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Sample records for preliminary screening method

  1. Chemical Safety Alert: Identifying Chemical Reactivity Hazards Preliminary Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces small-to-medium-sized facilities to a method developed by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), based on a series of twelve yes-or-no questions to help determine hazards in warehousing, repackaging, blending, mixing, and processing.

  2. DART-MS as a preliminary screening method for "herbal incense": chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Musah, Rabi A; Domin, Marek A; Shepard, Jason R E

    2014-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) served as a method for rapid high-throughput screening of six commercially available "Spice" products, detecting various combinations of five synthetic cannabinoids. Direct analysis in real time is an ambient ionization process that, along with high mass accuracy time-of-flight (TOF)-MS to 0.0001 Da, was employed to establish the presence of cannabinoids. Mass spectra were acquired by simply suspending a small portion of sample between the ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet. The ability to test minute amounts of sample is a major advantage when very limited amounts of evidentiary material are available. In addition, reports are widespread regarding the testing backlogs that now exist because of the large influx of designer drugs. This method circumvents time-consuming sample extraction, derivatization, chromatographic, and other sample preparative steps required for analysis by more conventional mass spectrometric methods. Accordingly, the synthetic cannabinoids AM-2201, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-210, and RCS-4 were identified in commercially available herbal Spice products, singly and in tandem, at concentrations within the range of 4-141 mg/g of material. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry decreases the time necessary to triage analytical evidence, and therefore, it has the potential to contribute to backlog reduction and more timely criminal prosecution.

  3. phytochemical screening and preliminary evaluation of analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... being screened for phytochemical constituents and ... extract of Cissus polyantha in laboratory animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant Material. The plant .... 1980), as well as release of lipoxygenase products. (Insel ...

  4. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  5. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  6. A rapid, micro-scale preliminary screening method for active components in Galangal with protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced cell apoptosis through "thin layer chromatography" and "tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay" array correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Yuanting; Li, Jin; Deng, Yifeng

    2015-05-22

    A new method has been established for rapid preliminary screening active ingredients in natural products through thin layer chromatography (TLC) array responding with tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) along with post LC-MS in micro-scale. The extract of the natural product was first separated by TLC. The separated spots obtained from TLC were visualized in situ with vanillin-ethanolic sulfuric acid agent to define the array correspondence between TLC spots and 384-cell culture plate for MTT cell viability assay. The TLC spots from the replicate TLC plates were then eluted and transferred into the wells of 384-cell culture plates according to the array respondence. The TLC spots with significant antioxidant activities were further screened by MTT assay, and subsequently traced and identified by LC-MS based on the TLC-MTT assay array correspondence. This new method was successfully applied to screen active ingredients in a Chinese medicine known as Galangal. Two major inhibitors for the decline of PC12 cell survival (Galangin, m/z 269.1, and 5-hydroxy-7-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone, m/z 327.2) were effectively screened and identified by this method.

  7. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  8. Preliminary phytochemical screening, pharmacognostic and physicochemical evalution of leaf of Gmelina arborea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daya L Chothani; N M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening, detailed pharmacognostic profile and physicochemical evaluation of leaf of Gmelina arborea. Methods: Fresh leaf and dried power of the leaves were studied by morphology, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical screening, and florescence analysis of powdered drug. Other physicochemical parameters were also performed as per WHO guide lines. Result: The detailed microscopy revealed that the presence of anomocytic stomata and covering uni-multicellular trichome. Leaf constant such as stomatal number, stomata index, vein islet number, vein termination number were also determined. Physicochemical parameters and florescence analysis were also studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroid, triterpenoid, saponin, protein, phenolic compound, flavanoid and carbohydrates. Conclusions:The result of these studies could be useful for correct identification and detection of adulterants of this plant material.

  9. Preliminary screening of ethnomedicinal plants from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Raja, D P

    1999-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous residues of 16 different ethnomedicinal plants have been studied. The effect of the aqueous extract at two different weights of plant residues, 30 and 40 mg, were tested against three gram positive bacteria and seven gram negative bacteria by the filter paper disc diffusion method. Among the tested plants, Cleome gynandropsis and Ageratum conyzoides showed a significant control of the growth of Alkaligens viscolactis, Klebsiella aerogenas, Bacillus cerues and Streptococcus pyogens. The maximum inhibitions were observed in Tridax procumbens, Cleome viscosa, Acalypha indica and Boerhaavia erecta against Aeromonas hydrophilla and Bacillus cerues.

  10. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  11. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  12. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SEEDS OF PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed RafiqKhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralea corylifolia known as “Babchi” is a medicinal plant for the treatment of skin diseases. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicines have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various disorders. In our present investigation preliminary phytochemical analysis of Psoralea corylifolia has been evaluated for the presence of bioactive constituents using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of maximum compounds including carbohydrates, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, amino acid and proteins, cardiac glycosides. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Psoralea corylifolia has promising therapeutic potential and can be used as a base for the development of novel potent drugs in phytomedicine.

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening of four common plants of family caesalpiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, N; Saleem, B; Nawaz, R

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora and Tamarindus indica did not reveal alkaloids and unbound anthraquinones while glycosides as well as flavonoids were present in all the four species of the family caesalpiniaceae. Cardiac glycosides were absent only in C. tora and saponins were present only in T. indica, B. variegata and T. indica were devoid of bound anthraquinones while bound anthraquinones were present in C. fistula and C. tora. Paper chromatography revealed 6 spots in solvent system I, and 5 spots in solvent system 2, showing different Rf values. The per cent yield of crude glycosides was 3.18 in B. variegata, 4.03 in C. fistula, 4.45 in C. tora and 4.14 in T. indica.

  14. An Algorithm for Glaucoma Screening in Clinical Settings and Its Preliminary Performance Profile

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    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise and evaluate a screening algorithm for glaucoma in clinical settings. Methods: Screening included examination of the optic disc for vertical cupping (≥0.4 and asymmetry (≥0.15, Goldmann applanation tonometry (≥21 mmHg, adjusted or unadjusted for central corneal thickness, and automated perimetry. In the diagnostic step, retinal nerve fiber layer imaging was performed using scanning laser polarimetry. Performance of the screening protocol was assessed in an eye hospital-based program in which 124 non-physician personnel aged 40 years or above were examined. A single ophthalmologist carried out the examinations and in equivocal cases, a glaucoma subspecialist′s opinion was sought. Results: Glaucoma was diagnosed in six cases (prevalence 4.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.09 of whom five were new. The likelihood of making a definite diagnosis of glaucoma for those who were screened positively was 8.5 times higher than the estimated baseline risk for the reference population; the positive predictive value of the screening protocol was 30%. Screening excluded 80% of the initial population. Conclusion: Application of a formal screening protocol (such as our algorithm or its equivalent in clinical settings can be helpful in detecting new cases of glaucoma. Preliminary performance assessment of the algorithm showed its applicability and effectiveness in detecting glaucoma among subjects without any visual complaint.

  15. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  16. Universal newborn hearing screening: preliminary experience at the University Hospital of Cagliari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pinna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral congenital or acquired sensorineural hearing loss is a pathological condition affecting 1-2 children per 1,000 live births; it represents a major issue in public health because its late identification can negatively affect speech and language development. The aim of hearing screening is to obtain diagnosis and management of hearing loss as soon as possible; in fact early diagnosis and treatment allow children with congenital hearing impairment to acquire adequate linguistic competence. The present study reports our preliminary experience in newborn hearing screening at Neonatology services of University of Cagliari (Italy. During the first semester of surveillance, between January 2012 and June 2012, hearing screening was performed on a total of 901 babies using two different methods, TEOAEs in healthy neonates and automated ABR in high-risk babies. All infants were screened prior to hospital discharge; in some cases, especially for preterm infants of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Puericulture Institute, the screening was performed after discharge, to achieve a possible better global and acoustic maturation; 5 cases of hearing impairment were found. In the present study the Authors confirmed that it is possible to start a universal hearing screening in a relatively short time reaching the percentages suggested by Joint Committee on Infant Hearing.

  17. [Colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain): preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé Llop, Mª Esther; Cano Del Pozo, Mabel; García Montero, José-Ignacio; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Lanas, Ángel

    2017-08-04

    To describe preliminary findings from the colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain) to evaluate its implementation. We have collected data from the first year of the program (2014) based on faecal occult blood immunochemical (FOBTi) test in patients 60-69 years old. We report "indicators" defined by the "Red Nacional de Cribado". Invited population after exclusions: 12,518. Program participation rate: 45.28% (95%CI: 44.41-46.15). Inadequate tests: 0.21% (95%CI: 0.12-0.37); positive FOBTi test 10.75% (95%CI: 9.97-11.58) and colonoscopy acceptance 95.07% (95%CI: 93.04-96.52). Colonoscopy was appropriate and complete in 97.58% (95%CI: 95.98-98.55) of cases. The high- and low-risk adenoma detection rates were 14.7‰ (95%CI: 11.9-18.2) and 5.55‰ (95%CI: 3.9-7.8) respectively. The positive predictive value for any adenoma was 58.55% (95%CI: 54.49-62.49) and for invasive cancer was 5.36% (95%CI: 3.8-7.51). The indicator analysis of the ongoing programme suggests the programme is being implemented correctly in our community. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  19. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  20. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  1. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted using various indirect diagnostic tests such as interview ... haematuria and dysuria, visual examination of urine specimen ... Abstract. Background: Indirect diagnostic methods in urinary schistosomiasis are widely used for screening.

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Bark Extracts of Symplocos racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Tambe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish physical constants and fingerprint profile of Symplocos racemosa using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done, physical constants were evaluated and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The proximate analysis showed satisfactory result with respect to foreign matter, moisture content, ash value and extractive values. HPTLC finger printing of methanol extract of bark powder revealed presence of eight components 0.23 0.44, 0.57, 0.68 0.97,1.17,1.35,1.43 Component number 6 at Rf 1.17 showed maximum concentration.Aqueous extract of bark powder showed seven peaks with Rf values in the range with their Rf value Rf - 0.23 0.27 0.32, 0.38 0.54, 0.75 Component number 5 at 0.0.54 Rf showed maximum concentration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HPTLC fingerprint analysis of bark powder extract of Symplocos racemosa can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and it is useful as a phytochemical marker and also a good estimator of genetic variability in plant populations.

  3. DHAD variants and methods of screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kristen J.; Ye, Rick W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Heavy Metal Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill. Gard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lalitha Eswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves of Ziziphus oenoplia belonging to family Rhamnaceae. The dried leaves of the plant were subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction by continuous hot percolation method using organic solvents of increasing polarity such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The aqueous extract was prepared by cold maceration technique. All the extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and it showed the presence of active constituents such as alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol and triterpenoid. Quantitative determination of alkaloid was done by Harborne (1973 method, whereas total Phenolic content was determined by Folin-ciocalteu method and total Flavonoid were determined by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method. Heavy metals and inorganic elements are determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique. The results obtained shows that the extracts contain medicinally important bioactive constituents and also heavy metals present in the plant extracts were within the permissible limits. This justifies its use in the traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as ulcer, asthma, dysentery and fever.

  5. Preliminary screening of some fractions of Loxostylis alata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... solvent fractionation procedure and the different fractions were screened for ... relies exclusively on plants as a source of medicines ... some important animal pathogenic fungi and bacteria, ..... anti-inflammatory drugs. FASEB ...

  6. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  7. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  8. 1ST-TRIMESTER SCREENING FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL-ABNORMALITIES - PRELIMINARY-RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1991-01-01

    We have started a multicentre trial to study the possibilities of first-trimester maternal serum screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Maternal blood samples were obtained before 13 weeks of gestation. We present the preliminary results of the first 950 patients on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

  9. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VI. Report for fiscal year 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, H; Takahashi, K; Kunisada, T; Moritugu, Y; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Matsuyama, M; Akiyoshi, K; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Sakurada, N; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Yoshida, Y; Ono, T; Ohtomo, N; Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Miyake, T; Ishiwara, Y; Suzuki, R; Saito, T; Etoh, S; Mise, K

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 138 samples tested, two were found to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. Neither of the positive samples has hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses of the samples are very narrow.

  10. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VII. Report for fiscal year 1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuki, N; Kazama, K; Sadamasu, T; Sekine, H; Ohta, K; Kudoh, Y; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Matsuyama, M; Akiyoshi, K; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Kimura, H; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Yoshida, Y; Ono, T; Tachibana, N; Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Miyake, T; Ishiwara, Y; Ishikawa, N; Moritugu, Y

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 246 samples of different origin tested, six were shown to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. Two of the positive samples have hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses are wider than those of most of positive samples which had been found by us.

  11. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary......,333 were invited to an abdominal ultrasound scan at their district hospital. Information on all deaths until 15.3.2005 was obtained from the Office of Civil Registration. Information on AAA related deaths was obtained from the national registry of Causes of Deaths from 1.4.1994 to 31...

  12. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  13. The many faeces of colorectal cancer screening embarrassment: preliminary psychometric development and links to screening outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Ladwig, Inga; Reddig, Maike K; Broadbent, Elizabeth A

    2011-09-01

    Although embarrassment may be among the most easily modified discrete emotional barriers to patients seeking health care or testing, work in the area of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been restricted by the absence of suitable instrumentation. The current report describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument assessing two specific aspects of CRC screening embarrassment and their links to screening outcomes. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 245 European American, African-American, and immigrant Caribbean community-dwelling men and women (aged 45-75 years) living in Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed the measure of CRC screening embarrassment, an array of convergent and divergent validity measures including dispositional embarrassment, general medical embarrassment, neuroticism, trait emotion, social desirability, previous treatment avoidance because of embarrassment, relevant health characteristics, and a brief CRC screening history. As expected, CRC screening embarrassment was not unidimensional and had two reliable and distinct components, one concentrated on faecal/rectal embarrassment and the other on embarrassment arising from unwanted intimacy during examinations. In addition to demonstrating patterns of convergent and divergent validity consistent with their separation, multivariate analyses indicated that faecal/rectal embarrassment (but not intimacy concerns) predicted CRC screening frequency. The current report extends current understanding by identifying the specific sources of embarrassment that may contribute to patients' avoidance of CRC screening. Directions for future study and implications for clinical practice and interventions are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  15. The Integral Screened Configuration Interaction Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-01-01

    We present the formulation and implementation of the Integral-Screened Configuration-Interaction method (ISCI). The ISCI is a minimal-operational count integral-driven direct Configuration-Interaction (CI) method with a simple and rigorous integral screening (IS). With a novel derivation of the CI equations we show that the time consuming $\\sigma$-vector calculation is separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IS. The rigorous IS leads to linear scaling in the $\\sigma$-vector step for large systems but can also lead to near linear scaling for smaller systems for the standard CISD, CISDT and CISDTQ methods, where the exponent for the scaling is 1.27, 1.48 and 1.98, respectively, even while retaining an accuracy of $10^{-14}$ or less in the energy. In the ISCI the non-relativistic CI problem can be broken into 42 generalized-matrix-vector products in the $\\sigma$-vector calculation, which can be separately optimized. Due to the IS the ISCI can use dramatically larger orbi...

  16. [Preliminary screening for antiviral AIDS drugs. VIII. Report for fiscal year 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T; Kobayashi, S; Sato, K; Sakae, K; Ishikawa, N; Kobayashi, N; Noguchi, Y; Akiyoshi, K; Suga, T; Ogawa, A; Noro, S; Sawada, H; Kimura, H; Yamada, A; Ishizaki, T; Kamimura, N; Iwashima, A; Ono, T; Tachibana, N; Sekine, H; Ohnuki, N; Kazama, K; Sadamasu, K; Ohta, K; Mise, K

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary screening of antiviral AIDS drugs has been carried out using three different in vitro assay systems. Among 96 samples of different origin tested, two were shown to inhibit the growth of HIV in vitro. One of the positive samples (plant origin) has hopeful signs, as the ranges of effective doses are wider than those of most of positive samples which had been found by us.

  17. Formulation andin-vitro preliminary screening of polyphyto antilithiatic combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Bharadwaj; Kumud Upadhayaya; N V Satheesh Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study people suffered from urinary stone problem by calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate(COD) containing stones.Method:In the present study,CO crystals were grown by mixing and stirring two equal volumes of solutionsA andB.Two solutions of following composition were mixed:A:Na2C2O4(2 mmol) andB:CaCl2.2H2O(10 mmol).The crystals after incubation in tris buffer were then subjected to the aqueous extract of the polyherbal formulation and cystone was taken as standard.Result:After the treatment with the extract the crystals were microscopically examined and elemental analysis for calcium was carried out.The formulation proved out to be very effective against theCO crystals.Conclusions:The results have come out to be very motivating and further pharmacological study could be carried out on the samples to reveal an effective drug for the urolithiasis.Data reveals that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either an alternative or a complementary therapy in the management of urolithiasis.

  18. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABAergic neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L. is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  19. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  20. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  1. Establishment of a P-glycoprotein substrate screening model and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang; Jiang Cao; Su Zeng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cell line as a model for studying drug absorption and distribution, and to explore the preliminary application of this screening model.METHODS: A full-length MDR1 cDNA fragment in plasmid pMDRA1 was first subcloned into plasmid pET28a(+), then MDR1 cDNA was cut from the recombinant plasmid with double-digestion and ligated into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)/MDR1 was transfected into breast cancer cell line Bcap37using the Superfect transfection reagent. Several stably transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418.Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT- PCR and Western blot methods were used to detect the expression of P-gp, and the cellular location of the expressed protein was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Drug sensitivity assay was used to evaluate the biological function of expressed P-gp.Concentration of quercetin in cells was determined by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC).RESULTS: The recombinant plasmid was confirmed to be inserted in the correct orientation by restrictive enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed a higher level of P-cp mRNA in transfected cells compared to that in the control cells, and the Western blot result also indicated that P-gp expression in transfected cells was higher than that in control cells. The immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressed P-gp was localized on cell membranes. Drug sensitivity assay showed that the IC50 for adriamycin and colchicine of the transfected cells was higher than that of the control cells.The concentration of quercetin in model cells was lower than that in control cells by HPLC. After P-gp inhibitor verapamil was administered, the concentration of quercetin in model cells was increased.CONCLUSION: A high P-gp expressing ceil line can be established, which could provide a suitable in vitro model system for

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah James Ode

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of bark, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay were carried out using chemicals and agar well diffusion method respectively. The results of phytochemicals analysis revealed differences in the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins and volatile oil in all the extracts. Tannins were present in the extract of leaves while terpenes were present in the extract of bark and leaves. Phlobatannins and flavonoids were absent in all the extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed that M. oleifera extracts exhibited broad spectrum activity against four to six bacteria isolates as indicated by the zone of inhibition ranging from 10 to 36mm with variation in the percentage sensitivity of < 100%, = 100% and >100% depending on the plant part and solvent used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 100mg/ml to 450mg/ml and 250mg/ml to 500mg/ml respectively against the isolates used. Standard antibiotic disc (Ofloxacin- 5μg inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria isolates except P. mirabilis. The results of this research work showed that M. oleifera has great potential as antibacterial compounds against Gram

  4. Preliminary design of the beam screen cooling for the Future Circular Collider of hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kotnig, C

    2015-01-01

    Following recommendations of the recent update of the European strategy in particle physics, CERN has undertaken an international study of possible future circular colliders beyond the LHC. This study considers an option for a very high energy (100 TeV) hadron-hadron collider located in a quasi-circular underground tunnel having a circumference of 80 to 100 km. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy hadron beam increases by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the LHC. To reduce the entropic load on the superconducting magnets' refrigeration system, beam screens are indispensable to extract the heat load at a higher temperature level. After illustrating the decisive constraints of the beam screen's refrigeration design, this paper presents a preliminary design of the length of a continuous cooling loop comparing helium and neon, for different cooling channel geometries with emphasis on the cooling length limitations and the exergetic efficiency.

  5. [COGNITIVE SCREENING IN HIV-1 INFECTED YOUNG ADULTS AT BUENOS AIRES. PRELIMINARY DATA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Romina; Espiño, Analía; Marenco, Victoria; López, Pablo; Cassetti, Isabel; Richly, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in HIV-1 infected patients, even in younger individuals. These symptoms usually are not recognized by health professionals or even patients themselves. However, they can represent a major cause of functional impairment and failure in treatment compliance. In our country we lack both sufficient epidemiological information on the true impact of these symptoms and screening tests with local validation needed to be used by health professionals during the medical assessment. Therefore we designed a prospective study to compare the performance of four brief cognitive tests and a new screening tool with the neuropsychological assessment (gold standard) in a population of young adults infected with HIV-1 in Argentina, in order to assess their sensitivity and specificity in our culture and language. Different confounding conditions were taken into account. Preliminary data were analyzed after the enrollment of 19 subjects. NEURA screening correlated significantly with the neuropsychological assessment (rho = 0.496, p = .031). In terms of sensitivity and specificity, NEURA performance was superior to other screening tests routinely used in our country: IHDS (S 27%/E 5%), MMSE (S/E 0%), ACE (S 9%/E 100%) and IFS (S 36%/E 80%).

  6. SAR Ice Classification Using Fuzzy Screening Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. S.

    2003-04-01

    A semi-automatic SAR sea ice classification algorithm is described. It is based on combining the information in the original SAR data with those in the three 'image' products derived from it, namely Power-to-Mean Ratio (PMR), the Gamma distribution and the second order texture parameter entropy, respectively. The latter products contain information which is often useful during the manual interpretation of the images. The technique used to fuse the information in these products is based on a method c lled Multi Experts Multi Criteria Decision Making fuzzy a screening. The Multiple Experts in this case are the above four 'image' products. The two criteria used currently for making decisions are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution matching and the statistical mean of different surface classes. The algorithm classifies an image into any number of predefined classes of sea ice and open water. The representative classes of these surface types are manually identified by the user. Further, as SAR signals from sea ice covered regions and open water are ambiguous, it was found that a minimum of 4 pre-identified surface classes (calm and turbulent water and sea ice with low and high backscatter values) are required to accurately classify an image. Best results are obtained when a total of 8 surface classes (2 each of sea ice and open water in the near range and a similar number in the far range of the SAR image) are used. The main advantage of using this image classification scheme is that, like neural networks, no prior knowledge is required of the statistical distribution of the different surface types. Furthermore, unlike the methods based on neural networks, no prior data sets are required to train the algorithm. All the information needed for image classification by the method is contained in the individual SAR images and associated products. Initial results illustrating the potential of this ice classification algorithm using the RADARSAT ScanSAR Wide data are presented

  7. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroo, Ilan; Altus, Steve; Braun, Robert; Gage, Peter; Sobieski, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a research program aimed at improved methods for multidisciplinary design and optimization of large-scale aeronautical systems. The research involves new approaches to system decomposition, interdisciplinary communication, and methods of exploiting coarse-grained parallelism for analysis and optimization. A new architecture, that involves a tight coupling between optimization and analysis, is intended to improve efficiency while simplifying the structure of multidisciplinary, computation-intensive design problems involving many analysis disciplines and perhaps hundreds of design variables. Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.

  8. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Ecotoxicology Program

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  9. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitasta Mandal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric. The result showed that the variety from Kangra showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content of 5.87 and 62.22 mg GAE/L respectively.

  10. PRELIMINARY APPLICATION OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN SCREENING METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jing Guan; Hua-wei Ling; Ke-min Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) in screening metastasis.Methods WB-DWI was performed in 24 patients diagnosed with various types of primary tumors. The three-dimensional maximum intensity projection reconstruction and black-and-white flip technique were used to observe metastatic lesions, and the results were compared with those of bone scintigraphy. Results By WB-DWI scanning sequence at b = 800 s/mm2, all the bone lesions found by bone scintigraphy in the cohort were well identified, and other lesions of soft tissue and organs were also well demonstrated. Its screening capability was equivalent with bone scintigraphy in screening metastases in bones (P = 0.062). Conclusion WB-DWI was practicable with the parameter settings attempted in metastases screening.

  11. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China.

  12. Development of two methods for rapid screening of recombinant Pichia pastoris strains with high-level expression of β-mannanase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李古月; 郑甲; 周洪波

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris(P. pastoris) has been used for the expression of heterologous proteins with the significant success. However, it is time-consuming to screen the high expression level of the recombinant P. pastoris directly. Thus, for β-mannanase production, developing the accurate, rapid and inexpensive screening method to substitute random screening is certainly required. A simple method based on the size of hydrolysis hole was described here, but this method was not very accurate that could only be used in preliminary screening. To further improve the accuracy, a micro-plate screening method is established, which appears to be more accurate and effective. The efficiency of this screening method is about 10 times higher than that of the general screening strategy of cultivation in shaking flasks. Two methods presented here can also be used for screening of recombinant Pichia strains with high-level expression of other heterologous protein after modification.

  13. Development of two methods for rapid screening of recombinant Pichia pastoris strains with high-level expression ofβ-mannanase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李古月; 郑甲; 周洪波

    2015-01-01

    The yeastPichia pastoris(P. pastoris) has been used for the expression of heterologous proteins with the significant success. However, it is time-consuming to screen the high expression level of the recombinantP. pastorisdirectly. Thus, forβ-mannanase production, developing the accurate, rapid and inexpensive screening method to substitute random screening is certainly required. A simple method based on the size of hydrolysis hole was described here, but this method was not very accurate that could only be used in preliminary screening. To further improve the accuracy, a micro-plate screening method is established, which appears to be more accurate and effective. The efficiency of this screening method is about 10 times higher than that of the general screening strategy of cultivation in shaking flasks. Two methods presented here can also be used for screening of recombinantPichia strains with high-level expression of other heterologous protein after modification.

  14. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  16. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  17. AN ALTERNATIVE GREEN SCREEN KEYING METHOD FOR FILM VISUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mathematical equations are explored. At the end of this study, a simplified process of applying this method in real productions is also tested.

  18. 32 CFR 644.388 - Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary report of excess, except where an E.O. 11954...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military-screening, clearance, preliminary... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.388 Army military—screening, clearance, preliminary report...

