The reality of finite resources has a real-world impact on a patient's ability to receive life-saving care in resource-poor settings. Blood for transfusion is an example of a scarce resource. Very few studies have looked at predictors of survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. We used data from a rural hospital in Kenya to develop a prediction model of survival among patients receiving massive transfusion.Patients who received five or more units of whole blood within 48 hours between 2004 and 2010 were identified from a blood registry in a rural hospital in Kenya. Presenting characteristics and in-hospital survival were collected from charts. Using stepwise selection, a logistic model was developed to predict who would survive with massive transfusion versus those who would die despite transfusion. An ROC curve was created from this model to quantify its predictive power.Ninety-five patients with data available met inclusion criteria, and 74% survived to discharge. The number of units transfused was not a predictor of mortality, and no threshold for futility could be identified. Preliminary results suggest that initial blood pressure, lack of comorbidities, and indication for transfusion are the most important predictors of survival. The ROC curve derived from our model demonstrates an area under the curve (AUC equal to 0.757, with optimism of 0.023 based on a bootstrap validation.This study provides a framework for making prioritization decisions for the use of whole blood in the setting of massive bleeding. Our analysis demonstrated an overall survival rate for patients receiving massive transfusion that was higher than clinical perception. Our analysis also produced a preliminary model to predict survival in patients with massive bleeding. Prediction analyses can contribute to more efficient prioritization decisions; these decisions must also include other considerations such as equity, acceptability, affordability and

  13. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MINING UNDER STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴侃; 何国清; 曹立明

    1991-01-01

    The expert system MUST (Mining Under Structures) shown in this paper and established by the authors is a preliminary expert system to solve the policy-making problems formining under structures by means of computers instead of humanbeing. Based on the experience of relative experts,the authors established a knowledge base about the minings under structures ,researched into reasonable method to simulate thinking processes of human experts when they are solvin8 the problems, established the network of an expert system and named it'MUST system'MUST system uses the method of the structural system analysis approach. A kind of methods of Turbo Prolog and Fortran 77 language alternations is designed to meet the needs of exchange information within the MUST system. Based on this kind of methods MUST system has been constructed and realised on IBM-PC computer. For verifying the correctness. suitability and reliablity of MUST system,some practical examples of minings under structures were tentatively solved using MUST system ,whose results are satisfactory.

  14. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  15. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhang; Gen-Rong Liu; Yue-Fei Wang; Ye-Ping Li; Ya-Jun Zhang; Liang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the seg-ments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for cali-bration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophas-ing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  16. Preliminary study on mechanics-based rainfall kinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiuqin Ms.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A raindrop impact power observation system was employed to observe the real-time raindrop impact power during a rainfall event and to analyze the corresponding rainfall characteristics. The experiments were conducted at different simulated rainfall intensities. As rainfall intensity increased, the observed impact power increased linearly indicating the power observation system would be satisfactory for characterizing rainfall erosivity. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity (Momentum=MV, which is related to the observed impact power value. Since there is no significant difference between momentum and impact power, observed impact power can represent momentum for different rainfall intensities. The relationship between momentum and the observed impact power provides a convenient way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy. The value of rainfall kinetic energy based on the observed impact power was higher than the classic rainfall kinetic energy. The rainfall impact power based kinetic energy and the classic rainfall kinetic energy showed linear correlation, which indicates that the raindrop impact power observation system can characterize rainfall kinetic energy. The article establishes a preliminary way to calculate rainfall kinetic energy by using the real-time observed momentum, providing a foundation for replacing the traditional methods for estimating kinetic energy of rainstorms.

  17. Utilization of Optimal Study Design for Maternal and Fetal Sheep Propofol Pharmacokinetics Study: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004

  18. Preliminary isotopic studies of fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Rye, R.O.; Pearson, F.J.; Olson, E.R.; Nehring, N.L.; Whelan, J.F.; Huebner, M.A.; Coplen, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary isotopic studies of Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids and earlier studies of Mexicali Valley ground waters suggest local recharge of the geothermal system from the area immediately to the west. Oxygen isotope exchange of water with reservoir rock minerals at temperatures increasing with depth has produced fluids with oxygen-18 contents increasing with depth, and pressure drawdown in the southeastern part of the field has allowed lower oxygen-18 fluids to invade the production aquifer from above. The contents of tritium and carbon-14 in the fluid suggest only that the age of the fluid is between 50 and 10,000 years. The isotopic compositions of carbon and sulfur are consistent with a magmatic origin of these elements but a mixed sedimentary-organic origin appears more likely for carbon and is also possible for sulfur. Investigations of the isotopic compositions of geothermal and cold ground waters continue and are being expanded as fluids become available and as separation and analysis methods are improved. ?? 1979.

  19. The meanings of delusions in dementia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Ben-Israel, Joshua; Garfinkel, Doron

    2011-08-30

    One of the common symptoms of dementia is delusions. Due to a biological conceptualization of the behaviors represented as delusions, these are classified as psychotic symptoms. This is a qualitative and quantitative study aiming to describe the delusions experienced by older persons with dementia and the context of occurrence, and to elucidate their etiology. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged 65 and over, diagnosed with dementia, from nine nursing homes in Israel. Participants with delusions were found to have significantly more difficulties in performing ADLs, and poorer vision and hearing. Based on assessment using the BEHAVE-AD, six categories of delusions were examined: 1. One's house is not one's home, 2. Theft, 3. Danger, 4. Abandonment, 5. Misidentification, and 6. Other non-paranoid. Common themes appeared across delusions including reality, disorientation, re-experience of past events, loneliness and insecurity, boredom, and trigger. Current results suggest that delusions may not represent psychotic symptoms for most participants, because they sometimes represented reality, or were neither firm nor incontrovertible. Thus, utilizing the term delusion relegates the person's behavior to the domain of severe psychiatric phenomena and precludes understanding its true meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. NEOWISE Studies of Asteroids with Sloan Photometry: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Bauer, J; Tholen, D J; McMillan, R S; Wright, E; Spahr, T; Cutri, R M; Walker, R; Mo, W; Watkins, J; Hand, E; Maleszewski, C

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S-complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically-based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 $\\mu$m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxon...

  1. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  2. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1978-07-15

    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given.

  3. Effectiveness of Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan: preliminary report of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Keiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Togari, Taisuke; Abbott, Fusae K; Homma, Mieko; Park, Minjeong; Kagawa, Yumi

    2010-12-01

    This is the preliminary report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan by comparing changes in health outcomes at the baseline and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The program is a patient-centered educational program for the self-management of chronic conditions. The study's participants were recruited from among the attendees of the program workshops. During the study period (August 2006 to May 2007), 18 workshops were held and 128 attendees agreed to participate in the study. The health outcomes that were measured included health status, self-management behaviors, utilization of health services, self-efficacy, satisfaction with daily living, and clinical indicators. These indicators were further analyzed by disease type: diabetes, rheumatic disease, and cardiovascular disease/dyslipidemia. The findings indicated statistically significant positive changes in health distress, coping with symptoms, stretching exercises, communication with the physician, and satisfaction with daily living. The positive changes were especially remarkable among the groups with diabetes and rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that the Chronic Disease Self-management Program can be effective for Japanese people with chronic conditions.

  4. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  5. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  6. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Abdallahi, Mohamed Ould; Ba, Hâmpaté; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Trape, Jean-François; Salem, Ali Ould Mohamed

    2009-05-05

    Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237), the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61) and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61). Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%). Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5%) were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231) of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale) are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value. The

  7. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trape Jean-François

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Methods Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Results Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237, the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61 and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61. Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%. Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5% were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231 of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis

  8. Clinoptilolite for Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Preliminary Efficacy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutovic, Milisav; Lazovic, Milica; Vukovic-Dejanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic-Markovic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana

    2017-09-01

    A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite (natural aluminosilicate mineral) has been used to increase growth in meat-producing animals, as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, and a heavy metal remover in humans. Because of its unique cation exchanging and chelating properties, we hypothesized that clinoptilolite may be beneficial for the treatment of dyslipidemia in the manner similar to bile acid sequestrants. Thus, specific aims of this pilot study were to orally administer clinoptilolite in different doses and granule size combinations to determine magnitude and time profile of changes in blood lipids. A phase I/IIa prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, dose/granule size-ranging study (treatment phase 8 weeks, follow-up 6 weeks). Blood lipids were examined every 2 weeks. Outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Forty-one subjects (all white, mean age 57.6 ± 6.8 years, 17 women) with blood lipids above the normative limits divided into three groups. A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite was administered in three dose/grind combinations: 6 g/day of fine grind (6gF), 6 g/day of coarse grind (6gC), and 9 g/day of coarse grind (9gC). Blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and triglycerides (TG). For the 3 groups combined, all lipid fractions significantly improved after 8 weeks of treatment (20-25%, p < 0.001), which reversed to baseline after 6 weeks of clinoptilolite withdrawal. Early (week 2) and the most pronounced decrease in TC and LDLc was observed in the 6gF group (19% and 23% in week 8, respectively), with no difference in HDLc and TG between the three dose/grind groups. No side effects were reported. These pilot results suggest that oral administration of clinoptilolite may improve lipid profile in individuals with dyslipidemia, which warrants further investigations.

  9. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm(3), respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm(3), respectively (pmethodology is novel, objective and safe, helping on follow-up of pectus excavatum patients. Moreover, the preliminary study suggests that the time the bar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.......Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  11. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  12. Occlusal traits in developmental dyslexia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perillo L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Letizia Perillo,1 Maria Esposito,2 Mariarosaria Contiello,1 Alessandra Lucchese,3 Annamaria Chiara Santini,2 Marco Carotenuto2 1Department of Orthodontics, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to assess the orthodontic features in children affected by developmental dyslexia (DD. Patients and methods: A total of 28 children affected by DD (22 boys, six girls; mean age: 9.78 ± 1.69 years were compared with 51 healthy children (38 boys, 13 girls; mean age 9.41 ± 1.48; range 7–10 years. Reading and writing skills were evaluated along with orthodontic features. Results: The DD and control groups were not significantly different in terms of total intelligence quotient (P = 0.441 and writing skills (P = 0.805 and P = 0.240, respectively, whereas significant differences were observed between the DD group and control group in both word reading (2.018 ± 1.714 vs 0.917 ± 0.563; P = 0.000 and non-word reading (2.537 ± 1.543 vs 0.862 ± 0.244; P = 0.000. Moreover, for many orthodontic features, there was no significant difference between the two groups; only in prevalence of diastemas (57.14%, P = 0.006, midline diastemas (46.42%, P = 0.007, overbite >4 mm (71.42%, P = 0.006 and overjet >4 mm (53.57%, P = 0.001, was there a statistically significant difference. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of diastemas (odds ratio [OR] 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–11.65, midline diastemas (OR 4.68; 95% CI 1.61–13.43, an overbite >4 mm (OR 1.75; 95% CI 0.64–4.71, or an overjet >4 mm (OR 2.76; 95% CI 1.06–7.20 seems to play a role in the relationship between occlusal abnormalities and DD in children. Conclusion: Children with DD tend to present with

  13. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    region and suggesting a more globally distribution of this genus than previously supposed (unplublished results. In this study further 82 strains from Madeira Archipelago (out of 421 were selected for taxonomic identification, taking into account small groups of strains (1-4 evidencing very diverse morphological appearances, as exemplified in Figure 2. Using the same experimental microbiology identification tools, 8 genera were identified. However it was perceived that, the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis and Actinomycetospora were predominant (93%, Figure 3. The phylogenetic trees built for the 82 taxonomically identified strains performed in this study are presented in Figures 4, 5 and 6. To date, having into account the present work and previous studies, our research group have identified from the actinomycetes isolated from Madeira´s ocean sediments, genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Salinispora, Nocardiopsis, Verrucosispora, Kocuria, Nonomuraea, Nocardia, Brevibacterium, Mycobacterium, Marinobacter, Actinomadura, Micrococcus, Actinomycetospora, Pseudonocardia, Gordonia and Millisia. From which genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Salinispora evidence a major representation. Crude extracts were obtained from all 421 strains and tested for their ability to produce natural products with bioactive properties: (i antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE and Candida albicans strains; and (ii cytotoxic activity against the HCT-116 cell line. A screening positive rate of 2.4% for antimicrobial MRSA and VRE assays and 3.2% for cytotoxic HCT-116 assay was obtained (submitted manuscripts. These studies demonstrate that the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean region is a rich source of marine actinomycete biodiversity with potential industrial applications. Figure 1. Marine actinomycetes sediment sampling locations at Madeira Archipelago. Figure 2. Morphological diversity characteristics of

  14. Preliminary results of geologic and remote sensing studies of Rima Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, C. R.; Hawke, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    In order to better understand the processes responsible for the formation of lunar sinuous rilles, a study of Rima Mozart was conducted using a variety of geologic, photographic, and remote sensing data. The apparent source of this rille is located in a highlands unit of known composition and it is hypothesized that thermal and mechanical erosion played an important role in the formation of Rima Mozart. Excellent photographic, topographic, multispectral, and radar data exist for this rille. The preliminary results of an analysis of this data are presented. Photographic data indicates the presence of two volcanic source vents for Rima Mozart: Kathleen and Ann. It is suggested that Rima Mozart, like many other lunar sinuous rilles, was most likely formed by a combination of events. Rima Mozart does follow a pre-existing, dominant NW/SE structural trend suggesting the influence of structural features on the rille, however, the tectonic influence is not the sole source for the formation of the rille, as suggested by the presence of the two source vents and the spatter around Ann. It is suggested that the rille formation began with an explosive eruption at Kathleen which later calmed down to a pulsating, high volume, low-viscosity lava flow. The rapid effusion rate of the magma as well as its high temperature and turbid nature helped carve the sinuous rille into the fractured and structurally weak Apennine Bench Formation underneath. Similar eruptions and subsequent flows were also created at Ann and joined to the main channel by a NE-trending secondary rille.

  15. Associations between the antioxidant network and emotional intelligence: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pesce

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI can be broadly defined as the ability to cope with environmental demands. In the scientific research, however, there is not a univocal precise definition of EI and recent articles have underlined the necessity to explore its biological basis to advance understanding of the construct. The aim of study was to investigate if the antioxidant network may be associated with typical-performance or trait EI.The study group consisted of 50 women (age, M = 25.10, SD = 3.87. Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Reductase (GR, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activities were evaluated on proteins extracted from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Participants completed the Italian version of the EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997 as a measure of trait EI.We observed positive and significant correlations between some biological variables and EQ-i scores, and a significant predictive effect of CAT activity when controlling for related biological variables, age, and smoking.Our preliminary study suggests that the antioxidant network may constitute some of trait EI's biological basis. In particular, CAT and the SOD/CAT ratio could be two biological variables involved in some specific components of EI.

  16. Influence of force feedback on grasp force modulation in prosthetic applications: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sasha B; Bianchi, Matteo; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In typical movement, humans use a combination of feed-forward and feedback motor control strategies to interact with the world around them. However, when sensory input is impaired or absent, as in the case of various neuropathies or amputation, the ability to perform everyday tasks, like modulating grip force to object weight, can be affected. In this study, we show the results of a preliminary study using a pressure cuff-like force feedback device (CUFF) with the SoftHand Pro (SHP) prosthetic hand. Subjects lifted an object of various weights using their own hand, with the SHP without feedback, and the SHP with force feedback. As expected, significant differences were found between the two SHP conditions and the native hand, but surprisingly not between the SHP conditions. A closer look at the data suggests the feedback may help diminish the overall grip force used during grasping even if it does not alter the grip force modulation to object weight. The lack of significance may be due in part to high intra- and inter-subject variability. Additional training with the CUFF and/or customization of the feedback may enhance the effects and warrants further study.

  17. Associations between the antioxidant network and emotional intelligence: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Mirko; Sergi, Maria R; Rizzuto, Alessia; Tatangelo, Raffaella; Tommasi, Marco; Picconi, Laura; Balsamo, Michela; Gatta, Valentina; Stuppia, Liborio; Siegling, Alexander B; Gökçen, Elif; Grilli, Alfredo; Saggino, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) can be broadly defined as the ability to cope with environmental demands. In the scientific research, however, there is not a univocal precise definition of EI and recent articles have underlined the necessity to explore its biological basis to advance understanding of the construct. The aim of study was to investigate if the antioxidant network may be associated with typical-performance or trait EI. The study group consisted of 50 women (age, M = 25.10, SD = 3.87). Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activities were evaluated on proteins extracted from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Participants completed the Italian version of the EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997) as a measure of trait EI. We observed positive and significant correlations between some biological variables and EQ-i scores, and a significant predictive effect of CAT activity when controlling for related biological variables, age, and smoking. Our preliminary study suggests that the antioxidant network may constitute some of trait EI's biological basis. In particular, CAT and the SOD/CAT ratio could be two biological variables involved in some specific components of EI.

  18. FLT3 Gene Mutation in Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefarina Zulkafli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. FLT3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. There are two types of common FLT3 gene mutation, internal tandem duplication and the D835 mutation, which are known to be associated with a poor clinical outcome in acute leukemia patients. Methods. This study evaluates the incidence of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD in 38 pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. DNA extraction was done from archive bone marrow samples to determine FLT3-ITD mutations using polymerase chain reaction. Results. In this pediatric series, the age ranges were 2–14 years. However, no FLT3-ITD mutations were detected in any of the samples. Conclusion. This preliminary study suggested that the incidence of FLT3 gene mutation most probably was very low in pediatrics patients diagnosed with acute leukemia. A further study with larger number of patient samples is necessary to confirm the findings and to further appreciate the prognostic value of FLT3-ITD mutation among pediatrics patients.

  19. What is cholera? A preliminary study on caretakers' knowledge in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamason, Charlotte C; Tulsiani, Suhella M; Siddique, A K; Hoque, Bilqis A; Mackie Jensen, Peter K

    2016-02-09

    Cholera has afflicted the Indian sub-continent for centuries, predominantly in West Bengal and modern-day Bangladesh. This preliminary study aims to understand the current level of knowledge of cholera in female Bangladeshi caretakers, which is important in the outcome of the disease and its spread. A pilot study was conducted among 85 women in Bangladesh using qualitative questionnaires to explore the ability of female caretakers in identifying cholera and its transmission. The survey revealed that though all the female caretakers were aware of the term "cholera," nearly a third of the respondents did not associate diarrhea with cholera or mentioned symptoms that could not be caused by cholera (29 %). Approximately half of the respondents associated water with the cause of cholera (56 %) and only 8 % associated cholera with sanitation or hygiene. Shame and stigma (54 %) were more commonly described than death (47 %) as negative effects of cholera. The results from this study are suggestive of a need for reformulation of cholera and diarrhea communication. Messaging should be based on signs of dehydration, foregoing the use of medical terminology.

  20. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  1. Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

  2. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Potential to Kinetic Energy Conversion Process in the Stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robert M.; Nolan, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to kinetic energy conversion process in the lower stratosphere associated with the vertical exchange of warm and cold air is evaluated using adiabatically derived vertical velocities for the North American region for a five-day period. Preliminary results suggest the possibility that on the average the kinetic energy of stratospheric motions may not result from a conversion of potential energy within the stratosphere by this process. The further implication is that stratospheric...

  4. Psychoeducation training on stress management strategies as an addition to the therapy of temporomandibular joint dysfunction – preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marta Biegańska

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary results suggest that the developed psychoeducation programme improves emotional status of patients receiving prosthetic treatment for temporomandibular disorders. Development of an algorithm for these patients needs further research and testing.