  19. Surface electromyography as a screening method for evaluation of dysphagia and odynophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2009-02-20

    Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. The article analyzes various instrumental methods of dysphagia assessment, introduces surface electromyography (sEMG) to carry out rapid assessment of such patients, and debates proposed suggestions for sEMG screening protocol in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Subject related books and articles from 1813 to 2007 were obtained through library search, MEDLINE (1949-2007) and EMBASE (1975-2007). Specifics steps for establishing the protocol for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles), the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water) are presented in detail. SEMG is compared with other techniques in terms of cost, timing, involvement of radiation, etc. According to the published data, SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, time-saving and inexpensive to perform. The major weakness of the method seems to be inability for precise diagnostic of neurologically induced dysphagia. With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG might serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management but cannot serve for proper investigation of neurogenic dysphagia.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Qadir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at primary screening of the phytochemical contents of seven solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:3 extracts of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts against five species of pathogenic bacteria. The powdered seeds of A. cocculus were extracted with seven solvents (polar and non-polar with Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by standard biochemical tests. The antibacterial activity of various extracts was evaluated against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The zone of inhibitions and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the various extracts were determined by running the experiments in triplicates. The extracts of the seeds of A. cocculus contained various pharmaceutically active substances viz., aldehydes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, glycosides, phytosterols, volatile oils, gums and mucilage and other minor phytochemicals. All the extracts showed significant levels of antibacterial activity. Methanol extract was the most active one with remarkable antibacterial activity on the various species tested. MICs of the extracts revealed methanol extract as the most potent one with the lowest inhibitory concentration of 3 μg/mL on E. coli. The findings of the present study indicated that the seeds of A. cocculus possess various secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, especially antimicrobial ones.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the pericarp of Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. - a medicinal tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemicals present in the pericarp of Crataeva magna (C. magna) (Lour.) DC. which is used as a traditional medicine by the inhabitants of Kanyakumari district. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the pericarp was done to determine the secondary metabolites in various solvents studied. Results: The phytochemical screening on the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. proved the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The findings of the present study recommended that the pericarp of C. magna (Lour.) DC. have potential antimicrobial compounds that may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments.

  2. Environmental Justice Screening Method for the San Joaquin Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cumulative Impacts (CI) screening method is jointly being developed by Manuel Pastor, Jim Sadd (Occidental College), and Rachel Morello-Frosch (UC Berkeley) ....

  3. In silico screening of ligand databases: Methods and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedkar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure is mounting on the pharmaceutical industry to reduce both the cost of drugs and the time to market. The large number of targets made available in the last decade has created a new area for technologies that can rapidly identify quality lead candidates. Virtual screening is one such technology that is gaining increasing importance in the drug discovery process. Virtual screening is a reliable and inexpensive method currently being employed as a complementary approach to high-throughput screening. Virtual screening can be adopted irrespective of the structural information of the target receptor. In the absence of structural data, virtual screening using pharmacophore-based search is a major in silico tool. However, when the structure of the receptor is available, virtual screening using both pharmacophore-based and docking techniques can be employed. Both of these methods can be synergistically integrated to improve the drug design and development process. In this article, we provide an overview of methods for virtual screening - in particular, docking and pharmacophore-based - along with commercial algorithms implementing these methods, and a successful example in this arena. Further, we enumerate the potential for patenting such kind of studies.

  4. A Triangulation Method for Identifying Hydrostratigraphic Locations of Well Screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Radiological Performance Assessment

    2015-01-31

    A method to identify the hydrostratigraphic location of well screens was developed using triangulation with known locations. This method was applied to all of the monitor wells being used to develop the new GSA groundwater model. Results from this method are closely aligned with those from an alternate method which uses a mesh surface.

  5. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening...... in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2...... mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA >3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2...

  6. Statistical methods for determining the effect of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In an overview of five randomised controlled trials from Sweden, a reduction of 29% was found in breast cancer mortality in women aged 50-69 at randomisation after a follow up of 5-13 years. Organised, population based, mammography service screening was introduced on the basis of these resultsin...... the municipality of Copenhagen in 1991, in the county of Fyn in 1993 and in the municipality of Frederiksberg in 1994, although reduced mortality in randomised controlled trials does not necessarily mean that screening also works in routine health care. In the rest of Denmark mammography screening was introdueed...... in 2007-2008. Women aged 50-69 were invited to screening every second year. Taking advantage of the registers of population and health, we present statistical methods for evaluating the effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality (Olsen et al. 2005, Njor et al. 2015 and Weedon-Fekjær etal...

  7. Statistical methods for determining the effect of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In an overview of five randomised controlled trials from Sweden, a reduction of 29% was found in breast cancer mortality in women aged 50-69 at randomisation after a follow up of 5-13 years. Organised, population based, mammography service screening was introduced on the basis of these resultsin...... the municipality of Copenhagen in 1991, in the county of Fyn in 1993 and in the municipality of Frederiksberg in 1994, although reduced mortality in randomised controlled trials does not necessarily mean that screening also works in routine health care. In the rest of Denmark mammography screening was introdueed...... in 2007-2008. Women aged 50-69 were invited to screening every second year. Taking advantage of the registers of population and health, we present statistical methods for evaluating the effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality (Olsen et al. 2005, Njor et al. 2015 and Weedon-Fekjær etal...

  8. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01 between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  9. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine. PMID:28031760

  10. [Local straight line screening method for the detection of Chinese proprietary medicines containing undeclared prescription drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Cao, Yan; Le, Jian; Chen, Gui-Liang; Chai, Yi-Feng; Lu, Feng

    2009-02-01

    The present paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS) to detect Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) containing undeclared prescription drugs (UPD). Different from traditional methods used in analysis of multi-component spectrum, LSLS is proposed according to the characteristics of original infrared spectra of the UPD and suspected CPM, without any pattern recognition or concentration model establishment. Spectrum-subtraction leads to the variance in local straight line, which serves as a key in discrimination of whether suspected CPD is adulterated or not. Sibutramine hydrochloride, fenfluramine hydrochloride, sildenafil citrate and lovastatin were used as reference substances of UPD to analyze 16 suspected CPM samples. The results show that LSLS can obtain an accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis of suspected CPM. It is possible for the method to be potentially used in the preliminary screening of CPM containing possible UPD.

  11. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  13. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Whole Plant of Enicostemma littorale Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinotha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale Blume (Gentianaceae family, which is commonly known as Mamajaka (Sanskrit, Vellarugu (Tamil and Indian gentian (English. E. littorale is a perennial herb which grows in coastal areas of Northern and Eastern province of Sri Lanka. The whole plant is dried and powdered and used to treat rheumatism, swelling, back pain, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and skin diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents in different extracts of E. littorale according to the standard procedures. Quantitative estimation of some of the active constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were also carried out. The preliminary phytochemical screening of hot and cold ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, proteins, reducing sugar coumarins and quinones and absence of anthraquinones. Cold and hot water extracts showed the presence of fat and fixed oil. The total alkaloid and flavonoid contents were found to be 2.25 ± 0.01 % and 25.34 ± 0.24 % respectively and total saponin content was (Foaming Index FI < 100. The phytochemicals identified in the present study may be used as tools for quality control of drugs prepared with E. littorale in the future, for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions.

  14. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  15. Preliminary Study on Thalassemia Screening and Genetic Counseling in Selective Hmong People in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa Vang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available it can lead to the destruction of red blood cells. Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of thalassemia in Southeast Asia. The Institute of Health Research, Chulalongkorn University developed a successful “Module” to screen for thalassemia in the Thai population, however, it has not been implemented in the minority population in Thailand. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of the newly developed educational and thalassemia screening program with the Hmong population. The primary aim of this study was to test this program. The secondary aim was to determine the prevalence of thalassemia in the Hmong and provide education. A third aim was to determine the reliability of two different screening methods in the Hmong population. A pre-test and post-test design was used; participants (N=12 were individuals residing in Thailand with the ability to read English and between the ages 18-50. The participants met twice with the researchers to complete the program. The first contact consisted of assessing participants’ knowledge about thalassemia, providing thalassemia information and education about genetic counseling, and drawing blood samples. The second contact consisted of assessing knowledge, providing a written report of individual blood sample results and counseling. The initial interview revealed that the majority of the participants (82% did not know anything about thalassemia prior to participation. The program was easy to understand by most participants (90%. Of the eleven Hmong participants, two tested positive for being a possible carrier for thalassemia. In order to reduce the prevalence of thalassemia, it is necessary to engage in risk reduction health services. The modified screening method proved to be as effective as the standard method. Therefore, the program can expand and be used in other regional populations with low cost.

  16. [The Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Plastic Surgery - A Systematic Review of Screening Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houschyar, K S; Philipps, H M; Duscher, D; Rein, S; Weissenberg, K; Nietzschmann, I; Maan, Z N; Pyles, M N; Siemers, F

    2017-08-01

    Background The body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is considered to be a sub-form of somatoform disorders. BDD can express itself in a delirious experience, an excessive evaluation and employment of the external appearance, in particular the face. Preliminary results suggest that individuals with BDD do not benefit from plastic surgery, so that aesthetic surgery often results in aggravation of their symptoms. Thus, the identification of signs for a BDD is crucial, whether a patient should be operated plastically-aesthetically. This overview explains the often difficult diagnostics of the BDD by summarizing the current literature on its screening. Study design Systematic overview Methods An electronic search was conducted in the German and English-language literature in order to identify all screening instruments for the BDD. The specific development and validation processes are assessed whether the screening instruments have a positive predictive value for the BDD. Results Six different screening instruments were identified for the BDD. Only two of these were evaluated in a cosmetic setting: the "Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire Dermatology Version" (BDDQ-DV) and the "Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire" (DCQ). The influence on the subjective results after a plastic-aesthetic procedure was measured only for the DCQ. Conclusion The limited availability of validated screening instruments for BDD in plastic surgery is markedly in contrast to the supposedly high prevalence of the disease of 2.4 %. Among the currently used screening tools, the BDDQ-DV and the DCQ appear to be most suitable. Further research efforts are needed to establish better screening methods for the BDD in the plastic surgical patient population and to examine the effects of BDD on treatment results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  18. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  19. A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Shan; Hu, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Jian-Fen; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microbes by determination of 4″-oxo-avermectin was established based on the reaction between 4″-oxo-avermectin and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Combined with a gradient HPLC assay, microorganisms capable of regioselectively oxidizing avermectin to 4″-oxo-avermectin were successfully obtained by this method.

  20. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  1. A preliminary screening study on the associated proteins in human psoriasis vulgaris by serum proteomics technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhankui Liu; Shengshun Tan; Chunshui Yu; Jinghua Fan; Zhuanli Bai; Junjie Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the optimum screening conditions of associated proteins in human psoriasis vulgaris by serum proteomics technique, and to screen the different expression proteins related with psoriasis vulgaris. Methods:Serum samples of peripheral blood were collected from newly diagnosed psoriasis vulgaris patients in the clinic, and 20 matched healthy persons.Serum albumin IgG was removed by filtering with ProteoExtract Albumin/IgG. After comparative proteomics analysis the different protein spots were identified using 2-DE and MS. Results :Electrophoresis figures with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained. Three different expression proteins were found only in the serum from psoriasis vulgaris patients,while nine other different proteins expressing from healthy volunteers. Conclusion:The protein expression was different in the serum between the psoriasis vulgaris patients and healthy volunteers. It was hoped that we could find the biomarkers related to psoriasis vulgaris by using proteomics.

  2. Ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children: A preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-An Zhu; Bing Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children.METHODS: Twenty-eight children with liver cirrhosis of various etiologies were examined by routine ultrasonography.A percutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound was also performed on each patient, and the results of liver biopsy and ultrasonography were compared.RESULTS: When compared with the biopsy results,ultrasonography in combination of clinical and laboratory findings gave accurate diagnoses of children liver cirrhosis.Although ultrasound imaging of children with liver cirrhosis revealed abnormal characteristics, these images were not specific to this disease, thus reinforcing the necessity of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is reliable in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis, and its usefulness should be stressed in the screening and follow-up of high-risk pediatric patients.

  3. The Integral- and Intermediate-Screened Coupled-Cluster Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, L K

    2016-01-01

    We present the formulation and implementation of the integral- and intermediate-screened coupled-cluster method (ISSCC). The IISCC method gives a simple and rigorous integral and intermediate screening (IIS) of the coupled-cluster method and will significantly reduces the scaling for all orders of the CC hierarchy exactly like seen for the integral-screened configuration-interaction method (ISCI). The rigorous IIS in the IISCC gives a robust and adjustable error control which should allow for the possibility of converging the energy without any loss of accuracy while retaining low or linear scaling at the same time. The derivation of the IISCC is performed in a similar fashion as in the ISCI where we show that the tensor contractions for the nested commutators are separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IIS. In the nested commutators the integrals are screened in the first tensor contraction and the intermediates are screened in all successive tensor contractions. The...

  4. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  5. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  6. Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of graphene oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Shang; Dong Zhang; Yanyun Liu; Chao Guo

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on three aspects including morphology and structure, reduction degree and electrical conductivity by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and four-point probe conductivity measurement. Understanding the different characteristics of different RGO by preliminary comparison is helpful in tailoring the characteristics of graphene materials for diverse applications and developing a simple, green, and efficient method for the mass production of graphene.

  7. Substrate-induced gene expression screening: a method for high-throughput screening of metagenome libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    The SIGEX (substrate-induced gene expression) method is a novel approach for the screening of gene (genome) libraries. In addition to the commonly used function- and sequence-driven approaches to screening, SIGEX provides a third option; in SIGEX, positives are identified using a reporter gene, and the library is constructed using an "operon-trap" vector. This vector contains the reporter gene immediately downstream of the cloning site for the genomic insert so that the expression of the inserted gene(s) is coupled with that of the reporter gene. This system is especially suitable for screening catabolic genes that are induced in response to metabolically relevant compounds, such as substrates. If expression of the inserted gene(s) is activated in response to the addition of these compounds, then positive clones can be identified based on the reporter signal. The most effective selection is obtained by the use of a FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) in conjunction with a FACS-compatible fluorescent reporter protein, such as GFP (green fluorescent protein). Activity-based screening of metagenomic libraries often suffers from low sensitivity and low throughput. In contrast, the high throughput, high sensitivity, and versatility of SIGEX make it a particularly suitable method for screening metagenomic libraries.

  8. A computationally efficient autoregressive method for generating phase screens with frozen flow and turbulence in optical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, Sriakr; Rudy, Alexander R; Ammons, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample-based, autoregressive (AR) method for the generation and time evolution of atmospheric phase screens that is computationally efficient and uses a single parameter per Fourier mode to vary the power contained in the frozen flow and stochastic components. We address limitations of Fourier-based methods such as screen periodicity and low spatial frequency power content. Comparisons of adaptive optics (AO) simulator performance when fed AR phase screens and translating phase screens reveal significantly elevated residual closed-loop temporal power for small increases in added stochastic content at each time step, thus displaying the importance of properly modeling atmospheric "boiling". We present preliminary evidence that our model fits to AO telemetry are better reflections of real conditions than the pure frozen flow assumption.

  9. Surface electromyography as a screening method for evaluation of dysphagia and odynophagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eviatar Ephraim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. The article analyzes various instrumental methods of dysphagia assessment, introduces surface electromyography (sEMG to carry out rapid assessment of such patients, and debates proposed suggestions for sEMG screening protocol in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Data sources Subject related books and articles from 1813 to 2007 were obtained through library search, MEDLINE (1949–2007 and EMBASE (1975–2007. Methods Specifics steps for establishing the protocol for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles, the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water are presented in detail. SEMG is compared with other techniques in terms of cost, timing, involvement of radiation, etc. Results According to the published data, SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, time-saving and inexpensive to perform. The major weakness of the method seems to be inability for precise diagnostic of neurologically induced dysphagia. Conclusion With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG might serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management but cannot serve for proper investigation of neurogenic dysphagia.

  10. Surface electromyography as a screening method for evaluation of dysphagia and odynophagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. The article analyzes various instrumental methods of dysphagia assessment, introduces surface electromyography (sEMG) to carry out rapid assessment of such patients, and debates proposed suggestions for sEMG screening protocol in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Data sources Subject related books and articles from 1813 to 2007 were obtained through library search, MEDLINE (1949–2007) and EMBASE (1975–2007). Methods Specifics steps for establishing the protocol for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles), the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water) are presented in detail. SEMG is compared with other techniques in terms of cost, timing, involvement of radiation, etc. Results According to the published data, SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, time-saving and inexpensive to perform. The major weakness of the method seems to be inability for precise diagnostic of neurologically induced dysphagia. Conclusion With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG might serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management but cannot serve for proper investigation of neurogenic dysphagia. PMID:19232090

  11. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F

    2010-05-01

    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  12. GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Jasminum cuspidatum leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singumsetty Vinay; Shaik Karimulla; Devarajan Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum...

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  14. Preliminary Anticonvulsant and Toxicity Screening of Substituted Benzylidenehydrazinyl-N-(6-substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)propanamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ruhi; Siddiqui, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity, a new series of 3-(2-(substitutedbenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-N-(substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-propanamides were synthesized with aromatic hydrophobic aryl ring (A), NH–C=O as hydrogen bonding domain (HBD), nitrogen atom as electron donor (D), and phenyl as distal aryl ring (C). Synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Preliminary in vivo anticonvulsant screening (phase I) was performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Based on anticonvulsant screening results, two compounds, 5h and 5p, were found to be most active; they exhibited activity comparable to standard drugs phenytoin (PHY) and carbamazepine (CBZ). These active compounds were subjected to phase II and phase III screening, where they displayed much higher protective index (PI) in comparison to the standard drugs. In phase IV screening, the bioavailability of active compounds was assessed on oral administration. Further, preliminary safety profiles of 5h and 5p were evaluated by the neurotoxicity testing and liver enzyme estimation. PMID:25580452

  15. Screening methods and recent developments in the detection of anticoccidials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Bienenmann-Ploum, M.E.; Vincent, U.; Delahaut, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review of the current trends in the analysis of coccidiostats in various matrices, focusing principally on screening and rapid methods. Coccidiosis is an infectious disease having a high negative impact on the animal industry. Drugs are therefore necessary to prevent and/or

  16. Screening Method for Transgenic Maize with Kanamycin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Meng-yu; DONG Fu-shuang; ZHANG Jun-min; WANG Hai-bo

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to establish simple and effective method to screen marker gene in maize with kanamycin resistance.[Method] Using inbred line "Chang 7-2" and hybrid "Zhengdan 958" of maize as test materials,their seeds were soaked with different concentrations and volumes of kanamycin for 3 and 4 d,respectively,the rate of albino seedlings and average seedling height after sowing for 10 d were investigated.[Result] The rate of albino seedlings not only was related to kanamycin concentration,but also had relationship with solution volume during soaking process.The difference between inbred line and hybrid was no significant.When 100 ml of kanamycin solution with concentration of 200 mg/L was used to soak seeds for 3 d,the rate of albino seedlings basically could reach 100%.When 100 ml of kanamycin solution with concentration of 100 mg/L was used to soak 20 seeds for 3 d to carry out resistance screening,the accuracy was up to 84.8% after verifying the screening test of T1 transgenic maize plants.[Conclusion] The method was feasible,which could be used as a simple method for screening transgenic gene maize with kanamycin resistance.

  17. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongerslev Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  18. Automatic teleaudiometry: a low cost method to auditory screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campelo, Victor Eulálio Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The auditory screening' benefits has been demonstrated, however these programs has been restricted to the big centers. Objectives: (a Developing a auditory screening method to distance; (b Testing its accuracy and comparing to the screening audiometry test (AV. Method: The teleaudiometry (TA, consists in a developed software, installed in a computer with phone TDH39. It was realized a study in series in 73 individuals between 17 and 50 years, being 57,%% of the female sex, they were randomly selected between patients and companions of the Hospital das Clínicas. Before were subjected to a symptom questionnaire and otoscopy, the individuals realized the tests of TA AV, with scanning in 20dB in the frequencies of 1,2 and 4kHz following the ASHA (1997 protocol and to the gold standard test of audiometry of pure tones in soundproof booth in aleatory order. Results: the TA has lasted average 125+11s and the AV 65+18s. 69 individuals (94,5% declaring to be found difficult or very easy to performing the TA and 61 (83,6% have considered easy or very easy the AV. The accuracy results of TA and AV were respectively: sensibility (86,7% / 86,7%, specificity (75,9%/ 72,4% and negative predictive value (95,7% / 95,5%, positive predictive value (48,1% / 55,2%. Conclusion: The teleaudiometry has showed a good option as an auditory screening method, presenting accuracy next to screening audiometry. In comparison with this method, the teleaudiometry has presented a similar sensibility, major specificity, negative predictive value and endurance time and, under positive predictive value.

  19. Comparison Among Three Screening Methods for Aflatoxigenlic Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHIGANG; CONGLIMIN; 等

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-six isolates of Aspergillus flavus,which were isolated from one hundred food stufs in Zhejiang Province,were detected with RMC,AMCS and APA methods for aflatoxigenicity.The rates of toxigenic isolates detected by the three methods were 11.8%,18.4% and 9.2% respectively.There were twenty toxigenic isolates detected by the three methods(26.3%)AMCS method was better than other methods.False negatives appeared in all methods.False positive appeared in both AMCS method and APA method.It was suggested that AMCS method may be a safe,simple and reliable method for screening toxigenic isolated if some aspects were improved.

  20. Preliminary design of pseudo satellites: Basic methods and feasibility criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical models of weight and energy balances, aerodynamic models, and solar irradiance models to perform pseudo-satellite preliminary design are presented. Feasibility criteria are determined in accordance with the aim of preliminary design dependent on mission scenario and type of payload.

  1. System Synthesis in Preliminary Aircraft Design Using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaurentis, Daniel; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents an approach to conceptual and early preliminary aircraft design in which system synthesis is achieved using statistical methods, specifically Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). These methods are employed in order to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, a methodology incorporating three uses of these techniques is presented. First, response surface equations are formed which represent aerodynamic analyses, in the form of regression polynomials, which are more sophisticated than generally available in early design stages. Next, a regression equation for an Overall Evaluation Criterion is constructed for the purpose of constrained optimization at the system level. This optimization, though achieved in an innovative way, is still traditional in that it is a point design solution. The methodology put forward here remedies this by introducing uncertainty into the problem, resulting in solutions which are probabilistic in nature. DOE/RSM is used for the third time in this setting. The process is demonstrated through a detailed aero-propulsion optimization of a High Speed Civil Transport. Fundamental goals of the methodology, then, are to introduce higher fidelity disciplinary analyses to the conceptual aircraft synthesis and provide a roadmap for transitioning from point solutions to probabilistic designs (and eventually robust ones).

  2. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  3. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-03-01

    The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

  4. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  5. Preliminary screening of Cuscuta reflexa stems for Anti inflammatory and cytotoxic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavan Bhausaheb Udavant; Suggala Venkata Satyanarayana; Chandrashekhar Devidas Upasani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of preliminary antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities of a parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Methods: Human red blood stabilizing activity was used for the evaluation of in vitro antiinflammatory activity and Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of extract of stems of Cuscuta reflexa. Results: Methanolic extract and Ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR & EAMECR resp.) were found to have significant antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration IC50%values 277.83 μg/ml & 214.94 μg/ml in HRBC stabitlity assay[table 01], and lethal concentration LC50% 257.73 μg/ml 184.86 μg/ml in BSLA respectively[table 02]. Conclusions: Amongst various extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activities, methanolic extract of Cuscutareflexa (MECR) and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EAMECR) show significant cytotoxic as well as antiinflammatory activities which may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols and flavonoids.

  6. Development and preliminary validation of a Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenmann Joey C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents directly influence children's physical activity and nutrition behaviors and also dictate the physical and social environments that are available to their children. This paper summarizes the development of an easy to use screening tool (The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA Screening Tool designed to assess family environmental and behavioral factors that may predispose a child to becoming overweight. Methods The FNPA instrument was developed using constructs identified in a comprehensive evidence analysis conducted in collaboration with the American Dietetics Association. Two or three items were created for each of the ten constructs with evidence grades of II or higher. Parents of first grade students from a large urban school district (39 schools were recruited to complete the FNPA screening tool and provide permission to link results to BMI data obtained from trained nurses in each school. A total of 1085 surveys were completed out of the available sample of 2189 children in the district. Factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the scale. Mixed model analyses were conducted on the composite FNPA score to determine if patterns in home environments and behaviors matched some of the expected socio-economic (SES and ethnic patterns in BMI. Correlations among FNPA constructs and other main variables were computed to examine possible associations among the various factors. Finally, logistic regression was used to evaluate the construct validity of the FNPA scale. Results Factor analyses revealed the presence of a single factor and this unidimensional structure was supported by the correlation analyses. The correlations among constructs were consistently positive but the total score had higher correlations with child BMI than the other individual constructs. The FNPA scores followed expected demographic patterns with low income families reporting lower (less favorable scores than

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of the Ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa Tubers and Estimation of Diosgenin by HPTLC Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Roy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simple phytochemical screening procedures were carried out to find the various constituents present in the ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa tubers. Further,estimation of Diosgenin in Dioscorea villosa tubers, was carried out by HPTLC technique. The preliminary screening showed presence of proteins, flavonoids tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds saponins and glycosides. The extract was chromatographed on silica gel GF254 plates with Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid: Formic Acid (4: 3: 1:1 as mobile phase. Detection and quantification were performed by densitrometric scanning, at 366 nm. The average recovery of diosgenin was found to be 0.48 %. The HPTLC technique has provided a good resolution of diosgenin from other constituents present in the ethanolic extract.

  8. Evaluation of an automated method for urinocolture screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ballabio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections are one of the most common diseases found in medical practice and are diagnosed with traditional methods of cultivation on plates. In this study we evaluated an automated instrumentation for screening of the urinocultures that can provide results quickly and guarantee traceability. The comparison of results obtained with automatic and plate methods is reported. Methods: 316 urine samples including midstream urine, urine catheter and urine bag have been analyzed by Alfred 60 (Alifax through light scattering technology that measures the replication of the bacteria. Simultaneously, the samples were sown on agar plates CPS3,Agar Cled, Mc Conkey Agar. Results:A total of 316 samples were analyzed by the automated method, 190 resulted negative, all confirmed by culture, while 126 were found positive. 82 cases were confirmed positive in culture plate, 65 with significant isolation of bacteria and 17 with polymicrobial flora with a significant charge. 44 cases were negative in culture plate but positive for the automated method. Conclusions: The absence of false negative results at low charges can represent a starting point to introduce an automated method for urinocolture screening.

  9. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational efficiency is also shown for a GRRM search. The interface program is suitable for the structural search of large molecular systems for which semiempirical methods are applicable.

  10. Trojan Horse Method: A tool to explore electron screening effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R G; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Cognata, M La; Lamia, L; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy) and Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C; Strieder, F [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Burjan, V; Kroha, V; Mrazek, J [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez (Czech Republic); Li, C; Wen, Q; Zhou, S [CIAE, Beijing (China); Tumino, A, E-mail: rgpizzone@lns.infn.i [Universita Kore, Erma (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure reaction rates for charged particle induced reactions. Moreover due to the presence of the electron screening effect in direct measurements, the relevant nuclear input for astrophysics, i.e. the bare nucleus S(E)-factor, can hardly be extracted. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is an unique: indirect technique which allows one to measure reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest down the thermal energies typical of the different scenarios. The basic principle and a review of the main applications of the Trojan Horse Method are given. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  11. High-throughput screening method for lipases/esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Díaz, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Jorge Alberto; de Los Ángeles Camacho-Ruiz, María; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) methods for lipases and esterases are generally performed by using synthetic chromogenic substrates (e.g., p-nitrophenyl, resorufin, and umbelliferyl esters) which may be misleading since they are not their natural substrates (e.g., partially or insoluble triglycerides). In previous works, we have shown that soluble nonchromogenic substrates and p-nitrophenol (as a pH indicator) can be used to quantify the hydrolysis and estimate the substrate selectivity of lipases and esterases from several sources. However, in order to implement a spectrophotometric HTS method using partially or insoluble triglycerides, it is necessary to find particular conditions which allow a quantitative detection of the enzymatic activity. In this work, we used Triton X-100, CHAPS, and N-lauroyl sarcosine as emulsifiers, β-cyclodextrin as a fatty acid captor, and two substrate concentrations, 1 mM of tributyrin (TC4) and 5 mM of trioctanoin (TC8), to improve the test conditions. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we screened 12 enzymes (commercial preparations and culture broth extracts) for the hydrolysis of TC4 and TC8, which are both classical substrates for lipases and esterases (for esterases, only TC4 may be hydrolyzed). Subsequent pH-stat experiments were performed to confirm the preference of substrate hydrolysis with the hydrolases tested. We have shown that this method is very useful for screening a high number of lipases (hydrolysis of TC4 and TC8) or esterases (only hydrolysis of TC4) from wild isolates or variants generated by directed evolution using nonchromogenic triglycerides directly in the test.