  5. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    and it is arguing that there is a lack of in-depth understanding of such collaborative radical innovation processes. The paper then suggests an abductive research design for an explorative in-depth case study of collaborative radical innovation involving a university and an established Danish manufacturing firm....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  6. Co-opting Science: A preliminary study of how students invoke science in value-laden discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    '. As a preliminary step, this study investigated how Danish upper secondary biology students actually interwove science facts and values in socio-scientific discussions. In particular, the focus was the argumentative effects of different ways of blurring the fact-value distinction. The data consisted...... that the students regularly co-opted science to make it appear that their evaluative claims were more solidly supported than those of their opponents. Further, the students tended to co-opt science content so as to redefine what the issue or object of contention should be. The findings suggest that assessment...

  7. Preliminary studies on occurrence of monensin antibiotic in Bosque River Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan; Sicking, Victoria; Lambert, Barry; McFarland, Anne; Mitchell, Forrest

    2013-02-01

    Water quality impact due to excessive nutrients has been extensively studied. In recent years, however, micro-pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and hormonal products used in animal agriculture have added an additional impact to overall water quality. Pharmaceuticals used in the poultry, swine, beef, and dairy industries have been detected in various environmental matrices such as, soil, groundwater and surface water. In this study, 26 surface water samples were collected throughout the Bosque River Watershed (BRW) with samples representing a range of land use conditions and locations of major dairy operations. Samples were analyzed using commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Of the 26 samples, three samples consistently tested positive for monensin antibiotic with concentration ranging from 0.30 to 3.41 microg/L. These three samples were collected from sites that received varying amount of agriculture wastes (11.7% to 31.3%) and located downstream from sites associated with moderate levels of animal agriculture. The preliminary results suggest that there is a potential for monensin occurrence in the BRW, although initial findings indicate only very low levels.

  8. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  9. The effects of workload on respiratory variables in simulated flight: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated respiratory activity and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)) during exposure to varying levels of work load in a simulated flight environment. Seven pilots (age: 34-60) participated in a one-session test on the Boeing 737-800 simulator. Physiological data were collected while pilots wore an ambulatory multi-channel recording device. Respiratory variables, including inductance plethysmography (respiratory pattern) and pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)), were collected demonstrating change in CO(2) levels proportional to changes in flight task workload. Pilots performed a set of simulation flight tasks. Pilot performance was rated for each task by a test pilot; and self-report of workload was taken using the NASA-TLX scale. Mixed model analysis revealed that respiration rate and minute ventilation are significantly associated with workload levels and evaluator scores controlling for "vanilla baseline" condition. Hypocapnia exclusively occurred in tasks where pilots performed more poorly. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation in order to develop a psychophysiological assessment methodology, rather than to offer conclusive findings. The results show that the respiratory system is very reactive to high workload conditions in aviation and suggest that hypocapnia may pose a flight safety risk under some circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary studies on occurrence of monensin antibiotic in Bosque River Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudarshan Kurwadkar; Victoria Sicking; Barry Lambert; Anne McFarland; Forrest Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Water quality impact due to excessive nutrients has been extensively studied.In recent years,however,micro-pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and hormonal products used in animal agriculture have added an additional impact to overall water quality.Pharmaceuticals used in the poultry,swine,beef,and dairy industries have been detected in various environmental matrices such as,soil,groundwater and surface water.In this study,26 surface water samples were collected throughout the Bosque River Watershed (BRW) with samples representing a range of land use conditions and locations of major dairy operations.Samples were analyzed using commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test.Of the 26 samples,three samples consistently tested positive for monensin antibiotic with concentration ranging from 0.30 to 3.41 μg/L.These three samples were collected from sites that received varying amount of agriculture wastes (11.7% to 31.3%) and located downstream from sites associated with moderate levels of animal agriculture.The preliminary results suggest that there is a potential for monensin occurrence in the BRW,although initial findings indicate only very low levels.

  11. Search engines: a first step to finding information: preliminary findings from a study of observed searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Madden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is a working paper which aims to present the preliminary results of a study into the search behaviour of the general public. The paper reports on the findings of the first six months of an eighteen-month data collection excercise. Method. . Detailed observations were made of nine volunteers, engaged on a variety of search tasks. Some of the tasks were self-selected, others were set by the researchers. Most tasks however, were designed to enable the volunteers to search within their own areas of interest and expertise. Analyses. A set of 'search dimensions' is proposed and qualitative findings based on these are presented. In addition, some initial quantitative findings are discussed. Result. Findings to date suggest that the best search strategy is a combination of simplicity and scrutiny. Volunteers who entered a few search terms but then carefully studied the results, appeared to be more successful than those who attempted to be prescriptive and entered a long series of terms.

  12. Working Memory Training and CBT Reduces Anxiety Symptoms and Attentional Biases to Threat: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A; Richards, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that cognitive processes linked to the detection of threat stimuli are associated with poor attentional control, placing children and adolescents at increased risk for the development of anxious affect. The current study aimed to provide preliminary data to assess whether an intervention designed to improve attentional control (via working memory; WM) would lead to better performance in tests of WM and would be associated with positive changes in symptoms of trait and test anxiety, increased inhibitory control and reduced attention to threat. Forty adolescents aged 11-14 years who reported elevated anxiety and low attentional control were randomly allocated to a WM training or an active cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) control group. Post intervention, WM training was associated with greater improvements (versus. CBT) in trained WM tasks. Both groups, however, reported fewer anxiety symptoms, demonstrated increased inhibitory control and a reduction in attentional biases to threat post intervention and these results were maintained at follow up. The study provides indicative evidence which suggests that WM training has similar benefits to a more traditional CBT intervention on reduced anxiety and attentional biases for threat. Future research should aim to replicate the findings in a large sample size and explore the broader impact of training on day-to-day functioning. In addition, further research is needed to identify which participants benefit most from different interventions (using baseline characteristics) on treatment compliance and outcome.

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Western Zhou Building Foundations at Yuntang in Fufeng, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良高; 王巍; 丁晓雷

    2003-01-01

    From autumn 1999 through the year 2000, Zhouyuan Archaeological Team excavated a set of Western Zhou building foundations, which was well preserved and uniquely designed. It is significantly valuable for the research on the ritual system of the Western Zhou Dynasty. We here by try to make a preliminary study on its structure and function with reference of historical literature.

  14. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: a pragmatic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  15. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  16. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy of spine robot system should be improved.

  17. Feasibility of pulse oximetry in the initial prehospital management of victims of drowning : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenij, Leonard J.; de Vries, Wiebe; Schwarte, Lothar; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Immediate delivery of oxygen is the most important treatment for victims of drowning at the rescue site. Monitoring oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry is potentially useful, but its use may be limited by poor peripheral perfusion due to hypothermia. This preliminary study explores the feasib

  18. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  19. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  20. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: A pragmatic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  1. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  2. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  3. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Sluiter, W.J.; Maurits, N.M.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the s

  4. Early Language and Literacy Development among Young English Language Learners: Preliminary Insights from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the preliminary findings of a two-staged empirical study aimed at gaining insights into the variables salient in the early language and literacy development of young English language learners (ELL). Increasingly, young ELL, whether foreign-born or Canadian-born, arrive at school with little developed English-language…

  5. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  6. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  7. Preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design and parametric study of 1400 m partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge are described. Static per-formance of this new type of bridge is discussed. Compared with fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge, its advantages in fin-ished state are summarized. Based on numerical calculation, effects of several structural parameters on static performance are presented.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Determination of ~(235)U and ~(239)Pu Using Delayed Neutron Counting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary study on the fast measurements of 235U and 239Pu in samples containing 235U, 239Pu and 235U-239Pu mixture using delayed neutron counting method is introduced. All samples were irradiated for 30 s using the 30 kW Miniature Neutron

  9. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  10. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-21

    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  11. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  12. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan Chetan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostical parameters for the all three parts of Cassia sophera L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physicochemical constants, extractive values of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents were studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.

  14. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  15. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  16. Physical activity and situational interest in mobile technology integrated physical education: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile technology permeates every aspect of student lives. The question is whether mobile technology integration can produce desirable effects in the gymnasium. Objective: This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of mobile technology integration on student situational interest and physical activity fluctuation in physical education lessons.Methods: Sixth grade students (N = 53 were randomly placed into either an experiment group by class that utilized mobile technology-integrated resources (iPad and applications, or a comparison group that did not utilize technology. Both groups received five identical physical education lessons. Student physical activity was tracked with accelerometers, and they completed the Situational Interest Scale at the end of each lesson. The researchers analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA with repeated measures. Results: Students in the experiment group reported significantly lower physical activity and situational interest than their counterparts in the comparison group. A group × lesson interaction suggested that student step/min steadily increased throughout the lessons in the experiment group while remaining relative stable in the comparison group. Conclusions: Mobile technologies such as iPad and applications with no direct physical activity prompt had little effect on increasing physical activity or situational interest in the short term. It is important to consider the classroom dynamics to realistically evaluate the constraints and strengths that mobile technology-integrated physical education lessons may pose in a traditional physical education environment.

  17. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  18. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  19. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; London, J.E.; Drake, G.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for mice and rats receiving Sylgard 184 curing agent were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 curing agent was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious.

  20. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin in mice and rats were greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated this material to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation studies, also in the rabbit, showed that Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin was a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in guinea pigs did not show the resin to be deleterious in this regard.

  1. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  2. Preliminary study of first motion from nuclear explosions recorded on seismograms in the first zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J.H.; Mangan, G.B.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded more than 300 seismograms from more than 50 underground nuclear explosions. Most were recorded at distances of less than 1,000 km. These seismograms have been studied to obtain travel times and amplitudes which have been presented in reports on crustal structure and in a new series of nuclear shot reports. This report describes preliminary studies of first motion of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions. Visual inspection of all seismograms was made in an attempt to identify the direction of first motion, and to estimate the probability of recording detectable first motion at various distances for various charge sizes and in different geologic environments. In this study, a characteristic pattern of the first phase became apparent on seismograms where first motion was clearly recorded. When an interpreter became familiar with this pattern, he was frequently able to identify the polarity of the first arrival even though the direction of first motion could not be seen clearly on the seismogram. In addition, it was sometimes possible to recognize this pattern for secondary arrivals of larger amplitude. These qualitative visual observations suggest that it might be possible to define a simple criterion that could be used in a digital computer to identify polarity, not only of the first phase, but of secondary phases as well. A short segment of recordings near the first motion on 56 seismograms was digitized on an optical digitizer. Spectral analyses of these digitized recordings were made to determine the range of frequencies present, and studies were made with various simple digital filters to explore the nature of polarity as a function of frequency. These studies have not yet led to conclusive results, partly because of inaccuracies resulting from optical digitization. The work is continuing, using an electronic digitizer that will allow study of a much larger sample of more accurately digitized data.

  3. A preliminary study on limnological stock assessment, productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    productivity and potential fish yield of Omi Dam,. Nigeria ... the world over through growing populations, intensification of .... The concentration of organic substances in water and ... The mean dissolved oxygen recorded in this study is 5.12.

  4. Features and Functions of Journals: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study is intended to describe the features and functions of journals written by EFL learners. The features described include the contents and organization of the journals. The functions examined in this study include sense of purpose and sense of audience in writing. The subjects of the study were students of the first semester who took English intensive course at the English Department of IKIP MALANG. The results of content analysis indicate that journals that the students write contain various themes. Analysis on paragraph organization indicates that paragraphs in the journals generally show adequate development. This study also shows that the student journals reflect sense of purpose and sense of audience in writing.

  5. Effect of exhaustive exercise on the angular pedaling pattern: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Joner Wiest

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering biomechanical aspects such as kinematics, fatigue can be characterized as a loss of efficiency in maintaining a movement pattern, such as pedaling technique, during exercise. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of 1-h exhaustive cycling exercise at intensity of 80% VO2max on pedaling technique. The pedaling technique was evaluated in four skilled mountain-bike cyclists by 2D kinematics. The main hypothesis of this study was that angular changes in response to fatigue would occur mainly in the ankle joint. After achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the cyclists were submitted to a submaximal protocol at intensity corresponding to 80% VO2max for 1 h. The cyclists were filmed throughout 10 complete consecutive crank cycles at intervals of 10 min. Images were acquired from the right lower limb and the hip, knee and ankle joint angles were measured after kinematic processing. The Shapiro-Wilk test, ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference only for ankle kinematics after 40 min of exercise, with an increase in the range of motion from 20° at the beginning of exercise to 35° at the end of exercise. This result confirms the hypothesis proposed and suggests that only the ankle joint was affected by the exercise. The characteristics of ankle movement suggest that this joint plays a compensatory role in an attempt to maintain the pedaling technique and to sustain the exercise workload.

  6. Development of monetite-nanosilica bone cement: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we reported the results of our efforts in developing DCPA/nanosilica composite orthopedic cement. It is motivated by the significances of DCPA and silicon in bone physiological activities. More specifically, this paper examined the effects of various experimental parameters on the properties of such composite cements. In this work, DCPA cement powders were synthesized using a microwave synthesis technique. Mixing colloidal nanosilica directly with synthesized DCPA cement powders can significantly reduce the washout resistance of DCPA cement. In contrast, a DCPA-nanosilica cement powder prepared by reacting Ca(OH)2 , H3 PO4 and nanosilica together showed good washout resistance. The incorporation of nanosilica in DCPA can improve compressive strength, accelerate cement solidification, and intensify surface bioactivity. In addition, it was observed that by controlling the content of NaHCO3 during cement preparation, the resulting composite cement properties could be modified. Allowing for the development of different setting times, mechanical performance and crystal features. It is suggested that DCPA-nanosilica composite cement can be a potential candidate for bone healing applications.

  7. Preliminary study for the management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, B; Papadopoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Stylianou, M; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper refers to the management of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste since, according to the EU Waste Strategy, C&D waste is considered to be one of the priority waste streams and appropriate actions need to be taken with respect to its effective management. Initially, the paper presents the state-of-the-art of the problem of C&D waste, including the amount and composition of C&D waste in EU countries, differences in the characteristics of this waste stream depending on its origin, as well as collection and management practices that are applied. A methodology is described for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since in most cases quantitative primary data is not available. Next, the fundamentals for the development of an integrated scheme for the management of C&D waste are presented and discussed, such as appropriate demolition procedures and location of waste management (off-site waste management, on-site waste management, direct on-site recovery, centralized on-site recovery). Finally, taking into consideration all relevant parameters, alternative systems that could be applied for the management of the C&D waste are suggested.

  8. Anaerobic culture by Total Air Barrier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sarkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor study with obligate anaerobes, inoculated platescontaining suitable reduced media need handling andincubation under strict anaerobic condition. Instead ofensuring a confined oxygen free chamber for placing seededplates, same purpose may be achieved by creating total airbarrier to the surface.MethodUpper moist surface of freshly prepared anaerobic media inPetri plates were intimately covered with very thintransparent bacteriological inert sterile polyester sheets.Stock culture of Bacteroides fragilis, ATCC 23745 andClostridium sporogenes, ATCC 11437 were grown in cookedmeat broth and then sub-cultured on respective plates, afterlifting the cover sheets. Sheets were again covered andincubated at 37oC ordinary incubator. To performantimicrobial susceptibility test, similarly covered seededplates with well inoculums were inverted en-block afterstripping sides with the help of a spatula. Now antibiotic diskswere placed on upper bare surfaces. After short pre-diffusion,plates were incubated keeping inoculated surface below.Same study was performed by conventional method usingGaspak.ResultsGood growths were noted in both sets of the study;however discrete colonies appeared more flat in nature intest set. Almost identical zones of inhibition were noted inboth sets of sensitivity study. Seven days old growths incovered blood agar plates were found viable when subculturedin cooked meat broths.ConclusionIsolation, identification and susceptibility study for mostclinically important obligate anaerobes may be performedby simple barrier method after appropriatestandardization.

  9. Blastocyst cryopreservation using solid surface vitrification: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan S Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blastocyst cryopreservation program using solid surface vitrification. Setting: This study took place in a university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles over a 4-year period between 2006 and 2010 were studied. The cryopreservation policy followed was a vitrification protocol performed at the blastocyst stage, using a solid surface (nonimmersion method. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. Results: Eighty-one women underwent 86 frozen embryo transfer cycles. Of the 240 blastocysts warmed, 204 survived giving a cryosurvival rate of 85% (204/240. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer were 47%, 29%, 12%, 16%, and 23% respectively. Of the 20 live births, there were 16 singletons and 4 twins. Eleven boys and 13 girls were delivered with no major or minor abnormality detected. Conclusion(s: The blastocyst vitrification protocol using the solid surface method is effective with results comparable to fresh blastocyst transfers. While retaining the rapid cooling effect, the nonimmersion technique eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission. Larger studies with long-term follow-up data would further confirm the efficacy and safety of this method of vitrification.

  10. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  11. Preliminary toxicological study of Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin: curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.

    1978-06-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Sylgard 184 (100 parts encapsulating resin plus 10 parts curing agent) were greater than 5 g/kg in rats and mice. According to classical guidelines, the mixture would be considered slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the mixture to be mildly irritating. Eye irritation tests, also in the rabbit, showed the Sylgard 184 mixture to be a mild but transitory irritant. The sensitization study in the guinea pig demonstrated the mixture to be a very mild sensitizer in two of six animals.

  12. Preliminary studies for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Doets, M; Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; van den Brand, Jo

    2000-01-01

    We lay down some general considerations which will serve as a starting point for design studies of a realistic LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. Based on these considerations, we propose a design strategy and identify issues to be further studied. In particular we try to outline some boundary conditions imposed by LHC and LHCb on the vacuum system. We discuss two possibilities for the LHCb vertex detector vacuum system. The preferred strategy uses a differentially pumped vacuum system with the silicon detectors separated from the beam line vacuum. Some estimations on static vacuum pressures and gas flows are presented.

  13. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  14. Preliminary studies of inhibitions in Aspergillus flavus with extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of lichens on the growth of lower Phycomycetes and. Neurospora ... have indicated the possible use of plant as well as lichen extracts in the control of plant diseases. The extraction, ... under light microscope (*400 objective) for the emergence of germ tube. .... artificial fungicide develop, this study has shown that extracts of ...

  15. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  16. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    the Buffalo Ornithological Society . Although these groups are not planning agencies, they represent an important trend in land use planning. The groups...Buffalo Historical Society , 1902. Wilson , Carroll L. Coal: Bridge to the Future, Report of the World Coal Study. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company... Wilson , 1980) PLANNING CONSTRAINTS Federal policy on multiobjective planning, derived from both legislative and executive authorities, establishes and

  17. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  18. Preliminary study Malaa. Final report; Foerstudie Malaa. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for a possible localization of a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are mapped in this study. The geologic structures in the area have been reviewed, mostly from already existing knowledge. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use and environment, employment and other social effects. 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  19. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  20. Preliminary studies in the genus Entoloma in Tasmania - I

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Genevieve M.; Noordeloos, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes 33 new species of Entoloma from wet and dry forests in Tasmania, Australia, based on 8 years of intensive collecting, description and study of the Entoloma mycota. As such it is a precursor to a monographic treatment of the Entolomataceae of Tasmania, to be published in the next few years.