  12. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  13. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal

    2015-10-02

    One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB). The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  14. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB. The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR, maximum unbiased validation (MUV and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  15. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods; Tumorscreening mit Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Marien-Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  17. Largest Common Chemical Feature Subtree as a Virtual Screening Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Pedersen, Christian Storm; Thomsen, Rene

    We investigate the effectiveness of using a tree comparison based method to screen for drug candidates. Molecules are represented as trees in which ring systems are reduced to single nodes. These trees are compared to the tree of a selected known binder and the molecules are ranked according...... to the normalized size of their largest common subtree. The nodes of the molecular trees contains information about the atoms or ring systems they represent (e.g. charge and hydrogen donor/acceptor properties). In this way we can restrict which nodes are matched when calculating the size of the largest common...

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury Screening: Preliminary Findings in a US Army Brigade Combat Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    traumatic brain injury TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY ( TBI ) is often dis-cussed as a common injury of the war in... Traumatic Brain Injury Screening 17 TABLE 1 Screening results∗ Injury status Injured with TBI 907 (22.8) Injured without TBI 385 (9.7) Not injured 2681...remember the injury 335 (36.9) Total with TBI 907 (100) ∗Values represent n (%). TBI indicates traumatic brain

  19. Statistical Methods for Estimating the Cumulative Risk of Screening Mammography Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, R.A.; Ripping, T.M.; Chubak, J.; Broeders, M.J.; Miglioretti, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study illustrates alternative statistical methods for estimating cumulative risk of screening mammography outcomes in longitudinal studies. METHODS: Data from the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) and the Nijmegen Breast Cancer Screening Program in the Netherlands were

  20. DESI MS based screening method for phthalates in consumer goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sabine; Wagner, Sebastian; Gerbig, Stefanie; Wächter, Herbert; Sielaff, Detlef; Bohn, Dieter; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-05-21

    Phthalates are used as plasticizes in many everyday items, but some of them are known as hormone disruptors, being especially harmful during childhood. The European Union therefore restricted their application in children's toys and certain food packaging to 0.1%w. Due to the ever increasing number of plastic-containing consumer goods, rapid screening methods are needed to ensure and improve consumer safety in the future. In this study we evaluated the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for rapid quantitative screening of phthalates in toys. DESI allowed for direct surface sampling of the toys under atmospheric conditions with minimal sample preparation, while the high performance mass spectrometer used provided a high sensitivity and reliable identification via accurate mass measurements, high mass resolving power and MS/MS capabilities. External calibration curves for six banned phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP) were obtained from matrix-matched reference materials. Coefficients of determination were greater than 0.985, LOQs ranged from 0.02%w (DIDP) to 2.26%w (DINP) and the relative standard deviation of the calibration curve slope was less than 7.8% for intraday and 11.4% for interday comparison. The phthalate contents of eleven authentic samples were determined in a proof-of-concept approach using DESI MS and results were compared to those from confirmatory methods. The phthalate content was correctly assigned with relative deviations ranging from -20% to +10% for the majority of samples. Given further optimization and automation, DESI MS is likely to become a useful tool for rapid and accurate phthalate screening in the future.

  1. The prevalence and screening methods of postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Erdem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum Depression is the most common complicationof the delivery and affects approximately 10%-15% ofwomen who had just gave birth. During a period in whichwomen believe that they should be happy, the depressivemood experienced by most women leads to feelings ofguilt, hiding the symptoms, and postpartum depressionto be overlooked. Although the incidence of serious psychiatricdisorders during pregnancy is low, it is reportedthat the incidence shows a dramatic increase during thepostpartum period and this risky period may continue upto six months, one year or even two years.As the onset of postpartum depression is insidious it caneasily be overlooked if the patient’s seeking help is notsupported, especially when the severity of postpartum depressionis mild or moderate. In these cases, postpartumdepression may persist for a long time and at last it can beso severe that hospitalization would be needed. Therefore,early diagnose is very important and primary carephysicians and other health care workers should be alert.Postpartum Depression should be diagnosed using reliabledescriptive methods in puerperant women. Thescales such as Postnatal Depression Screening Scale,Beck Depression Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal DepressionScale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, all of whichwere tested for validity and reliability in our country can beused during follow-up of pregnant and puerperal women.Key words: Postpartum depression, screening methods,primary health care professionals

  2. Courant-Snyder invariant density screening method for emittance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-Lei; TANG Jing-Yu; JING Han-Tao

    2011-01-01

    Emittance is an important characteristic of describing charged particle beams.In hadron accelerators,we often meet irregular beam distributions that are not appropriately described by a single rms emittance or 95% emittance or total emittance.In this paper,it is pointed out that in many cases a beam halo should be described with very different Courant-Snyder parameters from the ones used for the beam core.A new method - the Courant-Snyder invariant density screening method - is introduced for analyzing emittance data clearly and accurately.The method treats the emittance data from both measurements and numerical simulations.The method uses the statistical distribution of the beam around each particle in phase space to mark its local density parameter,and then uses the density distribution to calculate the beam parameters such as the Courant-Snyder parameters and emittance for different beam boundary definitions.The method has been used in the calculations for.beams from different sources,and shows its advantages over other methods.An application code based on the method including the graphic interface has also been designed.

  3. High-Throughput Screening of Potential Skin Penetration-Enhancers Using Stratum Corneum Lipid Liposomes: Preliminary Evaluation for Different Concentrations of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a technique for high-throughput screening (HTS) of skin penetration-enhancers using stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs). A fluorescent marker, sodium fluorescein (FL), entrapped in SCLLs was prepared to provide a preliminary evaluation of the effect of different concentrations of ethanol on the disruption effect of SCLLs, which is an alternative for skin penetration-enhancing effects. In addition, SCLLs containing a fluorescent probe (DPH, TMA-DPH, or ANS) were also prepared and utilized to investigate SCLL fluidity. The results using SCLL-based techniques were compared with conventional skin permeation and skin impedance test using hairless rat skin. The obtained correlations were validated between FL leakage, SCLL fluidity with various probes, or skin impedance and increases in the skin permeation enhancement ratio (ER) of caffeine as a model penetrant. As a result, FL leakage and SCLL fluidity using ANS were considered to be good indices for the skin penetration-enhancing effect, suggesting that the action of ethanol on the SC lipid and penetration-enhancing is mainly on the polar head group of intercellular lipids. In addition, this screening method using SCLL could be utilized as an alternative HTS technique for conventional animal tests. Simultaneously, the method was found to be time-saving and sensitive compared with a direct assay using human and animal skins. PMID:28321359

  4. Establishment of Hypoglycemic Agent Screening Method Based on Human Glucokinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOU-FEI WU; YANG XU; YONG TAO; JI-YAN YANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a reliable platform for screening glucokinase activators (GKAs) in vitro. Methods Pancreatic glucokinase (PGK) protein expressed in a prokaryotic expression system as a histidine-tagged fusion protein from Homo sapiens was produced. Then, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the microplate-based GKA screening platform. In the first step of optimization with Plackett-Burman design (PBD), initial pH, reaction time and MgC12were found to be important factors affecting the activity ratio of GKA (RO-28-1675) significantly. In the second step, a 23 full factorial central composite design (CCD) and RSM were applied to the optimal condition determination of each significant variable. A second-order polynomial was determined by a multiple regression analysis of the experimental data. Results The following optimal values for the critical factors were obtained: initial pH 0 (7.0), reaction time-0.63 (13.7 min) and MgCl2 0.11 (2.11mmol/L) with a predicted value of the maximum activity ratio of 34.1%. Conclusion Under the optimal conditions, the practical activity ratio is 34.8%. The determination coefficient (R2) is 0.9442, ensuring adequate credibility of the model.LLAE3, extracted from Folium nelumbinis in our laboratory, has prominently activated effects on PGK.

  5. HIV antibody preliminary screening in 113 229 inpatients%113229例住院患者 HIV 抗体初筛结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芬; 王庆芳; 刘家田; 李建丽; 王万海

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解某大型医院住院患者人类免疫缺陷病毒( HIV)抗体初筛阳性率及其在临床科室中分布情况。方法对113229例住院患者进行HIV抗体初筛检测,比较不同性别患者的阳性率,分析HIV抗体阳性患者在不同科室的分布情况。结果 HIV抗体初筛阳性152例,阳性率为0.134%;其中男91例(0.161%),女61例(0.107%),不同性别间阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 HIV抗体初筛阳性患者分布于20个科室,其中高发科室有耳鼻喉科、骨科、妇科、泌尿外科、普外科、神经内科、皮肤科、肿瘤科、眼科。这些科室的HIV抗体初筛阳性者占总筛查阳性的67.1%。结论住院患者中存在较高的HIV抗体初筛阳性率,且科室分布广泛。%Objective To investigate the positive rate of HIV antibody preliminary screening and the distribution of the clinical departments in general hospital inpatients.Methods HIV antibody preliminary screening detection was conducted in 113 229 cases of patients.The positive rate between different genders was compared , and the distribution of patients with positive HIV antibody in different departments was analyzed.Results Totally 152 plasma samples were positive by the antibody screening test for HIV, and the positive rate was 0.134%, including 91 males and 61 females (P<0.05).The 152 positive cases covered 20 clinical departments and the major clinical departments included otolaryngological department, orthopaedics department, gy-naecology department, urology department, surgery department, neurology department, dermatological department, oncology de-partment and ophthalmology department.The patients with positive HIV antibody undergoing preliminary screening of these de-partments accounted for 67.1%of the total screening.Conclusion The positive rate of HIV antibody screening among inpatients in our hospital is high with a wide range of department

  6. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.

    2016-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  7. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dhivya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds of alkaloids, tannins, phenol, flavanoids, sterols, antraquinones, proteins and quinones in the flower extract. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of 14 major compounds. This study forms a basis for the biological characterization and importance of the compounds identified and creates a platform to screen many bioactive components to treat many diseases.

  9. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  10. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from Daucus crinitus Desf., from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Djabou, Nassim; Allali, Hocine; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2012-01-01

    The presence of natural antioxidant in plants is well known. Plant phenolics constitute one of the major groups of components that act as primary antioxidant free radical terminators. This paper reports the antioxidative activity of methanolic and water extract of Daucus crinitus Desf. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of stems/leaves revealed the presence of different kind of chemical groups such as tannin, flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins. The amounts of tota...

  11. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.Dhivya; K. Manimegalai

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds ...

  12. Preliminary screening of osteoporosis and osteopenia in middle aged urban women from Hyderabad (INDIA using calcaneal QUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kasturi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: A substantial female population was screened for osteoporosis and osteopenia using calcaneal QUS method utilizing same WHO T score criteria that otherwise shall remain undiagnosed and face the complications and menace of osteoporosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2029-2033

  13. Screening methods to identify TALEN-mediated knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms.

  14. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  15. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis from Chang'E-2 optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yu; Qiao, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Shape modeling is fundamental to the analysis of dynamic environment and motion around asteroid. Chang'E-2 successfully made a flyby of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis and obtained plenty of high-resolution images during the mission. In this paper, the modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis are discussed. First, the optical images obtained by Chang'E-2 are analyzed. Terrain and silhouette features in images are described. Then, the modeling method based on previous radar model and preliminary information from optical images is proposed. A preliminary polyhedron model of Asteroid Toutatis is established. Finally, the spherical harmonic coefficients of Asteroid Toutatis based on the polyhedron model are obtained. Some parameters of model are analyzed and compared. Although the model proposed in this paper is only a preliminary model, this work offers a valuable reference for future high-resolution models.

  17. Synthesis of new biphenyl-substituted quinoline derivatives, preliminary screening and docking studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nellisara D Shashikumar; Ganganaika Krishnamurthy; Halehatti S Bhojyanaik; Mayasandra R Lokesh; Kaginalli S Jithendrakumara

    2014-01-01

    New quinoline derivatives containing biphenyl ring were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic activities as well as free radical scavenging property against the DPPH radical. The minimum inhibition concentration values showed promising inhibiting activity and are potent biological agents. The compounds showed minimum binding energy towards -tubulin. The compounds 11a, 11c, 13c and 13d have good affinity towards the active pocket and may be considered as a good inhibitor of -tubulin.

  18. A screening method for the ALK fusion gene in NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko eMurakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis and even the treatment of lung cancer. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the EML4-ALK fusion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC was first described in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; thus, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard, there are no perfect methods for detecting the genetic alterations. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods and possible criteria for selecting patients more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from those with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, it may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology.

  19. A novel method for screening the glutathione transferase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn Grzegorz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione transferases (GSTs belong to the family of Phase II detoxification enzymes. GSTs catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to different endogenous and exogenous electrophilic compounds. Over-expression of GSTs was demonstrated in a number of different human cancer cells. It has been found that the resistance to many anticancer chemotherapeutics is directly correlated with the over-expression of GSTs. Therefore, it appears to be important to find new GST inhibitors to prevent the resistance of cells to anticancer drugs. In order to search for glutathione transferase (GST inhibitors, a novel method was designed. Results Our results showed that two fragments of GST, named F1 peptide (GYWKIKGLV and F2 peptide (KWRNKKFELGLEFPNL, can significantly inhibit the GST activity. When these two fragments were compared with several known potent GST inhibitors, the order of inhibition efficiency (measured in reactions with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (CDNB and glutathione as substrates was determined as follows: tannic acid > cibacron blue > F2 peptide > hematin > F1 peptide > ethacrynic acid. Moreover, the F1 peptide appeared to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of the GST-catalyzed reaction, while the F2 peptide was determined as a competitive inhibitor of this reaction. Conclusion It appears that the F2 peptide can be used as a new potent specific GST inhibitor. It is proposed that the novel method, described in this report, might be useful for screening the inhibitors of not only GST but also other enzymes.

  20. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  1. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity on Mobile Touch-Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers are now pervasive, making them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Here we de- scribe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. A proto- type has been developed for Apple Computer's iPad/iPod/iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing, http://hsi.arc.nasa.gov/groups/scanpath/research.php). Preliminary data show good agreement with estimates obtained from traditional psychophysical methods as well as newer rapid estimation techniques. Issues relating to device calibration are also discussed.

  2. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  3. Design and preliminary analysis of a vaginal inserter for speculum-free cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Mercy Nyamewaa; Agudogo, Júlia; Krieger, Marlee S; Miros, Robert; Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy. We explored different designs using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software and performed mechanical testing simulations on each. Designs were rapid prototyped and tested using a custom vaginal phantom across a range of vaginal pressures and uterine tilts to select an optimal design. Two final designs were tested with fifteen volunteers to assess cervix visualization, comfort and usability compared to the speculum and the optimal design, the curved-tip inserter, was selected for testing in volunteers. We present a vaginal inserter as an alternative to the standard speculum for use with the POCkeT Colposcope. The device has a slim tubular body with a funnel-like curved tip measuring approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The inserter has a channel through which a 2 megapixel (MP) mini camera with LED illumination fits to enable image capture. Mechanical finite element testing simulations with an applied pressure of 15 cm H2O indicated a high factor of safety (90.9) for the inserter. Testing of the device with a custom vaginal phantom, across a range of supine vaginal pressures and uterine tilts (retroverted, anteverted and sideverted), demonstrated image capture with a visual area comparable to the speculum for a normal/axial positioned uteri and significantly better than the speculum for anteverted and sideverted uteri (pcancer screening and also enables acetic acid/Lugol's iodine application and insertion of swabs for Pap smear sample collection. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an inserter and miniature-imaging device for comfortable cervical

  4. [Preliminary results of a screening programme by mobile units in the province of Liege].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Maassen, P; Bartsch, P

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the mass screening of breast cancer undertaken under the authority of the Province of Liège is to focus the action on rural communities. For this reason, mobile vans equipped with X-Ray dedicated units are used. The main difficulty of this programme is to reach a massive participation of the population. It varies up to now from 45% to 20% in the different visited villages. During the 42 first months of functioning, 16,207 mammographies were carried out in women aged from 40 to 69; 69 cancers were discovered in apparently healthy women plus 10 cases of epithelial hyperplasia with atypias. These first results are quite encouraging. The main task of this continuing programme will be to reach a better participation of the population.

  5. Preliminary Phytochemical screening and HPTLC Studies of Extracts of Dried Rhizomes of Aspidium cicutarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushumi Kulkarni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many herbal formulations are widely used in Ayurveda since ancient times. However it is not possible to attribute their pharmacological activity to a particular phytoconstituent present in the extract unless thorough phytochemical investigation is carried out. The present study aims at phytochemical screening of methanolic and aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Aspidium cicutarium Family Dyropteridaceae. The powdered dried rhizome was subjected to initial studies to determine the physical constants. Results: Extracts were made and subjected to various chemical tests and showed presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins. Further investigation of the extracts by HPTLC is an attempt to deduce the varied composition of methanolic and aqueous extract of Aspidium cicutarium. The chromatogram shows presence of multiple peaks which indicate diverse composition of extract. Conclusion: Further detailed investigations of the extracts can be helpful in making formulations of these extracts so that they can successfully and safely be used to treat some diseases.

  6. Establishment of screening method for effective vaccination using radiolabelled probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomaguchi, Hiroko; Yogi, Yasuko [National Inst. of Infectious Deseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Aiming to develop a screening method for effective vaccination, an investigation was made to establish basic techniques for evaluating cytokine producing abilities of host cells after immunization to mycobacterium leprae. In this study, proliferation of the bacterium was investigated with immunodeficient mice such as BALB/cA-nu/nu, CB-scid, aly/{sup +} and aly/aly and the respective normal mice. When the splenic cells from BALB/cA mouse sensitized with M. leprae (ip, 5 days) was challenged with its cell lysate, {gamma}-IFN was produced, whereas its production was not observed in those from sensitive mouse BALB/cA-nu/nu. In addition, it was suggested that cells which could induce {gamma}-IFN in response to IL-12 were extremely limited in the nude mouse. On the contray, for IL-18, {gamma}-IFN was inducible in the nude mouse when anti-CD3 was previously coated, indicating that it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination only by measuring the productions of IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, it seems better to determine the amount of {gamma}-IFN protein induced by resensitization with the antigen in the splenic cells. (M.N.)

  7. A preliminary study of the use of bioimpedance in the screening of squamous tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congo Tak-Shing Ching

    2010-03-01

    conclusion, bioimpedance at a particular frequency is a potentially promising technique for tongue cancer screening.Keywords: bioimpedance, tongue, cancer, noninvasive, detection, screening

  8. Efficient screening methods for glucosyltransferase genes in Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Geel van - Schutten, G.H.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Limited information is available about homopolysaccharide synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus. Using efficient screening techniques, extracellular glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme activity, resulting in α-glucan synthesis from sucrose, was detected in various lactobacilli. PCR with degenerate

  9. Efficient screening methods for glucosyltransferase genes in Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S; van Geel-schutten, GH; van der Maarel, MJEC; Dijkhuizen, L

    Limited information is available about homopolysaccharide synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus . Using efficient screening techniques, extracellular glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme activity, resulting in alpha-glucan synthesis from sucrose, was detected in various lactobacilli. PCR with degenerate

  10. Efficient screening methods for glucosyltransferase genes in Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Geel van - Schutten, G.H.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Limited information is available about homopolysaccharide synthesis in the genus Lactobacillus. Using efficient screening techniques, extracellular glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme activity, resulting in α-glucan synthesis from sucrose, was detected in various lactobacilli. PCR with degenerate prime

  11. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  12. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  13. Preliminary Design of the HiLumi-LHC Triplet Area Beam Screen

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Kos, N

    2014-01-01

    The so-called beam screen (BS) is a proven solution for intercepting the thermal loads caused by the circulating beams in the cryogenically-cooled sections of the LHC and minimizing dynamic vacuum effects [1]. The new triplet area foreseen for the HiLumi-LHC (HL-LHC) machine upgrade [2] has the additional feature of needing internal tungsten shields to reduce the amount of collision debris which is deflected by the high-gradient triplet magnets towards the superconducting magnets' cold masses and coils. The very aggressive optics design, based on large beam separations, calls for a maximum of physical space to remain available to the counter rotating beams in the common BS. This places severe constraints to the fabrication and installation tolerances of the BS itself, in addition to affecting the design and routing of the cryogenic lines in the area. The latest version of the BS design will be shown and discussed, together with future plans for testing materials, fabrication procedures, and installation.

  14. Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second edition: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Tatiana Ribeiro Gomes da; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of language skills in early childhood can provide important information about the future of literacy and academic performances. Children with reading difficulties should be identified early in their education, before they suffer from shortcomings and experience failures and feel discouraged at school. Considering the importance of early identification of language disorders and the shortage of standardized instruments for the Brazilian scenario, the overall objective of this study was to translate and adapt the Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second Edition (DEST-2) to, subsequently, verify its applicability and efficacy in preschoolers who had Brazilian Portuguese as their native language. The study was composed of 20 children of both genders, regularly enrolled in a public school in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, none had any complaints related to learning and no indicators of sensory, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral disorders. It was observed that there was no need for significant changes to the original structure of the DEST-2 or in their administration instructions format. The performance of the children in the translated and in the national exams that were used as a benchmark was compatible, suggesting that the adjustments made met the equivalences needed to utilize this instrument with Brazilian children. A randomized study that will complement the preliminarily data obtained is in progress. Taking into consideration the linguistic and cultural diversity of Brazil, it is imperative that the translated version of the DEST-2 can be applied on a large scale and in several states of the country, in order to allow the use of this instrument as a language assessment tool in Brazil.

  15. Screening of cider yeasts for sparkling cider production (Champenoise method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Valles, Belén; Pando Bedriñana, Rosa; Lastra Queipo, Ana; Mangas Alonso, Juan José

    2008-08-01

    A total of 350 colonies isolated from a cider cellar in Asturias (Spain) were identified by rDNA ITS-RFLP restriction analysis. Saccharomyces spp. strains were characterized by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis. Fifty-four different Saccharomyces spp. strains were identified and tested to ascertain their capacity to carry out secondary fermentation of sparkling ciders. The screening of yeasts to determine their principal enological characteristics (tolerance to ethanol, production of volatile acidity and hydrogen sulphide) was accomplished by means of rapid, non-expensive assays (plate agar). As a result, 13 (24%) of the 54 initial Saccharomyces spp. yeast strains were eliminated. The technological properties assessed were flocculation capacity, ethanol and sulphite tolerance, and production of major volatiles. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were characterized as true flocculants; all of these strains were able to grow in ethanolic medium and in the presence of 200mg/l of sulphite. Applying cluster analysis to the production of amyl alcohols, isobutanol, propanol and 2-phenylethanol, the strains were classified in two natural groups. Two flocculent yeast strains referred to as 3' and 50', representative of the each statistical group, were selected together with two reference strains (Saccharomyces bayanus C6 and S. cerevisiae Levuline CHP) to elaborate four sparkling ciders by the Champenoise method. The analysis of variance (pciders revealed that glycerol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, i-butanol and 2-phenylethanol were significantly influenced by the secondary yeast strain. The results of sensory analysis indicated that all the sparkling ciders were scored as good. No significant differences among sparkling ciders were found for odour attributes and taste intensity.

  16. GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Jasminum cuspidatum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singumsetty Vinay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum. The anti-diabetic activity was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats with treatment of ethanol extract at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, which was compared with glibenclamide at a dose level of 4 mg/kg and the parameter measured being the blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, and total protein. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was also investigated in experimental rats. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the ethanol extract contained seven phytoconstituents. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids. The result of in vivo anti-diabetic activity revealed that the ethanol extract of J. cuspidatum showed significant anti-diabetic activity.

  17. A comparison of two psychological screening methods currently used for inpatients in a UK burns service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Laura; Tew, Victoria; Rai, Lovedeep

    2017-08-01

    Various types of psychological screening are currently used in the UK to identify burn patients who are experiencing psychological distress and may need additional support and intervention during their hospital admission. This audit compared two types of psychological screening in 40 burn inpatients. One screening method was an unpublished questionnaire designed to explore multiple areas of potential distress for those who have experienced burns. The other method was an indirect psychological screen via discussions within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings where a Clinical Psychologist was present to guide and prompt psychological discussions. Data was collected between November 2012 and September 2016. Results suggested that both screening methods were similar in identifying patients who benefit from more formal psychological assessment. Indeed, statistical analysis reported no difference between the two screening methods (N=40, p=.424, two-tailed). In conclusion, measuring distress in burns inpatients using a burns-specific questionnaire and psychological discussions within MDT meetings are similar in their ability to identify patients in need of more thorough psychological assessment. However, both screening methods identified patients who were in need of psychological input when the other did not. This suggests that psychological screening of burns inpatients, and the psychological difficulties that they can present with, is complex. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of screening are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soft gel medium solidified with gellan gum for preliminary screening for root-associating, free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria inhabiting the rhizoplane of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Tada, Motohiko; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    For preliminary screening for and characterization of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria from rhizoplane microflora, we used Winogradsky's mineral mixture-based nitrogen-free medium solidified with 0.3% gellan gum. The soft gel medium enabled some reference and wild free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria to grow in characteristic colonies, including their reaction to oxygen and their motility change. Gellan gum is thus likely to be a better gel matrix than agarose for the investigation of roo...

  19. Inflammation markers in healthy and periodontitis patients: a preliminary data screening

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz,Adriana Corrêa de; Taba Jr.,Mario; O'Connell,Patrícia Aquino; Nóbrega,Priscila Brasil da; Costa, Priscila Paganini; Kawata,Viviane Keiko dos Santos; Trevisan,Glauce Lunardelli; Novaes Jr,Arthur Belém; SOUZA, Sergio Luís Scombatti de; Palioto,Daniela Bazan; GRISI,Márcio Fernando de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic research are moving towards methods whereby the periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by objective measures using biomarkers. Patients with periodontitis may have elevated circulating levels of specific inflammatory markers that can be correlated to the severity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are differentially expressed in healthy and periodontitis patients. Twenty...

  20. Methods and Procedures in Screening Gifted Mayan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Instruments, procedures, and criteria for the screening of Mayan students in Yucatan, Mexico are depicted and evaluated by analyzing the results of their use on 242 students in five different regions of Yucatan. These 242, 8th grade students were selected from a pool of 1,530 potentially gifted students. Participants responded to a variety of…

  1. An improved method for rapid generation and screening of Bacillus thuringiensis phage-resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    A simple method to isolate, screen and select phage-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis was developed. The traditional double-layer agar method was improved by a combination of the spotting assay using a lytic phage, to generate the bacterial-resistant mutants, with an inverted spotting assay (ISA), to rapidly screen the candidate-resistant mutants.

  2. Development and preliminary study on the ultrasonic assisted GMAW method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yangyang; Fan Chenglei; Yang Chunli; Liu Wenge; Lin Sanbao

    2010-01-01

    The ultrasonic assisted GMAW (U-GMAW)method is proposed to achieve a more stable welding process and better weld quality. The U-GMA W system is developed, which consists of power supplies, ultrasonic vibration system and specially de-signed welding torch. The U-GMAW process and conventional GMA W process are compared through bend-on-plate welding.The weld beads are continuous and well protected, while the weld surface appearances by GMA W and U-GMA W are apparently different. The metal transfer mode changes from globular transfer to short-circuiting transfer after ultrasonic wave is applied onto the arc.

  3. Monte Carlo comparison of preliminary methods for ordering multiple genetic loci.

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, J.M.; Boehnke, M

    1990-01-01

    We carried out a simulation study to compare the power of eight methods for preliminary ordering of multiple genetic loci. Using linkage groups of six loci and a simple pedigree structure, we considered the effects on method performance of locus informativity, interlocus spacing, total distance along the chromosome, and sample size. Method performance was assessed using the mean rank of the true order, the proportion of replicates in which the true order was the best order, and the number of ...

  4. Turbo STIR magnetic resonance imaging as a whole-body screening tool for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma: preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Kessar, P; Blanchard, R; Dimasi, M; Harper, K; DeCarvalho, V; Yucel, E K; Patriquin, L; Eustace, S

    2000-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the utility of whole-body turbo short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect metastases to liver, brain, and bone as a single examination in women with breast cancer. Seventeen patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer and suspected metastatic disease attending over a 12-month period referred for both conventional imaging and whole-body MRI were included in the study. Three patients were found to be free of metastases at both conventional and MR imaging. Appendicular or axial skeletal metastases were identified in 11 of 17 patients, with correlation between findings at whole-body MRI and scintigraphy in 15 of the 17 patients. Five patients had evidence of hepatic metastases on whole-body MRI, of which metastases were identified in only three patients at CT despite contrast enhancement. Four patients had brain abnormalities (metastases in three patients, meningioma in one patient) detected on both whole-body and dedicated brain MRI. Preliminary clinical experience suggests that turbo STIR whole-body MRI may represent a convenient and cost-effective method of total body screening for metastases in patients with breast carcinoma.

  5. Preliminary Study on the Determination of ~(235)U and ~(239)Pu Using Delayed Neutron Counting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary study on the fast measurements of 235U and 239Pu in samples containing 235U, 239Pu and 235U-239Pu mixture using delayed neutron counting method is introduced. All samples were irradiated for 30 s using the 30 kW Miniature Neutron

  6. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  7. A random plasma glucose method for screening for gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari J

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Low renal threshold for glucose during pregnancy renders glycosuria less specific for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Screening for gestational diabetes was done by utilising random plasma glucose (RPG. RPG was done at the first antenatal visit. In 12,623 patients who registered for antenatal care at the N.W.M. Hospital, 1371 patients had a RPG more than 100 mg%. An oral glucose tolerance test was advised in these patients. The pick-up rate of gestational diabetes correlated with RPG level. Thirty-six cases of gestational diabetes were picked up. The pick up rate is significantly higher as compared to that which would have been detected utilising conventional screening criteria.

  8. Idea and Process of Preliminary Screening of the Existing Housing for Low Carbon Remodeling in Hangzhou%杭州既有住宅低碳改造对象的初筛思考与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田轶威; 王竹; 张彩伢; 朱炜

    2013-01-01

    Based on lots of architectural information and residential data of energy consumption, the screening tactics for remodeled objects are studied, and the preliminary screening rating method with visualized comprehensive potential map for remodeling are formed by use of statistical variance aqalysis. These are expected to be reference for relevant research and practice.%基于大量建筑信息和实测能耗数据,利用统计学方差分析等工具研究了城市既有住宅低碳改造对象的筛选策略,并形成了初筛评级方法和可视化的改造综合潜力地图,在实践中具有应用价值,期望为相关研究实践提供参考借鉴.

  9. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  10. Novel Data Mining Methods for Virtual Screening of Biological Active Chemical Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman M.

    2016-11-23

    Drug discovery is a process that takes many years and hundreds of millions of dollars to reveal a confident conclusion about a specific treatment. Part of this sophisticated process is based on preliminary investigations to suggest a set of chemical compounds as candidate drugs for the treatment. Computational resources have been playing a significant role in this part through a step known as virtual screening. From a data mining perspective, availability of rich data resources is key in training prediction models. Yet, the difficulties imposed by big expansion in data and its dimensionality are inevitable. In this thesis, I address the main challenges that come when data mining techniques are used for virtual screening. In order to achieve an efficient virtual screening using data mining, I start by addressing the problem of feature selection and provide analysis of best ways to describe a chemical compound for an enhanced screening performance. High-throughput screening (HTS) assays data used for virtual screening are characterized by a great class imbalance. To handle this problem of class imbalance, I suggest using a novel algorithm called DRAMOTE to narrow down promising candidate chemicals aimed at interaction with specific molecular targets before they are experimentally evaluated. Existing works are mostly proposed for small-scale virtual screening based on making use of few thousands of interactions. Thus, I propose enabling large-scale (or big) virtual screening through learning millions of interaction while exploiting any relevant dependency for a better accuracy. A novel solution called DRABAL that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian Network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays, is showed to achieve significant improvements over existing state-of-the-art approaches.

  11. Application Of Active Screen Method For Ion Nitriding Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogórek M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the research of austenitic steel AISI 304 after ion nitriding at 400°C and at t =4h, for the two different variants of samples distribution in the working plasma reactive chamber tube. In order to assess the effectiveness of ion nitriding variants emission spectroscopy – GDOES, surface hardness tests, microstructure research (LM of nitrided layers were made. It has been found that the use of active screens increases the surface layer thickness and depth of nitrogen diffusion into austenitic steel 304.

  12. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.

  13. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  14. Time-resolved luminescence screening method for enrofloxacin in beef serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods currently used in the U.S. for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay ...

  15. Terbium-sensitized luminescence screening method for fluoroquinolones in beef serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods commonly used for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay was developed...

  16. Sheen Screen, a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number Method for Enumeration of Oil-Degrading Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Edward J.; Braddock, Joan F.

    1990-01-01

    Sheen Screen is a miniaturized method for enumerating oil-degrading microorganisms. The technique relies on the ability of oil-degrading microorganisms to emulsify oil when provided as a sole carbon source in 24-well tissue culture plates. Sediments that actively respire hydrocarbons have high numbers of Sheen Screen-positive microorganisms.

  17. PET formulation screening method based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Janne Frenvik

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical generating methods have been explored in search for a PET formulation screening method that can predict the qualities of formulations regarding radiochemical stability. The idea of using the hydroxyl radical originates from work with polysorbate 80 screening methods, literature on the subject of stabilizing excipients in radiopharmaceuticals, and the process of radiolysis of water. The Fenton reaction and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide have been used to genera...

  18. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  19. Construction and preliminary evaluation of an Aspergillus flavus reporter gene construct as a potential tool for screening aflatoxin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; Brown-Jenco, Carmen S; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2003-10-01

    Effective preharvest strategies to eliminate aflatoxin accumulation in crops are not presently available. The molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been extensively studied, and genetic and molecular tools such as reporter gene systems for the measurement of fungal growth have been developed. A reporter construct containing the Aspergillus flavus beta-tubulin gene promoter fused to Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for the indirect measurement of fungal growth in maize kernels. Since cost-saving alternative methods for the direct measurement of aflatoxin levels are needed to facilitate more widespread field and laboratory screening of maize lines, a new reporter gene construct involving the promoter region of the omtA gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was constructed and tested. Expression of GUS activity by this construct (omtA::GUS) was correlated with aflatoxin accumulation in culture. In the fungal transformant GAP26-1, which harbors this construct, aflatoxin production and GUS expression on sucrose-containing medium showed the same temporal pattern of toxin induction. Furthermore, GUS expression by GAP26-1 was shown to be associated with aflatoxin accumulation in maize kernels inoculated with this strain. Our results suggest that this and other reporter gene pathway promoter constructs may provide superior alternatives to direct aflatoxin quantification with respect to time, labor, and materials for the screening of maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation.

  20. Feasibility of an electromagnetic compatibility method for MRgFUS using a wire mesh screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated an electromagnetic compatibility method for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery using a conductive wire mesh screen. This screen has a good ultrasound transmission and shielding effectiveness. A hybrid acoustic simulation method was developed to analyze the effects of mesh parameters and the HIFU working frequency on the acoustic field. Experiments were performed to measure both acoustic pressure profile and radiated electromagnetic noise. With the proposed mesh screen, the electromagnetic radiation emission was reduced by 14dB at 128MHz while the acoustic focal intensity was reduced by less than 11% using one screen. This shielding method is easy to implement and requires no additional phase correction method. This method also improves the quality of MR images.

  1. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  2. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  3. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  4. Preliminary screening of Ni(II) metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing byNocardiopsis sp. SD8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramasamy Thangaraj; Saha Subhasish; Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran; Nooruddin Thajuddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To reveal the screening of metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing ofNocardiopsis sp. Methods: NiSO4 and Congo red dye were used for evaluating the metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing of the randomly selected actinobacterial isolates. Results:Nocardiopsis sp.SD8 showed a better efficiency in Ni(II) tolerance, though a longer lag phase was observed for this microorganism grown for 7 days in integrated mismatch negativity. Interestingly, we also found thatNocardiopsis sp.SD8 had dye-decolorizing, hemolytic, lipase and protease activity. Conclusions:The present results revealed the bioremediation of metal resistant and diverse properties ofNocardiopsis sp.SD8 and further investigations are needed to extract and identify the potent molecule.

  5. Preliminary screening of Ni(II metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing by Nocardiopsis sp. SD8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Thangaraj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the screening of metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing of Nocardiopsis sp. Methods: NiSO4 and Congo red dye were used for evaluating the metal tolerance and dyedecolorizing of the randomly selected actinobacterial isolates. Results: Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 showed a better efficiency in Ni(II tolerance, though a longer lag phase was observed for this microorganism grown for 7 days in integrated mismatch negativity. Interestingly, we also found that Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 had dye-decolorizing, hemolytic, lipase and protease activity. Conclusions: The present results revealed the bioremediation of metal resistant and diverse properties of Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 and further investigations are needed to extract and identify the potent molecule.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  7. Plate screening methods for the detection of polysaccharase-producing microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Hartmans, S.

    2000-01-01

    Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (polysaccharases) are widely applied in industry. One of the sources of these enzymes are polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms. To obtain such microorganisms from enrichment cultures, strain collections or gene libraries, efficient plate screening methods are requ

  8. Using pre-screening methods for an effective and reliable site characterization at megasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algreen, Mette; Kalisz, Mariusz; Stalder, Marcel; Martac, Eugeniu; Krupanek, Janusz; Trapp, Stefan; Bartke, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness of pre-screening methods for an effective characterization of polluted sites. We applied a sequence of site characterization methods to a former Soviet military airbase with likely fuel and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contamination in shallow groundwater and subsoil. The methods were (i) phytoscreening with tree cores; (ii) soil gas measurements for CH4, O2, and photoionization detector (PID); (iii) direct-push with membrane interface probe (MIP) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) sensors; (iv) direct-push sampling; and (v) sampling from soil and from groundwater monitoring wells. Phytoscreening and soil gas measurements are rapid and inexpensive pre-screening methods. Both indicated subsurface pollution and hot spots successfully. The direct-push sensors yielded 3D information about the extension and the volume of the subsurface plume. This study also expanded the applicability of tree coring to BTEX compounds and tested the use of high-resolution direct-push sensors for light hydrocarbons. Comparison of screening results to results from conventional soil and groundwater sampling yielded in most cases high rank correlation and confirmed the findings. The large-scale application of non- or low-invasive pre-screening can be of help in directing and focusing the subsequent, more expensive investigation methods. The rapid pre-screening methods also yielded useful information about potential remediation methods. Overall, we see several benefits of a stepwise screening and site characterization scheme, which we propose in conclusion.

  9. Velocity Correction and Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of Light Screen Velocity Measuring Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; ZUO Zhao-lu; HOU Wen

    2012-01-01

    Light screen velocity measuring method with unique advantages has been widely used in the velocity measurement of various moving bodies.For large air resistance and friction force which the big moving bodies are subjected to during the light screen velocity measuring,the principle of velocity correction was proposed and a velocity correction equation was derived.A light screen velocity measuring method was used to measure the velocity of big moving bodies which have complex velocity attenuation,and the better results were gained in practical tests.The measuring uncertainty after the velocity correction was calculated.

  10. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Bartlesville, OK); Lewis, Cris (Los Alamos, NM); Mahan, Cynthia A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-04-26

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  11. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Bartlesville, OK); Lewis, Cris (Los Alamos, NM); Mahan, Cynthia A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-04-14

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  12. An Efficient Variable Screening Method for Effective Surrogate Models for Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    reliability-based design optimization ( RBDO ) process, surrogate models are frequently used to reduce the number of simulations because analysis of a...the RBDO problem and thus mitigate the curse of dimensionality. Therefore, it is desirable to develop an efficient and effective variable...screening method for reduction of the dimension of the RBDO problem. In this paper, requirements of the variable screening method for deterministic design

  13. A hybrid passive localization method under strong interference with a preliminary experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Yang, Yixin; Yang, Kunde; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Strong interference exists in many passive localization problems and may lead to the inefficacy of traditional localization methods. In this study, a hybrid passive localization method is proposed to address strong interference. This method combines generalized cross-correlation and interference cancellation for time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurement, followed by a time-delay-based iterative localization method. The proposed method is applied to a preliminary experiment using three hydrophones. The TDOAs estimated by the proposed method are compared with those obtained by the particle filtering method. Results show that the positions are in agreement when the TDOAs are accurately obtained. Furthermore, the proposed method is more capable of localization in the presence of a strong moving jamming source.

  14. Dynamically screened local correlation method using enveloping localized orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Alexander A.; Nooijen, Marcel

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we present a local coupled cluster approach based on a dynamical screening scheme, in which amplitudes are either calculated at the coupled cluster level (in this case CCSD) or at the level of perturbation theory, employing a threshold driven procedure based on MP2 energy increments. This way, controllable accuracy and smooth convergence towards the exact result are obtained in the framework of an a posteriori approximation scheme. For the representation of the occupied space a new set of local orbitals is presented with the size of a minimal basis set. This set is atom centered, is nonorthogonal, and has shapes which are fairly independent of the details of the molecular system of interest. Two slightly different versions of combined local coupled cluster and perturbation theory equations are considered. In the limit both converge to the untruncated CCSD result. Benchmark calculations for four systems (heptane, serine, water hexamer, and oxadiazole-2-oxide) are carried out, and decay of the amplitudes, truncation error, and convergence towards the exact CCSD result are analyzed.

  15. A new method for screening diagnosis of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, G E; Dorosh, Zh V; Sharkhun, O O

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for the diagnosis of insulin resistance, easily realized in clinical practice, is developed in order to detect patients at a high risk of diseases associated with this condition. The metabolic index is estimated as the proportion of triglycerides and glucose values to quadratic HDL cholesterol value (in mmol/liter). The specific feature of this method for detection of insulin resistance in comparison with the known indirect methods is the use of routine biochemical values, evaluated in venous serum, for estimations. Estimation of this metabolic index is an economic and effective indirect method for evaluating the homeostasis system without additional evaluation of blood hormones.

  16. Preliminary screening of the larvicidal effect of Brevibacillus laterosporus strains against the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala(Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Nogueira Carramaschi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated whether different strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus could be used to control larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala , a pest that affects both human and animal health.METHODS:Mortality rates were recorded after 1-mL suspensions of sporulated cells of 14 different strains of B. laterosporus were added to 2.5g of premixed diet consisting of rotting ground beef fed to first instar larvae of C. megacephala . All bioassays were performed using 10 larvae per strain, with a minimum of three replicates for each bioassay. Larval mortality was recorded daily up to seven days.RESULTS:Strains Bon 707, IGM 16-92, and Shi 3 showed the highest toxicity toward the larvae producing 70.5%, 64.5%, and 51.6% of larval mortality, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05. In contrast, strains NRS 1642, NRS 661, NRS 590 BL 856, NRS 342, ATCC 6457, Bon 712, and NRS 1247 showed limited or no pathogenic activity against the target larvae.CONCLUSIONS:Our preliminary data indicated that B. laterosporus could be used to develop bioinsecticides against C. megacephala .

  17. Improved chiral SFC screening for analytical method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Wes; Chandrasekaran, Tilak; Pirzada, Zainab; Zhang, Chaowei; Gong, Xiaoyi; Biba, Mirlinda; Regalado, Erik L; Welch, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In this study we describe the evaluation of a recently developed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) instrument for automated chiral SFC method development. The greatly improved gradient dwell volume and liquid flow control of the new instrument in combination with the use of shorter columns containing smaller stationary phase particles affords chiral SFC method development that is faster and more universal than previous systems.

  18. Accelerated Discovery in Photocatalysis using a Mechanism-Based Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Matthew N; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Teders, Michael; Sahoo, Basudev; Glorius, Frank

    2016-03-18

    Herein, we report a conceptually novel mechanism-based screening approach to accelerate discovery in photocatalysis. In contrast to most screening methods, which consider reactions as discrete entities, this approach instead focuses on a single constituent mechanistic step of a catalytic reaction. Using luminescence spectroscopy to investigate the key quenching step in photocatalytic reactions, an initial screen of 100 compounds led to the discovery of two promising substrate classes. Moreover, a second, more focused screen provided mechanistic insights useful in developing proof-of-concept reactions. Overall, this fast and straightforward approach both facilitated the discovery and aided the development of new light-promoted reactions and suggests that mechanism-based screening strategies could become useful tools in the hunt for new reactivity.

  19. Predicting high-throughput screening results with scalable literature-based discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, T; Widdows, D; Stephan, C; Zinner, R; Kim, J; Rindflesch, T; Davies, P

    2014-10-08

    The identification of new therapeutic uses for existing agents has been proposed as a means to mitigate the escalating cost of drug development. A common approach to such repurposing involves screening libraries of agents for activities against cell lines. In silico methods using knowledge from the biomedical literature have been proposed to constrain the costs of screening by identifying agents that are likely to be effective a priori. However, results obtained with these methods are seldom evaluated empirically. Conversely, screening experiments have been criticized for their inability to reveal the biological basis of their results. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of a scalable literature-based approach, discovery-by-analogy, to identify a small number of active agents within a large library screened for activity against prostate cancer cells. The methods used permit retrieval of the knowledge used to infer their predictions, providing a plausible biological basis for predicted activity.

  20. Monte Carlo comparison of preliminary methods for ordering multiple genetic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J M; Boehnke, M

    1990-09-01

    We carried out a simulation study to compare the power of eight methods for preliminary ordering of multiple genetic loci. Using linkage groups of six loci and a simple pedigree structure, we considered the effects on method performance of locus informativity, interlocus spacing, total distance along the chromosome, and sample size. Method performance was assessed using the mean rank of the true order, the proportion of replicates in which the true order was the best order, and the number of orders that needed to be considered for subsequent multipoint linkage analysis in order to include the true order with high probability. A new method which maximizes the sum of adjacent two-point maximum lod scores divided by the equivalent number of informative meioses and the previously described method which minimizes the sum of adjacent recombination fraction estimates were found to be the best overall locus-ordering methods for the situations considered, although several other methods also performed well.

  1. Tree Coring as a Complement to Soil Gas Screening to Locate PCE and TCE Source Zones and Hot Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rehne Jensen, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary risk assessment for prioritisation of site investigations requires efficient screening to reveal type and level of contamination. The screening methods, tree coring and soil gas sampling were applied and compared at two forested sites contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE...

  2. Optimization of Screening Method for Feed Nutrition and Processing Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangYun-qing; WangYi-tong; 等

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of regressional relationship between nutritional indexes and technological conditions,when confronted with feed quality that contains multiple nutritional indexes,a comprehensive equation of evaluating feed quality was developed by using fuzzy mathematical method at first in this study,and then the optimum technological conditions were established by introduction of statistical frequency analysis method pursuant to the comprehensive evaluating equation mentioned above compared with conventional multi-aim nonlinear programming,this method can lead to easy solutions,and also can make adjustment of the importance of nutritional indexes to feed quality according to practical considerations.An example was given of soybean extruding to show how the method worked.

  3. Optimization of Screening Method for Feed Nutrition and Processing Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of regressional relationship between nutritional indexes and technological conditions, when confronted with feed quality that contains multiple nutritional indexes ,a comprehensive equation of evaluating feed quality was developed by using fuzzy mathematical method at first in this study,and then the optimum technological conditions were established by introduction of statistical frequency analysis method pursuant to the comprehensive evaluating equation mentioned above compared with conventional multi-aim nonlinear programming,this method can lead to easy solutions ,and also can make adjustment of the importance of nu- tritional indexes to feed quality according to practical considerations. An example was given of soybean ex- truding to show how the method worked.

  4. [Nutritional screening in heart failure patients: 5 methods review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Rincón, Carmen; Fresno-Flores, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion: La malnutrición aumenta la mortalidad y la estancia hospitalaria. Cada vez más instituciones sanitarias adoptan medidas de cribado nutricional con el fin de detectar precozmente la malnutrición o el riesgo de desarrollarla. No existe un método universalmente aceptado para la valoración nutricional. Objetivo: Determinar un método rápido y fiable, que no precise de entrenamiento previo, para el cribado nutricional de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, en el que se evaluaron mediante la valoración subjetiva global (VSG), el Mini nutritional assesment (MNA) tanto en su versión abreviada o de cribado (MNA-SF) como en su versión extendida o de valoración (MNA-LF), el nutritional Risk Screnning (NRS 2002), el Conocimiento nutricional o método Ulibarri (CONUT), el método Cardona y el Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), el estado nutricional de 242 pacientes ingresados en un hospital terciario de alta complejidad con diagnósticos compatibles con descompensación de insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. Se analizaron la sensibilidad, especificidad, los valores predictivos, las razones de verosimilitud, la odds ratio diagnostica y el índice de correlación kappa, de los distintos métodos comparados con la valoración subjetiva global, que fue considerada como prueba cierta. Resultados: La edad media fue de 75±9. El 50,8% (n=123) fueron hombres. El índice de correlación kappa de los distintos métodos de cribado con respecto a la valoración subjetiva global fueron MNA valoración =0,637; MNA cribado =0,556; NRS =0,483; MUST =0,197; Cardona =0,188; CONUT =0,076. Discusión: El Mini Nutritional Assesment fue el método que mejor relación ofreció, tanto en su etapa de cribado como en la de valoración con la Valoración subjetiva global.

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Different Recitation Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endorf, Robert J.; Koenig, Kathleen M.; Braun, Gregory A.

    2006-02-01

    We present preliminary results from a comparative study of student understanding for students who attended recitation classes which used different teaching methods. Student volunteers from our introductory calculus-based physics course attended a special recitation class that was taught using one of four different teaching methods. A total of 272 students were divided into approximately equal groups for each method. Students in each class were taught the same topic, "Changes in energy and momentum," from Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different teaching methods varied in the amount of student and teacher engagement. Student understanding was evaluated through pretests and posttests given at the recitation class. Our results demonstrate the importance of the instructor's role in teaching recitation classes. The most effective teaching method was for students working in cooperative learning groups with the instructors questioning the groups using Socratic dialogue. These results provide guidance and evidence for the teaching methods which should be emphasized in training future teachers and faculty members.

  6. An oral health and function screening tool for nursing personnel of long-term care facilities to identify the need for dentist referral without preliminary training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Shigemi; Ito, Kayoko; Stegaroiu, Roxana; Shibata, Satoko; Ohuchi, Akitsugu

    2017-06-01

    To develop and evaluate, with a dentist as gold standard, an oral health screening tool, the Oral Health Screening Tool for Nursing Personnel (OHSTNP), that assists long-term care facility nursing staff without preliminary training in identifying resident need for dentist referral. Using an OHSTNP adapted from previous screening tools (Chalmers, J Gerontol Nurs, 2004, 30, 5; Tsukada, J Jpn Soc Dent Hyg, 2012, 7, 43), one of four nurses, one of eight caregivers and a dentist with 15 years' experience screened the oral health/function of 57 long-term care facility residents. The OHSTNP included a question on the need and reasons for dentist referral. Tool reliability and validity were evaluated by determining inter-rater agreement (Cohen's kappa), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. For dentist-nurse and dentist-caregiver pairs, kappa was statistically significant and sensitivity was high (≥0.67, nurses; ≥0.71, caregivers) for natural teeth, dentures and oral function-related categories. Specificity for all categories was ≥0.69. Screening by nurses and caregivers for need for referral had low sensitivity (0.05, 0.23), accuracy (0.25, 0.39) and kappa (-0.01, 0.08). However, if nursing staff had been instructed to request a dentist referral in case of alterations in natural teeth/dentures or severe alterations in any other category, the estimated values increased to a sensitivity of 0.86 and 0.91, an accuracy of 0.75 and 0.82 and a kappa of 0.26 and 0.47. OHSTNP was reliable and valid for screening natural teeth, denture conditions and oral functions. Supplementary guidelines improved estimates of OHSTNP sensitivity, accuracy and reliability for nurse/caregiver assessment of resident need for dentist referral. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Preliminary Study of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry-based Screening of Patients with the NSCLC Serum-Specific Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The improved survival of patients with lung cancer depends on early diagnosis of lung cancer. However, the traditional diagnostic techniques have several limitations. Mass spectrometry (MS has been applied as a core technology for cancer diagnosis in preliminary proteomic studies. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in the serum peptide levels of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and healthy individuals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF-MS. A NSCLC serum classification model was then established. Methods One hundred and thirty three cases of patients with NSCLC serum specimens and 132 cases of healthy human serum specimens were randomly divided into two groups in accordance with the ratio of three to one without age and gender differences. The training group was used to establish the classification model, this group included serum samples from 100 NSCLC cases and 100 healthy individuals. The test group for validating the proposed model was composed of the remaining serum samples from 33 NSCLC cases and 32 healthy individuals. Peptides were extracted from the samples using magnetic beads- immobilized metal affinity capture - copper, and their mass spectra were obtained using an automated MALDI-TOF-MS system. The MS data from the training group was analyzed using the ClinproToolTM software to identify the individual peptide fragments and establish the classification model. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were verified by blind testing with the test group. Results Among the 131 different peptide peaks, ranging from m/z 1,000 Da to 10,000 Da, 14 peaks were significantly different in the NSCLC samples of the training group, as compared with the controls (P<0.000,001; AUC≥0.9; these included 2 higher peaks and 12 lower peaks. The classification model was established, and the test group was verified for only 3 peptide peaks (7,478.59, 2

  8. Validation of a screening method for rapid control of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Téllez, Helena; Sánchez, Alberto; Chicharro, Manuel; Ríos, Angel

    2008-05-01

    A procedure for the analytical validation of a rapid supercritical fluid extraction amperometric screening method for controlling macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples has been developed. The limit established by European legislation (0.2 mg kg(-1)), in reference to zearalenone (ZON) mycotoxin, was taken as the reference threshold to validate the proposed method. Natural ZON metabolites were also included in this study to characterize the final screening method. The objective was the reliable classification of samples as positive or negative samples. The cut-off level was fixed at a global concentration of mycotoxins of 0.17 mg kg(-1). An expanded unreliability zone between 0.16 and 0.23 mg kg(-1) characterized the screening method for classifying the samples. A set of 30 samples was used for the final demonstration of the reliability and usefulness of the method.