  1. Preliminary studies in the genus Entoloma in Tasmania - I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gates, Genevieve M.; Noordeloos, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes 33 new species of Entoloma from wet and dry forests in Tasmania, Australia, based on 8 years of intensive collecting, description and study of the Entoloma mycota. As such it is a precursor to a monographic treatment of the Entolomataceae of Tasmania, to be published in the next

  2. Study and Preliminary Analysis of Test of Aerosol Migration Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Lin-lin; SUN; Xue-ting; WEI; Yan-song

    2015-01-01

    TAMM(test of aerosol migration mechanism)is one of the important aspects of Studies on Migration Mechanism of the Source Term under Severe Accident,which is a significant research of the National Large Advanced PWR Research Program.The main task researches the

  3. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM JATROPHA CURCUS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are ubiquitously reported from the living tissues of healthy plant parts from every host studied so far. These microbes attributed significantly in upraising the caliber of the host to counteract against the different stresses and herbivores, and also some times to improve the host fitness. This study presenting here the endophytic mycoflora of Jatropha curcus, which remain less explored. A total of eighteen species of fungi were isolated from leaf, stem, and roots of Jatropha curcus. The root was heavily colonized by the genera like Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus spp. The leaf tissues however showed somewhat greater diversity of endophytic colonization. Drechslera, Curvularia, Bipolaris, Alternaria, and Aspergillus sp. were dominant in to the leaf tissues with strong presence of an unidentified genus. The species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was more pronounced in the leaf tissues rather than the root and stem. This study reaffirms the fact that endophytes are host and tissues specific. In this regard, the endophytic fungi received in this study, may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds similar to those of vinca alkaloid group.

  4. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response of...

  5. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Renewable energy sources have gained much attention due to the recent energy crisis and ... system for the most energy capture for this case study to be a rotor speed of 5.5rad/s at a height of 10m. .... Thesis, Faculty of California Polytechnic.

  6. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  7. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  8. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  9. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  10. Cetaceans and fisheries in Kenya coastal waters: a preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Omondi, E.

    1995-01-01

    Of all marine resources characteristic of the Kenyan coast, marine mammals are least studied singly or in association with other resources. In this paper, available records on cetacean catches by district between 1978-1991 inclusive were used to assess the status and trend of their fishery, distribution, and interaction with sharks, clupeids and tuna landings. Spartial and temporal variations in takes were evident. The Mombasa district led in total catch (62.2 tons) while the Tana River distr...

  11. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Schlager, and S.M. Hussain. 2009. Cyrstal Structure Mediates Mode of Cell Death in TiO2. Nanotoxicity. J Nanopart Res. 11(6):1361-1374. Cao, C.J., K...Mouse Keratinocytes. J Nanopart Res. 11:15-24. Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-0EJ5-11 (FY12 Continuation) B-1 Appendix B - Figures 10 - 1 . 0 0 10 - 0 . 7 5

  12. V. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ISOZYMES OF SHOREA JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. JUNIARTI and M. I. J. UMBOH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of genetic variability in natural or man-made populations/ plantations is useful in both basic and applied biology. In addition to the various facets of studies on Shorea javanica already initiated by Torquebiau (1984 and alongside with his recommendations on focus for future research, a study on the genetic aspects of the species should be given important considerations. As the trees are tapped for resin, an important forest product, the genetic basis of the production as well as the range of variation in amount of resin production among t he trees must be known. Coupled with this is a thorough investigation on the differences in pest resistance/susceptability among the trees and their genetic basis. While the assumption (Torquebiau 1984 that trees in natural forest areas are-rarely attacked by diseases because of mycorrhizal fungi is interesting, its confirmation is necessary. If this is true, problems would arise when plants are introduced into a new plantation site as experienced by the Forest Research Institute (Ardikoesuma 1954. Thus, we need to look for pest resistant plants i.e. those that can remain healthy even in the absence of mycorrhizae. The above studies on possible genetic variation could give vital information for development of forest plantations of the species and for breeding and tree improvement strategies. By knowing the extent of genetic variation in natural population or in plantations one could be guided to maintain or increase the genetic base in these areas. Biochemical characters such as isozyme banding patterns have been useful in several areas of plant biology, population genetics, evolution and breeding. Isozymes are detected by starch gel electrophoresis and when their genetic control is established, they could be genetic markers in analyzing variation in morphological or physiological characters. The present study is an attempt to detect the isozymes in leaves, seeds and cotyledons of Shorea

  13. A preliminary metagenomic study of puer tea during pile fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Changyong; Chen, Chaoyin; Ge, Feng; Liu, Diqiu; Zhao, Shenglan; Chen, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Up to now, there has been no report on the taxonomic and functional analysis of the microbial community in fermenting puer tea by pyrosequencing. In this study, metagenomic pyrosequencing was first used in fermenting puer tea to delineate a relatively comprehensive overview of the microbial taxonomy while also preliminarily characterising the functional ontologies of microbial genes present in puer tea pile fermentation. A total of 251 738 pyrosequencing reads (9197 contigs and 145 402 singletons) were generated by pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed three dominant bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (30.08%), Proteobacteria (24.47%) and Firmicutes (20.23%), and one dominant eukaryotic phylum, Ascomycota (15.21%) [corrected]. A total of 58 664 hits were categorised into 28 functional subsystems based on the SEED database. Moreover, two categories, 'metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides' and 'biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites', were selectively analysed and 69 enzyme genes were presented in 16 pathways. The dominant microbes of puer tea fermentation were bacteria in the present study, and yeasts rather than moulds accounted for the overwhelming majority of Eukaryota. The analysis of functional genes and metabolic pathways will be helpful for further study of the mechanism of puer tea fermentation at molecular level. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.

  15. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  16. Mukha Mo: A Preliminary Study on Filipino Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jonathan O. Taduran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the universality hypothesis on facial expression judgment by applying cross-cultural agreement tests on Filipinos. The Facial Action Coding System constructed by Ekman and Friesen (1976 was used as basis for creating stimuli photos that 101 college student observers were madeto identify. Contextualization for each emotion was also solicited from subjects to provide qualitative bases for their judgments. The results showed that for five of the six emotions studied, excepting fear, the majority of the observers judged the expressions as predicted. The judgment of happiness supplied the strongest evidence for universality, having the highest correctness rate and inter-observer agreement. There was also high agreement among observersand between Filipinos and other cultures about the most intense and second most intense emotion signaled by each stimulus for these five emotions. Difficulty with the recognition of fear, as well as its common association with the emotion of sadness, has been found. Such findings shall serve as baseline data for the study of facial expressions in the Philippines.

  17. Effects of Omeprazole on Iron Absorption: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing numbers of pediatric and adult patients are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. PPIs are known to inhibit gastric acid secretion. Nonheme iron requires gastric acid for conversion to the ferrous form for absorption. Ninety percent of dietary and 100% of oral iron therapy is in the nonheme form. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of PPIs on iron absorption has not been studied in humans. Our study assessed the relationship between omeprazole therapy and iron absorption in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: We recruited 9 healthy volunteers between June 2010 and March 2011. Subjects with chronic illness, anemia, or use of PPI therapy were excluded. Serum iron concentrations were measured 1, 2, and 3 h after the ingestion of iron (control group. The measurements were repeated on a subsequent visit after 4 daily oral administrations of omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg (treatment group. Results: One female and 8 male volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 33 years. There was no statistical difference detected between baseline, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h iron levels between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Administration of omeprazole for a short duration does not affect absorption of orally administered iron in healthy individuals.

  18. Histological Subgroups in Classic Kaposi Sarcoma: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Onak Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Kaposi sarcomas (KS are vascular tumors with a low malignant potential which include overlapping infectious, immunologic, and neoplastic processes. Recently, many histological subtypes have been defined. Material and Method: In the present study, 151 cutaneous classic KS lesions in 56 patients were retrospectively evaluated with regard to histological subtypes. Determination of the subtypes was based on the predominant histopathological component in the lesion. We examined changes in epidermis and dermis along with intratumoral inflammatory response characteristics in the lesions. By defining histopathological variants of the cases, differences regarding subtypes were investigated. Results: Cases that bear the ordinary characteristics of KS and those that can not be classified otherwise, comprised 82..8% of the study group. Twenty-six cases showed consistency with the subtypes outlined in the literature in terms of their histopathological properties. The most common histological subtype was the lymphangiectatic variant in 7.3% of the cases. Bullous (2.6%, lymphangioma like (2.6%, intravascular (2%, and pyogenic granuloma like (2% variants were less common. The most uncommon histological subtype was micronodular (0.6% type. Lymphangiectatic, bullous, intravascular, and pyogenic granuloma like variants were frequently observed in the nodular stage of KSs. Lympangioma like changes were seen to be present in the early KS lesions. Lymphangiectatic type was oftenly associated with bullous component, whereas pyogenic granuloma like type demonstrated superficial ulceration and intense inflammatory response. Lymphangioma like and intravascular types exhibited a characteristic appearance, while other variants were accompanied by components belonging to different subtypes. Conclusion: In KS, histopathological subtypes can develop as a result of different pathological processes. The next stage of the current study, which is one of the

  19. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  20. A preliminary study on spatial unmasking of virtual separated sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE ZhiWen; JIN Jing

    2008-01-01

    An experimental method with headphone virtual reproduction is proposed and a series of experiments to study forward masking effect when the masker and the masked signal are spatially separated in azimuth are conducted. Then, the masking thresholds are compared with those when the masker and the masked signal source are at the same place. The results show that, although both the thresholds of 0°and±30° sound images increase with the sound pressure level (SPL) of the masker, spatial unmasking may be really observed. The maximum unmasking is as large as 15 dB. This spatial unmasking effect is mainly attributed to better-ear con-tribution.

  1. A preliminary study on spatial unmasking of virtual separated sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An experimental method with headphone virtual reproduction is proposed and a series of experiments to study forward masking effect when the masker and the masked signal are spatially separated in azimuth are conducted. Then, the masking thresholds are compared with those when the masker and the masked signal source are at the same place. The results show that, although both the thresholds of 0° and ±30° sound images increase with the sound pressure level (SPL) of the masker, spatial unmasking may be really observed. The maximum unmasking is as large as 15 dB. This spatial unmasking effect is mainly attributed to better-ear contribution.

  2. ARSENIC DEGRADATION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa FOR WATER BIOREMEDIATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Pellizzari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arsenic resistance in pure cultivations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña groundwater (Chaco province, and evaluate the possibility of its use to remove arsenic from groundwater. Strains were immobilized in natural stone and cultivated in salts broth and 1 mgAs/L. The arsenic resistance and biofilm formation were observed, obtaining interaction between cells, rock and arsenic. Arsenic removal was evaluated during 3 months and its final percentage of the experiment was 60%.

  3. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response...... of bucket foundations in different drainage conditions. Particular focus is given to the rapid loading response of the foundation (simulating a 50 year wave or emergency stop of a wind turbine). Important knowledge on the pore pressure development within and around the foundation during loading is achieved....

  4. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    literature; how- S ever, Sander et al. (1975a, b) studied the effect of N-nitrosomorpholine in a series of experiments with cress plants (Lepidiwu sativum...Adenomas by Amines or Ureas Plus Nitrite and by N-Nitroso Compounds: Effect of Ascorbate, Gallic Acid, Thiocyanate, and Caffine ," j. Nat’l Cancer instit...Washington, D.C. Garber, K. (1970), "Air Pollution by Heavy-Metal-Containing Dusts. Effects on Plants ." LandAirt, Forsch, Sonderh., 25, 59-68

  5. Preliminary Clinical Study of Intra-vas Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟雄; 袁石锦; 陈振文; 谷翊群; 李世勤

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one volunteers with implanted intravas device (IVD ) in comparison with 40 volunteers undergone no-scalpel vasectomy have been recruited for 1 to 3 years clinical follow-up study, The results demonstrate that efficacy rates of contraception in both the IVD group and the vasectomy group are 100%, Sixteen out of thirty - one volunteers (51.6% ) in the IVD group were found to have glucosidase activity in their seminal plasma 1 to 3 years after the operation. Only 12 subjects in the IVD

  6. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  7. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  8. Magnitude of relationship between burnout and absenteeism: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the influence of guilt related to a negative attitude toward patients and its relation with burnout and absenteeism. The sample consisted of 717 nursing professionals. Depersonalization was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Guilt was evaluated by one item. To estimate Absenteeism, participants were asked about the number of workdays they had missed in the past year. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses make it possible to conclude that guilt explains work absenteeism, and the interaction between depersonalization and guilt (Incr. R2 = .008, p burnout and symptoms such as absenteeism.

  9. QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS OF BRIHAT DASHAMULA TAILA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Standard analytical parameters of a number of Ayurvedic oils have been described in API. Brihat Dashamula Taila is one of the most commonly used oil by Ayurvedic Physicians. But there no standard analytical parameters are available in any authentic texts. Therefore this study aimed to set the quality control parameters with SOP of Brihat Dashamula Taila and found values like Refractive index (1.47 at 400C, specific gravity (0.923 at 250C Acid value (1.2, Iodine value (92.6 and Saponification value (86.34 may be considered as standard.

  10. Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity with topical ketorolac tromethamine: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafferata Maria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP is a common retinal neovascular disorder of premature infants. It is of variable severity, usually heals with mild or no sequelae, but may progress to blindness from retinal detachments or severe retinal scar formation. This is a preliminary report of the effectiveness and safety of a new and original use of topical ketorolac in preterm newborn to prevent the progression of ROP to the more severe forms of this disease. Methods From January 2001 to December 2002, all fifty nine preterm newborns with birthweight less than 1250 grams or gestational age less than 30 weeks of gestational age admitted to neonatal intensive care were eligible for treatment with topical ketorolac (0.25 milligrams every 8 hours in each eye. The historical comparison group included all 53 preterm newborns, with the same inclusion criteria, admitted between January 1999 and December 2000. Results Groups were comparable in terms of weight distribution, Apgar score at 5 minutes, incidence of sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. The duration of oxygen therapy was significantly longer in the control group. In the ketorolac group, among 43 children that were alive at discharge, one (2.3% developed threshold ROP and cryotherapy was necessary. In the comparison group 35 children survived, and six child (17% needed cryotherapy (Relative Risk 0.14, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80, p = 0.041. Adjusting by duration of oxygen therapy did not significantly change these results. Adverse effects attributable to ketorolac were not detected. Conclusions This preliminary report suggests that ketorolac in the form of an ophthalmic solution can reduce the risk of developing severe ROP in very preterm newborns, without producing significant adverse side effects. These results, although promising, should be interpreted with caution because of the weakness of the study design. This is an inexpensive and simple intervention that

  11. Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.

    2002-10-01

    The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  13. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  14. [Preliminary study on pollination biology of Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Xu, Hongjian; Ma, Hongliang; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Current study on the pollination biology of Tulipa edulis was conducted to investigate its pollination characteristics and to provide references for artificial domestication and breeding of T. edulis. Flowering dynamics, pollinators, morphology and structure of flower were observed. Different methods were adopted to evaluate the pollen vitality, and benzidine-H2O2 method was used for estimation of the stigma receptivity. Breeding system was evaluated based on out-crossing index (OCI) , pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) and the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination studies. The flower of T. edulis showed typical characteristics of Liliaceae. The pollen remained viable to some extent during all the anthesis and peaked within three days after blossoming. Stigma acceptability peaked in the first day of blossom and dwindled away in the next four days. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, three species of Halictus are the main pollination insects. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, withal cross-pollination give priority to self-pollination, and the insects play a main role on the pollination of T. edulis, further validation are needed to judge if the wind is helpful to pollination.

  15. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  16. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  17. A preliminary study of periodontitis and vascular calcification compound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGYun; DENGJing; PanKe-qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This experiment is desired to establish a compound model of chronic periodontitis and vascular calcification,so as to study the relation of periodontal and vascular calcification.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into:control group(group C),periodontitis group(group CP),vascular calcification group(group VDN),compound group (group CP+VDN).Every groups accepted the corresponding manages to establish the animal model.Eight weeks later,al the rats were sacrificed and the fol owing items were observed:inflam-matory factor in serum were tested,Hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE)staining of vascular tissue were taken to test.Results Through detection of periodontal tissue,serum and vascular tissue,an-imal models were successful.Histopathologic observation revealed:obvious inflammation of periodontal tissue was obversed in group CP and CP+VDN.The red Mineralized nodules deposition in group VDN and CP+VDN were higher than in group C and CP(P<0.05)by HE staining,and that in group CP+VDN was significantly higher than in group VDN(P<0.05);Animals in group CP+VDN showed higher level of IL-1 in serum than that in group CP,VDN and C.Conclusion This study has demonstrated that periodontitis have some promoting ef ect on vascular cal-cification.

  18. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  19. IRISS '98: The Intranet as a Learning Tool: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Garland

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the World Wide Web (WWW as an interactive educative tool is still a relatively new concept, and little is known of its impact on learning when it is used as a dynamic learning tool. Despite this the use of educational internet sites, in the form of virtual classrooms and courses, appears to be increasing rapidly. Thus, it is important that their ability to facilitate learning is evaluated. We present the findings of a preliminary study which examined the amount, type and quality of leaning of an undergraduate indroductory history course when presented to three different groups of participants. All participants received four regularly spaced 30 minute study and repeated test sessions over an eight day period. A final test of new questions was also administered at the end of the study. Results showed that the amount of historical knowledge acquired by the end of the study was greatest for those paticpants who learnt using traditional methods, and that over the four test sessions this group consistently outperformed both computer groups. Moreover, the way in which knowledge was acquired was qualitatively different in the groups with the traditional group exhibiting more 'Know' responses while the Intranet group exhibited more 'Remember' responses. Finally, using useability questionnaires, we found that participants preferred learning via traditional methods to screen and Intranet presentations, and that participants who had learnt using computers felt that their learning experience had suffered. These findings have important implications for educators, and others who wish to use the Internet as a training tool, and we discuss our findings through the evaluation of the different presentational media used, specific Intranet design criteria and general usability factors, which, we suggest, are of paramount importance.

  20. Preliminary study of the offshore wind and temperature profiles at the North of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando, E-mail: sbientz@msn.com [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [CREST, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Ricalde-Cab, Lifter [Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first study that reports the properties of the vertical wind resources for the offshore conditions of the North coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. {yields} A significant and detailed analysis of the thermal patterns has revealed a complex structure of the atmospheric boundary layer close to the shore. {yields} The structure of the diurnal wind patterns was assessed to produce an important reference for the wind resource availability in the study region. {yields} It was identified that the sea breeze blows in directions almost parallel to the shoreline of the North of the Yucatan Peninsula during the majority of the 24 h cycle. {yields} The analysis of the offshore data revealed a persistent non-uniform surface boundary layer developed as result of the advection of a warn air over a cold sea. - Abstract: The stability conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the intensity of the wind speeds and consequently the energy potential available in offshore conditions are highly influenced by the distance from the coastline and the differences between the air and sea temperatures. This paper presents a preliminary research undertook to study the offshore wind and temperature vertical profiles at the North-West of the Yucatan Peninsula coast. Ten minute averages were recorded over approximately 2 years from sensors installed at two different heights on a communication tower located at 6.65 km from the coastline. The results have shown that the offshore wind is thermally driven by differential heating of land and sea producing breeze patterns which veer to blow parallel to the coast under the action of the Coriolis force. To investigate further, a dataset of hourly sea surface temperatures derived from GEOS Satellite thermal maps was combined with the onsite measured data to study its effect on the vertical temperature profile. The results suggested largely unstable conditions and the potentially development of a shallow Stable Internal

  1. Predictors of postoperative bleeding in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: A preliminary Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiezia, Luca; Di Gregorio, Guido; Campello, Elena; Maggiolo, Sara; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo; Vida, Vladimiro

    2017-05-01

    Several characteristics such as demographics, pre-existing conditions, surgical procedure, perioperative coagulopathy may predispose children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to bleeding complications. As yet, studies on risk factors for postoperative bleeding have brought mixed results. The purpose of our study was therefore to retrospectively evaluate the parameters able to predict postoperative bleeding in a group of consecutive children undergoing cardiac surgery involving CPB. We collected demographic and perioperative laboratory data, as well as intraoperative transfusion requirements and blood loss during the first 24h after surgery in a group of consecutive children (aged ≥1month) scheduled for cardiac surgery with CPB at Padua University Hospital between June 2014 and April 2015. Cases were patients who experienced a 24-h postoperative blood loss ≥80th percentile. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent parameters associated with a high 24-h postoperative chest tube drainage volume. Eighty-three children (M:F 38:45; age range 1-168months) were enrolled. Age<7.7months (p 0.015), postoperative platelets <109×10(9)/L (p 0.003) and postoperative D-dimer ≥2350μg/L (p 0.007) were the variables most significantly and independently associated with excessive 24-h postoperative blood loss. Although preliminary, our study identified younger age, lower postoperative platelet count and higher D-dimer plasma levels as possible risk factors for postoperative bleeding. As for coagulation parameters, our results suggested consumptive coagulopathy might cause a strong predisposition to postoperative bleeding in children. Large-scale prospective studies would provide insight into the early diagnosis and treatment of CPB-related coagulopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The anatomy of extended limbic pathways in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Luca; Catani, Marco; Ameis, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Murphy, Clodagh; Robertson, Dene; Deeley, Quinton; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan G M

    2009-08-15

    It has been suggested that people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered development (and connectivity) of limbic circuits. However, direct evidence of anatomical differences specific to white matter pathways underlying social behaviour and emotions in ASD is lacking. We used Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography to compare, in vivo, the microstructural integrity and age-related differences in the extended limbic pathways between subjects with Asperger syndrome and healthy controls. Twenty-four males with Asperger syndrome (mean age 23+/-12 years, age range: 9-54 years) and 42 age-matched male controls (mean age 25+/-10 years, age range: 9-54 years) were studied. We quantified tract-specific diffusivity measurements as indirect indexes of microstructural integrity (e.g. fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD) and tract volume (e.g. number of streamlines) of the main limbic tracts. The dissected limbic pathways included the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontal occipital fasciculus, uncinate, cingulum and fornix. There were no significant between-group differences in FA and MD. However, compared to healthy controls, individuals with Asperger syndrome had a significantly higher number of streamlines in the right (p=.003) and left (p=.03) cingulum, and in the right (p=.03) and left (p=.04) inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, people with Asperger syndrome had a significantly lower number of streamlines in the right uncinate (p=.02). Within each group there were significant age-related differences in MD and number of streamlines, but not FA. However, the only significant age-related between-group difference was in mean diffusivity of the left uncinate fasciculus (Z(obs)=2.05) (p=.02). Our preliminary findings suggest that people with Asperger syndrome have significant differences in the anatomy, and maturation, of some (but not all) limbic tracts.

  4. Preliminary Study of Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From March 1997 to November 1999, 45 patients with lung cancer were treated by astereotactic radiotherapy, with 15 cases treated by a stereotactic radiotherapy alone, and 30 cases by the external radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiotherapy. The clinical target volume was 1.89-187. 26 cm3 with the median being 18. 17 cm3. The doses of plan target volume (PTV) edge was 16-30 Gy/2-3 times and the doses of center was 120 % to 150 % of PTV edge doses. The overall response rate was 84.4 % (38/45), with 11 complete response (CR) and 27 partial response (PR). This study confirmed that the stereotactic radiotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for lung cancer. For those early-stage patients who can tolerate neither operation nor even conventional radiotherapy for various reasons, it can both achieve therapeutic purpose and improve quality of life.

  5. Preliminary Exploratory Study of Different Phase II Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bertarelli, A; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Doyle, E; Ferrari, A; Keller, L; Lundgren, S; Markiewicz, T; Mauri, M; Roesler, S; Sarchiapone, L; Smith, J; Vlachoudis, V

    2008-01-01

    The LHC collimation system is installed and commissioned in different phases, following the natural evolution of the LHC performance. To improve cleaning efficiency towards the end of the low beta squeeze at 7TeV, and in stable physics conditions, it is foreseen to complement the 30 highly robust Phase I secondary collimators with low impedance Phase II collimators. At this stage, their design is not yet finalized. Possible options include metallic collimators, graphite jaws with a movable metallic foil, or collimators with metallic rotating jaws. As part of the evaluation of the different designs, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is extensively used for calculating energy deposition and studying material damage and activation. This report outlines the simulation approach and defines the critical quantities involved.

  6. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  7. Polarization in Thermal Emission from Hot Jupiters: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Yung, Yuk; Spurr, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Scattering of thermal emission from a deep, hot region by high altitude atmospheric particles induces polarization in the scattered light. However, symmetries on a spherical planet with a uniform spatial distribution of scattering particles usually result in zero net polarization. If the symmetry is broken, either by rotation induced oblateness or by spatially inhomogeneous cloud or haze particle distributions, polarization may become observable. Additionally, variation of temperatures across the planetary disc could also contribute to asymmetries, giving us a new way to measure the day-night temperature contrast on hot exoplanets. We perform modeling studies using a multiple scattering, radiative transfer model for polarized light to understand how to distinguish between various symmetry breaking phenomena and map an observed polarization to a specific atmospheric state. The models can be used to predict the most suitable candidates for observation, and once observations are available, to retrieve various parameters of interest.

  8. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  9. Proton MR spectroscopy in neuroborreliosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustymowicz, A.; Tarasow, E.; Walecki, J. [Department of Radiology, Medical Academy, Bialystok (Poland); Zajkowska, J.; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical Academy, Bialystok (Poland)

    2004-01-01

    We report results of a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study in 12 patients with neuroborreliosis. We used a PRESS sequence, placing an 8 cm{sup 3} voxel in normal-appearing white matter of the frontal lobe. Peaks indicating N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), lipids (Lip) and lactate (Lac) were identified and ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Lip/Cr, Lac/Cr calculated. Significant increases in Cho/Cr and Lip/Cr were noted. No abnormality was found in mean NAA/Cr and Lac/Cr, but in four patients there was a decreased NAA peak; mI/Cr ratio was slightly increased. Although the spectroscopic profile in patients with neuroborreliosis seems to be nonspecific, MRS might be useful for assessing tissue damage of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  10. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  11. Preliminary study on radiocarbon AMS dating of pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫建; 周杰; 萧家仪; D.Donahue; A.J.T.Jull

    1999-01-01

    17 samples were collected from aeolian and lacustrine profiles within the environment sensitive zone of the Loess Plateau, and an experimental method was established which is suitable for pollen extraction from aeolian sediment. A comparative study of pollen dating was carried out using the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of known age samples, and then an experiment with the pollen concentrates was performed. The results indicate that pollen that has been deposited simultaneously with sediment in a stable environment can provide reliable ages. This technique will provide a way of improving the chronological framework for the Loess Plateau since the late Pleistocene. The 14C dating was combined with field investigations, and from the geological record within this zone, evidence was extracted of four major monsoon precipitation changes during the transition from the late Pleistocene to Holoeene.

  12. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  13. Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self

  14. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  16. Wind energy in electric power production, preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lento, R.; Peltola, E.

    1984-01-01

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics estimates on the available wind energy were also made. Eight hundred wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics included is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions caused extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects to birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of the plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  17. Oxidative damage in young alcohol drinkers: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Cortés-Couto, Miriam; Martínez-Rizo, Abril Bernardette; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Velázquez-Fernández, Jesús Bernardino

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage (OD) biomarkers have been used to evaluate metabolic stress undergone by alcoholic individuals. In alcoholic patients, these biomarkers are usually measured at late stages, i.e., when the alcoholic patients are showing clear signs of impaired hepatic function. OD biomarkers are sensitive indicators of impaired metabolic function, and might be useful in early stages of alcohol consumption to identify individuals who are at greater risk of damage in later stages of alcohol consumption. The aim of the present work was to evaluate some OD biomarkers in young people at early stages of alcohol consumption. The study was carried out in a group of young people (18-23 years old) who drank alcohol, Youngsters Exposed to Alcohol (YEA) with an average intake of 118 g of ethanol/week, and a control group (CG) of non-drinkers. Blood counts, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, oxidative damage to DNA, and lipid peroxidation were determined in both groups. The anthropometric and blood parameters of both groups were similar and no clinical symptoms of hepatic damage were observed. Nevertheless, ADH activity, lipid peroxidation, and percentage of damaged DNA cells were higher in the YEA group than in the control group. In contrast, GSH-Px activity was lower in the YEA group than in the control group. Alteration in OD biomarkers can be found in individuals with 4-5 years of alcohol drinking history. To our knowledge, this is the first study giving evidence of OD in individuals at early stages of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Focal neuropathies following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseh, Hamidreza; Pourreza, Farshid; Saberi, Alia; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Kalantari, Behnam Behmardi; Falahatkar, Siavash

    2013-01-01

    Einleitung: Postoperative neurologische Komplikationen bei operativem Eingriff an Becken und Niere sind ein bekanntes klinisches Problem und deren Krankheitsverläufe sind wichtig. Wir planten diese Studie, um die Prävalenz und die Risikofaktoren derartiger Komplikationen nach perkutaner Nephrolithotomie (PCNL) zu erfassen.Material und Methoden: Von Februar bis Juli 2011 wurde eine Querschnittstudie an 68 PCNL-Fällen durchgeführt. Die demographischen Daten und die Operationsberichte wurden ausgewertet und umfassende neurologische und körperliche Untersuchungen wurden vor und nach dem chirurgischen Eingriff vorgenommen. Die Daten wurden mit der Software SPSS 18 analysiert.Ergebnisse: In die Studie einbezogen wurden 30 männliche (46,2%) und 35 (53,8%) weibliche Patienten mit einem mittleren Alter von 47,9 ± 11,47 Jahren. Bei 8 Patienten (12,31%), bei 4 Männern und 4 Frauen, wurden im Bereich des interkostalen und lumbosakralen Plexus sensorische neurologische Komplikationen gefunden. Die am häufigsten betroffenen Dermatome und Nerven waren im Bereich T 12 (8 Fälle). Es gab eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen der Dauer des chirurgischen Eingriffes und dem Vorkommen von sensorischen Komplikationen (p<0,010). Der höchste Abfall der Hämoglobinkonzentration nach dem chirurgischen Eingriff trat bei Patienten mit neurologischen Komplikationen auf (p<0,001). Es gab keine Korrelation zwischen Alter, gewähltem Zugang, Diabetes mellitus, BMI, Bluthochdruck, Lagerung der Patienten und Ort des chirurgischen Eingriffs und den beobachteten sensorischen neurologischen Komplikationen.Schlussfolgerung: Verlängerte Dauer der PCNL und erhöhter Abfall der Hämoglobinkonzentration können zu einem erhöhten Risiko für einer Neuropathie führen. Größere prospektive Studien mit retroperitonealen bildgebenden Untersuchungen und mit Verlaufskontrollen bei den Patienten werden vorgeschlagen, um diese Komplikation besser zu verstehen.

  19. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  20. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  1. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  2. Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, R. K.; Mcalister, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.

  3. What is cholera?:A preliminary study on caretakers' knowledge in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Tulsiani, Suhella; Siddique, A.; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholera has afflicted the Indian sub-continent for centuries, predominantly in West Bengal and modern-day Bangladesh. This preliminary study aims to understand the current level of knowledge of cholera in female Bangladeshi caretakers, which is important in the outcome of the disease and its spread. A pilot study was conducted among 85 women in Bangladesh using qualitative questionnaires to explore the ability of female caretakers in identifying cholera and its transmission.Findin...

  4. Journal of Island Studies: preliminary ideas from 1991, and comments from 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some preliminary thoughts were penned in 1991, on the founding of an academic journal devoted to the study of the world’s islands. This collated contribution is an opportunity to look back critically at what was advised then, and what has actually come to pass through Island Studies Journal. Russell King’s prescient report from 1991 is followed by a series of candid reflections by members of ISJ’s International Editorial Board.

  5. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G. W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  6. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  7. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  8. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  9. Preliminary studies on hoof characteristics in Amiata donkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Giorgetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the biometrical, physical and chemical characteristics of Amiata donkey hoof were studied. The Amiata donkey is a local endangered breed and derives from the homonym mountain in Tuscany. This donkey, which was once used as pack animal in farms and in mines, is now involved in trekking, onotherapy and milk production. The mean hoof biometrics and its standard deviation were calculated. The physical and chemical characteristics were also estimated, through ANOVA, considering the hoof region as fixed effect: wall, white line and sole for hardness, wall and sole for chemical characteristics. The small size and healthy hoof, was basically cylindrical (crown cir./Foot plantar circ. ratio=0.9 and it showed higher hardness in wall (H=126.5± 3.3, followed by sole (H=105.2±3.3, and white line (H=74.0±3.3. The wall has shown the lower moisture content (%=11.7±3.2 and the higher content in Al, Mn, Li, Ni, Pb, Se. The positive correlation between Al, Li, Pb and Hardness has shown the hoof high resistence to toxic elements. Very interesting has seemed the negative correlation between K vs Li and Pb, to indicate the tendency of K to remove potentially harmful elements.

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF RIVETED JOINTS AT FEED FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Bielawski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints in composites materials. Static tensile test method was used. In the test one type of glass fabric was used (Interglas 92140 from which two types of composite samples were prepared. In each sample the same type of fiber with the same fiber orientation – 3 layers - was used. The samples had dimensions of 100×100 mm and thickness of approximately 1 mm. The composite probes were located in a metal frame with a screw connection which was made of screws with nominal thread pitch M5. Screws were tightened with constant torque. It was to provide an axial force to the sample during the tensile test. The frame was placed between cross-bars of tensile machine INSTRON 8516. The samples were stretched at a speed of 0.05 mm/s at a distance up to 16 mm. During the tensile test displacement of the samples and pull force were registered. Depending on the fibre orientations and the value of feed force, damage models were described. On the basis of the results the possibility of usage of aluminium rivet nuts connections in composite materials was determined.

  11. A preliminary study on dead geostationary satellite removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The collision between satellites IRIDIUM 33 and COSMOS 2251 indicated that the clash of two on-orbit satellites was becoming an inevitable reality. Our calculation with the two-line orbit element by NORAD showed that some two geostationary satellites had approached very close in July 2009. Therefore, more attention should be given to avoid such collisions. This paper analyzes the orbital long-term variation of a dead satellite drifting in the geostationary orbit. Also, the negative effects posed by dead satellites upon the on-orbit operational geostationary satellites are studied. Then the paper proposes a novel idea to launch a satellite sweeper whose purpose is to collect the on-orbit dead satellites and help them de-orbit to a "graveyard". The satellite sweeper consists of a parent satellite and a child satellite. The child satellite collects a dead satellite and transfers it to a higher orbit. The parent satellite stationed in the geostationary orbit is in charge of refueling the child satellite. The strategy of maneuver and rendezvous is presented and a series of formulas are derived. The analysis results show that our method to clean the geostationary orbital zone is practical and fuel-saving. With the help of just a few satellite sweepers, we can gain a clean environment of geostationary orbit environment again.

  12. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  13. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  14. Health impacts of garage workers: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S. (AIT, Bangkok (Thailand). Division of Environmental Engineering); Alwis, K.U.

    1994-05-01

    This research study was carried out in two automobile repair garages situated in the Bangkok metropolitan area, employing 47 and 12 workers respectively. Air sampling, biological monitoring (blood, urine), noise monitoring, and audiometry of workers were done to assess the occupational environment and its impact on the workers. The occupational hygiene survey was carried out to observe the working conditions of both garages. It was found that conditions at both sites have a strong negative impact on the health of workers. The lead in air of Garage 1 was 0.20 mg/m[sup 3] which is the same as the threshold limit value (TLV) for lead in air for a working environment. The level of lead in blood of four workers of each garage was above the exposed level. According to the occupational hygiene survey carried out at both garages, 79% of workers of Garage 1 and 70% of workers of Gage 2 suffered from redness of the eyes (eye pain, gritty feeling), and 5% and 2% of workers of Garage 1 and Garage 2 respectively, complained about breathing difficulties. Control measures should be taken to minimize pollution due to dust, fumes, and noise which would reduce the health impacts and lead to a healthier workforce.

  15. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de São Paulo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  16. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina

    2014-06-01

    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  17. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  18. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  20. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  1. Procurement challenges in the Zimbabwean public sector: A preliminary study

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    Abel Dzuke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: State Procurement Board procedures and the public procurement process have been blamed for the lagging behind of government projects that impact on public service delivery in Zimbabwe.Objectives: This article provides insight into challenges resulting from the legal framework for public procurement in Zimbabwe that detract from service delivery.Method: Empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews with five participants at five public entities, using a semi-structured interview guide. Content analysis was used to analyse the primary data.Results: The findings revealed various challenges in the public procurement process that detract from service delivery. These include a lack of strategic recognition of the procurement function and procurement policy; a lack of professional, managerial and leadership skills; a lack of appropriated funds from Treasury; and a lack of accountability in the procurement process.Conclusion: There is a dearth of research on the public procurement process and its efficiency in Zimbabwe, and this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by identifying areas through which public procurement can be improved in Zimbabwe.

  2. Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study

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    Neeraj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1 and sample-2 (S-2] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2 were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR. The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin′s compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE. Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative, antioxidant (4, 4′- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP. Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing

  3. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

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    Wong Man

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  4. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors.

  5. Cerebrocerebellar system and Arnold's bundle: A tractographic study: preliminary results

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    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Abstract The cerebellum, traditionally considered a structure involved in balance and movement control, was more recently recognized as important in cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. These functions appear to be related to the more recent parts of the cerebellum that belong to the cerebrocerebellar system. One of the key segments of this system is the (prefronto-[penduncule]-pontine projection that represents the Arnold's bundle. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography (DTI-TR has permitted in vivo virtual dissection of white matter tracts, including those of the cerebellar. Objective: To study the fronto-[peduncule]-pontine projection (Arnold's bundle, with DTI-TR. Methods: Ten normal subjects were included (mean age 30 years. Standard acquisitions in three planes were obtained with a 1.5T GE Signa Horizon scanner, complemented with DTI acquisitions. Post-processing and analysis was performed using an ADW 4.3 workstation running Functool 4.5.3 (GE Medical Systems. A single ROI was placed on the medial third of the cerebral peduncle base, considered the site of convergence of the fibers of Arnold's bundle, bilaterally. Results: Twenty tractograms were obtained. All were constituted by a significant number of fibers in correspondence to the frontal lobe, and part of them anterior to the coronal plane at the anterior commissure, which characterizes them as associated to the prefrontal region. Conclusions: For the first time, frontal lobe related projections were systematically revealed with DTI-TR seeded from cerebral peduncle base ROIs. They showed anatomic coherence with Arnold's bundle, which includes the prefrontopontine segment of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar path, one of the components of the cerebrocerebellar system, acknowledged as fundamental for non-motor functions such as cognition, emotion and behavior.