  9. Methods for Factor Screening in Computer Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    of the dat-a In a-space, impacto the variable selection problem s ign if Lrast ly. S-arch-type variable selection methods include the all-po"sible...i.iv 41.1 ti * n wt- -iu’pt-v c C it st’vt’re mu It ico11 inear it v is pro-crtnt Lind. , ii;.qt4pai tlv * Iti’lt- c- j c. tic j icivnt, art, verv

  10. A comparative study of cervical cancer screening methods in a rural community setting of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Satyanarayana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pap smear testing as a conventional cervical screening approach has limitations for implementation and aided visual cervical testing has varying results in different regions. Aims: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the performance of aided visual cervical screening tests as against conventional Pap smear testing in a rural community setting of North India. Settings and Design: This was a rural community based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All 7603 ever married women of age 30-59 years surveyed in a pocket of Dadri Tehsil, Uttar Pradesh, India were targeted for screening by Pap, visual inspection of cervix using acetic acid (VIA and visual inspection of cervix using Lugol′s iodine (VILI methods. Screen positives were referred to colposcopy and confirmation by histology. Statistical Analysis Used: Detection of histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II + and CIN III + assessed separately by sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio′s and predictive values. Analysis of data was performed by using IBM SPSS statstics software version 16.0. Results: A total of 65.6%(4988/7604 eligible women of 30-59 years age group in the target population were screened. Out of 4988, further analysis was performed on 4148 after excluding those who did not complete all screenings, who lost to follow-up and had missing histology results. Screen positivity rates by Pap (ASCUS and above, VIA and VILI were 2.6%, 9.7% and 13.5% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting the CIN III+ lesions were 87.5 and 98.8% for Pap, 50.0% and 96.7% for VIA and 50.0% and 95.7% for VILI respectively. Conclusions: VIA screening demonstrated as a feasible primary screening test for detecting high grade CIN and as to perform better when the Pap test is not feasible.

  11. A new mass screening method for methylmercury poisoning using mercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Naruse, I; Takizawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A simplified mass screening method for methylmercury exposure was developed using methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay. Some bacteria can transform methylmercury into mercury vapor. Most mercury in the hair is methylmercury, which is readily extracted with HCl solution. Black spots are formed on X-ray film due to the reduction of Ag(+) emulsion with mercury vapor produced by methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria. By exploiting these characteristics, a screening method was developed, whereby the fur of rats injected with methylmercury chloride formed clear black spots on X-ray film, whereas the fur of rats injected with saline did not. Subsequently, 50 human hair samples were examined using this mass screening method. The method identified people who had high mercury concentration, over 20 microg/g. A few thousand hair samples may be screened in a day using this method because it is rapid, simple, and economical. This method, therefore, enables screening of persons with methylmercury poisoning in mercury-polluted areas.

  12. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  13. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  14. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana Urbano dos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  15. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Pan,1,* Haobo Chen,1,2,* Wai-Ling Bickerton,2 Johnny King Lam Lau,2 Anthony Pak Hin Kong,3 Pia Rotshtein,2 Aihua Guo,1 Jianxi Hu,1 Glyn W Humphreys4 1Department of Neurology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 4Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People’s Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients’ poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou.Method: A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Albert’s cancellation test, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test–retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment

  16. Primary Care Screening Methods and Outcomes for Asylum Seekers in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Nathan S; Selden, Elizabeth; Krass, Polina; Keatley, Eva S; Keller, Allen

    2016-10-04

    Effective screening in primary care among asylum-seekers in the US is critical as this population grows. This study aimed to evaluate disease prevalence and screening methods in this high-risk group. Two hundred ten new clients from 51 countries, plus Tibet, who were accepted into a program for asylum seekers from 2012 to 2014 were included. Screening rates and outcomes for infectious, non-communicable, and mental illnesses were evaluated. Screening rates were highest for PTSD, depression, hepatitis B, and latent tuberculosis. Seventy-one percent of clients screened positive for depression and 55 % for PTSD, followed by latent tuberculosis (41 %), hypertension (10 %), hepatitis B (9.4 %), and HIV (0.8 %). Overall screening rates were high. Point of care testing was more effective than testing that required a repeat visit. A large psychiatric and infectious disease burden was identified. These findings can inform future primary care screening efforts for asylum seekers in the US.

  17. Detection of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A comparative study of three different phenotypic screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhateja P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate screening methodologies, to detect Staphylococcus aureus strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. Three methods were used to screen 160 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates along with ATCC quality control strains. Subsequently, MIC of all these 160 strains were determined by NCCLS methodology. The MIC of all the 160 clinical isolates was < 4µg/mL and were classified as vancomycin susceptible by NCCLS criteria but 23 strains were positive by Hiramatshu method, two grew on MHA (5µg/mL vancomycin while CDC method correctly identified no vancomycin intermediate S.aureus (VISA or vancomycin resistant S.aureus (VRSA strains with reference to there MIC. CDC method was found to be the most appropriate screening methodology for detection of VISA or VRSA for diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorożyński, Przemysław; Jamróz, Witold; Niwiński, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works.

  19. A straightforward ninhydrin-based method for collagenase activity and inhibitor screening of collagenase using spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2013-06-01

    Currently protease assay kits, requiring substrate that is either radiolabeled or fluorescence labeled and specialized instruments, are all expensive. A simple, reliable assay of protease activity and its inhibitor screening for general laboratory is rare. Here we demonstrated a straightforward ninhydrin-based method for assay of collagenase activity and its inhibitor screening using spectrophotometry. In the method, without multistep sample treatments and substrate labeling, the hydrolytic products were directly traced by ninhydrin. The method is expected to be suitable for not only the assay of collagenase activity but also the others matrix metalloproteinases activities, and can be used for kinetic study.

  20. A Multivariate Computational Method to Analyze High-Content RNAi Screening Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameseder, Jonathan; Krismer, Konstantin; Dayma, Yogesh; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Floyd, Scott R; Yaffe, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    High-content screening (HCS) using RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with automated microscopy is a powerful investigative tool to explore complex biological processes. However, despite the plethora of data generated from these screens, little progress has been made in analyzing HC data using multivariate methods that exploit the full richness of multidimensional data. We developed a novel multivariate method for HCS, multivariate robust analysis method (M-RAM), integrating image feature selection with ranking of perturbations for hit identification, and applied this method to an HC RNAi screen to discover novel components of the DNA damage response in an osteosarcoma cell line. M-RAM automatically selects the most informative phenotypic readouts and time points to facilitate the more efficient design of follow-up experiments and enhance biological understanding. Our method outperforms univariate hit identification and identifies relevant genes that these approaches would have missed. We found that statistical cell-to-cell variation in phenotypic responses is an important predictor of hits in RNAi-directed image-based screens. Genes that we identified as modulators of DNA damage signaling in U2OS cells include B-Raf, a cancer driver gene in multiple tumor types, whose role in DNA damage signaling we confirm experimentally, and multiple subunits of protein kinase A. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Screening Method of New Inorganic Scintillators for Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Megan

    2004-10-01

    Inorganic scintillators play an important role in detection and visualization of ionizing radiation. A scintillator with both high light yield and fast response has yet to be found. These methods are useful in detector applications for homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation. New scintillators are necessary to improve radiation detectors for detection of fissile materials specifically when shielded. At ORNL, several new inorganic scintillators including various versions of ZnO, and SnO2 are being evaluated to determine light yield and decay times. Crystals are grown here, doped or painted with metals such as Al, Cd, Sn or Ga and measured. The photons emitted from a scintillator from a single incident alpha or neutron can be counted and graphed, allowing the luminosity and decay constants to be determined. The promising samples are also being evaluated for exact luminosity through spectroscopy.

  2. Screening Method of Inorganic Scintillators for Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.

    2004-10-01

    Inorganic scintillators play an important role in detection and visualization of ionizing radiation. A scintillator with both high light yield and fast response has yet to be found. These methods are useful in detector applications for homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation. New scintillators are necessary to improve radiation detectors for detection of fissile materials specifically when shielded. At ORNL, several new inorganic scintillators including various versions of ZnO, and SnO2 are being evaluated to determine light yield and decay times. Crystals are grown here, doped or painted with metals such as Al, Cd, Sn or Ga and measured. The photons emitted from a scintillator from a single incident alpha or neutron can be counted and graphed, allowing the luminosity and decay constants to be determined

  3. Endotoxin Molecule Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Zebrafish Inflammation Model: A Novel Screening Method for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin molecule, has been used to induce inflammatory responses. In this study, LPS was used to establish an in vivo inflammation model in zebrafish for drug screening. We present an experimental method that conveniently and rapidly assesses the anti-inflammatory properties of drugs. The yolks of 3-day post-fertilization (dpf larvae were injected with 0.5 mg/mL LPS to induce fatal inflammation. After LPS stimulation, macrophages were tracked by NR and SB staining and neutrophil migration was observed using the MPO:GFP line. Larval mortality was used as the primary end-point. Expression levels of key cytokines involved in the inflammatory response including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Macrophages and neutrophils were both recruited to the LPS-injected site during the inflammatory response. Mortality was increased by LPS in a dose-dependent manner within 48 h. Analyses of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression levels revealed the upregulation of the inflammatory response in the LPS-injected larvae. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of chlorogenic acid (CA was evaluated in this zebrafish model to screen for anti-inflammatory drugs. A preliminary result showed that CA revealed a similar effect as the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX, which was used as a positive control, by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the LPS site and improving survival. Our results suggest that this zebrafish screening model could be applied to study inflammation-mediated diseases. Moreover, the Traditional Chinese Medicine CA displays potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Mass Screening of Multiple Abdominal Solid Organs Using Mobile Helical Computed Tomography Scanner—A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Ishikawa

    2007-04-01

    Conclusion: Qualitative diagnoses of solid tumours were difficult using CT findings without contrast medium. CT screening procedures require further investigation in aspect of the selection of examinees, CT scanning procedure, sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: a rapid method for the isolation of pure tachyzoites: preliminary characterization of its genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Garberi

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple technique for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites was developed. Highly purified parasites were obtained from the peritoneal exudates of infected mice by means of two consecutive discontinous sucrose gradients run at low speed (10,000xg, 30 min. Parasites obtained by this method conserved its biological activity. Hybridizations tudies with DNA from healthy mice and from purified tachyzoites preparations demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites DNA could be obtained with better than 90 per cents purity. Preliminary studies with DNA endonucleases showed the presence in the tachyzoites genome of highly repetitives sequences.

  6. Microbial screening methods for detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of food products from animal origin for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably done using microbial screening methods because of their high cost-effectiveness. Traditionally applied methods fail to detect the maximum residue limits which were established when EU Council Regu

  7. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of pla

  8. Comparison of a fluoroquinolone surface plasmon resonance biosensor screening assay with established methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigel, S.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Huet, A.C.; Delahaut, P.; Schittko, S.; Flerus, R.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed immunochemical biosensor screening method for fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in poultry muscle, fish and egg was compared with established methods. Blank sample material of the target matrices was individually spiked with the FQs at half maximum residue

  9. A Rapid DNA Mini-prep Method for Large-Scale Rice Mutant Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Fu-lin; WANG He-he; CHEN Jie; ZHUANG Jie-yun; Hei LEUNG; CHENG Shi-hua; Wu Jian-li

    2006-01-01

    A high throughput rice DNA mini-preparation method was developed. The method is suitable for large-scale mutant bank screening as well as large mapping populations with characteristics of maintaining relatively high level of DNA purity and concentration. The extracted DNA was tested and suitable for regular PCR amplification (SSR) and for Targeting Induced Local Lesion in Genome (TILLING) analysis.

  10. A New Method for the Atomic Ground-State Energy in the Screened Coulomb Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Peng-Peng; GUO Hua

    2001-01-01

    The new method proposed recently by Friedberg,Lee and Zhao is applied to the derivation of the atomic ground-state energy with the inclusion of the screening effect.The present results are compared with those obtained in the pure Coulomb potential and by the variational approach.The overall good results are obtained with this new method.``

  11. Comparison of a fluoroquinolone surface plasmon resonance biosensor screening assay with established methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigel, S.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Elferink, J.W.A.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Huet, A.C.; Delahaut, P.; Schittko, S.; Flerus, R.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed immunochemical biosensor screening method for fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in poultry muscle, fish and egg was compared with established methods. Blank sample material of the target matrices was individually spiked with the FQs at half maximum residue le

  12. Field screening method for above-tolerance residues of dithiocarbamate fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, D E; Gunther, F A

    1982-07-01

    A field screening method has been developed for detecting above-tolerance residues of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides on fruits and vegetables. A harvested crop might be condemned as unfit for market if above-tolerance DTC residues are present; however, by using this screening method, a grower might be able to postpone harvesting a crop until the screening test indicates that residues have dissipated below the tolerance level. The method depends on carbon disulfide generated from DTC fungicides at an elevated temperature into the headspace gas above the contents of a septum-sealed reaction flask, with hydrochloric acid and stannous chloride present. The syringe-withdrawn, headspace carbon disulfide then reacts with the appropriate chromophore reagent already in the syringe. The lower limit of detectability is about 2 ppm DTC fungicide from 30 g chopped crop. A single test can be completed in about 90 min; the average time per test when several are conducted sequentially is considerably shorter.

  13. Inverse design-momentum, a method for the preliminary design of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, L [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Soraperra, G [TOZZI NORD wind turbines, via S. Sebastian s.n.c. 38100 Trento (Italy); Fedrizzi, R [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Zanne, L [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Wind turbine rotor prediction methods based on generalized momentum theory BEM routinely used in industry and vortex wake methods demand the use of airfoil tabulated data and geometrical specifications such as the blade spanwise chord distribution. They belong to the category of 'direct design' methods. When, on the other hand, the geometry is deduced from some design objective, we refer to 'inverse design' methods. This paper presents a method for the preliminary design of wind turbine rotors based on an inverse design approach. For this purpose, a generalized theory was developed without using classical tools such as BEM. Instead, it uses a simplified meridional flow analysis of axial turbomachines and is based on the assumption that knowing the vortex distribution and appropriate boundary conditions is tantamount to knowing the velocity distribution. The simple conservation properties of the vortex components consistently cope with the forces and specific work exchange expressions through the rotor. The method allows for rotor arbitrarily radial load distribution and includes the wake rotation and expansion. Radial pressure gradient is considered in the wake. The capability of the model is demonstrated first by a comparison with the classical actuator disk theory in investigating the consistency of the flow field, then the model is used to predict the blade planform of a commercial wind turbine. Based on these validations, the authors postulate the use of a different vortex distribution (i.e. not-uniform loading) for blade design and discuss the effect of such choices on blade chord and twist, force distribution and power coefficient. In addition to the method's straightforward application to the pre-design phase, the model clearly shows the link between blade geometry and performance allowing quick preliminary evaluation of non uniform loading on blade structural characteristics.

  14. PRELIMINARY ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE FOLKLORIC TREATMENT OF SKIN INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ‘Toyosi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effects of Schwenkia americana, Mormodica charantia and Lippia multiflora extract in water, ethanol and ethyl acetate were evaluated on some pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and β-heamolytic Streptococcus pyogenes. The work was carried out using the agar well diffusion method at concentrations ranging from 25mg/ml to 100mg/ml of extracts. The ethanol extract of Schwenkia americana and Lippia multiflora showed zones of inhibition of 24+1.19cfu against Staphylococcus aureus, at 100mg/ml stock concentration. The aqueous extract of Lippia multiflora showed a zone of inhibition of 22+0.60cfu at 100mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus while the ethyl acetate extract of Schwenkia americana showed highest zone of inhibition of 24+1.19cfu at 100mg/ml of extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes was the least active of all the organisms to the test plants with Lippia multiflora showing a zone of inhibition of 10cm at 100mg/ml. Generally all the test plants are active against the organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed that the plants contain flavonoids, tannins, alkaloid, saponin, and steroids. In all the test plants, Positive antibiotic disk control and antiseptic test showed the microorganisms to be resistant to most of the antibiotic disk as well as the antiseptics used at concentrations ranging between 5%-20% of dettol, izal, ethanol and Lysol. The plants showing antimicrobial activities can be inculcated into the treatment of bacterial infections involving the test organisms to help fight the ever increasing antibiotic resistance.

  15. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  16. Validity and cost-effectiveness of methods for screening of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: About 950,000 people are affected by glaucoma in Germany, about 50% of which are undiagnosed. The German Ophthalmological Society and the German Association of Ophthalmologists recommend a screening for glaucoma according to their guidelines. The Federal Joint Committee disapproved a glaucoma-screening program on expense of the compulsory health insurance in 2004. Scientific background: Primary open angle glaucoma is diagnosed by evaluation of the optic disc, the retinal fibre layer and the visual field. The main examinations are ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, retinal thickness analysis and optical coherence tomography. Scotomas are diagnosed by perimetry (standard automated perimetry, short wavelength automated perimetry and frequency doubling perimetry. The intraocular pressure is the most important treatable risk factor and is measured by (contact or non-contact tonometry. Research questions: The aim of this HTA-report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of diagnostic techniques or combinations of these methods with respect to the use in a screening setting in Germany. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases and yielded 2602 articles. Overall 57 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The 55 medical articles deal mainly with frequency doubling perimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry. Few articles cover short wavelength automated perimetry, tonometry and ophalmocopic evaluations by ophthalmologists. The quality of the papers is generally low, as far as the evidence in respect of screening is concerned. No single method exists with both, high sensitivity and high specificity for screening purpose. Data are also not sufficient to recommend combinations of methods. Only two economic models on cost

  17. Experimental cocrystal screening and solution based scale-up cocrystallization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamatari, Maria; Ross, Steven A; Douroumis, Dennis; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2017-08-12

    Cocrystals are crystalline single phase materials composed of two or more different molecular and/or ionic compounds generally in a stoichiometric ratio which are neither solvates nor simple salts. If one of the components is an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the term pharmaceutical cocrystal is often used. There is a growing interest among drug development scientists in exploring cocrystals, as means to address physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and mechanical properties and expand solid form diversity of the API. Conventionally, coformers are selected based on crystal engineering principles, and the equimolar mixtures of API and coformers are subjected to solution-based crystallization that are commonly employed in polymorph and salt screening. However, the availability of new knowledge on cocrystal phase behaviour in solid state and solutions has spurred the development and implementation of more rational experimental cocrystal screening as well as scale-up methods. This review aims to provide overview of commonly employed solid form screening techniques in drug development with an emphasis on cocrystal screening methodologies. The latest developments in understanding and the use of cocrystal phase diagrams in both screening and solution based scale-up methods are also presented. Final section is devoted to reviewing the state of the art research covering solution based scale-up cocrystallization process for different cocrystals besides more recent continuous crystallization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  19. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gong, J. H.; Zhu, J.; Ye, L.; Song, Y. Q.; Yue, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  20. Screening methods for post-stroke visual impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kerry Louise; Hepworth, Lauren Rachel; Rowe, Fiona

    2017-12-01

    assess all potential post-stroke visual impairments. The current tools screen for only a number of potential stroke-related impairments, which means many visual defects may be missed. The sensitivity of those which screen for all impairments is significantly lowered when patients are unable to report their visual symptoms. Future research is required to develop a tool capable of assessing stroke patients which encompasses all potential visual deficits and can also be easily performed by both the patients and administered by health care professionals in order to ensure all stroke survivors with visual impairment are accurately identified and managed. Implications for Rehabilitation Over 65% of stroke survivors will suffer from a visual impairment, whereas 45% of stroke units do not assess vision. Visual impairment significantly reduces the quality of life, such as being unable to return to work, driving and depression. This review outlines the available screening methods to accurately identify stroke survivors with visual impairments. Identifying visual impairment after stroke can aid general rehabilitation and thus, improve the quality of life for these patients.

  1. Particle stratification and penetration of a linear vibrating screen by the discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jianzhang; Tong Xin

    2012-01-01

    A simulation of stratification and penetration was performed over a range of structural parameters that included screen width,aperture size,inclination angle,and wire diameter.The discrete element method (DEM) was used for the simulations.The terms stratification and penetration are defined and the change in fine particle concentration is discussed.Mathematical models relating fine particle ratio to time are established using the least squares method.The effect of structural parameters on fine particle ratio is analyzed.Stratification and penetration rate are discussed by considering the time derivative of the fine particle ratio.The conclusions are:an increase in inclination or wire diameter has a positive effect on particle stratifying; The optimal screen width is 40 mm for particle stratification; The inclination angle has a negative effect on the penetration; The effect of wire diameter and screen width on the penetration rate is negligible.

  2. A simplified method to prepare PCR template DNA for screening of transgenic and knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S; Li, M; Cai, H; Hudgins, S; Furth, P A

    2001-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA is the most widely used technique for screening of large numbers of genetically engineered transgenic or knockout mice (Mus musculus). In this report, we present a new DNA preparation procedure for running diagnostic PCR. In this procedure, mouse ear tissue was used directly for PCR after the tissue underwent brief digestion in a solution containing only proteinase K. Using this method, we have successfully screened several lines of single, double, and triple transgenic and knockout mice. The results are reliable and reproducible. The advantage of this new method is that DNA purification by organic extraction or isolation kit was omitted. DNA purification is the limiting factor in terms of time and money when screening transgenic and knockout mice by PCR. In addition, using ear instead of tail tissue can reduce distress of animals because the samples can be obtained when the mice are labeled by ear punch.

  3. Proposal of Screening Method of Sleep Disordered Breathing Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Masato

    Every conventional respiration monitoring technique requires at least one sensor to be attached to the body of the subject during measurement, thereby imposing a sense of restraint that results in aversion against measurements that would last over consecutive days. To solve this problem, we developed a respiration monitoring system for sleepers, and it uses a fiber-grating vision sensor, which is a type of active image sensor to achieve non-contact respiration monitoring. In this paper, we verified the effectiveness of the system, and proposed screening method of the sleep disordered breathing. It was shown that our system could equivalently measure the respiration with thermistor and accelerograph. And, the respiratory condition of sleepers can be grasped by our screening method in one look, and it seems to be useful for the support of the screening of sleep disordered breathing.

  4. Concurrent Driving Method with Fast Scan Rate for Large Mutual Capacitance Touch Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gamal Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel touch screen control technique is introduced, which scans each frame in two steps of concurrent multichannel driving and differential sensing. The proposed technique substantially increases the scan rate and reduces the ambient noise effectively. It is also extended to a multichip architecture to support excessively large touch screens with great scan rate improvement. The proposed method has been implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS TowerJazz process and tested with FPGA and AFE board connecting a 23-inch touch screen. Experimental results show a scan rate improvement of up to 23.8 times and an SNR improvement of 24.6 dB over the conventional method.

  5. Assessment of drugs against Cryptosporidium parvum using a simple in vitro screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, A; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1999-09-15

    A rapid semi-quantitative screening method was devised for assessing the anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects of putative chemotherapeutic compounds. The method is suitable as an initial rapid screening procedure from which compounds demonstrating anticryptosporidial activity can be identified for further analysis. It has the advantages of speed, low cost and concurrent assessment of anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects and allows accurate determination of minimum lethal concentrations. Of the 71 compounds screened, six completely inhibited cryptosporidial growth at 1 microM (monensin, salinomycin, alborixin, lasalocid, trifluralin and nicarbazin) and a further eight showed significant anticryptosporidial activity at 1 or 20 microM (halquinol, bleomycin, suramin, mitomycin, doxycycline hydrochloride, toltrazuril, chloroquine phosphate and teniposide). Twelve compounds were found to have some degree of cytotoxicity at 1 microM and a further 12 at 20 microM.

  6. A fast and easy screening method for voice disorders among teacher students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, S; Sala, E; Laine, A; Rönnemaa, A M

    2001-01-01

    A recent study concerning voice disorders among future teachers showed that about 20% of the students had a voice disorder. Most of the disorders were organic. In the current study, we describe a voice-screening method that can be administered by the health care personnel in order to select students for further examination by the speech language therapist and/or phoniatrician. The screening method consists of a perceptual assessment of voice quality and a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms. As criterion for further medical investigation and voice therapy, we selected a score of 35 mm or above on a visual analogue scale assessing Grade, i.e. overall grade of hoarseness and/or two or more weekly or more often occurring vocal symptoms. The results showed that health care personnel with some training in assessing voices using the questionnaire are competent to perform a rough voice screening on students.

  7. Ionic Liquids for Absorption and Separation of Gases: An Extensive Database and a Systematic Screening Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Gani, Rafiqul; Afzal, Raja Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention in both the academic and industrial communities for absorbing and separating gases. However, a data-rich and well-structured systematic database has not yet been established, and screening for highly efficient ILs meeting various requireme......Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention in both the academic and industrial communities for absorbing and separating gases. However, a data-rich and well-structured systematic database has not yet been established, and screening for highly efficient ILs meeting various...... requirements remains a challenging task. In this study, an extensive database of estimated Henry's law constants of twelve gases in more than ten thousand ILs at 313.15 K is established using the COSMO-RS method. Based on the database, a new systematic and efficient screening method for IL selection...

  8. A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in Laboratory Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    insensitive munitions: Aquatic ecotoxicological exposures using 2,4-Dinitroanisole. ERDC/EL TR-13-2. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and...alternative for ecotoxicology testing to quickly quantify DNAN in solution using commonly available instrumentation. This new method uses a...accessible screening detection method was desired for ecotoxicology testing. Such a method would benefit laboratory toxicological assessments, which require

  9. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  10. [N.B.T. - PABA screening test for exocrine pancreatic function in healthy children. Preliminary investigation in 60 normal children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Morte, M A; Losi, S; Morelli, P; Ripa, C; Sala, M R; Cereda, M; Mancosu, M; Saputo, V

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical bases of PABA test as a diagnostic screening test of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, its mode of execution and the findings obtained in 60 healthy subjects ranging in age from 2 to 14 years are reported. Those conditions related to extra-pancreatic disorders or to other factors that may interfere with the test and reduce its reliability are also discussed.