  6. A Preliminary Study on Dust Grains in the Stratosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伯钧; 欧阳自远; 等

    1990-01-01

    Collected by means of a high-altitude scientific balloon and a self-made automatic sample collector,a total of 276 dust grains were selected for the study of shape,grain size and optical property.Some of the grains were examined by X-ray diffraction and electrom microprobe techniques,The stratospheric dust grains can be classified as 6 types:cosmic dusts,cosmic dusts(?),microtektite,natural pollutants,artificial pollutants and the unknown substances.The different types of dust grains have different characters and distinguishing symbols.Widespread in the space of the solar system,cosmic dusts are the initial substances of the solar system and ,to some degree,have recorded a great wealth of information on the early history of the solar system.So they have become one of the important objects in the field of cosmochemistry at present time,Since the 1960's,scholars of many countries have collected cosmic dusts both in the space near the earth(using rock ets,space probes and space shuttles)and in the stratosphere (using high-altitude balloons or U-2air planes).According to the shape(the scanning electron microimage),element composition(the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum)and optical properties of dust grains,the substances in the stratosphere can be classified as 5 types:cosmic dusts,alumina spheroids,terrestrial artificial pollutants,terrestrial natural pollutants and unknown substances(CDPET,1982).

  7. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE IN UNIVERSITY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

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    MARGARISOVÁ, Klára

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot written about the benefits of communities of practice (CoP in university. The benefit of the communities of practice was described with respect to teachers’ qualification and teaching competencies influencing students implicitly as well as to areas related to the students themselves. Many studies prove the fact that the process of learning is of a social character (e.g. Lave, Wenger, 1991. That is why the communities of practice present suitable environment for collaborative learning which makes the process of generating, sharing and storing knowledge easier. The present paper defines on a theoretical level the concept of the communities of practice and moreover, provides a brief overview of the latest research in the communities of practice with regard to education. Another part of the article focuses on the pre-research of the communities of practice at Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS. Although the authors conform with the opinion that the communities of practice are a natural feature and spontaneously develop wherever there is a need for sharing implicit or tacit knowledge, the pre-research focused on the verification of this premise in order to continue in the research of a quantitative character. The existence of the communities of practice was verified on the basis of fundamental characteristics following Wenger’s model. Other characteristics, considered significant in relation to the communities of practice by McDermott were also investigated. Based on a group interview the existence of the communities of practice of the students at FEM at CULS has been verified and a conceptual model was created. The determined work prerequisites will be investigated in another phase of the research.

  8. Paraconsistent artificial neural networks and Alzheimer disease: A preliminary study

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    Jair Minoro Abe

    Full Text Available Abstract EEG visual analysis has proved useful in aiding AD diagnosis, being indicated in some clinical protocols. However, such analysis is subject to the inherent imprecision of equipment, patient movements, electric registers, and individual variability of physician visual analysis. Objectives: To employ the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network to ascertain how to determine the degree of certainty of probable dementia diagnosis. Methods: Ten EEG records from patients with probable Alzheimer disease and ten controls were obtained during the awake state at rest. An EEG background between 8 Hz and 12 Hz was considered the normal pattern for patients, allowing a variance of 0.5 Hz. Results: The PANN was capable of accurately recognizing waves belonging to Alpha band with favorable evidence of 0.30 and contrary evidence of 0.19, while for waves not belonging to the Alpha pattern, an average favorable evidence of 0.19 and contrary evidence of 0.32 was obtained, indicating that PANN was efficient in recognizing Alpha waves in 80% of the cases evaluated in this study. Artificial Neural Networks - ANN - are well suited to tackle problems such as prediction and pattern recognition. The aim of this work was to recognize predetermined EEG patterns by using a new class of ANN, namely the Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Network - PANN, which is capable of handling uncertain, inconsistent and paracomplete information. An architecture is presented to serve as an auxiliary method in diagnosing Alzheimer disease. Conclusions: We believe the results show PANN to be a promising tool to handle EEG analysis, bearing in mind two considerations: the growing interest of experts in visual analysis of EEG, and the ability of PANN to deal directly with imprecise, inconsistent, and paracomplete data, thereby providing a valuable quantitative analysis.

  9. Shock absorption in lumbar disc prosthesis: a preliminary mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeHuec, J C; Kiaer, T; Friesem, T; Mathews, H; Liu, M; Eisermann, L

    2003-08-01

    Lumbar disc prostheses have been used in treating symptomatic degenerative disc diseases. A few prostheses of the ball-socket design are currently available for clinical use, the joint mechanism being materialized either with a hard polymer core or a metal-to-metal couple. Other prostheses of "shock absorber" design were not available at the time of the study. The objective of this work was to establish whether there was a difference in the shock absorption capacity between a device having an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene center core and a device having a metal-on-metal bearing. Vibration and shock loading were applied to two lumbar total disc prostheses: PRODISC, manufactured by Spine Solutions, and MAVERICK Total Disc Replacement, manufactured by Medtronic Sofamor Danek. The shock absorption capacity of the device was evaluated by comparing the input and the output force measurements. The disc prosthesis was mounted onto a test apparatus. Each side of the device was equipped with a force sensor. The input shock load and the output resulting forces were simultaneously measured and recorded. The loading force pattern included 1). a static preload of 350 N plus an oscillating vibration of 100 N with frequency sweeping from 0 to 100 Hz and 2). a sudden shock load of 250 N applied over a 0.1-second interval. Both input and output signal data were processed and were transformed into their frequency spectrums. The vibration and shock transmissibility of the device, defined as the ratio of the output spectrum over the input spectrum, were calculated in sweeping the frequency from 0 to 100 Hz. The phase deviation was calculated to characterize the shock absorber effects. For both tested devices under vibration and shock loading, the phase angle displacement between the input and the output signals was 10 degrees. Under oscillating vibration loading, both tested devices had a transmission ratio higher than 99.8%. Over the frequency interval 1-100 Hz, the

  10. Preliminary study of diffusion effects in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica de Cordoba, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: aiquiroga@famaf.unc.edu [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Diffusion of ferric ions in ferrous sulfate (Fricke) gels represents one of the main drawbacks of some radiation detectors, like Fricke gel dosimeters. In practice, this disadvantage can be overcome by prompt dosimeter analysis, constraining strongly the time between irradiation and analysis. Due to required integral accuracy levels, special dedicated protocols are implemented with the aim of minimizing signal blurring due to diffusion effects. This work presents dedicated analytic modelling and numerical calculations of diffusion coefficients in Fricke gel radiation sensitive material. Samples are optically analysed by means of visible light transmission measurements capturing images with a Ccd camera provided with a monochromatic 585 nm filter corresponding to the X O-infused Fricke solution absorbance peak. Dose distributions in Fricke gels are suitably delivered in order to assess specific initial conditions further studied by periodical sample image acquisitions. In a first analytic approach, experimental data are fit with linear models in order to achieve a value for the diffusion coefficient. The second approach to the problem consists on a group of computational algorithms based on inverse problem formulation, along with suitable 2D diffusion model capable of estimating diffusion coefficients by fitting the obtained algorithm numerical solutions with the corresponding experimental data. Comparisons are performed by introducing an appropriate functional in order to analyse both experimental and numerical values. Solutions to second order diffusion equation are calculated in the framework of a dedicated method that incorporates Finite Element Method. Moreover, optimised solutions can be attained by gradient type minimisation algorithms. Knowledge about diffusion coefficient for Fricke gel radiation detector might be helpful in accounting for effects regarding elapsed time between dosimeter irradiation and further analysis. Hence, corrections might be included

  11. A preliminary study on the association between ventilation rates in classrooms and student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, R J; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U; Nevalainen, A; Moschandreas, D

    2006-12-01

    Poor conditions leading to substandard indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms have been frequently cited in the literature over the past two decades. However, there is limited data linking poor IAQ in the classrooms to student performance. Whereas, it is assumed that poor IAQ results in reduced attendance and learning potential, and subsequent poor student performance, validating this hypothesis presents a challenge in today's school environment. This study explores the association between student performance on standardized aptitude tests that are administered to students on a yearly basis, to classroom carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, which provide a surrogate of ventilation being provided to each room. Data on classroom CO2 concentrations (over a 4-5 h time span within a typical school day) were recorded in fifth grade classrooms in 54 elementary schools within a school district in the USA. Results from this preliminary study yield a significant (P classroom-level ventilation rate and test results in math. They also indicate that non-linear effects may need to be considered for better representation of the association. A larger sample size is required in order to draw more definitive conclusions. Practical Implications Future studies could focus on (1) gathering more evidence on the possible association between classroom ventilation rates and students' academic performance; (2) the linear/non-linear nature of the association; and (3) whether it is possible to detect 'no observed adverse effect level' for adequate ventilation with respect to academic performance in schools. All of this information could be used to improve guidance and take regulatory actions to ensure adequate ventilation in schools. The high prevalence of low ventilation rates, combined with the growing evidence of the positive impact that sufficient ventilation has on human performance, suggests an opportunity for improving design and management of school facilities.

  12. Are deep strategic learners better suited to PBL? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papinczak, Tracey

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if medical students categorized as having deep and strategic approaches to their learning find problem-based learning (PBL) enjoyable and supportive of their learning, and achieve well in the first-year course. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from first-year medical students (N = 213). All students completed the Medical Course Learning Questionnaire at the commencement and completion of their first year of medical studies. The instrument measured a number of different aspects of learning, including approaches to learning, preferences for different learning environments, self-efficacy, and perceptions of learning within PBL tutorials. Qualitative data were collected from written responses to open questions. Results of students' performance on two forms of examinations were obtained for those giving permission (N = 68). Two-step cluster analysis of the cohort's responses to questions about their learning approaches identified five clusters, three of which represented coherent combinations of learning approaches (deep, deep and strategic, and surface apathetic) and two clusters which had unusual or dissonant combinations. Deep, strategic learners represented 25.8% of the cohort. They were more efficacious, preferred learning environments which support development of understanding and achieved significantly higher scores on the written examination. Strongly positive comments about learning in PBL tutorials were principally described by members of this cluster. This preliminary study employed a technique to categorize a student cohort into subgroups on the basis of their approaches to learning. One, the deep and strategic learners, appeared to be less vulnerable to the stresses of PBS in a medical course. While variation between individual learners will always be considerable, this analysis has enabled classification of a student group that may be less likely to find PBL problematic. Implications for practice and

  13. Clinical Preliminary Study on Biodegradable Subcuta neous Contraceptive Implant-CaproF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    CaproF is a biodegradable subcutaneous contraceptive implant of releasing lev onorgestrel (LNG), which is expected to provide an effective contraception for 2 years. This study was undertaken to assess the one-year preliminary clinical results of using CaproF in 19 subjects. All subjects (n = 19) completed the 1-year study, and the contraceptive effectiveness and follow up rate were both 100%. The incidence of side effects was low. The major side effects were menstrual disorder, but bleeding patterns tended to be improved and restored to be the same as pre-implantation ones with time. There were no significant increase in weight (P> 0. 05) and no changes in blood pres sure. In the 3d, 6th and 12th months after using CaproF, the cervical mucus became scanty and viscous without fern-like crystals. The amount of menstrual blood loss de creased from 49. 38 ml of pre-implantation to 33. 23 ml of the 12th month of using the implant (P<0.05). Hemoglobin concentrations showed no changes, but serum ferritin concentrations were slightly increased. No changes in liver function, kidney function, glucose tolerance test and lipoprotein levels were found. Determinations of sex hor mones (FSH, LH, E2 and progesterone) levels, ultrasonography of ovary, and en dometrial biopsy in observed group (n = 9) showed that all had normal ovulation before insertion. But ovulation was suppressed and endometrium development was inhibited after insertion. All basal body temperatures were single-phase patterns during the 1- year follow-up. This study suggested that CaproF is an effective, safe and acceptable long-acting contraceptive method. It is likely to reach its contraceptive effectiveness through suppressing ovulation, inhibiting endometrium development and influencing cervical musus characteristics.

  14. Clinical Preliminary Study on Biodegradable Subcuta-neous Contraceptive Implant-CaproF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春海; 钱丽娟

    2000-01-01

    CaproF is a biodegradable subcutaneous contraceptive implant of releasing lev-onorgestrel (LNG), which is expected to provide an effective contraception for 2 years. This study was undertaken to assess the one-year preliminary clinical results of using CaproF in 19 subjects. All subjects (n = 19) completed the 1-year study, and the contraceptive effectiveness and follow up rate were both 100%. The incidence of side effects was low. The major side effects were menstrual disorder, but bleeding patterns tended to be improved and restored to be the same as pre-implantation ones with time.There were no significant increase in weight (P> 0. 05) and no changes in blood pres-sure. In the 3rd, 6th and 12th months after using CaproF, the cervical mucus became scanty and viscous without fern-like crystals. The amount of menstrual blood loss de-creased from 49. 38 ml of pre-implantation to 33. 23 ml of the 12th month of using the implant (P< 0. 05). Hemoglobin concentrations showed no changes, but serum ferritin concentrations were slightly increased. No changes in liver function, kidney function,glucose tolerance test and lipoprotein levels zoere found. Determinations of sex hor-mones (FSH , LH , E2 and progesterone) levels, ultrasonography of ovary, and en-dometrial biopsy in observed group (n = 9) shorted that all had normal ovulation before insertion. But ovulation was suppressed and endometrium development was inhibited after insertion. All basal body temperatures were single-phase patterns during the 1-year follow-up. This study suggested that CaproF is an effective, safe and acceptable long-acting contraceptive method. It is likely to reach its contraceptive effectiveness through suppressing ovulation, inhibiting endometrium development and influencing cervical mucus characteristics.

  15. Early detection of breast cancer using total biochemical analysis of peripheral blood components: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Udi; Barlev, Eyal; Bar, Omri; Gross, Itai; Flomen, Felix; Mordechai, Shaul; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Nathan, Ilana; Kashtan, Hanoch; Wasserberg, Nir; Madhala-Givon, Osnat

    2015-05-15

    Most of the blood tests aiming for breast cancer screening rely on quantification of a single or few biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting breast cancer by analyzing the total biochemical composition of plasma as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using infrared spectroscopy. Blood was collected from 29 patients with confirmed breast cancer and 30 controls with benign or no breast tumors, undergoing screening for breast cancer. PBMCs and plasma were isolated and dried on a zinc selenide slide and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. Differences in the spectra of PBMCs and plasma between the groups were analyzed as well as the specific influence of the relevant pathological characteristics of the cancer patients. Several bands in the FTIR spectra of both blood components significantly distinguished patients with and without cancer. Employing feature extraction with quadratic discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of ~90 % and a specificity of ~80 % for breast cancer detection was achieved. These results were confirmed by Monte Carlo cross-validation. Further analysis of the cancer group revealed an influence of several clinical parameters, such as the involvement of lymph nodes, on the infrared spectra, with each blood component affected by different parameters. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of PBMCs and plasma is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the early detection of breast neoplasms. An important application of our study is the distinction between benign lesions (considered as part of the non-cancer group) and malignant tumors thus reducing false positive results at screening. Furthermore, the correlation of specific spectral changes with clinical parameters of cancer patients indicates for possible contribution to diagnosis and prognosis.

  16. Brain connectivity study of brain tumor patients using MR-PET data: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana Carina [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ribeiro, Andre Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Oros-Peusquens, Ana Maria; Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-05-18

    Brain activity results from anatomical and functional connections that can be disrupted or altered due to trauma or lesion. This work presents a first approach on the study of whole-brain connectivity of brain tumor patients using the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity (MIBCA) toolbox. Two patients with glioblastoma lesions located in the left hemisphere (one in the motor cortex and the other in the temporal lobe) underwent simultaneous MRI and dynamic PET scans using a 3T MRI scanner with a BrainPET insert. The following data was acquired: T1-w MPRAGE (1x1x1mm{sup 3}), DTI (dir=30, b=0,800s/mm2, 2x2x2mm{sup 3}), and dynamic 18F-FET PET. The MIBCA toolbox was used to automatically pre-process MRI-PET data and to derive imaging and connectivity metrics from the multimodal data. Computed metrics included: cortical thickness from T1-w data; mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), node degree, clustering coefficient and pairwise ROI fibre tracking (structural connectivity) from DTI data; and standardized uptake value (SUV) from PET data. For all the metrics, the differences between left and right hemispherical structures were obtained, followed by a 25% threshold (except for SUV thresholded at 15%). Data was visualized in a connectogram, and both structural connectivity and metrics were studied in regions surrounding lesions. Preliminary results showed increased SUV values in regions surrounding the tumor for both patients. Patients also showed changes in structural connectivity involving these regions and also other more spatially distant regions such as the putamen and the pallidum, including decreased number of fibers between the subcortical structures themselves and with frontal regions. These findings suggest that the presence of a tumor may alter both local and more distant structural connections. Presently, a larger patient sample is being studied along with the inclusion of a control group to test the consistency of the findings.

  17. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  18. A preliminary study of visual memory and rule detection in fencing. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELOS VERTOPOULOS, CHARILAOS TSOLAKIS & MARIETTA REMOUNDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate possible differences among a group of fencers and a group of swimmers, in the visual memory task and the spatial anticipation task. 15 national level fencers (aged between 16 to 23 years and 15 swimmers of a competitive swimming club (aged between 15 to 22 years, were studied. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test (BSAT was used as a measure of executive functioning. The second test was the Visual Patterns Test (VPT, which measured visual short-term memory. The Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS was also included as an estimate of general intelligence. There was a significant difference between fencers & swimmers in the BSAT, (F=5.261, p<0.030, while the analysis of the VPT test scores showed no significant differences among groups (F=0.325 p<=0.573. In conclusion, fencers showed no better performance on visual memory, while they were superior in rule detection, comparing to swimmers. The long training fencing program, may greatly affects the speed of constitute information process as attributes of the decision making speed in national level fencers.

  19. Bivariate genome-wide association study suggests that the DARC gene influences lean body mass and age at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Rong; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Yufang; Zhao, Lanjuan; Ran, Shu; Han, Yingying; Zhu, Xuezhen; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hongwen

    2012-06-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) and age at menarche (AAM) are two important complex traits for human health. The aim of this study was to identify pleiotropic genes for both traits using a powerful bivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS). Two studies, a discovery study and a replication study, were performed. In the discovery study, 909622 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 801 unrelated female Han Chinese subjects using the Affymetrix human genome-wide SNP array 6.0 platform. Then, a bivariate GWAS was performed to identify the SNPs that may be important for LBM and AAM. In the replication study, significant findings from the discovery study were validated in 1692 unrelated Caucasian female subjects. One SNP rs3027009 that was bivariately associated with left arm lean mass and AAM in the discovery samples (P=7.26×10(-6)) and in the replication samples (P=0.005) was identified. The SNP is located at the upstream of DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene, suggesting that DARC may play an important role in regulating the metabolisms of both LBM and AAM.

  20. Identification and preliminary SAR studies of (+)-Geodin as a glucose uptake stimulator for rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Seiichi; Okusa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ikenoue, Takao; Seki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    (+)-Geodin (1) was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 with activity that stimulates glucose uptake by rat adipocytes. Unlike insulin it is active in the presence of wortmannin. Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3) which are the precursors of (+)-geodin biosynthesis were also isolated from the same fungus. Preliminary SAR studies of 1 showed some analogues had enhanced activity. Especially, the activities of racemic geodin and dibromo analogue (7a) were comparable to that of the natural product. Geodin (1), a known fungal metabolite, was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 as an active substance (Fig. 1). Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3), the precursors of 1, were also isolated from the same fungal extract. In this study, preliminary mechanistic insight and SAR are reported.