  11. Material characterisation and preliminary mechanical design for the HL-LHC shielded beam screens operating at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Koettig, T; Machiocha, W; Morrone, M

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) aims at increasing the luminosity (rate of collisions) in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 fb-1). It relies on new superconducting magnets, installed close to the interaction points, equipped with new beam screen. This component has to ensure the vacuum performance together with shielding the cold mass from physics debris and screening the cold bore cryogenic system from beam induced heating. The beam screen operates in the range 40-60 K whereas the magnet cold bore temperature is 1.9 K. A tungsten-based material is used to absorb the energy of particles. In this paper, measurements of the mechanical and physical properties of such tungsten material are shown at room and cryogenic temperature. In addition, the design and the thermal mechanical behaviour of the beam screen assembly are presented also. They include the heat transfer from the tungsten absorbers to the cooling pipes and the sup...

  12. Material characterisation and preliminary mechanical design for the HL-LHC shielded beam screens operating at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garion, C.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Machiocha, W.; Morrone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) aims at increasing the luminosity (rate of collisions) in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 fb-1). It relies on new superconducting magnets, installed close to the interaction points, equipped with new beam screen. This component has to ensure the vacuum performance together with shielding the cold mass from physics debris and screening the cold bore cryogenic system from beam induced heating. The beam screen operates in the range 40-60 K whereas the magnet cold bore temperature is 1.9 K. A tungsten-based material is used to absorb the energy of particles. In this paper, measurements of the mechanical and physical properties of such tungsten material are shown at room and cryogenic temperature. In addition, the design and the thermal mechanical behaviour of the beam screen assembly are presented also. They include the heat transfer from the tungsten absorbers to the cooling pipes and the supporting system that has to minimise the heat inleak into the cold mass. The behaviour during a magnet quench is also presented.

  13. Developmental Dyslexia: A Diagnostic Screening Procedure on Three Characteristic Patterns of Reading and Spelling. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Elena

    A diagnostic screening procedure for developmental dyslexia which analyzes how a child reads and writes rather than at what level, is outlined. Briefly, the test entails a presentation of a word list at each reading level to determine the child's sight vocabulary and his ability to employ word-attack skills. Following the administration of the…

  14. An extension of the Coconut Cream Agar method to screen Penicillium citrinum isolates for citrinin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S; Flint, S; Palmer, J; Fletcher, G C; Pitt, J I

    2013-09-01

    A simple and rapid screening method was developed for the detection of citrinin in fungal cultures using Coconut Cream Agar (CCA) described previously for detecting aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Fifteen isolates of Penicillium citrinum were inoculated onto CCA and incubated at 25 and 30°C for 10 days. All isolates produced a distinct yellow green fluorescence on CCA when the reverse side of the agar plates were viewed under long wavelength UV light. Detection was optimal at 25°C after four to 5 days of incubation. Isolates positive by the CCA method also tested positive for citrinin production by the TLC agar plug method after growth on CCA, Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract sucrose agar. Control cultures were negative by both methods, indicating that the CCA Petri dish method was suitable for screening cultures for citrinin production.

  15. Preliminary determination of Newtonian gravitational constant with angular acceleration feedback method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Quan, Li-Di; Yang, Shan-Qing; Wang, Bing-Peng; Wu, Jun-Fei; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Milyukov, Vadim; Luo, Jun

    2014-10-13

    This paper describes the preliminary measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G with the angular acceleration feedback method at HUST. The apparatus has been built, and preliminary measurement performed, to test all aspects of the experimental design, particularly the feedback function, which was recently discussed in detail by Quan et al. The experimental results show that the residual twist angle of the torsion pendulum at the signal frequency introduces 0.4 ppm to the value of G. The relative uncertainty of the angular acceleration of the turntable is approximately 100 ppm, which is mainly limited by the stability of the apparatus. Therefore, the experiment has been modified with three features: (i) the height of the apparatus is reduced almost by half, (ii) the aluminium shelves were replaced with shelves made from ultra-low expansion material and (iii) a perfect compensation of the laboratory-fixed gravitational background will be carried out. With these improvements, the angular acceleration is expected to be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10 ppm, and a reliable value of G with 20 ppm or below will be obtained in the near future.

  16. Fast screening method for detection of acyl-HSL-degrading soil isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafra, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A reliable method was developed for screening of bacteria isolates capable of degrading acyl-HSLs, the signal molecules in quorum-sensing-mediated processes of many Proteobacteria. The microtiter assay was based on the use of a GFP-marked Escherichia coli strain, which fluoresces upon the presence o

  17. Genetical studies of resistance to Phytophthora porri in Allium porrum, using a new early screening method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, W.D.; Nes, van M.; Reinink, K.; Kik, C.

    1997-01-01

    A new screening method was developed to evaluate resistance of leek (Allium porrum) to Phytophthora porri, based on inoculation by 24 h-immersion of leek plantlets in the 3–6 leaf stage in a suspension of ca. 100 zoospores.ml-1. The immersion test was used for identifying new sources of resistance a

  18. An off-line breath sampling and analysis method suitable for large screening studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeghs, M.M.L.; Cristescu, S.M.; Munnik, P.; Zanen, P.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new, off-line breath collection and analysis method, suitable for large screening studies. The breath collection system is based on the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society for the sampling of exhaled NO. Breath containing volatile gases is collected in custom-made black-layered

  19. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  20. Development of automatic image analysis methods for high-throughput and high-content screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, Zi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of image analysis methods for ultra-high content analysis of high-throughput screens where cellular phenotype responses to various genetic or chemical perturbations that are under investigation. Our primary goal is to deliver efficient and robust image analysis

  1. Added value, decreased cost: the evolving role of the cytotechnologist for preliminary screening and triage of thyroid aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotruba, Angelean L; Stewart, Jimmie; Scheberl, Thomas; Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Immediate adequacy assessment for thyroid fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) is standard practice in many cytopathology laboratories. A pathologist is usually present for these time consuming assessments. The purpose of this 5 month study (January 2008-May 2008) was to show that cytotechnologists can accurately provide the majority of immediate adequacy assessments for thyroid FNAs, saving both time and money for pathologists, clinicians, and patients. The study consisted of 167 thyroid nodule FNAs performed in twice weekly thyroid FNA clinics. A comparison was made of the immediate assessments by five participating cytotechnologists and the preliminary and final diagnoses by three pathologists. The cytotechnologist prepared the slides, assessed the air-dried Hema-Diff™ stained slides for adequacy, and the pathologist viewed the slides remotely via real-time video streaming. Results were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. There was a discordance rate of 1.2% when comparing the cytotechnologist's adequacy interpretation and the pathologist's preliminary diagnosis; both clinically insignificant. By cytotechnologist assessment, 79.0% of the cases were benign and 6.6% were nondiagnostic. 14.4% of the cases were assessed as cellular nodule or neoplastic lesion; all requiring pathologist's preliminary diagnosis. Utilizing a cytotechnologist to provide adequacy, instead of a pathologist, saved $464.10/case (2.38 passes/case) based on current gross technical and professional charges. On the basis of our findings, cytotechnologists can accurately provide immediate onsite adequacy assessments for thyroid nodule FNAs. Affording cytotechnologists the opportunity to preliminarily assess FNAs for adequacy also creates a new role in the laboratory. Furthermore, cost-savings are realized for patients and the health care system.

  2. Screening and confirmatory methods for determining lincomycin residues in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiers, A R; Neff, A W

    1976-07-01

    Methods for screening and for confirming residues of lincomycin in animal tissues, both sensitive to 0.1 ppm, are described. In the screening technique, residues are extracted, cleaned up by solvent partition, and detected by microbiological plate assay. In the confirmatory technique, residues are cleaned up on an unfunctionalized macroreticular-type resin column, concentrated, chromatographed on thin layer plates, and detected by bioautography. This system was effective in identifying lincomycin in the presence of 20 other antibiotics and chemicals used in the animal health industry.

  3. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators. The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users.

  4. Functional-based screening methods for lipases, esterases, and phospholipases in metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Duarte, Dolores; Ferrer, Manuel; García-Arellano, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    The use of metagenomic techniques for enzyme discovery constitutes a powerful approach. Functional screens, in contrast to sequence homology search, enable us to select enzymes based on their activity. It is noteworthy that they additionally guarantee the identification of genes coding for enzymes that exhibited no sequence similarity to known counterparts from public databases and that even do not match any putative catalytic residues, involved in the selected catalytic function. Therefore, this strategy not only provides new enzymes for new biotechnological applications, but also allows functional assignment of many proteins, found in abundance in the databases, currently designated as "hypothetical" or "conserved hypothetical" proteins. In the past decade, there has been an exponential increase in the design of functional screening programmes, the majority of them established for hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Here, functional screening methods that guarantee the greatest enzyme diversity, for mining esterases and lipases, are described.

  5. Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ramesh; Sen, Devyani; Prasad, K D; Singh, A K; Bashyal, B M; Prasad, L C; Joshi, A K

    2008-04-01

    Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

  6. Development of a high throughput screening method to test flavour-forming capabilities of anaerobic micro-organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Development of a fast, automated and reliable screening method for screening of large collections of bacterial strains with minimal handling time. Methods and Results: The method is based on the injection of a small headspace sample (100 µl) from culture vials (2 ml) in 96-well format directly

  7. Thin-Film Thermoelectric Module for Power Generator Applications Using a Screen-Printing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Bok; Yang, Hyun Jeong; We, Ju Hyung; Kim, Kukjoo; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Cho, Byung Jin

    2011-05-01

    A new process for fabricating a low-cost thermoelectric module using a screen-printing method has been developed. Thermoelectric properties of screen-printed ZnSb films were investigated in an effort to develop a thermoelectric module with low cost per watt. The screen-printed Zn x Sb1- x films showed a low carrier concentration and high Seebeck coefficient when x was in the range of 0.5 to 0.57 and the annealing temperature was kept below 550°C. When the annealing temperature was higher than 550°C, the carrier concentration of the Zn x Sb1- x films reached that of a metal, leading to a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. In the present experiment, the optimized carrier concentration of screen-printed ZnSb was 7 × 1018/cm3. The output voltage and power density of the ZnSb film were 10 mV and 0.17 mW/cm2, respectively, at Δ T = 50 K. A thermoelectric module was produced using the proposed screen-printing approach with ZnSb and CoSb3 as p-type and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, and copper as the pad metal.

  8. Optimization of multiple muco-cutaneous site sampling method for screening MRSA colonization in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Datta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Active screening for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriers remains a vital component of infection control policy in any health-care setting. The relative advantage of multiple anatomical site screening for detecting MRSA carriers is well recognized. However, this leads to increase in financial and logistical load in a developing world scenario. The objective of our study was to determine the sensitivity of MRSA screening of nose, throat, axilla, groin, perineum and the site of catheterization (central line catheter individually among intensive care unit patients and to compare it with the sensitivity of multiple site screening. Materials and Methods: Active surveillance of 400 patients was done to detect MRSA colonization; 6 sites-nose, throat, axilla, perineum, groin and site of catheter were swabbed. Result and Discussion: The throat swab alone was able to detect maximum number of MRSA (76/90 carriers, with sensitivity of 84.4%. Next in order of sensitivity was nasal swab, which tested 77.7% of MRSA colonized patients. When multiple sites are screened, the sensitivity for MRSA detection increased to 95%. Conclusions: We found that though throat represent the most common site of MRSA colonization, nose or groin must also be sampled simultaneously to attain a higher sensitivity.

  9. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  10. A Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method for Screening Disulfide Tethering Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Davies, Julia L; Merron, Connie; Ogden, Pierce; Sijbesma, Eline; Ottmann, Christian; Renslo, Adam R; Wilson, Christopher; Arkin, Michelle R

    2017-09-01

    We report the refinement of a high-throughput, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method for the identification of covalent small-molecule binders to proteins. Using a custom library of 1600 disulfide-capped fragments targeting surface cysteine residues, we optimize sample preparation, chromatography, and ionization conditions to maximize the reliability and flexibility of the approach. Data collection at a rate of 84 s per sample balances speed with reliability for sustained screening over multiple, diverse projects run over a 24-month period. The method is applicable to protein targets of various classes and a range of molecular masses. Data are processed in a custom pipeline that calculates a percent bound value for each compound and identifies false positives by calculating significance of detected masses (signal significance). An example pipeline is available through Biovia's ScienceCloud Protocol Exchange. Data collection and analysis methods for the screening of covalent adducts of intact proteins are now fast enough to screen the largest covalent compound libraries in 1 to 2 days.

  11. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  12. Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkot Thomas R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night. Results In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured. Conclusions Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.

  13. Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation

    OpenAIRE

    Hornecker Else; Rinke Sven; Szabadi Ivette; Ziebolz Dirk; Mausberg Rainer F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI) is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT) indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF...

  14. Anthropometric methods for obesity screening in schoolchildren; the Ouro Preto Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos; J. P. S. Alosta; C.T. Oliveira; Freitas, Renata Nascimento de; Freitas, Silvia Nascimento de; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in last decades. To evaluate the usefulness of body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness (ST), waist circumference (WC), and foot-to-foot bioelectrical impe - dance (BIA-FF) for screening for obesity in mixed-race population, using the tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance (BIA-T) technique as reference method. Methods and results: A cross-sectional-based population study was performed in the city of Ouro Preto, Brazil, in 2006. S...

  15. SUDOSCAN: A Simple, Rapid, and Objective Method with Potential for Screening for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Selvarajah, D; Cash, T; Davies, J; A. Sankar; Rao, G.; Grieg, M.; S. PALLAI; Gandhi, R.; Wilkinson, I. D; Tesfaye, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical methods of detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are not objective and reproducible. We therefore evaluated if SUDOSCAN, a new method developed to provide a quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of sudomotor function can reliably screen for DPN. 70 subjects (45 with type 1 diabetes and 25 healthy volunteers [HV]) underwent detailed assessments including clinical, neurophysiological and 5 standard cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs). Using the American Academy of Ne...

  16. Behavioral health screening and intervention for women in Argentina: a preliminary model for the childbearing years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez Ordoñez RM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rocio M Suarez Ordoñez,1 Jorgelina Cesolari,2 Casas Ofelia,2 Ivonne Villavicencio,1 Hendrée E Jones31Research Department, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience INECO Oroño, 2Neonatology Department, Martin Maternity, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina; 3UNC Horizons and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Untreated behavioral disorders in pregnant women and in women of childbearing age pose physical and psychological safety concerns and are barriers to the well-being of both mother and neonate. The present paper underlines the importance of screening in Argentina for behavioral problems in women of childbearing age, particularly pregnant women and their newborns. Emphasized is the need to formalize this comprehensive screening in a protocol that includes domains of mental disorders, behavioral disorders, education, social environment, employment, desire for maternity, substance use including non-prescription use of prescription medications, eating disorders, suicide risk, interpersonal violence, stress, and trauma. Implementation of such a model would require agreement and cooperation between the public and private health sectors as well as in the development of research for validation of the various screening and interventions tools that would be adopted for general use. Keywords: pregnancy, substance use, assessment, measures

  17. Development and preliminary validation of a semi-structured interview for the screening of law enforcement candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J G; Scogin, F R; Vipperman, R K

    1999-01-01

    A standard practice among most law enforcement agencies is to include psychological screening in the selection of job candidates. Although the use of personality tests in predicting job performance of law enforcement officers has received empirical support (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Inwald Personality Inventory), there is a conspicuous absence of data regarding the reliability and validity of interview procedures. The present study represents the first step in the development of a standardized, semi-structured interview for use in the screening of law enforcement personnel. This interview, the Law Enforcement Candidate Interview, was constructed using content areas drawn from measures used in the screening of law enforcement personnel (e.g., Inwald Personality Inventory) and assessment of personality functioning (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders). This interview was then administered by two doctoral students to a group of law enforcement academy cadets (n=34). A modest degree of inter-rater reliability was achieved, although internal consistency was somewhat lacking. Interview scores were correlated with measures of academy performance (final grade-point average and peer and supervisor ranking of academy performance). Results of these analyses suggest the LECI is a modest predictor of academy performance. Potential uses of the LECI and future research indications are outlined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bramante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

  19. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  20. Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, Rossana [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: rbo@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Fauser, Patrik [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark); Dam, Maria [Food and Environmental Agency, Thorshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark); Vorkamp, Katrin [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000-Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related compounds has been performed in liver samples of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. PFOS was the predominant fluorochemical in the biota analyzed, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). PFOS was found at concentrations above LOQ (10 ng/g wet weight) in 13 out of 16 samples from Greenland and in all samples from the Faroe Islands. The results from Greenland showed a biomagnification of PFOS along the marine food chain (shorthorn sculpin

  1. Preliminary design of large-scale origin antiresonant vibrating screen%大型原点反共振振动筛的初步设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 邵帅; 吴腾健; 王珊; 赵祥镇雄; 党梦飞; 王新文

    2014-01-01

    The lateral wall of traditional large vibrating sieve box was easy to broke,the part of the vibration mass was high and vibration i-solation effect was poor.To resolve the above problems,adopted the anti-resonance theory to design vibrating screen.The model of antireso-nant vibrating screen was built,the motion equation of antiresonant vibrating screen was achieved.Worked out the amplitude of the steady-state response and the next screen box when it was plastid.Drawed a amplitude-frequency characteristic curve of the double mass system,and calculated out the excitation frequency of antiresonant vibrating screen when it was working.Achieved anti-resonance vibrating screen 3D model through Solidworks software,and complete preliminary design of the antiresonant vibrating screen.The results show that,the bevel on which the position of exciter can be adjusted allows the exciting force line go through the mass centroid.The design ensures the normal operation of the screen box.The spring seats which consist of cylindrical coil springs connect upper mass,lower mass and the ground,ensure the elasticity coefficient required by the system.The amplitude of the upper and lower mass can be monitored and controlled through propor-tion integration differentiation technology.The amplitude of origin antiresonant vibrating screen can be stabilized by changing the excitation frequency.%针对传统大型振动筛筛箱侧帮易断裂,参振质量大,隔振效果差等问题,提出了将反共振理论用于振动筛的设计理念,建立了反共振振动筛的力学模型,并进行动力学分析,得到筛箱和下质体稳态时的响应振幅,通过绘制双质体系统的幅频特性曲线得到反共振振动筛的激振频率。利用Solid-works软件对反共振振动筛进行三维建模,完成了大型原点反共振振动筛的初步设计。结果表明:可调激振器位置的斜面设计使激振力通过上质体质心,保证了筛箱的正常工作

  2. Cost and effectiveness comparison of two methods for screening potential blood donors for anaemia in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, A; Worrall, E; Que, T N; Bates, I

    2011-06-01

    To compare the cost and effectiveness of Copper Sulphate (CS) and HemoCue (HC) methods for screening blood donors for anaemia. Robust information from developing countries about cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods for blood donors is scarce. In such countries there are widespread shortages of blood, so the most cost-effective method should maximise blood supply without compromising donor safety. Economic data (e.g. staff time, equipment and buildings) were collected from direct observation of procedures and purchase data from Hanoi's Central Blood Bank administrative department. A framework for comparing the cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods was developed and a cost per effective (i.e. usable and accurate) test was generated for each method. Samples from 100 potential donors from the Hanoi Central Blood Bank (static) and 198 from two mobile units were tested. The mean probability of an ineffective anaemia test was 0·1 (0·05-0·2). The average cost of an HC test was $0·75 (static $0·61 and mobile $0·89) and a CS test was $0·31 (static $0·17 and mobile $0·45). The difference between static and mobile units was predominantly due to transport costs; the difference between the two methods was predominantly due to the HC microcuvettes. In this setting the CS yields greater value for money than the HC method for screening blood donors. The relative cost and effectiveness of CS and HC may be different in places with higher staff turnover, lower test accuracy, higher anaemia prevalence or lower workload than in Vietnam. © 2010 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. A new screening method to identify inhibitors of the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system, a novel antibacterial target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideaki; Ura, Atsushi; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamagishi, Jun-Ichi; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Matsuyama, Shin-Ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    As the Lol system, which is involved in localization of lipoproteins, is essential for Escherichia coli growth and widely conserved among gram-negative bacteria, it is considered to be a promising target for the development of anti-gram-negative bacterial agents. However, no high-throughput screening method has so far been developed to screen for Lol system inhibitors. By combining three assay systems (anucleate cell blue assay, Lpp assay, and LolA-dependent release inhibition assay) and a drug susceptibility test, we have successfully developed a new screening method for identification of compounds that inhibit the Lol system. Using this new screening method, we screened 23,600 in-house chemical compounds and found 2 Lol system inhibitors. We therefore conclude that our new screening method can efficiently identify new antibacterial agents that target the Lol system.

  4. Preliminary test of effects of cognitive ability, experience, and teaching methods on Verbal Analogy Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D; Willson-Quayle, A; Pasnak, R

    2000-06-01

    The methods from which one can choose when preparing for the GRE Verbal Analogies include books, software, audiotapes, and formal classroom instruction. What teaching method will work best for a given individual? To begin the search for an answer, Gray's test of reasoning ability was given to 28 undergraduates who also answered a questionnaire detailing their experience with analogies. They were randomly assigned to teaching conditions ranging from self-directed workbook study to intensive interactive assistance. No teaching method was superior overall, but interactions showed that (1) students who scored worst on the pretest improved the most, (2) those higher in cognitive functioning and experience performed better after intensive interactive assistance, and (3) those lower in both cognitive functioning and experience did significantly better with self-paced workbooks. This preliminary work suggests that it may be profitable to assess the prior experience and reasoning of potential students and adopt the methods for teaching formal operational thought found empirically to be most suitable.

  5. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  6. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis.

  7. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  8. Microarray-based method for screening of immunogenic proteins from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppe Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of immunogenic proteins remains an important task for life sciences as it nourishes the understanding of pathogenicity, illuminates new potential vaccine candidates and broadens the spectrum of biomarkers applicable in diagnostic tools. Traditionally, immunoscreenings of expression libraries via polyclonal sera on nitrocellulose membranes or screenings of whole proteome lysates in 2-D gel electrophoresis are performed. However, these methods feature some rather inconvenient disadvantages. Screening of expression libraries to expose novel antigens from bacteria often lead to an abundance of false positive signals owing to the high cross reactivity of polyclonal antibodies towards the proteins of the expression host. A method is presented that overcomes many disadvantages of the old procedures. Results Four proteins that have previously been described as immunogenic have successfully been assessed immunogenic abilities with our method. One protein with no known immunogenic behaviour before suggested potential immunogenicity. We incorporated a fusion tag prior to our genes of interest and attached the expressed fusion proteins covalently on microarrays. This enhances the specific binding of the proteins compared to nitrocellulose. Thus, it helps to reduce the number of false positives significantly. It enables us to screen for immunogenic proteins in a shorter time, with more samples and statistical reliability. We validated our method by employing several known genes from Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Conclusions The method presented offers a new approach for screening of bacterial expression libraries to illuminate novel proteins with immunogenic features. It could provide a powerful and attractive alternative to existing methods and help to detect and identify vaccine candidates, biomarkers and potential virulence-associated factors with immunogenic behaviour furthering the knowledge of virulence and

  9. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  10. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjie; Yu, Nan; Mu, Guangmao; Shinwari, Kamran I; Shen, Zhenguo; Zheng, Luqing

    2017-04-07

    With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd) is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations) on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  11. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L. cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs, analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05 in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  12. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons.

  13. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  14. Combined Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening, Using Retina Photographs and Tear Fluid Proteomics Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Torok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is estimated that 347 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM, and almost 5 million are blind due to diabetic retinopathy (DR. The progression of DR can be slowed down with early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore our aim was to develop a novel automated method for DR screening. Methods. 52 patients with diabetes mellitus were enrolled into the project. Of all patients, 39 had signs of DR. Digital retina images and tear fluid samples were taken from each eye. The results from the tear fluid proteomics analysis and from digital microaneurysm (MA detection on fundus images were used as the input of a machine learning system. Results. MA detection method alone resulted in 0.84 sensitivity and 0.81 specificity. Using the proteomics data for analysis 0.87 sensitivity and 0.68 specificity values were achieved. The combined data analysis integrated the features of the proteomics data along with the number of detected MAs in the associated image and achieved sensitivity/specificity values of 0.93/0.78. Conclusions. As the two different types of data represent independent and complementary information on the outcome, the combined model resulted in a reliable screening method that is comparable to the requirements of DR screening programs applied in clinical routine.

  15. Electrochemical estrogen screen method based on the electrochemical behavior of MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlian; Song, Jia; Bi, Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cui, Jiwen; Liu, Jiguang; Wu, Dongmei

    2016-08-05

    It was an urgent task to develop quick, cheap and accurate estrogen screen method for evaluating the estrogen effect of the booming chemicals. In this study, the voltammetric behavior between the estrogen-free and normal fragmented MCF-7 cell suspensions were compared, and the electrochemical signal (about 0.68V attributed by xanthine and guanine) of the estrogen-free fragmented MCF-7 cell suspension was obviously lower than that of the normal one. The electrochemistry detection of ex-secretion purines showed that the ability of ex-secretion purines of cells sharp decreased due to the removing of endogenous estrogen. The results indicated that the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells was related to the level of intracellular estrogen. When the level of intracellular estrogen was down-regulated, the concentrations of the xanthine and hypoxanthine decreased, which led to the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells fall. Based on the electrochemical signal, the electrochemical estrogen screen method was established. The estrogen effect of estradiol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was evaluated with the electrochemical method, and the result was accordant with that of MTT assay. The electrochemical estrogen screen method was simple, quickly, cheap, objective, and it exploits a new way for the evaluation of estrogenic effects of chemicals.

  16. Combined Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening, Using Retina Photographs and Tear Fluid Proteomics Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csosz, Eva; Molnar, Agnes M.; Berta, Andras; Hajdu, Andras; Nagy, Valeria; Domokos, Balint

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is estimated that 347 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM), and almost 5 million are blind due to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The progression of DR can be slowed down with early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore our aim was to develop a novel automated method for DR screening. Methods. 52 patients with diabetes mellitus were enrolled into the project. Of all patients, 39 had signs of DR. Digital retina images and tear fluid samples were taken from each eye. The results from the tear fluid proteomics analysis and from digital microaneurysm (MA) detection on fundus images were used as the input of a machine learning system. Results. MA detection method alone resulted in 0.84 sensitivity and 0.81 specificity. Using the proteomics data for analysis 0.87 sensitivity and 0.68 specificity values were achieved. The combined data analysis integrated the features of the proteomics data along with the number of detected MAs in the associated image and achieved sensitivity/specificity values of 0.93/0.78. Conclusions. As the two different types of data represent independent and complementary information on the outcome, the combined model resulted in a reliable screening method that is comparable to the requirements of DR screening programs applied in clinical routine. PMID:26221613

  17. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  18. A Novel Two-Step Method for Screening Shade Tolerant Mutant Plants via Dwarfism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Thammina, Chandra; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Yer, Huseyin; Merewitz, Emily; Guillard, Karl; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J.; Liu, Zongrang; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%). When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003%) mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA) content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land. PMID:27752260

  19. A Novel Two-Step Method for Screening Shade Tolerant Mutant Plants via Dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Thammina, Chandra; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Yer, Huseyin; Merewitz, Emily; Guillard, Karl; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Liu, Zongrang; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%). When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003%) mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA) content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land.