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  2. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  3. Proteinases in Naegleria Fowleri (strain NF3), a pathogenic amoeba: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Amin, Nakisah

    2004-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba, known as a causative agent for a fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in man such as Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Factors contributing to its pathogenicity and its distribution in the environment have been investigated by previous researchers. In case of its pathogenicity, several enzymes such as phospolipase A and sphingomyelinase, have been proposed to probably act as aggressors in promoting PAM but no study so far have been conducted to investigate the presence of proteinase enzyme in this amoeba although a 56kDa cystein proteinase enzyme has been identified in Entamoeba histolytica as an important contributing factor in the amoeba's virulence. In this preliminary study, a pathogenic amoeba, Naegleria fowleri (strain NF3) was examined for the presence of proteinases. Samples of enzymes in this amoeba were analysed by electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE-gelatin gels. The results showed that this amoeba possesses at least two high molecular weight proteinases on gelatin gels; their apparent molecular weights are approximately 128 kDa and approximately 170 kDa. Band of approximately 128 kDa enzyme is membrane-associated and its activity is higher at alkaline pH compared with lower pH; at lower pH, its activity is greatly stimulated by DTT. The approximately 170 kDa band enzyme appears to be inactivated at pH 8.0, at lower ph its activity is higher and DTT-dependance. The activity of this enzyme is partially inhibited by inhibitor E-64 but markedly inhibited to antipain suggesting it belongs to the cysteine proteinase group.

  4. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonny- light crude oil contaminated diet ... This preliminary result suggest that Bonny-Light crude oil may have the potential .... different components. Its exploration ... organisms found in crude oil polluted.

  5. Towards a quantitative study of the VUV photolysis of methane: preliminary experiment on trichloromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, B.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Douin, S.; Gauyacq, D.

    2010-01-01

    Photolysis of methane in Titan's stratosphere is the starting point of gas phase carbon chemistry. Quantitative studies of methane photolytic products are of utmost importance for Titan atmosphere models. With this aim, two experimental strategies are presented in this article. Preliminary results demonstrate the possibility of using CRDS absorption coupled with pulsed photolysis on the example of a halogenated derivative of methane: Trichloromethane (CHCl_3).

  6. The use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) as an alternative biomarker detection technique: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Aamir; Knapp, Martin; Lang, Irene; Köhler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biomarkers are essential part of daily medical practice. Currently, biomarkers are being used both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. There are many approaches e.g. ELISA by which biomarker levels are detected from patient samples. However, all these approaches are laborious, time consuming and expensive. There is therefore a general need for exploring new technique which can overcome these drawbacks. Here, we present a preliminary study for detection of serum biomarkers by fluo...

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: bacheschi@henet.usp.br

    2001-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  8. Can anodised zirconium implants stimulate bone formation? Preliminary study in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Katunar, Maria Rosa; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea Valeria; Ballarre, Josefina; Baca, Matías; Vottola, Carlos; Orellano, Juan C.; Schell, Hanna; Duffo, Gustavo Sergio; Cere, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties and good biocompatibility of zirconium and some of its alloys focus these materials as good candidates for biomedical applications. The attractive in vivo performance of zirconium is mainly due to the presence of a protective oxide layer. In this preliminary study, surface modification of pure zirconium was made by anodisation in acidic media at low potentials, enhancing the barrier protection given by the oxides and the osseointegration. Electrochemical and SEM (scan...

  9. Blood pressure changes in African American patients receiving chiropractic care in a teaching clinic: a preliminary study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMasters, Kim L; Wang, Joe; York, Jennifer; Hart, John; Neely, Cheneir; Delain, Rochelle J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if a course of chiropractic care would change blood pressure measurements in African American patients and to determine if a study was feasible...

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  11. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  12. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is

  13. Preliminary study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan: case study (GeoJordan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications.The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of a Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for the geodetic applications in the country. This work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for «The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan». The model is created using gravimetric data and the GRAVSOFT program. The model is validated using GPS and precise level measurements in the Amman area. Moreover, we present a comparison using the Global Geopotential Model OSU91A and the EGM96 Model and the results showed great discrepancies. We also present the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. We found that the error margin obtained in this work of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurements is about (10 cm in the tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40 cm.

  14. The career aspirations of adolescents with eating disorders: an exploratory study and suggested links to adolescent self-concept development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis K; Tzavela, Eleni C; Apostolidou, Eftychia; Antonogeorgos, George; Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of eating disorders (EDs) in adolescence have been widely studied, but their impact on present adolescent psychosocial adjustment and development have been overseen. This study aimed to investigate the association between EDs and career aspirations in middle adolescence. The participants were 147 adolescents diagnosed with EDs. Participants reported on their future career aspirations, and these were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education of 1997. Of the participants, 83 adolescents were followed up longitudinally, and their aspirations were reassessed and compared for stability across the two assessments. Moreover, participants' career aspirations were compared to those of healthy (non-ED) best-friend controls. Health-related and social-behavioral science careers were chosen significantly more by adolescents with an ED as compared to their non-ED counterparts. For adolescents with an ED, career choices were consistent across reassessments. These findings suggest that adolescents with an ED gravitate toward careers associated with their pathology, namely, both facets of their mind-body pathology. This finding may indicate restricted identity development for adolescents with an ED. Suggestions for treatments protocols to include identity exploration are discussed.

  15. Preliminary Study on Management of Agricultural Scientific Research Projects in the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan LUO; Qingqun YAO; Lizhen CHEN; Yu ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Project management of agricultural scientific research institutions is an important section of agricultural scientific research plan management. It is of great significance for sustainable development of scientific research work of scientific research institutions. According to a series of opinions and notices about scientific and technological system reform issued by the state,and combining current situations of management of scientific research projects in scientific research institutions,this paper made a preliminary study on management of agricultural scientific research projects in the new trend. Finally,on the basis of the current situations of management of agricultural scientific research projects,it came up with pertinent recommendations,including strengthening communication and cooperation and actively declaring projects,strengthening preliminary planning of projects and establishing project information database,reinforcing project process management,ensuring on-time and high quality completion of projects,and strengthening learning and improving quality of management personnel.

  16. Preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation measurements for medical and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Calabretta, L; Cirrone, G A P C; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Fiorini, F; Giacoppo, F; Mairani, A; Morone, M C; Patera, V; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Ricciardi, V; Romano, F; Sala, P; Sciubba, A

    2010-01-01

    Here we report on preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation cross sections measurements useful for medical and space applications. In particular, we looked at the hadrontherapy and space radiation research. Indeed, the measure of fragmentation cross sections is an important information to estimate how this process modifies dose distributions and biological effectiveness, both inside human body and spacecraft. In this picture we started to measure the fragmentation of 12C beam accelerated by the Superconducting Cyclotron at 32 AMeV, 62 AMeV on 12C, 207Pb and 197Au at the INFN Laboratory Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). Preliminary comparison between absolute cross-sections measured for the systems: 12C+207Pb at 32AMeV and for 12C+197Au at 62AMeV is performed.

  17. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  18. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  19. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  20. Heritability of face shape in twins: a preliminary study using 3D stereophotogrammetry and geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. Weinberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable.  Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape.  In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic.  Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis.  This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis.  The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.

  1. Study of Gene Trafficking between Acanthamoeba and Giant Viruses Suggests an Undiscovered Family of Amoeba-Infecting Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumus, Florian; Blanc, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain unicellular eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. These findings prompted us to search the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Neff (Neff), one of the most prolific hosts in the discovery of giant NCLDVs, for possible DNA inserts of viral origin. We report the identification of 267 markers of lateral gene transfer with viruses, approximately half of which are clustered in Neff genome regions of viral origins, transcriptionally inactive or exhibit nucleotide-composition signatures suggestive of a foreign origin. The integrated viral genes had diverse origin among relatives of viruses that infect Neff, including Mollivirus, Pandoravirus, Marseillevirus, Pithovirus, and Mimivirus. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests the existence of a yet-undiscovered family of amoeba-infecting NCLDV in addition to the five already characterized. The active transcription of some apparently anciently integrated virus-like genes suggests that some viral genes might have been domesticated during the amoeba evolution. These insights confirm that genomic insertion of NCLDV DNA is a common theme in eukaryotes. This gene flow contributed fertilizing the eukaryotic gene repertoire and participated in the occurrence of orphan genes, a long standing issue in genomics. Search for viral inserts in eukaryotic genomes followed by environmental screening of the original viruses should be used to isolate radically new NCLDVs. PMID:27811174

  2. Genetic knockout and pharmacological blockade studies of the 5-HT7 receptor suggest therapeutic potential in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscott, M; Bristow, L J; Hadingham, K; Rosahl, T W; Beer, M S; Stanton, J A; Bromidge, F; Owens, A P; Huscroft, I; Myers, J; Rupniak, N M; Patel, S; Whiting, P J; Hutson, P H; Fone, K C; Biello, S M; Kulagowski, J J; McAllister, G

    2005-03-01

    The affinity of several antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs for the 5-HT7 receptor and its CNS distribution suggest potential in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. However, there is little direct evidence of receptor function in vivo to support this. We therefore evaluated 5-HT7 receptors as a potential drug target by generating and assessing a 5-HT7 receptor knockout mouse. No difference in assays sensitive to potential psychotic or anxiety states was observed between the 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and wild type controls. However, in the Porsolt swim test, 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice showed a significant decrease in immobility compared to controls, a phenotype similar to antidepressant treated mice. Intriguingly, treatment of wild types with SB-258719, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, did not produce a significant decrease in immobility unless animals were tested in the dark (or active) cycle, rather than the light, adding to the body of evidence suggesting a circadian influence on receptor function. Extracellular recordings from hypothalamic slices showed that circadian rhythm phase shifts to 8-OH-DPAT are attenuated in the 5-HT7 receptor KO mice also indicating a role for the receptor in the regulation of circadian rhythms. These pharmacological and genetic knockout studies provide the first direct evidence that 5-HT7 receptor antagonists should be investigated for efficacy in the treatment of depression.

  3. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  4. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  5. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background study: Fifth year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the fifth year of the multiyear study entitled, "The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex)...

  7. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  8. A Sensitivity Study for an Evaluation of Input Parameters Effect on a Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun-Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Dong-Hoon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis has been based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis has been performed by using the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. To consider the uncertainties in hazard analysis, the probabilistic method has been regarded as attractive approach. The various parameters and their weight are considered by using the logic tree approach in the probabilistic method. The uncertainties of parameters should be suggested by analyzing the sensitivity because the various parameters are used in the hazard analysis. To apply the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis, the preliminary study for the Ulchin NPP site had been performed. The information on the fault sources which was published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) had been used in the preliminary study. The tsunami propagation was simulated by using the TSUNAMI{sub 1}.0 which was developed by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The wave parameters have been estimated from the result of tsunami simulation. In this study, the sensitivity analysis for the fault sources which were selected in the previous studies has been performed. To analyze the effect of the parameters, the sensitivity analysis for the E3 fault source which was published by AESJ was performed. The effect of the recurrence interval, the potential maximum magnitude, and the beta were suggested by the sensitivity analysis results. Level of annual exceedance probability has been affected by the recurrence interval.. Wave heights have been influenced by the potential maximum magnitude and the beta. In the future, the sensitivity analysis for the all fault sources in the western part of Japan which were published AESJ would be performed.

  9. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  10. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  11. Dosing of Milrinone in Preterm Neonates to Prevent Postligation Cardiac Syndrome: Simulation Study Suggests Need for Bolus Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallik, Maarja; Tasa, Tõnis; Starkopf, Joel; Metsvaht, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    Milrinone has been suggested as a possible first-line therapy for preterm neonates to prevent postligation cardiac syndrome (PLCS) through decreasing systemic vascular resistance and increasing cardiac contractility. The optimal dosing regimen, however, is not known. To model the dosing of milrinone in preterm infants for prevention of PLCS after surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Milrinone time-concentration profiles were simulated for 1,000 subjects using the volume of distribution and clearance estimates based on one compartmental population pharmacokinetic model by Paradisis et al. [Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2007;92:F204-F209]. Dose optimization was based on retrospectively collected demographic data from neonates undergoing PDA ligation in Estonian PICUs between 2012 and 2014 and existing pharmacodynamic data. The target plasma concentration was set at 150-200 ng/ml. The simulation study used demographic data from 31 neonates who underwent PDA ligation. The median postnatal age was 13 days (range: 3-29) and weight was 760 g (range: 500-2,351). With continuous infusion of milrinone 0.33 μg/kg/min, the proportion of subjects within the desired concentration range was 0% by 3 h, 36% by 6 h, and 61% by 8 h; 99% of subjects exceeded the range by 18 h. The maximum proportion of total simulated concentrations in the target range was attained with a bolus infusion of 0.73 μg/kg/min for 3 h followed by a 0.16-μg/kg/min maintenance infusion. Mathematical simulations suggest that in preterm neonates the plasma time-concentration profile of milrinone can be optimized with a slow loading dose followed by maintenance infusion. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure. PMID:26201074

  13. Evaluation on the Implementation of Urban and Rural Planning Law and Some Policy Suggestions: A Case Study in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Kai; Li; Hao; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the implementation of the Urban and Rural Planning Law in western China through questionnaires, interviews, onsite visits, and literature analysis. Results show that, though the western region has made great progress in the study and publicity of the Law, as well as in their local legislation and administrative system adjustments, there are problems impeding the implementation of the Law, such as overlapping government administration, inadequate implementation measures, controversial provisions that cause operational difficulties, local legislative confusion, and poor legal awareness. As such, this article proposes suggestions as follows: to legalize the detailed implementation rules and regulations, as well as other related regulations and technical standards, in order to improve the system of urban and rural planning laws and regulations; to strengthen legal supervision to maintain the authority of the law; to formulate proper planning policy guidelines based on the specifi c conditions of western region; and to strengthen the publicity, education, and training of the Law so as to promote the publics’ legal awareness.

  14. The Portuguese formal social support for autonomy and dependence in pain inventory (FSSADI_PAIN): a preliminary validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F

    2013-09-01

    Development and preliminary validation of a Portuguese measure of perceived Formal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain (FSSADI_PAIN). One hundred and fifty-one older adults (88.1% women), between 56 and 94 years of age (M = 75.41; SD = 9.11), who attended one of the following institutions--day care centre (33.1%), nursing home (36.4%) and senior university (30.5%)--were recruited for this study. Along with the FSSADI_PAIN, participants filled out the Portuguese versions of the Brief Pain Inventory (Azevedo et al., 2007, Dor, 15, 6) and the Social Support Scale of Medical Outcomes Survey (Pais-Ribeiro & Ponte, 2009, Psicologia, Saúde & Doença, 10, 163). The factorial structure reflected the functions of perceived promotion of (1) dependence and (2) autonomy, showing good internal consistency (α > .70) and sensitivity indices. The FSSADI_PAIN showed good content, discriminant and criterion validity; it differentiated the perceptions of promotion of dependence/autonomy according to individual's pain severity and disability, as well as the type of institution. These preliminary findings suggest that the FSSADI_PAIN is an innovative and promising measure of perceived formal social support adapted to pain-related contexts. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Application of the LEPS technique for Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF in Southern Italy: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results for a Limited area model Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS, based on RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System, for eight case studies of moderate-intense precipitation over Calabria, the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula. LEPS aims to transfer the benefits of a probabilistic forecast from global to regional scales in countries where local orographic forcing is a key factor to force convection. To accomplish this task and to limit computational time in an operational implementation of LEPS, we perform a cluster analysis of ECMWF-EPS runs. Starting from the 51 members that form the ECMWF-EPS we generate five clusters. For each cluster a representative member is selected and used to provide initial and dynamic boundary conditions to RAMS, whose integrations generate LEPS. RAMS runs have 12-km horizontal resolution. To analyze the impact of enhanced horizontal resolution on quantitative precipitation forecasts, LEPS forecasts are compared to a full Brute Force (BF ensemble. This ensemble is based on RAMS, has 36 km horizontal resolution and is generated by 51 members, nested in each ECMWF-EPS member. LEPS and BF results are compared subjectively and by objective scores. Subjective analysis is based on precipitation and probability maps of case studies whereas objective analysis is made by deterministic and probabilistic scores. Scores and maps are calculated by comparing ensemble precipitation forecasts against reports from the Calabria regional raingauge network. Results show that LEPS provided better rainfall predictions than BF for all case studies selected. This strongly suggests the importance of the enhanced horizontal resolution, compared to ensemble population, for Calabria for these cases. To further explore the impact of local physiographic features on QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting, LEPS results are also compared with a 6-km horizontal resolution deterministic forecast. Due

  16. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  17. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Pilot Study on HIV and Quality of Life and a Suggested Cure for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the association between the immunological impact of HIV (measured by CD4 count and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL (measured with QOL1 for people suffering from HIV, to see if the connection was large and statistically strong enough to support our hypothesis of a strong QOL-immunological connection through the nonspecific, nonreceptor-mediated immune system, and thus to give a rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. This cross-sectional population study in Uganda included 20 HIV infected persons with no symptoms of AIDS and a CD4 count above 200 mill./liter. The main outcome measures were CD4 count, global QOL measured with the validated questionnaire QOL1, translated to Luganda and translated back to English. We found a large, clinically significant correlation between the number of T-helper cells (CD4 and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL1 (r = 0.57, p = 0.021, when controlled for age, gender, and years of infection. Together with other studies and holistic medicine theory, the results have given rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. We suggest, based on our findings and theoretical considerations, that HIV patients who improve their global QOL, also will improve their CD4 counts. Using the technique of holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, we hypothesize that the improvement of QOL can have sufficient biological effect on the CD4, which could avoid or postpone the development of AIDS. A holistic HIV/AIDS cure improving the QOL draws on hidden resources in the person and is thus affordable for everybody. Improving global QOL also means a higher consciousness and a more ethical attitude, making it more difficult for the HIV-infected person to pass on the infection.

  18. Stabilization of Pb and Cu in contaminated soils using (nano)oxides - a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Michael; Michálková, Zuzana; Vaněk, Aleš

    2013-04-01

    Chemical stabilization techniques (the application of various stabilizing amendments, which by chemical means reduces contaminant mobility, bioavailability and bioaccessibility) have shown to be possible less destructive alternatives to conventional remediation options. Most stabilization techniques aim at rendering less available the metal(loid) fractions that can pose significant environmental and/or toxicological risks and protecting the functionality of the soil environment. Nano-particulate oxides (particle size of 1-100 nm) are important scavengers of contaminants in soils and due to their reactive and relatively large specific surface area, engineered oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for the remediation of soils contaminated with inorganic pollutants. However, studies assessing the efficiency of these amendments in contaminated soils are still rather scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the stabilization efficiency of four (nano)oxides (maghemite, magnetite, gibbsite and amorphous Mn oxide (AMO)) in two soils contaminated with Cu (400 mg/kg; pH 3.6) and Pb (1500 mg/kg; pH 5.5), respectively, using chemical extraction methods (CaCl2, EDTA and the BCR sequential extraction) and direct sampling of soil solution using rhizons. The results suggest that the application of the oxides did not influence the pH of the soils, with the only exception of the AMO, which increased the pH and resulted into the formation of MnCO3 on the oxide surface (data from SEM and XRD). Additionally, the high reactivity of the oxides led to increased DOC concentrations originating from the dissolved soil organic matter, especially in the case of the AMO. The AMO was also the most efficient stabilizing amendment for Cu (most significant decrease in Cu in soil solution, in the exchangeable fraction and CaCl2/EDTA extracts), promoted by the pH increase. Despite their lower particle size, maghemite, magnetite and gibbsite were less efficient; although partial

  19. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment.