  20. Band structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures via dielectric screening: the GΔW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    precise magnitude is non-trivial to predict because of the non-local nature of the screening in quasi-2D crystals. Moreover, the effect is not captured by effective single-particle methods such as density functional theory. Here we present an efficient and general method for calculating the band gap......The idea of combining different two-dimensional (2D) crystals in van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) has led to a new paradigm for band structure engineering with atomic precision. Due to the weak interlayer couplings, the band structures of the individual 2D crystals are largely preserved upon...... formation of the heterostructure. However, regardless of the details of the interlayer hybridisation, the size of the 2D crystal band gaps are always reduced due to the enhanced dielectric screening provided by the surrounding layers. The effect can be significant (on the order of electron volts) but its...

  1. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-02

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated.

  2. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

  3. A tree based method for the rapid screening of chemical fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2009-01-01

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules...... with fingerprints similar to a query fingerprint. In this paper, we present a method which efficiently finds all fingerprints in a database with Tanimoto coefficient to the query fingerprint above a user defined threshold. The method is based on two novel data structures for rapid screening of large databases......: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds...

  4. A morphology screen coding anti-counterfeiting method based on visual characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-long; GU Ze-cang; FANG Zhi-liang

    2008-01-01

    A paper information anti-fake and tamper-proofing method based on human visual characteristics and morphology screen coding technology is proposed. Through controlling the distribution of mathematical morphology of screen dot-matrix, warning mark and information are hidden in the background texture. Because of the differences between human vision and the duplicate characteristics of copy machine, warning mark which can not be discriminated by human eyes will emerge after copy. Tampered or fake certificates can be verified by comparing embedded information which is extracted from scanned image of certificate with plain text printed on the certificate. This method is applied in many bills and certificates. Experimental results show that the identification accuracy is above 98%

  5. Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtenborg, O; Frisvad, J C; Svendsen, J A

    1983-02-01

    A simple screening method for molds producing the intracellular mycotoxins brevianamide A, citreoviridin, cyclopiazonic acid, luteoskyrin, penitrem A, roquefortine C, sterigmatocystin, verruculogen, viomellein, and xanthomegnin was developed. After removing an agar plug from the mold culture, the mycelium on the plug is wetted with a drop of methanol-chloroform (1:2). By this treatment the intracellular mycotoxins are extracted within seconds and transferred directly to a thin-layer chromatography plate by immediately placing the plug on the plate while the mycelium is still wet. After removal of the plug, known thin-layer chromatographic procedures are carried out. The substrate (Czapek yeast autolysate agar) and growth conditions (25 degrees C for 7 days) used by Penicillium taxonomists proved suitable for the production of the mycotoxins investigated when 60 known toxigenic isolates and 865 cultures isolated from foods and feedstuffs were tested with this screening method.

  6. A consolidated method for screening the endocrine activity of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevolleau, Sylvie; Debrauwer, Laurent; Stroheker, Thomas; Viglino, Liza; Mourahib, Issam; Meireles, Maria-Helena; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; di Gioia, Lodovico

    2016-12-15

    Endocrine activity of drinking water is a matter of growing interest for scientists as well as health authorities. A concentration technique for endocrine activity screening was developed, optimized, and transposed from 200mL to 10L water samples. To avoid any contamination during concentration, the method was developed using exclusively glass, Teflon and stainless steel materials. Any potential losses were tracked using three model radiolabeled molecules, namely BPA, DEHP and 4n-NP. The final method allowed 10L water samples to be concentrated 5000-fold, with good recovery and repeatability. After validation, by concentrating spiked and non-spiked 10L samples of EVIAN natural mineral water, 14 different drinking water samples were concentrated and screened for endocrine disrupting activity using bioluminescent assays. Samples consisting of bottled water, conditioned in various materials (glass, PET) and subjected to different storage conditions, had no hormone-like activities whereas estrogenic activity was found in the filtered tap water.

  7. Micro-X-ray fluorescence as a general high-throughput screening method for catalyst discovery and small molecule recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomasin C; Mann, Grace; Havrilla, George J; Wells, Cyndi A; Warner, Benjamin P; Baker, R Tom

    2003-01-01

    A powerful high-throughput screening technique is described for the rapid screening of bead-based libraries for catalyst discovery and molecular recognition. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) screens materials for elemental composition with mesoscale analysis. This method is nondestructive and requires minimal sample preparation and no special tags for analysis, and the screening time is dependent on the desired sensitivity. The speed, sensitivity, and simplicity of MXRF as a high-throughput screening technique were applied to screen bead-based libraries of oligopeptides for phosphate hydrolysis catalysts and molecular recognition of selective receptors for the degradation products and analogues of chemical warfare agents. This paper demonstrates the analytical or HTS capability of MXRF for combinatorial screening. It is meant only to show the capabilities of MXRF and is not meant as an exhaustive study of the catalyst and molecular recognition systems presented.

  8. Method for detecting, screening and/or montoring a cancer in individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for screening and/or detecting and/or monitoring a cancer in an individual, said method comprising determining a first parameter represented by the concentration of TIMP-1 in at least one excreta, e.g. saliva, from the individual. The invention provides a method...... that without the need to use a blood sample is suitable for facilitating the early diagnosis of a cancer, monitoring the recurrence of a cancer, and/or monitoring the status of a cancer or the effect of cancer treatment in an individual....

  9. The use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and structure-activity modeling for screening and preliminary risk assessment of organic contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira Bastos, Patricia; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This article aims to investigate the use and benefits of using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and structure-activity relationship modeling for screening and prioritization of organic contaminants in complex matrices. The benefit of applying comprehensive screening techniques to samples with high organic contaminant content is primarily that compounds with diverse physicochemical properties can be analyzed simultaneously. Here, a heavily contaminated industrial area was surveyed for organic pollutants by analyzing soil, sediment, and surface water samples. The hazard of the pollutants were ranked using SARs. Material and methods: The water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using dichloromethane and directly analyzed by GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TofMS). Soil and sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath and subjected to gel permeation chromatography to eliminate lipids and humic matter. The low molecular weight fraction was then analyzed with GC x GC-TofMS. Results and discussion: More than 10,000 components were found in each sample, of which ca. 300 individual compounds were unambiguously identified using the National Institute of Standards and Technology mass spectra library and authentic reference standards. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates were generally the most abundant and were found in all matrices. In contrast, chlorinated compounds such as chlorophenols, biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides were only detected in samples from a few hotspot regions. The toxicities of the most frequently detected compounds and of the compounds detected at the highest concentrations in samples from hotspot regions were estimated by ecological structure-activity relationships. The ratio of the measured concentration to the predicted toxicity level was then calculated for each compound and used for an initial risk assessment in order to prioritize compounds

  10. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  11. A study on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: prevalence, etiology and comparison of screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheya Mukherjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in women with prevalence of 4-7% in pregnancy. The traditional reference test for bacteriuria is quantitative culture of urine which is relatively expensive time consuming and laborious. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, to identify pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to device a single or combined rapid screening method as an acceptable alternative to urine culture. Methods: Clean catch mid-stream urine were collected from 250 pregnant women aged between 18-45 years attending antenatal clinic, for a period of one year (November 2008-2009. Screening tests such as gram staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and leukocyte esterase test were done. Identification of organisms and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed as per standard methods. Results: Out of the 250 pregnant women, 21 (8.4% had significant bacteriuria. High percentage of asymptomatic bacteriuria was seen in 2nd trimester (42.86% and in primigravidas (52.38%. E. coli (57.14% was the most common organism. Among screening tests gram staining of uncentrifuged urine had a sensitivity of 85.71%. Nitrite and leukocyte esterase tests alone showed sensitivity of 71.42%. However, the combination of these two tests, either tests positive, showed sensitivity and negative predictive value of 90.47% and 99.09% respectively. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy can be identified by simple and combined rapid screening methods and urine culture along with antibiogram so that early treatment can be started thereby preventing complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1085-1091

  12. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  13. Assessment of inoculation methods for screening black alder resistance to Phytophthora ×alni

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Claude; Druart, P.; Marcais, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Identification of resistance to Phytophthora xalni could provide the basis for a management strategy against alder decline in riparian ecosystems in Europe.[br/] This study aimed to test methods to evaluate the resistance of riparian alders to the disease, and to screen alder genotypes for resistance.[br/] Phytophthora xalni isolates were compared for their aggressiveness (lesion length on stem) and sporulation capacity (sporangia). While no difference in lesion lengths was found bet...

  14. Band structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures via dielectric screening: the GΔW method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Kirsten T.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2017-06-01

    The idea of combining different two-dimensional (2D) crystals in van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) has led to a new paradigm for band structure engineering with atomic precision. Due to the weak interlayer couplings, the band structures of the individual 2D crystals are largely preserved upon formation of the heterostructure. However, regardless of the details of the interlayer hybridisation, the size of the 2D crystal band gaps are always reduced due to the enhanced dielectric screening provided by the surrounding layers. The effect can be significant (on the order of electron volts) but its precise magnitude is non-trivial to predict because of the non-local nature of the screening in quasi-2D crystals. Moreover, the effect is not captured by effective single-particle methods such as density functional theory. Here we present an efficient and general method for calculating the band gap renormalization of a 2D material embedded in an arbitrary vdWH. The method evaluates the change in the GW self-energy of the 2D material from the change in the screened Coulomb interaction. The latter is obtained using the quantum-electrostatic heterostructure (QEH) model. We benchmark the GΔW method against full first-principles GW calculations and use it to unravel the importance of screening-induced band structure renormalisation in various vdWHs. A main result is the observation that the size of the band gap reduction of a given 2D material when inserted into a heterostructure scales inversely with the polarisability of the 2D material. Our work demonstrates that dielectric engineering via van der Waals heterostructuring represents a promising strategy for tailoring the band structure of 2D materials.

  15. Use of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a screening tool in prisons: results of a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Arndt, Stephan; Hale, Nancy; Rogerson, Rusty

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a pilot study in which the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess a random sample of offenders newly committed to the Iowa Department of Corrections. Following sessions in which correctional personnel were trained to administer the MINI, the instrument was administered to 67 offenders. The interview took from 20 to 105 minutes (mean, 41 minutes) to administer, and all but 13 (19%) offenders were positive for a lifetime MINI disorder. Twenty-six (39%) subjects had a lifetime mood disorder, 20 (30%) a lifetime anxiety disorder, 12 (18%) a lifetime psychotic disorder, and 53 (79%) a substance use disorder. Seven (10%) subjects met criteria for a lifetime attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, while 13 (19%) had a lifetime antisocial personality disorder. Subjects had a mean of 2.8 disorders. The potential use of the MINI as a screening tool in prison settings is discussed.

  16. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  17. Population-based study of DNA image cytometry as screening method for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhao; Guo-Qing Wang; Qi Shang; You-Lin Qiao; Wen-Qiang Wei; De-Li Zhao; Chang-Qing Hao; Dong-Mei Lin; Qin-Jing Pan; Xin-Qing Li; Fu-Hua Lei; Jin-Wu Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM) technique as a primary screening method for esophageal squamous precancerous lesions.METHODS: This study was designed as a populationbased screening study. A total of 582 local residents aged 40 years-69 years were recruited from Linzhou in Henan and Feicheng in Shandong. However, only 452 subjects had results of liquid-based cytology, DNA-ICM and pathology. The sensitivity and specificity of DNAICM were calculated and compared with liquid-based cytology in moderate dysplasia or worse. RESULTS: Sensitivities of DNA-ICM ranging from at least 1 to 4 aneuploid cells were 90.91%, 86.36%, 79.55% and 77.27%, respectively, which were better than that of liquid-based cytology (75%). Specificities of DNA-ICM were 70.83%, 84.07%, 92.65% and 96.81%, but the specificity of liquid-based cytology was 91.91%. The sensitivity and specificity of a combination of liquid-based cytology and DNA-ICM were 84.09% and 85.78%, respectively. CONCLUSION: It is possible to use DNA-ICM technique as a primary screening method for esophageal squamous precancerous lesions.

  18. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Tilay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS. To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers.

  19. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  20. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  1. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  2. Euler technology assessment for preliminary aircraft design employing OVERFLOW code with multiblock structured-grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, David A.; Muilenburg, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    The viability of applying a state-of-the-art Euler code to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments through maximum lift coefficient for a generic sharp-edge configuration is assessed. The OVERFLOW code, a method employing overset (Chimera) grids, was used to conduct mesh refinement studies, a wind-tunnel wall sensitivity study, and a 22-run computational matrix of flow conditions, including sideslip runs and geometry variations. The subject configuration was a generic wing-body-tail geometry with chined forebody, swept wing leading-edge, and deflected part-span leading-edge flap. The analysis showed that the Euler method is adequate for capturing some of the non-linear aerodynamic effects resulting from leading-edge and forebody vortices produced at high angle-of-attack through C(sub Lmax). Computed forces and moments, as well as surface pressures, match well enough useful preliminary design information to be extracted. Vortex burst effects and vortex interactions with the configuration are also investigated.

  3. Evaluation of detection methods for screening meat and poultry products for the presence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Gensler, Gary E; King, Robin K; Wu, John T; McMullen, Lynn M

    2005-12-01

    Rapid and molecular technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation can reduce the time and labor involved in screening food products for the presence of pathogens. These technologies were compared with conventional culture methodology for the detection of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in raw and processed meat and poultry products. Recommended protocols were modified so that the same enrichment broths used in the culture methods were also used in the ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation assays. The percent agreement between the rapid technologies and culture methods ranged from 80 to 100% depending on the pathogen detected and the method used. ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation all performed well, with no statistical difference, compared with the culture method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. ELISA performed better for the detection of Salmonella, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 100%. PCR performed better for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni, with 100% agreement to the culture method. PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of all the foodborne pathogens tested except Listeria monocytogenes. Although the lateral flow immunoprecipitation tests were statistically different from the culture methods for Salmonella and Listeria because of false-positive results, the tests did not produce any false negatives, indicating that this method would be suitable for screening meat and poultry products for these pathogens.

  4. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  5. Preliminary Findings of a Format-based Foreign Language Teaching Method for School Children in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…

  6. Study on measurement method for projectile location based on light screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Liu, QunHua; Sun, GuoBin

    2008-09-01

    In weapon-ammunition system, firing accuracy of projectile is major characteristic parameter weighing fire effect and capability of weapon-ammunition system for target. At present, firing accuracy of projectile is obtained by measuring the two-dimensional coordinates of projectile for target. In order to measure the parameters of two-dimensional coordinates of projectile for target, a new type of measurement system is proposed. The measurement system is composed of four high sensitivity light screens (known as target) with special geometrical frame. Light source of the screens is formed by special infrared LED array. The PIN infrared photodiodes array is used as the sensors. The longest effective distance between light source and sensors is 4m. It is impossible to achieve using traditional methods. Four light screens and high-precision timers are combined in order to acquire the value of time when the projectile flies across the position of four light screens. The real-time data acquirement and processing and display of two-dimensional coordinates and the projectile velocity can be realized. The principle of measurement system and the design of high sensitivity light screen are introduced emphatically. The measurement system was verified by using five kinds of small caliber pellets. As compared with the paper target sheet, the measurement system designed can meet the demand of check-up test of gun, bullet and ammunition. The firing testing in the target field has proved that the measurement system has the advantages of simple construction, easy operation and high precision and high sensitivity.

  7. Development of a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ken; Rea, Rosemary; Simpson, Paul; Stack, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h. This study describes a method, utilising Kanamycin Skim Milk Aesculin Azide (KSMEA) agar, for the isolation of proteolytic enterococci in one-step, thereby significantly reducing screening time. KSMEA combines the selective properties of Kanamycin Aesculin Azide Agar (KAA) with skim milk powder for the detection of proteolytic enterococci. Enterococci produced colonies with a black halo on KSMEA which were accompanied by a zone of clearing in the media when enterococci were proteolytic. KSMEA medium retained the selectivity of KAA, while proteolytic enterococci were easily distinguished from non-proteolytic enterococci when two known strains were propagated on KSMEA. KSMEA also proved effective at isolating and detecting enterococci in raw milk, faeces and soil. Isolates recovered from the screen were confirmed as enterococci using genus-specific primers. Proteolytic enterococci were present in the raw milk sample only and were easily distinguishable from non-proteolytic enterococci and other microorganisms. Therefore, KSMEA provides a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci.

  8. A new versatile microarray-based method for high throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Pedersen, Henriette L; Schückel, Julia; Arnal, Grégory; Dumon, Claire; Amby, Daniel B; Monrad, Rune Nygaard; Westereng, Bjørge; Willats, William G T

    2015-04-03

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing together with associated bioinformatics tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate-degrading and -modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high throughput, and versatile semiquantitative enzyme screening technique that requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme mixtures, and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures, and biomass samples. Moreover, we show that the technique can be used to analyze both endo-acting and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. We demonstrate the potential of the technique by identifying the substrate specificities of purified uncharacterized enzymes and by screening enzyme activities from fungal culture broths.

  9. Rapid method to screen resistance of potato plants against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.

  10. Designing specific protein-protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

    2012-07-01

    Given the importance of protein-protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity.

  11. Survey of the Role of Combined Screening Method with Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharekhanloo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and in recent years it is seen in younger ages. Because of dense breast tissue in these ages, the mammography sensitivity for breast cancer detection is reduced, so high quality ultrasonography (US as a combined screening method is effective. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the mammographic finding with the positive finding of ultrasonogarphy.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 300 cases were referred to the Mehr Medical Imaging Center for breast US and sonography of breast and axilla was performed. Mammography before or after US was also performed by another radiologist. All suspicious patients were referred for biopsy or surgery.Results: Mean age of patients was 46 y/o with the range of 32-76 y/o. Pathologic specimens approved malignancy in 21 patients and abscess in 1 patient. The most frequent symptom was palpable breast mass with mean diameter of 29 mm. Mean diameter of lymph nodes was 17.3 mm. Positive mammographic findings were seen in 85.7%and negative findings or only an asymmetric density in 14.3%.Conclusion: According to dense breast tissue especially in young women sensitivity of single screening by mammography is reduced in breast cancer detection, so combined screening with sonography and mammography especially in younger women improves the detection rate of breast carcinoma. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:57-60

  12. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  13. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  14. Benchmarking Data Sets for the Evaluation of Virtual Ligand Screening Methods: Review and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2015-07-27

    Virtual screening methods are commonly used nowadays in drug discovery processes. However, to ensure their reliability, they have to be carefully evaluated. The evaluation of these methods is often realized in a retrospective way, notably by studying the enrichment of benchmarking data sets. To this purpose, numerous benchmarking data sets were developed over the years, and the resulting improvements led to the availability of high quality benchmarking data sets. However, some points still have to be considered in the selection of the active compounds, decoys, and protein structures to obtain optimal benchmarking data sets.

  15. A method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for joint repair applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehne Tilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue adhesives are useful means for various medical procedures. Since varying requirements cause that a single adhesive cannot meet all needs, bond strength testing remains one of the key applications used to screen for new products and study the influence of experimental variables. This study was conducted to develop an easy to use method to screen and evaluate tissue adhesives for tissue engineering applications. Method Tissue grips were designed to facilitate the reproducible production of substrate tissue and adhesive strength measurements in universal testing machines. Porcine femoral condyles were used to generate osteochondral test tissue cylinders (substrates of different shapes. Viability of substrates was tested using PI/FDA staining. Self-bonding properties were determined to examine reusability of substrates (n = 3. Serial measurements (n = 5 in different operation modes (OM were performed to analyze the bonding strength of tissue adhesives in bone (OM-1 and cartilage tissue either in isolation (OM-2 or under specific requirements in joint repair such as filling cartilage defects with clinical applied fibrin/PLGA-cell-transplants (OM-3 or tissues (OM-4. The efficiency of the method was determined on the basis of adhesive properties of fibrin glue for different assembly times (30 s, 60 s. Seven randomly generated collagen formulations were analyzed to examine the potential of method to identify new tissue adhesives. Results Viability analysis of test tissue cylinders revealed vital cells (>80% in cartilage components even 48 h post preparation. Reuse (n = 10 of test substrate did not significantly change adhesive characteristics. Adhesive strength of fibrin varied in different test settings (OM-1: 7.1 kPa, OM-2: 2.6 kPa, OM-3: 32.7 kPa, OM-4: 30.1 kPa and was increasing with assembly time on average (2.4-fold. The screening of the different collagen formulations revealed a substance with significant

  16. Methods to increase participation in organised screening programs: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Community recommends the implementation of population-based screening programmes for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. This recommendation is supported by many observational studies showing that organised programmes effectively reduce mortality and control the inappropriate use of screening tests. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions to increase participation in organised population-based screening programs. Methods We included all studies on interventions aimed at increasing screening participation published between 1/1999 and 7/2012. For those published before 1999, we considered the Jepson et al. (2000) review (Health Technol Assess 4:1-133, 2000). Results Including studies from the Jepson review, we found 69 with quantitative information on interventions in organised screening: 19 for cervical, 26 for breast, 20 colorectal cancers, and 4 for cervical and breast cancer together. Effective interventions were: postal (breast RR = 1,37 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.25-1.51; cervical RR = 1.71 95% CI: 1.60-1.83; colorectal RR = 1.33 95% CI: 1.17-1.51) and telephone reminders (with heterogeneous methods for implementation); GP’s signature on invitation letter (breast RR = 1.13 95% CI: 1.11-1.16; cervical RR = 1.20 95% CI: 1.10-1.30; colorectal RR = 1.15 95% CI: 1.07-1.24); scheduled appointment instead of open appointment (breast RR = 1.26 95% CI: 1.02-1.55; cervical RR = 1.49 95% CI: 1.27-1.75; colorectal RR = 1.79 95% CI: 1.65-1.93). Mailing a kit for self-sampling cervical specimens increased participation in non-responders (RR = 2.37 95% CI: 1.44-3.90). Conclusion Although some interventions did prove to be effective, some specific variables may influence their effectiveness in and applicability to organised population-based screening programs. PMID:23663511

  17. The flora and fauna of a proposed wind turbine site near Royal Road, Prince Edward County, Ontario : preliminary screening of the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, M.; Leggett, A. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-15

    Calgary based Vision Quest Windelectric has been given zoning approval to install a 22 MW windfarm in Ontario's Prince Edward County. Following a preliminary screening to determine the effect of the windfarm on the natural environment, the Royal Road Windfarm will be developed in stages with up to 32 turbines. Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd. conducted an environmental study which showed that an exploratory wind turbine in the area is not likely to cause major adverse impacts on local fauna and flora. The proposed location of the wind turbine is not in an important bird area (IBA). An IBA is defined as a site providing essential habitat for one of more species of breeding or non-breeding birds. In 1999, Vision Quest initiated a program to examine bird interactions with wind turbines in southern Alberta. It was shown that most species choose flight paths to avoid turbines. The Royal Road site hosts rare alvars which are naturally open landscapes found in shallow soils on flat limestones. The alvars are subject to seasonal drought and flooding and have specific types of vegetation and animals. Since the exploratory wind turbine will be placed outside the IBA area, its impact on birds will be minimized, and it will have minimal effect on migrant, breeding and wintering birds. It was recommended that monitoring take place at the site during the first year of operation. It is also presumed that the wind turbine will not have any impact on mammals, reptiles and amphibians, or insects. However, it was recommended that more information be gathered on bat movement in the area. If placed appropriately, the wind turbine is not expected to impact on rare plants. It was emphasized that in the past, Vision Quest Windelectric has conducted environmental screening activities, and has acted on recommendations to place wind turbines in locations where environmental impact will be minimized. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.

  18. Benchmarking methods and data sets for ligand enrichment assessment in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. "analogue bias", "artificial enrichment" and "false negative". In addition, we introduce our recent algorithm to build maximum-unbiased benchmarking sets applicable to both ligand-based and structure-based VS approaches, and its implementations to three important human histone deacetylases (HDACs) isoforms, i.e. HDAC1, HDAC6 and HDAC8. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO CV) demonstrates that the benchmarking sets built by our algorithm are maximum-unbiased as measured by property matching, ROC curves and AUCs.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of crude stem bark extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Emmanuel O; Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Adegboye, Mobolaji F; Oni, Matthew O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-07-18

    A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli) and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Properties of Crude Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic crude extract of Parkia biglobosa was prepared and later partitioned in succession with different solvents of increasing polarity ranging from n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate to butanol. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycoside and sugars. The inhibition zones exhibited by the extract against the tested bacteria ranged between 14 ± 0.00 mm (against Escherichia coli and 28 ± 0.71 mm (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC of the methanolic extract of P. biglobosa against isolates ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, while the MIC values exhibited by the n-hexane and aqueous fractions ranged between 0.63 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Overall the extract and fractions of P. biglobosa used in this work were found to possess antimicrobial properties which compared favourably with those of streptomycin. These observations make this plant a potential source of bioactive compounds that can be used in management of bacterial infections. The use of this plant as herbal medicaments in African countries and the reports on the toxicity of the plant further show that the plant is non-toxic to humans.

  1. Preliminary Screening of Infertility by Evidence-Based Medicine%不孕症循证初筛病因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆

    2011-01-01

    不孕症是一类集医疗、社会心理及经济层面的复杂社会问题.本研究通过对不孕症初筛临床路径循证依据进行综述,提出与妊娠结局直接与不直接相关的检查项目,旨在指导临床医师对不孕症患者进行科学、规范的初步筛查,遏制在不孕症诊治中的过度检查、高额成本,让患者花最小的代价,即可获得满意疗效.%Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects. The study reviewed the initial screening evaluation of infertility which based on evidence-based medicine. This review questioned some tests which directly or indirectly related to pregnancy outcomes, which can guide clinicians to check patients by a scientific and standardized way and stop excessive examination, so that infertility couple will get a satisfied treatment at the minimum cost.

  2. Potential of preliminary test methods to predict biodegradation performance of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichberger, H; Hasinger, Marion; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary tests at different scales such as degradation experiments (laboratory) in shaking flasks, soil columns and lysimeters as well as in situ respiration tests (field) were performed with soil from two hydrocarbon contaminated sites. Tests have been evaluated in terms of their potential to provide information on feasibility, degradation rates and residual concentration of bioremediation in the vadose zone. Sample size, costs and duration increased with experimental scale in the order shaking flasks - soil columns - lysimeter - in situ respiration tests, only time demand of respiration tests was relatively low. First-order rate constants observed in degradation experiments exhibited significant differences between both, different experimental sizes and different soils. Rates were in line with type and history of contamination at the sites, but somewhat overestimated field rates particularly in small scale experiments. All laboratory experiments allowed an estimation of residual concentrations after remediation. In situ respiration tests were found to be an appropriate pre-testing and monitoring tool for bioventing although residual concentrations cannot be predicted from in situ respiration tests. Moreover, this method does not account for potential limitations that might hamper biodegradation in the longer term but only reflects the actual degradation potential when the test is performed.