  20. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Xiao

    Full Text Available The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1 is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP or ubiquinone reduction (QN site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  1. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Mei; Esser, Lothar; Zhou, Fei; Li, Chang; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Chang-An; Qin, Zhao-Hai; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP) or ubiquinone reduction (QN) site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  2. Preliminary Sensitivity Study of Upper Head Nodalization for LBLOCA in APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Yoo, Seung Hun; Cho, Dae-Hyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the key-way bypass was determined to be - 0.3 %. The steady state condition which is the initial condition for LBLOCA was obtained by MARS-KS calculation. Up to now, it was assumed that the temperature of the upper dome in APR-1400 was close to that of the cold leg. However, it was found that the temperature of the upper head/dome might be a little lower than or similar to that of the hot leg through the evaluation of the detailed design data. Since the higher upper head temperature affects blowdown quenching and peak cladding temperature in the reflood phase, the nodalization for upper head should be modified. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for LBLOCA was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature was evaluated qualitatively. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for upper head in APR-1400 was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature on LBLOCA PCT was evaluated qualitatively. Through the transient calculation, it was confirmed that the upper head temperature affects the water inventory in the upper head at the early stage of LBLOCA so it does the blowdown quenching and following reflood PCT significantly. The results in this study were caused by very conservative upper head temperature determination.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L; Finucane, Hilary K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kennedy, James L; Knight, Jo

    2016-09-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been interpreted as strong genetic evidence supporting the immune hypothesis. However, global pathway analyses provide inconsistent evidence of immune involvement in schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether genetic data support an immune etiology per se. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that variation in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated with schizophrenia, we identify 6 immune candidates (DPP4, HSPD1, EGR1, CLU, ESAM, NFATC3) encoding proteins with alternative, nonimmune roles in the brain. While our findings do not refute evidence that has accumulated in support of the immune hypothesis, they suggest that genetically mediated alterations in immune function may not play a major role in schizophrenia susceptibility. Instead, there may be a role for pleiotropic effects of a small number of immune genes that also regulate brain development and plasticity. Whether immune alterations drive schizophrenia progression is an important question to be addressed by future research, especially in light of the growing interest in applying immunotherapies in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  4. From Distraction to Contribution: A Preliminary Study on How Peers Outside the Group Can Contribute to Students’ Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active Learning Classrooms are new learning spaces that allow collaborative learning activities to take place easily over the traditional classroom. However, some features of these rooms could be viewed as “distracting” to students’ learning such as the multiple interactive screens. The purpose of this paper is to begin the conversation on how subtle roles in the learning environment could impact learning. Using a case study approach, an activity from one course was chosen that exemplified how peers outside students’ immediate group can influence their learning. Based on the preliminary findings, it is suggested that being aware of these subtle roles peers outside the group can have on students and making them explicit in the pedagogical design of the course can lead to maximizing the usage of the space to potentially foster greater learning.

  5. Elevated serotonin transporter binding in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease: a preliminary PET study with [11C]DASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Isabelle; Warsh, Jerry J; Guttman, Mark; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McCluskey, Tina; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Kish, Stephen J

    2008-09-15

    This study investigated whether abnormalities in serotonin transporter binding occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with concurrent depression. We estimated serotonin transporter levels in seven clinically depressed early-stage PD patients and in seven healthy matched-control subjects during a single positron emission tomography (PET) scan with the serotonin transporter radioligand, [(11)C]DASB. Depressed PD patients displayed a wide-spread increase (8-68%) in [(11)C]DASB specific binding outside of the striatum, which was significant in dorsolateral (37%) and prefrontal (68%) cortices. Elevated [(11)C]DASB binding was positively correlated with depressive symptoms but not with disease severity or duration. Compatible with recent PET/[(11)C]DASB findings in major depression, the present preliminary data suggest that increased [(11)C]DASB binding, possibly reflecting greater serotonin transporter density (up-regulation), might be a pathological feature of depression in Parkinson's disease-and possibly a characteristic of depressive illness in general.

  6. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 μg/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  7. Evaluation of the Role of Probiotics in Endodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Aarti; Kokate, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i.e. E. faecalis and C. albicans, and (b) to evaluate the potential use of probiotic therapy as an additive in endodontic treatment procedures. Materials and Methods: Two commercial probiotics were selected and evaluated based upon the numbers and concentration of organisms. Pathogenic test organisms were C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Phase 1 of the study was conducted by agar cup method test to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the selected probiotics against E. faecalis and C. albicans by measuring zones of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Microorganisms from probiotic samples were isolated following manufacturer's instructions. Pathogenic organisms were set to a 0.1 McFarland standard challenge. Circular wells of 8 mm diameter were punched in each of the poured plates. Appropriately diluted test samples were added to the above-punched wells. The volume of the solution added to each well was 100 μl. The plates were incubated in an upright position at 37°C for 24 hours under aerobic conditions. Post incubation, ZOI was measured (mm). Phase 2 was conducted by mixing 9 ml of 30% poloxamer 407 and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth in a test tube with 500 μl of either E. faecalis or C. albicans set at an optical density (OD) of 0.252, together with 500 μl of test probiotic strain, set at a respective OD. Samples were then incubated at 37°C for

  8. Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Shefali; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) is a dicopper enzyme that plays a vital role in the amidation of glycine-extended pro-peptides. One of the crucial aspects of its chemistry is the transfer of two electrons from an electron-storing and -transferring site (CuH) to the oxygen binding site and catalytic center (CuM) over a distance of 11 Å during one catalytic turnover event. Here we present our studies of the first electron transfer (ET) step (reductive phase) in wild-type (WT) PHM as well as its variants. Stopped flow was used to record the reduction kinetic traces using the chromophoric agent N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) as the reductant. The reduction was found to be biphasic in the WT PHM with an initial fast phase (17.2 s(-1)) followed by a much slower phase (0.46 s(-1)). We were able to ascribe the fast and slow phase to the CuH and CuM sites, respectively, by making use of the H242A and H107AH108A mutants that contain only the CuH site and CuM site, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the redox potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry were 270 mV (CuH site) and -15 mV (CuM site), but binding of substrate (Ac-YVG) was found to alter both potentials so that they converged to a common value of 83 mV. Substrate binding also accelerated the slow reductive phase by ~10-fold, an effect that could be explained at least partially by the equalization of the reduction potential of the copper centers. Studies of H108A showed that the ET to the CuM site is blocked, highlighting the role of the H108 ligand as a component of the reductive ET pathway. Strikingly, the rate of reduction of the H172A variant was unaffected despite the rate of catalysis being 3 orders of magnitude slower than that of the WT PHM. These studies strongly indicate that the reductive phase and catalytic phase ET pathways are different and suggest a bifurcated ET pathway in PHM. We propose that H172 and Y79 form part of an alternate pathway for the catalytic phase

  9. Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.; Haven, K.

    1979-12-01

    This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  10. A Preliminary Study on 1D Numerical Experiment of Water Debris Flow in Gully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve and enhance the numerical modeling methods and its application on debris flow problems,a preliminary study has been proposed in accordance with the corrected water-sediment numerical model on the premise of revised resistance and sediment capacity equations.Firstly,an overview the recent re- search achievements on numerical simulation of debris flow has been conducted,the results shown that a gener- al numerical model for debris flow can not be existed at all because the complex rheol...

  11. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  12. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants.

  13. Preliminary study on the energy coefficients of buildings; Vorstudie zur Erhebung von Energiekennzahlen von Wohnbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Bade, S. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Baumgartner, A.; Bleisch, M. [Amstein und Walthert, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study concerning the definition of a method for the cost-effective and reliable collection of data and the calculation of energy coefficients for residential buildings in Switzerland. On the basis of data already collected, typical coefficients for various types of building are proposed. Also, reasons for considerable differences between the data of various Swiss Cantons are investigated. Requirements and criteria for the judgement of the energy coefficients are discussed and the methods used by various Swiss cities and Cantons are reviewed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  14. Preliminary studies of the constructive technical viability of a refrigeration using eolica energy

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge de Jesus Passinho e Silva

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho procuramos analisar o funcionamento de um compressor de freqüência variável que utilizasse a energia eólica, em São Luis do Maranhão, para manter um sistema de refrigeração funcionando. Para isto foi necessário conhecer os valores locais das velocidades de vento e escolhemos o cata vento tipo Savonius para atingirmos nosso objetivo Abstract: Preliminary studies of the constructive e technical viability, of a system of refrigeration using Eolica Energy, in order to ke...

  15. A preliminary and qualitative metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of fish from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Paula M; Santos, Felipe A; Padilha, Cilene C F; Vieira, José C S; Zara, Luiz F; de M Padilha, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish species from Amazonas, Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent evaluation of mercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra revealed mercury in two protein spots. The mercury-containing protein spots showed molecular weights of 20.8 ± 0.7 and 19.8 ± 0.5 kDa and isoelectric points of 5.6 ± 0.2 and 7.5 ± 0.3, respectively.

  16. A preliminary study to find out maximum occlusal bite force in Indian individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Veena; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Pillai, Rajath;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This preliminary hospital based study was designed to measure the mean maximum bite force (MMBF) in healthy Indian individuals. An attempt was made to correlate MMBF with body mass index (BMI) and some of the anthropometric features. METHODOLOGY: A total of 358 healthy subjects in the age...... in subjects having concave facial profile when compared to convex (P = 0.045) and straight (P = 0.039) facial profile. BMI and arch form showed no significant relationship with MMBF. CONCLUSION: The MMBF is found to be affected by gender and some of the anthropometric features like facial form and palatal...

  17. Energy monitoring and the 'energy passport' for buildings - Preliminary study; Energie-Monitoring Gebaeude und Gebaeude-Energiepass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A.; Menti, U.-P. [Amstein and Walthert AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sigg, R.; Besser, U. [Intep Integrale Planung GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the situation in Switzerland with regard to the creation of an energy-consumption rating system for buildings. Present and future developments in Europe in this area are examined. This preliminary study provides the basis for a main study in that it defines the main questions to be looked at. Present-day data collection on the energy consumption of buildings is looked at critically. The authors suggest the integration of an energy-consumption data bank in the existing building and apartment register. The situation in Europe, where specific ideas on the introduction of national 'energy passports' for buildings are being looked at, is considered. The work that will have to be done in Switzerland in this area is reviewed, and the essential prerequisites for the implementation of such an energy-monitoring system are discussed.

  18. Progressive effect of beta amyloid peptides accumulation on CA1 pyramidal neurons: a model study suggesting possible treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eCulmone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several independent studies show that accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides , one of the characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, can affect normal neuronal activity in different ways. However, in spite of intense experimental work to explain the possible underlying mechanisms of action, a comprehensive and congruent understanding is still lacking. Part of the problem might be the opposite ways in which Aβ have been experimentally found to affect the normal activity of a neuron; for example, making a neuron more excitable (by reducing the A- or DR-type K+ currents or less excitable (by reducing synaptic transmission and Na+ current. The overall picture is therefore confusing, since the interplay of many mechanisms makes it difficult to link individual experimental findings with the more general problem of understanding the progression of the disease. This is an important issue, especially for the development of new drugs trying to ameliorate the effects of the disease. We addressed these paradoxes through computational models. We first modeled the different stages of AD by progressively modifying the intrinsic membrane and synaptic properties of a realistic model neuron, while accounting for multiple and different experimental findings and by evaluating the contribution of each mechanism to the overall modulation of the cell’s excitability. We then tested a number of manipulations of channel and synaptic activation properties that could compensate for the effects of Aβ. The model predicts possible therapeutic treatments in terms of pharmacological manipulations of channels’ kinetic and activation properties. The results also suggest how and which mechanisms can be targeted by a drug to restore the original firing conditions.

  19. SPANISH MULTICENTRIC STUDY ABOUT NUTRITION-INFLAMATIONhn WITH MID DILUTION (ENIMID STUDY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barril G

    2012-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: 1-The preliminary results show that MidDilution provides a good removal of small and middle molecules, increases appetite by providing a proper balance of cytokines through stimulation of antiinflamatory ones and neuropeptide Y. 2-It provides an improvement of body composition. Finally MidDilution improves nutritional parameters which leads to a better quality of life, as well as physical and mental status.

  20. Compulsive sexual behavior inventory: a preliminary study of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, E; Miner, M; Ohlerking, F; Raymond, N

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study was designed to develop empirically a scale of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to test its reliability and validity in a sample of individuals with nonparaphilic CSB (N = 15), in a sample of pedophiles (N = 35) in treatment for sexual offending, and in a sample of normal controls (N = 42). Following a factor analysis and a varimax rotation, those items with factor loadings on the rotated factors of greater than .60 were retained. Three factors were identified, which appeared to measure control, abuse, and violence. Cronbach's alphas indicated that the subscales have good reliability. The 28-item scale was then tested for validity by a linear discriminant function analysis. The scale successfully discriminated the nonparaphilic CSB sample and the pedophiles from controls. Further analysis indicated that this scale is a valid measure of CSB in that there were significant differences between the three groups on the control subscale. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than the other two groups on the abuse subscale, with the other two groups not scoring significantly differently from one another. This indicated that pedophiles were more abusive than the nonparaphilic CSB individuals or the controls. Pedophiles scored significantly lower than controls on the violence subscale. Nonparaphilic individuals with compulsive sexual behavior scored slightly lower on the violence subscale, although not significantly different. As a preliminary study, there are several limitations to this study, which should be addressed, in further studies with larger sample sizes.

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical, UV-VIS, HPLC and Anti-bacterial Studies on Gracilaria corticata J. Ag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnaveni Eahamban; Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and UV-VIS, HPTC profiling and the antibacterial activity of Gracilaria corticata J. Ag extracts against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out by Harborne method. The G. corticata extracts were tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The results of the presence study showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic groups, saponins, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and sugars. Proteins, xantoproteins, coumarins and catechin did not show any positive result for their presence in any of the six extracts of Gracilaria corticata tested. The result of the present study revealed the various behavior character of Gracilaria corticata crude drug. The UV-VIS spectrum profile of Gracilaria corticata methanolic, petroleum ether, benzene and aqueous extracts profiles were recorded. The HPLC profile of Gracilaria corticata petroleum ether benzene and aqueous extracts were tabulated. The maximum (9/12 bacterial pathogens) degree of antibacterial activity was observed in isopropanol soxhlet extracts followed by isopropanol cold extracts (7/12 bacterial pathogens). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that G. corticata may be rich sources of phytoconstituents which can be isolated and further screened for different kinds of biological activities, depending on their reported therapeutic uses.

  2. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  3. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  4. Preliminary studies of a new accelerator-driven minor actinide burner in industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, No. 54, Beijing 100082 (China); Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new accelerator-driven minor actinide (MA) burner was proposed. • Comprehensive design of spallation target, fuel assembly and subcritical core was performed. • Preliminary safety analyses indicate the inherent safety of the core in the reactivity insertion (500 pcm) and beam overpower (50% increase) transients. - Abstract: Pursuing high transmutation rate of minor actinide (MA), a preliminary conceptual design of a lead-bismuth (LBE) cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) is proposed in this study. Parametric studies are performed to optimize the neutronics and thermal–hydraulics performances. The proton energy and axial position of the proton beam impact is investigated to obtain high neutron source efficiency and spallation neutron yield. The influences of MA/Pu mixing ratio and the ratio of pin pitch to diameter (P/D) are also optimized to control the burnup reactivity swing and the minimum coolant velocity for adequate cooling. To reduce the power peak, three kinds of power flattening techniques are adopted and compared. The results show that the inert matrix ratio zone loading method seems more versatile. Based on the analyses, an optimized three zone loading pattern is proposed for the 800 MWth subcritical core. The total transmutation rate of MA is 328.8 kg per effective full power year. Preliminary safety analyses based on the balance of power method (BOP) are performed and the results show that in the reactivity insertion and beam overpower transients, the core shows inherent safety, but the scram is necessary by cutting off the beam current to protect the core from possible damages caused by the loss of flow.

  5. Preliminary study of MAGAT polymer gel dosimetry for boron-neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Uchida, Ryohei; Suzuki, Minoru; Usui, Shuji; Tominaga, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    MAGAT gel dosimeter with boron is irradiated in Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The cylindrical gel phantoms are exposed to neutron beams of three different energy spectra (thermal neutron rich, epithermal and fast neutron rich and the mixed modes) in air. Preliminary results corresponding to depth-dose responses are obtained as the transverse relaxation rate (R2=1/T2) from magnetic resonance imaging data. As the results MAGAT gel dosimeter has the higher sensitivity on thermal neutron than on epi-thermal and fast neutron, and the gel with boron showed an enhancement and a change in the depth-R2 response explicitly. From these results, it is suggested that MAGAT gel dosimeter can be an effective tool in BNCT dosimetry.

  6. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  7. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  8. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on a spike-moss Selaginella inaequalifolia (hook. & grev.) Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varaprasadham Irudayaraj; Janaky M; Marimuthu Johnson; Nallayan Selvan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-cancer spike-mosses for the presence of various bioactivities and to identify the important bioactive chemicals present in Selaginella inaequalifolia (S.inaequalifolia ) (Hook. & Grev.) Spring. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by following the method of Brindha et al. Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: Results of preliminary phytochemical screening on five different extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water) of the spike-mossS. inaequalifolia show the presence steroids, triterpenes, phenolic group, tannin, sugars and catechin. Alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinone and reducing sugar did not show any positive result. Among the five different extracts, ethanol and chloroform extracts show the presence of maximum number (4 each) of compounds. The results on antimicrobial studies show that all the three microbes [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) ] tested are resistant to the ethanol extract and susceptible to petroleum ether extract. The petroleum ether extract shows maximum inhibition with 45 mm of inhibition zone in C. albicans. The inhibition zone in S. aureus and E. coli are 26 mm and 22 mm respectively. Conclusions: The present study shows S. inaequalifolia having potent antibacterial and anticandidal activities.

  10. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  11. Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of antiphospholipid antibodies in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Toledo Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA in multiple sclerosis (MS patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have heretofore been shown. We assessed the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS patients with plasma APLA. Methods A consecutive cohort of 24 subjects with relapsing-remitting (RR MS were studied of whom 7 were in remission (Rem and 17 in exacerbation (Exc. All subjects were examined and underwent MRI of brain. Patients' plasma was tested by standard ELISA for the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies using a panel of 6 targets: cardiolipin (CL, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, Factor VII/VIIa (FVIIa, phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Results In exacerbation up to 80% of MS subjects had elevated titers of IgM antibodies directed against the above antigens. However, in remission, less than half of MS patients had elevated titers of IgM antibodies against one or more of the above antigens. This difference was significant, p Conclusion The findings of this preliminary study show that increased APLA IgM is associated with exacerbations of MS. Currently, the significance of this association in pathogenesis of MS remains unknown. However, systematic longitudinal studies to measure APLA in larger cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, particularly before and after treatment with immunomodulatory agents, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  12. Physical and Dosimetric Optimization of Laser Equipment in Dermatology: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soriani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the correlation between clinical set-up at present used in the treatment of specific skin conditions and laser beam absorbed power in the tissue. This study focused on the CO2 and Nd-Yag laser equipment used in the daily clinical practice in the Department of Dermatology of San Gallicano Institute in Rome. Different types of tissue-equivalent material with various water and haemoglobin concentrations were tested to evaluate laser beam attenuation power. In particular, thinly sliced pork loin, of uniform consistency and without fat, was selected for its high content of haemoglobin to mimic human tissues. An optical power meter was used to measure the power or energy of a laser beam. During measurements, the tissue equivalent phantoms were positioned on the detector head and the laser beam was orthogonally oriented. The results of two experimental set-ups are reported here. The dependence of residual power (W as a function of ex vivo tissue thickness (mm for different laser output powers was studied. Data were fitted by a parametric logistic equation. These preliminary data allow for more accurately determining the energy fraction released from lasers to the tissues in order to improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  14. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  15. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    , whereas the following elements behaved incompatibly (in increasing order of incompatibility: Cr, Ni, Cu, Zr, Co, Cs, Ag Nb, Hf, Ta, Rb). Apparent D values between the two coexisting melt phases (DFe-rich-Si-rich) show that most trace elements were weakly compatible or incompatible in each melt phase, with the exception of V, Co, Rb, Sr and Cs that show consistent enrichment in the Fe-rich melt phase. Preliminary melt inclusion analyses suggest that the earliest (and quenched?) melt phase of the SIC, as represented by sublayer quartz diorite, was enriched in Ni and Cu, up to an order of magnitude higher than those liquids trapped in the units stratigraphically higher in the SIC, and may reflect loss of these metals to early sulfide liquids. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of layered intrusions world-wide and may lead to the development of parameters that enhance exploration success in mafic-ultramafic systems where post-magmatic processes have severely limited the application of bulk rock chemistry in understanding their petrogenesis. This study provides the first in-situ determination of actual ore-metal concentrations and partitioning behavior of ore metals and other trace elements in a differentiated, mafic-ultramafic intrusion.

  16. A Corpus-Based System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion for Spanish Learners in Taiwan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Compared with English learners, Spanish learners have fewer resources for automatic error detection and revision and following the current integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), we combined corpus-based approach and CALL to create the System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion (SEDRS) for learning Spanish. Through…

  17. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  18. [The use of MLVA for Corynebacterium diphtheriae genotyping--preliminary studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Jagielski, Marek; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of strain NCTC 13129 C. diphtheriae were investigated in order to identify tandem repeats (VNTR). From 75 VNTR loci identified in the genome 14 were selected. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized for amplification of the selected VNTR markers. Preliminary studies of usefulness of selected VNTR markers were conducted using a group of 28 C. diphtheriae strains. From 14 markers 8 were regarded as potentially useful. The diversity of individual markers ranged from 1 to 6 alleles (Simpson index from 0 to 0,746). No diversity were observed for 3 VNTR markers but it could be a results of too small group of strains analyzed in the tests. Simpson diversity index calculated for all the markers tested on 28 strains was 0,87. Results of the preliminary studies showed usefulness of MLVA for C. diphtheriae genotyping. Nevertheless, confirmation of reliability of the method should be done using a large group of strains. Moreover, the method should be compared with other genotyping methods.

  19. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  20. Crime and health: a preliminary study into the effects of crime on the mental health of UK university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrall, P; Marshall, P; Pattison, S; Macdonald, G

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the findings from a preliminary study in the UK into the effects of crime on health. The aim of the study was to investigate what victims of crime report to be the effects of both actual crime and the fear of crime on their physical and psychological health (as well as social well-being) and what actions they take (if any) to deal with these effects. A survey method was adopted using a modified version of the 'Health, Quality of Life and Crime Questionnaire' with 866 undergraduate student respondents from three UK universities. University students were selected as the sample population because, as a group, they form a specific 'victim community'. Conclusions extrapolated from the respondents' replies were first, there are serious negative health effects (particularly on psychological health) of a considerable minority of those students who are victims of crime. Second, the vast majority of the victims did not initiate any health intervention. Third, a large minority of the victims did not report the crime to the police. Fourth, a majority of both victims and non-victims suffered psychological negative effects from the fear of crime. Fifth, there is a huge gender imbalance among those affected by crime with female students much more fearful of crime than men. Moreover, female students were much more likely to use specific strategies to lower the risk of crime. These conclusions suggest that there may be important policy implications for universities, the police, victim support organizations and mental health services, regarding the effects of crime on students. This study is intended as a preliminary stage for subsequent in-depth and larger projects.

  1. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelarungrayub J

    2016-08-01

    , the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract.Conclusion: This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people’s antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract. Keywords: star fruit, elderly, antioxidants, vitamins, lipid, oxidative stress

  2. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  3. A Preliminary Study on the Radiation dose Distribution in the Pyroprocess Hot Cell Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Giyoon; Lee, Eunjoong; Lee, Jeong Tae; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seongkyu; Park, Sehwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Pyroprocessing is the promising technology for treatment of spent fuels. Because it is based on the collective recovery of TRU, it has an advantage in proliferation resistance compared to conventional aqueous processes. Development of pyroprocessing has positive effects to the public through reduction of the high-level radioactive waste and the effective use of energy resources. In Korea, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has researched pyroprocessing since 1997. The engineering scale integrated inactive pyroprocess facility (PRIDE) was constructed and test operation has been performed. A study on the preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for a larger-scale model facility is in progress. The safeguards are essential in the pyroprocessing facility for proliferation resistance. To establish the reliable safeguards, the preliminary studies on radiation resistance requirements, assessment of the safeguards system applicability, and shielding of the safeguards equipment are required. Therefore, first of all, the radiation flux and dose distribution in hot cell environment have to be studied. The previous studies focused on the neutron flux at the pyroprocessing however they are limited to the individual unit process. In this study, the flux and dose distribution of neutron and gamma-ray in the hot cell environment of the pilot pyroprocessing facility are investigated. Based on the simplified material flow of pyroprocess, the material distribution model is established. In this study, the radiation flux and dose distribution in the hot cell environment of the pilot-scale pyroprocessing facility model is investigated preliminarily by the MCNP6 simulation. Based on the established material flow model, the material composition at each stage is calculated and used for the simulation. The simple hot cell structure and process batch size were assumed based on the previous studies.

  4. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  5. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds.

  6. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  7. Test plan for preliminary study of inorganic contaminant removal from RMA groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.; Terkonda, P.; Weeks, N.

    1978-02-01

    This document consists of a major report on inorganic contaminant removal from ground water. In this plan, WES has been requested by the OPM-CDIR to conduct a literature review and preliminary laboratory treatability studies on various source waters at RMA. Recommendation is that the determination of suitable treatment processes be based on both engineering and economic analysis and that the processes be compatible with the organic contaminant treatment processes under study (activated carbon adsorption and ultraviolet/ozone oxidation). The amendment to the test plan presents the inorganic treatment processes found from the literature to be applicable to the inorganic contaminants in RMA ground water and outlines the bench scale study to be conducted at WES using the potential processes. The rest of the document is correspondence and reports on various water treatability.

  8. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, David G

    2013-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included.

  9. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  10. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Scannapieco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  11. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  12. Preliminary study to improve the performance of SCWR-M during loss-of-flow accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.J., E-mail: xiaojingliu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Chai, X.; Xiong, J.B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Validation of the ATHLET-SC code to the safety analysis for SCWR. • Loss of flow accident analysis for SCWR-M is performed. • The passive design parameter is optimized. • The optimized SCWR-M design shows a better safety performance. - Abstract: The SCWR-M is one of the conceptual core designs with mixed neutron spectrum (fast and thermal), which is developed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Some preliminary calculations of this new conceptual SCWR indicate the SCWR-M system gets better safety characteristics compared to other single spectrum supercritical water cooled reactors. Loss of flow accident (LOFA) is of particular importance among the abnormal events and accidents for SCWR-M. In order to perform the preliminary study to improve the current SCWR-M safety design, this paper presents the validation results of the ATHLET-SC code and optimization work for safety system design parameters of the ICS, ACC, GDCS based on LOFA analysis. The better performance of the optimized design parameters are demonstrated by comparison with the previous design.

  13. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  14. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  15. Nature of Science Progression in School Year 1-9: a Case Study of Teachers' Suggestions and Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.

  16. Inaccuracy of INR measurements and suggestions for improved WHO guidelines for calibration of reference preparations – a statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    procedure also results in serious overestimation of the accuracy of INR measurements, thus leading to a false sense of security in oral anticoagulant therapy. In an example with data from WHO guidelines, we show that the systematic overprediction of INR (which is believed to be 0) may be as large as 5......%, when prediction is performed under the conventional WHO model. Under the same model the CV of the predicted vs. the true INR is believed to be only about 1% when it in reality is more than 4%. We suggest that the conventional calibration procedure is modified in order to reduce the twofold negative...... impact of lower true accuracy and overestimated reported accuracy on oral anticoagulant therapy and to allow for an unambiguous definition of true INR values....

  17. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  18. Using Financial Ratios to Select Companies for Tax Auditing: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghescu, Dorina; Kallio, Minna; Back, Barbro

    Tax auditing procedures include an investigation of the accounting records of a company and of other sources of information in order to assess whether the taxation has been based on correct and complete information. When there are found discrepancies between the accounting information and the real situation, the taxation should be corrected so that the eventual tax defaults are assessed and debited. The paper analyzes to what extent the financial performance of a company can be used as an indicator of tax defaults. We focus on one type of tax, namely employer's contribution, and four financial ratios. We evaluate the model in a study of Finnish companies by using a binomial logistic regression analysis. The study is exploratory and at a preliminary stage.

  19. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  20. A possible approach to 14MeV neutron moderation: A preliminary study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, D; Pilotti, R; Pietropaolo, A

    2017-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) interactions produce almost monochromatic neutrons with about 14MeV energy. These neutrons are used in benchmark experiments as well as for neutron cross sections assessment in fusion reactors technology. The possibility to moderate 14MeV neutrons for purposes beyond fusion is worth to be studied in relation to projects of intense D-T sources. In this preliminary study, carried out using the MCNP Monte Carlo code, the moderation of 14MeV neutrons is approached foreseeing the use of combination of metallic materials as pre-moderator and reflectors coupled to standard water moderators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary study of a negative hydrogen PIG-type ion source for the compact cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; LONG Ji-Dong; DONG Pan; WANG Tao; WEI Tao; HE Xiao-Zhong; ZHANG Kai-Zhi; SHI Jin-Shui

    2012-01-01

    A Penning ion gauge (PIG)-type ion source has been used for the generation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) as the internal ion source of the compact cyclotron.The discharge characteristics of the ion source are systematically studied for hydrogen operation at different discharge currents and gas flow rates on the prototype cyclotron.The preliminary study results for the low DC voltage H- extraction measurements are presented in this paper.The H- beam current is measured by the order of magnitude from several tens to hundreds of microamperes at different parameter conditions.The discussion and analysis for the experimental results are good for improving the design and working stability of the ion source.

  2. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON REMOVAL OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs from various components of the environment is an important issue, which currently much attention is paid to. Conventional methods used for their elimination are often ineffective and require additional solutions. For this reason, studies are being conducted on the possibility of using advanced methods of oxidation, which also includes ultrasonic waves. The work includes an assessment of the applicability of the sonochemical method to the oxidation of dibutyl phthalate. Presents results of tests on the effectiveness of the ultrasonic field with a fixed frequency of 20 kHz. The effect of pH, sonication time and amplitude on the process of decomposition were investigated. To the isolation of analyte was used solid phase extraction (SPE. The degree of reduction of dibutyl phthalate was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Preliminary studies have shown the efficacy of the use of ultrasound to remove of dibutyl phthalate.

  4. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  6. Preliminary study of spectral features of normal and malignant cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, M.; Farooq, W. A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study the fluorescence emission spectra of normal and malignant cell cultures were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, corresponding to the higher fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (due to tryptophan) of three malignant cells and normal cells. Similarly, Stokes shift spectra were recorded for normal and malignant cell cultures with a shift, Δλ, of 70 nm. The Stokes shift shows the existence of discriminating features between normal and carcinoma cell lines due to the higher concentration of phenylalanine and tryptophan in carcinoma cell lines which are completely absent in normal cell lines. Hence, both the emission spectra and the Stokes shift spectra showed considerably different spectral features between the normal and malignant cells. The preliminary studies indicate the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection using the spectral features of biofluorophores.

  7. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  8. Phylogenomic study indicates widespread lateral gene transfer in Entamoeba and suggests a past intimate relationship with parabasalids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has impacted the evolutionary history of eukaryotes, though to a lesser extent than in bacteria and archaea. Detecting LGT and distinguishing it from single gene tree artifacts is difficult, particularly when considering very ancient events (i.e., over hundreds of millions of years). Here, we use two independent lines of evidence--a taxon-rich phylogenetic approach and an assessment of the patterns of gene presence/absence--to evaluate the extent of LGT in the parasitic amoebozoan genus Entamoeba. Previous work has suggested that a number of genes in the genome of Entamoeba spp. were acquired by LGT. Our approach, using an automated phylogenomic pipeline to build taxon-rich gene trees, suggests that LGT is more extensive than previously thought. Our analyses reveal that genes have frequently entered the Entamoeba genome via nonvertical events, including at least 116 genes acquired directly from bacteria or archaea, plus an additional 22 genes in which Entamoeba plus one other eukaryote are nested among bacteria and/or archaea. These genes may make good candidates for novel therapeutics, as drugs targeting these genes are less likely to impact the human host. Although we recognize the challenges of inferring intradomain transfers given systematic errors in gene trees, we find 109 genes supporting LGT from a eukaryote to Entamoeba spp., and 178 genes unique to Entamoeba spp. and one other eukaryotic taxon (i.e., presence/absence data). Inspection of these intradomain LGTs provide evidence of a common sister relationship between genes of Entamoeba (Amoebozoa) and parabasalids (Excavata). We speculate that this indicates a past close relationship (e.g., symbiosis) between ancestors of these extant lineages.

  9. Speech and pause characteristics in multiple sclerosis: A preliminary study of speakers with high and low neuropsychological test performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEENAUGHTY, LYNDA; TJADEN, KRIS; BENEDICT, RALPH H.B.; WEINSTOCK-GUTTMAN, BIANCA

    2017-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated how cognitive-linguistic status in multiple sclerosis (MS) is reflected in two speech tasks (i.e. oral reading, narrative) that differ in cognitive-linguistic demand. Twenty individuals with MS were selected to comprise High and Low performance groups based on clinical tests of executive function and information processing speed and efficiency. Ten healthy controls were included for comparison. Speech samples were audio-recorded and measures of global speech timing were obtained. Results indicated predicted differences in global speech timing (i.e. speech rate and pause characteristics) for speech tasks differing in cognitive-linguistic demand, but the magnitude of these task-related differences was similar for all speaker groups. Findings suggest that assumptions concerning the cognitive-linguistic demands of reading aloud as compared to spontaneous speech may need to be re-considered for individuals with cognitive impairment. Qualitative trends suggest that additional studies investigating the association between cognitive-linguistic and speech motor variables in MS are warranted. PMID:23294227

  10. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio [Dipartimento POLCOMING, Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Luca Masala, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Meloni, Francesco [Unità operativa di Diagnostica per immagini Asl n. 1, Ospedale Civile SS Annunziata, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Battista Meloni, Giovanni [Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Università di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  11. Column flotation monitoring based on electrical capacitance volume tomography: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Didied; Harjanto, Sri; Nugraha, Harisma; Huda, Mahfudz Al; Taruno, Warsito Purwo

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study of column flotation monitoring process using electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) was conducted. ECVT was one of the monitoring systems which based on the capacitance measurement. It was used to understand the phenomenon that occurs inside the column in a three-dimensional (3-D) image. A linear back projection (LBP) algorithm technique was used to reconstruct the 3-D ECVT images from all measurement data obtained in this study. As a preliminary study, the effect of gas injection in the two-phase (liquid and gas) system was conducted. This study is conducted to assess the possibility of ECVT system in the monitoring of column flotation process. The experiments were conducted by using column flotation with 5 cm diameter and 150 cm height in which a sparger was installed at the bottom of column to inject air inside the column. 32-CH rectangular ECVT sensor was installed at 13 cm above the sparger and placed around the column. The gas injection variations used were 2-7 l/min with interval 1 l/min and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Based on the signal and image analysis, the signals and 3-D ECVT images showed differences when the gas injection was varied. An increase in gas injection will decrease the fluctuation of signal intensity which correlates to the 3-D ECVT images. Average signals obtained by ECVT when given gas injection variations were in the range of 440.09 to 453.62 mV from high to low gas injection. Based on these results, ECVT has a prospect as an imaging tool to monitor the column flotation process. And also, hopefully, based on the analysis of 3-D images generated by ECVT system, the metallurgical performance would be analyzed in the further researches.

  12. Feasibility and preliminary effects of a virtual environment for adults with type 2 diabetes: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Constance; Feinglos, Mark; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Blascovich, Jim; Nicollerat, Janet; Beresford, Henry F; Levy, Janet; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2014-04-08

    of 2.5 hours/week over the course of 6 months. High DSM class attendance was reflected by the largest percentage of time spent in the classroom (48.6%). Self-efficacy, social support, and foot care showed significant improvement (P<.05). There were improvement trends in clinical outcomes that were clinically meaningful but did not reach statistical significance given the small sample size. Because relatively little is known about usability, acceptability, and efficacy of health interventions in VEs, this study constitutes an important, innovative first step in exploring the potential of VEs for facilitating DSM. The preliminary data suggest that VEs provide a feasible and useful platform for patients and educators that affects self-management and related mediators. Flexible access to both synchronous and asynchronous diabetes education, skill building activities, and support from a home computer remove barriers to attending clinic-based meetings. This program has potential for improving DSM in an easily disseminated alternative model.

  13. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Augusto Moraes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN, a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at −860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation.

  14. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Victor Augusto Moraes; Dantas, Marília de Souza; Silva, Leonardo Agostinho de Castro; Carneiro, Juliana Garcia; Schamber-Reis, Bruno Luiz Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN), a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at -860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation.

  15. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  16. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC.

  17. A brief, critical review of research on impaired control over alcohol use and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Beseler, Cheryl L; Helms, Christa M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Wakeling, Vanessa A; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-02-01

    Impaired control, defined as "a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption" (Heather et al. J Stud Alcohol 1993; 54, 701), has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: (i) epidemiology; (ii) measurement issues; and (iii) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control's relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly 2 potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use.

  18. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  20. [Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair "IPOM" vs "open tension free". Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, M; De Milito, R; Spaziani, E; Chiaretti, M; Manili, G; Capitano, S; Di Filippo, A; Simi, M

    2003-12-01

    The authors report the preliminary results of a prospective comparison of IPOM (group A) and "open tension free" (group B) hernioplasty in 50 patients having a mono or bilateral primitive hernia. In group A (26 patients) hernia repair was performed using "Gore-Tex DualMesh Plus biomaterial with holes Corduroy" and in group B (24 patients) using the patch and plug technique with Marlex prosthesis. No intraoperative complications occurred and, in group A, no conversion was necessary. Four minor complications were obser-ved in group A (10.8%): 3 seromas and 1 transient paresthesia; 5 in group B (16%): 4 hematomas and 1 wound infection (p=n.s.). In group A only 2 patients (7.6%) needed analgesics after the first 24 hours and 12 patients (50%) in group B (p<0.001). Mean resumption of normal activity was 8 days in group A and 17 days in group B (p<0.001). At a 12-month-follow-up, no recurrence was reported in both groups. The results of this prospective randomized study show that IPOM may be not only a feasible and effective procedure in the treatment of recurrent and bilateral hernia or when hernia repair is performed during other laparoscopic procedures, but also in particular cases of primitive hernia such as in very active young males or heavy duty workers. However it is necessary to definitely ascertain the true incidence of recurrence in non limited series and in longer follow-up and the preliminary results of this study encourage the authors to complete the randomized study.