  3. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  4. Experimental method and preliminary studies of the passive containment water film evaporation mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center; State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Beijing (China); Yang, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Shan; Du, Wangfang; Gao, Zhan; Li, Honegsen [State Nuclear Power Technology Research, Beijing (China). Development Center

    2017-05-15

    For larger containments and higher operation parameters, characteristics of the outside cooling of the PCCS are very important for the analysis on the containment integrity. A preliminary analysis was made and a four-step experimental method was used to numerically analyze the falling water film evaporation for the advanced passive containment. Then, the water flow stability along the outside wall of the containment was studied. The results fit well with those correlations without airflow when the air velocity is less than 5.0 m/s. However, when the air velocity is larger than 5.0 m/s, the influence of the air velocity on the water film will appear and the mean water film thickness will be thicker. Based on the prototype operation parameters, experimental studies were carried and the results were compared with the Dittus-Boelter correlation within the operation ranges. A modification factor was proposed for the conservative application of this correlation for nuclear safety analysis.

  5. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand; Chee, Adrian J. Y.; Yiu, Billy Y. S.; Ho, Chung Kit; Yu, Alfred C. H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle-independent vector velocity fields using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Experimental scans are performed on a fabricated flow phantom having a constriction of 36% at a depth of 100 mm. Scans are carried out using a phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner, SARUS. 2-D fields of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure drops across the mitral valve.

  6. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  7. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  8. HPV detection methods and genotyping techniques in screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Maj Liv; Debaque, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV), double-stranded DNA viruses, are causing many mucocutaneous diseases, benign or malignant, ranging from common warts to malignancies involving the upper aerodigestive tract and the anogenital sphere. The diagnosis of HPV infection is based primarily on the viral genome detection by molecular biological methods, given the difficulty in routine cultivation of these viruses. The current trend in screening against cervical cancer is to improve the sensitivity of screening with new methods and to propose new algorithms for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The development of liquid-based cytology facilitates the cytologic diagnosis and molecular assays from the same sample. There are two main types of HPV detection methods used on uterine cervical samples: signal amplification methods (hybridization techniques in liquid phase) and target amplification methods (the techniques of gene amplification or Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR]). Genotyping techniques are also developed: they are based on an amplification technique followed by hybridization with probe specific types. In addition to the detection, genotyping techniques allow quantitative detection of viral DNA of HPV genotype and so monitor changes in viral load over time. Another approach relies on the detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) of HPV proteins E6 and E7 oncogenes, which would appear to be a relevant marker to identify and monitor women at risk of progression to a precancerous lesion or cervical cancer.

  9. A Tree Based Method for the Rapid Screening of Chemical Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Thomas G.; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules with fingerprints similar to a query fingerprint. In this paper, we present a method which efficiently finds all fingerprints in a database with Tanimoto coefficient to the query fingerprint above a user defined threshold. The method is based on two novel data structures for rapid screening of large databases: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds. We have implemented our method and tested it on a large data set from the industry. Our experiments show that our method yields a three-fold speed-up over previous methods.

  10. Preliminary screening and identification of stem cell-like sphere clones in a gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-bing YIN; Shuang-jie WU; Hua-jie ZONG; Bao-jin MA; Duan CAI

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to screen and identify sphere clone cells with characteristics similar to cancer stem cellsin human gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD. GBC-SD cells were cultured in a serum-free culture medium with different concentrations of the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin for generating sphere clones. The mRNA expressions of stem cell-related genes CD133, OCT-4, Nanog, and drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1 in sphere clones were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Stem cell markers were also analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining. Different amounts of sphere clones were injected into nude mice to test their abilities to form tumors. Sphere clones were formed in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin (30 pmol/L).Flow cytometry results demonstrated that the sphere clones expressed high levels of stem cell markers CD133+ (97.6%) and CD44+ (77.9%) and low levels of CD24+ (2.3%). These clones also overexpressed the drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that sphere clones expressed stem cell genes Nanog and OCT-4 284 and 266 times, respectively, more than those in the original GBC-SD cells. Immunofluorescent staining showed that sphere clones overexpressed OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX-2, and Iow expressed MUG1 and vimentin. Tumor formation experiments showed that 1 x 103 sphere clone cells could induce much larger tumors in nude mice than 1 x 105 GBC-SD cells. In conclusion, sphere clones of gallbladder cancer with stem cell-like characteristics can be obtained using suspension cultures of GBC-SD cells in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin.

  11. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  12. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromwell Mwiti Kibiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  13. Development of a facile method for high throughput screening with reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A S; Andrews, J L; Littleton, T R; Ignar, D M

    2000-10-01

    This report describes a facile methodology for high throughput screening with stable mammalian cell reporter gene assays. We have adapted a 96-well adherent cell method to an assay in which cells propagated in suspension are dispensed into 96- or 384-well plates containing test compounds in 100% DMSO. The validation of a stable CHO cell line that expresses 6xCRE-luciferase for use as a reporter gene host cell line is described. The reporter gene, when expressed in this particular CHO cell line, appears to respond specifically to modulation of cAMP levels, thus the cell line is appropriate for screening and pharmacological analysis of Galpha(s)- and Galpha(i)-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors. The development of the new suspension cell assay in both 96- and 384-well formats was performed using a derivative of the CHO host reporter cell line that was stably transfected with human melanocortin-1 receptor. The response of this cell line to NDP-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and forskolin was nearly identical between the adherent and suspension methods. The new method offers improvements in cost, throughput, cell culture effort, compound stability, accuracy of compound delivery, and hands-on time. The 384-well assay can be performed at high capacity in any laboratory without the use of expensive automation systems such that a single person can screen 100 plates per day with 3.5-4 h hands-on time. Although the system has been validated using Galpha(s)-coupled receptor-mediated activation of a cAMP response element, the method can be applied to other types of targets and/or transcriptional response elements.

  14. Screening, detection, and serotyping methods for toxin genes and enterotoxins in Staphylococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Jennifer M; Tallent, Sandra M; Bennett, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to play a significant role in foodborne outbreak investigations, with numerous individuals sickened each year after ingesting assorted foods contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of several methods for the screening, detection, and enterotoxin serotyping of staphylococcal bacterial strains for classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and the newly described SE and SE-like enterotoxin genes (seg, seh, sei, sej, sek, sel, sem, sen, seo, sep, seq, ser, ses, set, and seu). Inclusivity and exclusivity panels of staphylococcal strains were tested using a multiplex PCR method in addition to three polyvalent commercially prepared ELISA systems for the detection of SEA-SEE and one monovalent assay for the identification of classical SE serotypes. The results indicate an overall agreement between serological detection methods with a few exceptions, and molecular characterization identified an abundance of SE and SE-like enterotoxin genes including several potentially enterotoxigenic isolates that would have otherwise been missed by ELISA-based methods. These findings demonstrate the significance of PCR for future screening purposes and the use of ELISA systems for the detection and enterotoxin serotyping of staphylococcal bacterial strains.

  15. Comprehensive screening method for the qualitative detection of narcotics and stimulants using single step derivatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuyne, W; Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T

    2007-10-01

    A selective and sensitive screening method for the detection of prohibited narcotic and stimulating agents in doping control is described and validated. This method is suitable for the detection of all narcotic agents mentioned on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) doping list in addition to numerous stimulants. The analytes are extracted from urine by a combined extraction procedure using CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH (9/1, v/v) and t-butylmethyl ether as extraction solvents at pH 9.5 and 14, respectively. Prior to GC-MS analysis the obtained residues are combined and derivatised with MSTFA. The mass spectrometer is operated in the full scan mode in the range between m/z 40 and 550. The obtained limits of detection (LOD) for all components included in this extensive screening method are in the range 20-500 ng/ml, which is in compliance with the requirements set by WADA. Besides narcotic and stimulating agents, this method is also capable of detecting several agents with anti-estrogenic activity and some beta-agonists. As an example, a positive identification of hydroxyl-methoxy-tamoxyfen is shown.

  16. Analysis and comparison of 2D fingerprints: insights into database screening performance using eight fingerprint methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianxin; Dixon, Steven L; Lowrie, Jeffrey F; Sherman, Woody

    2010-09-01

    Virtual screening is a widely used strategy in modern drug discovery and 2D fingerprint similarity is an important tool that has been successfully applied to retrieve active compounds from large datasets. However, it is not always straightforward to select an appropriate fingerprint method and associated settings for a given problem. Here, we applied eight different fingerprint methods, as implemented in the new cheminformatics package Canvas, on a well-validated dataset covering five targets. The fingerprint methods include Linear, Dendritic, Radial, MACCS, MOLPRINT2D, Pairwise, Triplet, and Torsion. We find that most fingerprints have similar retrieval rates on average; however, each has special characteristics that distinguish its performance on different query molecules and ligand sets. For example, some fingerprints exhibit a significant ligand size dependency whereas others are more robust with respect to variations in the query or active compounds. In cases where little information is known about the active ligands, MOLPRINT2D fingerprints produce the highest average retrieval actives. When multiple queries are available, we find that a fingerprint averaged over all query molecules is generally superior to fingerprints derived from single queries. Finally, a complementarity metric is proposed to determine which fingerprint methods can be combined to improve screening results.

  17. Simple screening method for copy number variations associated with physical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Misuzu; Takeshita, Haruo; Fujihara, Junko; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Iida, Reiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies of copy number variations (CNVs) associated with physical features, such as body mass index, body height or bone length, have suggested that such CNVs could serve as markers in forensic cases involving unidentified individuals. However, the process of cataloging CNVs has been slow because of the cumbersome nature and low reliability of the procedures involved. Here we describe a simple quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) method for screening of medicolegally useful CNVs, which does not require reference DNA with known copy number. The first step is to prepare a chimeric plasmid vector including one copy each of the single-copy gene-specific sequence as the internal standard, and the target CNV-specific sequence. To assess the validity of this new method, we analyzed CNVs in the LTBP1 and ETV6 gene regions, both of which are candidate CNVs associated with body height. The PCR efficiencies for the single-copy (reference) gene and the target CNV were similar, indicating that quantitation was reliable. Furthermore, simulated analysis of the LTBP1 CNV using mock samples prepared by mixing vectors in varying proportions showed that this analytical method allowed correct determination of the LTBP1 copy number. These results demonstrated that our simple method has considerable potential for screening of trait-related CNVs that would be useful for forensic casework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The minisequencing method: a simple strategy for genetic screening of MEN 2 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Rita

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is an autosomal dominant disorder. MEN 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism; MEN 2B by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and characteristic stigmata. Activating germline mutations of the RET proto oncogene are responsible for this hereditary syndrome. Codon 634 mutations are the most common mutations occurring in MEN 2A families whereas a specific mutation at codon 918 is observed in the great majority of MEN 2B families. Analysis of these codons will provide a final diagnosis in the great majority of affected families making unnecessary further studies. To specifically study the codons 634 and 918 we used a minisequencing method as an alternative method to complete sequencing. Results Using this mutation detection method we were able to reproduce in all cases, representative of 7 families, the information previously obtained by direct sequencing of PCR products. Depending on the number of primers used in the minisequencing reaction, we were able to interrogate either only one nucleotide of the target codon or the three nucleotides simultaneously. Conclusions This technique appears as a simple, rapid and efficient method for genetic screening of MEN 2 families. It can be utilized to seek for unknown mutations at specific codons or to screen for previously identified mutations and is therefore of interest to study index cases or individuals at risk. Results suggest that complete sequencing is unnecessary.

  19. Carbamazepine-Fumaric Acid Co-Crystal Screening Using Solution Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Syarifah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystals is a multi-component system which connected by non-covalent interactions, present physically as a solid form under ambient conditions. Nowadays, co-crystal has becoming as an alternative approach to improve the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs especially for a weakly ionisable groups or neutral compounds. In this study the co-crystal screening was carried out for carbamazepine (CBZ and fumaric acid (FUM co-crystal former (CCF using non-stoichiometric method (addition of CBZ to CCF saturated solution and stoichiometric method (evaporation of 1:1 molar ratio of CBZ to CCF in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, propanol, ethanol and formic acid solvent systems. The crystals produced from the screening were characterized using Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR. The PXRD analysis had confirmed that the co-crystal was successfully formed in both methods for all of the solvent system studied with an exception to formic acid in the stoichiometric method where no crystal was found precipitate. The findings from this study revealed that Form A and Form B of CBZ-FUM co-crystal had been successfully formed from different solvent systems.

  20. Comparison of Different Blood Collection, Sample Matrix, and Immunoassay Methods in a Prenatal Screening Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L. A. Pennings

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared how measurements of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (fβ-hCG in maternal blood are influenced by different methods for blood collection, sample matrix, and immunoassay platform. Serum and dried blood spots (DBS were obtained by venipuncture and by finger prick of 19 pregnant women. PAPP-A and fβ-hCG from serum and from DBS were measured by conventional indirect immunoassay on an AutoDELFIA platform and by antibody microarray. We compared methods based on the recoveries for both markers as well as marker levels correlations across samples. All method comparisons showed high correlations for both marker concentrations. Recovery levels of PAPP-A from DBS were 30% lower, while those of fβ-hCG from DBS were 50% higher compared to conventional venipuncture serum. The recoveries were not affected by blood collection or immunoassay method. The high correlation coefficients for both markers indicate that DBS from finger prick can be used reliably in a prenatal screening setting, as a less costly and minimally invasive alternative for venipuncture serum, with great logistical advantages. Additionally, the use of antibody arrays will allow for extending the number of first trimester screening markers on maternal and fetal health.

  1. A selection method for the calculation of preliminary risk-based remediation goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Batey, J.C.; Pintenich, J.L. [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the process of deriving acceptable concentrations of chemical constituents (or preliminary risk-based remediation goals, PRGs) for hazardous and other waste sites based on the site risk assessment results, it may be necessary or desirable to select a subset of constituents to focus the remainder of the site activities including the feasibility study and possibly, remedial design and verification sampling. Use of a focused set of action or clean-up goals offers the benefits of targeting those site areas where efforts should be concentrated, and reducing the cost and complexity of clean-up and verification sampling. Although the federal Superfund risk assessment guidance provides methods by which to calculate PRGs, no information is given on how to select which chemicals PRGs should be generated for. A method for this selection is presented which establishes: the media of interest; the populations for which PRGs should be generated; the relevant exposure route(s) for a given population to be used in calculating PRGs; and the individual constituents for which PRGs should be estimated. To illustrate this selection process, remedial investigation (RI) data and a baseline risk assessment for a hazardous waste site in Mississippi were used. The media of interest were identified as surface water and sediment from a creek that is adjacent to the site, on-site surface water, and groundwater from the uppermost aquifer. Of the 45 constituents detected in site-related waters, this selection process resulted in 16 for which PRGs were calculated, which served to focus the subsequent feasibility study efforts.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  3. Fast high-throughput screening of temoporfin-loaded liposomal formulations prepared by ethanol injection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Delaney, Joseph T; Schubert, Ulrich S; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-03-01

    A new strategy for fast, convenient high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations was developed, utilizing the automation of the so-called ethanol-injection method. This strategy was illustrated by the preparation and screening of the liposomal formulation library of a potent second-generation photosensitizer, temoporfin. Numerous liposomal formulations were efficiently prepared using a pipetting robot, followed by automated size characterization, using a dynamic light scattering plate reader. Incorporation efficiency of temoporfin and zeta potential were also detected in selected cases. To optimize the formulation, different parameters were investigated, including lipid types, lipid concentration in injected ethanol, ratio of ethanol to aqueous solution, ratio of drug to lipid, and the addition of functional phospholipid. Step-by-step small liposomes were prepared with high incorporation efficiency. At last, an optimized formulation was obtained for each lipid in the following condition: 36.4 mg·mL(-1) lipid, 13.1 mg·mL(-1) mPEG(2000)-DSPE, and 1:4 ethanol:buffer ratio. These liposomes were unilamellar spheres, with a diameter of approximately 50 nm, and were very stable for over 20 weeks. The results illustrate this approach to be promising for fast high-throughput screening of liposomal formulations.

  4. High-throughput transformation method for Yarrowia lipolytica mutant library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplat, Christophe; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    As a microorganism of major biotechnological importance, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is subjected to intensive genetic engineering and functional genomic analysis. Future advancements in this area, however, require a system that will generate a large collection of mutants for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a rapid and efficient method for high-throughput transformation of Y. lipolytica in 96-well plates. We developed plasmids and strains for the large-scale screening of overexpression mutant strains, using Gateway® vectors that were adapted for specific locus integration in Y. lipolytica. As an example, a collection of mutants that overexpressed the alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) was obtained in a single transformation experiment. The platform strain that we developed to receive the overexpression cassette was designed to constitutively express a fluorescent protein as a convenient growth reporter for screening in non-translucid media. An example of growth comparison in skim milk-based medium between AEP overexpression and deletion mutants is provided.

  5. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjala, Leena; Barai, Vladimir; Azhayev, Alex; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Ahola, Tero

    2008-06-01

    Several members of the widespread alphavirus group are pathogenic, but no therapy is available to treat these RNA virus infections. We report here a quantitative assay to screen for inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication. The anti-SFV assay developed is based on a SFV strain containing Renilla luciferase inserted after the nsP3 coding region, yielding a marker virus in which the luciferase is cleaved out during polyprotein processing. The reporter-gene assay was miniaturized, automated and validated, resulting in a Z' value of 0.52. [3H]uridine labeling for 1 h at the maximal viral RNA synthesis time point was used as a comparative method. Anti-SFV screening and counter-screening for cell viability led to the discovery of several new SFV inhibitors. 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine was the most potent inhibitor in this set, with an IC50 value of 18 microM in the reporter-gene assay and 2 microM in RNA synthesis rate detection. Besides the 3'-substituted analogues, certain N6-substituted nucleosides had similar IC50 values for both SFV and Sindbis replication, suggesting the applicability of this methodology to alphaviruses in general.

  6. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  7. First screening method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, J; Fischer, M; Pöpping, B

    2011-02-18

    The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described. It is based on extraction of the allergenic proteins from a food matrix, followed by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The chosen marker peptides were implemented into one method that is capable of the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, soy, hazelnut, peanut, walnut and almond. This method has been used to detect all seven allergenic commodities from incurred reference bread material, which was baked according to a standard recipe from the baking industry. Detected concentrations ranged from 10 to 1000 μg/g, demonstrating that the mass spectrometric based method is a useful tool for allergen screening.

  8. Chest radiographic image quality: comparison of asymmetric screen-film, digital storage phosphor, and digital selenium drum systems--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beute, G H; Flynn, M J; Eyler, W R; Samei, E; Spizarny, D L; Zylak, C J

    1998-01-01

    Conventional screen-film radiography does not display all regions of the thorax satisfactorily. Three chest radiographic techniques display both the lung and the mediastinum with good contrast. These techniques are asymmetric screen-film (ASF), digital storage phosphor (DSP), and digital selenium drum (DSD) imaging. ASF systems use two asymmetric screen-film combinations to produce a wide-latitude image of the thorax with good contrast in the lungs. In DSP systems, image data are acquired digitally with a wide dynamic range by using the optical output of a photostimulable phosphor plate; in DSD systems, the wide-range digital image data are acquired by using the electronic charge generated on a drum coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. The appearance of a DSP or DSD radiograph is then determined by user-selected image processing operations: tone scaling, spatial frequency processing, and dynamic range compensation. Digital chest radiographs processed with strong regional equalization provide both excellent contrast in the lungs and effective display of the mediastinum and chest wall. At visual comparison, the high lung contrast and good mediastinal, retrocardiac, and subdiaphragmatic detail provided by the DSD method distinguish it from the other two methods.

  9. Trojan Horse Method: a useful tool for electron screening effect investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M.L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN and DMFCI Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Tumino, A. [Universita Kore, Enna (Italy); Li, C.; Wen, Q.; Zhou, S. [Department of Nuclear Physics, CIAE, Beijing (China); Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J. [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez, Czech Rep. (Czech Republic); Carlin, N.; Gimenez del Santo, M.; Szanto de Toledo, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, T.; Yamaguchi, H. [CNS, University of Tokyo, Wako (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Direct measurements in the last decades have highlighted a new problem related to the lowering of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting nuclei due to the presence of the 'electron screening' in the laboratory measurements. It was systematically observed that the presence of the electronic cloud around the interacting ions in measurements of nuclear reactions cross sections at astrophysical energies gives rise to an enhancement of the astrophysical S(E)-factor as lower and lower energies are explored [H. Assenbaum, K. Langanke, C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. 327 (1987) 461]. Moreover, at present such an effect is not well understood as the value of the potential for screening extracted from these measurements is higher than the upper limit of theoretical predictions (adiabatic limit). On the other hand, the electron screening potential in laboratory measurement is different from that occurring in stellar plasmas thus the quantity of interest in astrophysics is the so-called 'bare nucleus cross section'. This quantity can only be extrapolated in direct measurements. These are the reasons that led to a considerable growth on interest in indirect measurement techniques and in particular the Trojan Horse Method (THM) [G. Baur, Phys. Lett. B 178, (1986) 135; S. Cherubini et al. Ap. J. 457, (1996) 855] Results concerning the bare nucleus cross sections measurements will be shown in several cases of astrophysical interest. In those cases the screening potential evaluated by means of the THM will be compared with the adiabatic limit and results arising from extrapolation in direct measurements.

  10. Phenotypic methods for screening carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and assessment of their antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly da Costa Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we used phenotypic methods to screen carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs and evaluated their antimicrobial sensitivity profile. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight CREs were isolated at a university hospital in south Brazil in a one-year period. Samples were assessed using disk diffusion tests with inhibitors of β-lactamases such as phenylboronic acid (AFB, cloxacillin (CLOXA, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. Strains with differences in zone diameters ≥ 5mm for disks supplemented or not were considered producers of carbapenemases. RESULTS: Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent CRE, which appeared in 80.3% cases (n = 143. Among clinical materials, the rectal swab was responsible for 43.4% of the isolations (n = 62, followed by urine (18.9%; n = 27. Among the CREs identified in this study, the growth of 56.7% (n = 101 isolates, which were putative producers of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC, were inhibited by AFB, whereas 7.3% (n = 13 isolates were inhibited by both AFB and CLOXA and were considered as putative producers of plasmid-mediated AmpC; approximately 3.4% (n = 6 were inhibited by EDTA, which possibly produced metallo-β-lactamase. Lastly, 32.6% (n = 58 cases showed negative results for AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA sensitivity, and represented another class of β-lactamases and/or mechanism of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic screening of CREs is important for clinical laboratories that monitor outbreaks of resistant microbes. Phenotypic tests that use carbapenemase inhibitors and enhancers such as AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA are necessary since they are good screening methods for the detection of carbapenemases.

  11. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  12. Chemical Screening Method for the Rapid Identification of Microbial Sources of Marine Invertebrate-Associated Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. Kerr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates have proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites. The growing recognition that marine microorganisms associated with invertebrate hosts are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites offers new alternatives for the discovery and development of marine natural products. However, the discovery of microorganisms producing secondary metabolites previously attributed to an invertebrate host poses a significant challenge. This study describes an efficient chemical screening method utilizing a 96-well plate-based bacterial cultivation strategy to identify and isolate microbial producers of marine invertebrate-associated metabolites.

  13. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natapol Pumipuntu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA], and deoxyribonuclease (DNase test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT, as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus. Results: A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus. MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT. Conclusion: MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and

  14. A cost/effective screening method for assessing the toxicity of nutrient rich effluents to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2010-07-01

    Screening whole effluent toxicity tests are cost/effective methods for detecting the presence of toxic concentrations of unknown pollutants, but the application must solve the problem associated with the effect of high and variable concentrations of nutrients in the effluent on the results of algal toxicity tests. This work proposes a cost/effective test, based on three dilution levels measured at a single point time and a discriminant model for establishing if this kind of complex samples, with difficult interpretation of dilution-response curves, should be considered toxic to algae. This procedure identified properly around 85% of the samples considered toxic by expert judgement.

  15. Detection of Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Using a Field Test Kit: A Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralatei, Edi; Lacan, Severine; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2015-11-17

    Rice is a staple food eaten by more than 50% of the world's population and is a daily dietary constituent in most South East Asian countries where 70% of the rice export comes from and where there is a high level of arsenic contamination in groundwater used for irrigation. Research shows that rice can take up and store inorganic arsenic during cultivation, and rice is considered to be one of the major routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic, a class I carcinogen for humans. Here, we report the use of a screening method based on the Gutzeit methodology to detect inorganic arsenic (iAs) in rice within 1 h. After optimization, 30 rice commodities from the United Kingdom market were tested with the field method and were compared to the reference method (high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, HPLC-ICP-MS). In all but three rice samples, iAs compound can be determined. The results show no bias for iAs using the field method. Results obtained show quantification limits of about 50 μg kg(-1), a good reproducibility for a field method of ±12%, and only a few false positives and negatives (<10%) could only be recorded at the 2015 European Commission (EC) guideline for baby rice of 100 μg kg(-1), while none were recorded at the maximum level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and implemented by the EC for polished and white rice of 200 μg kg(-1). The method is reliable, fast, and inexpensive; hence, it is suggested to be used as a screening method in the field for preselection of rice which violates legislative guidelines.

  16. Introduction of an information-theoretic method to predict recovery rates of active compounds for Bayesian in silico screening: theory and screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    We present the first method to predict compound recovery rates from descriptor statistics. A log-odds function is designed that models probability distributions of descriptor values of active and inactive molecules in chemical space and used to determine the likelihood of database compounds to exhibit a specific activity. The divergence of probability models for active and inactive compounds is applied to evaluate the ability of the log-odds likelihood function to recover active compounds from a background database. The divergence measure, which is closely related to the Kullback-Leibler distance, is strongly correlated with recovery rates of Bayesian virtual screening calculations. It has thus been possible to predict compound recovery rates for different activity classes. Prior to practical virtual screening trials, one can also estimate how likely it would be to recover active compounds from a given screening database.

  17. Optical Sensing Method for Screening Disease in Melon Seeds by Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a noble optical sensing method to diagnose seed abnormalities using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Melon seeds infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were scanned by OCT. The cross-sectional sensed area of the abnormal seeds showed an additional subsurface layer under the surface which is not found in normal seeds. The presence of CGMMV in the sample was examined by a blind test (n = 140 and compared by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The abnormal layers (n = 40 were quantitatively investigated using A-scan sensing analysis and statistical method. By utilizing 3D OCT image reconstruction, we confirmed the distinctive layers on the whole seeds. These results show that OCT with the proposed data processing method can systemically pick up morphological modification induced by viral infection in seeds, and, furthermore, OCT can play an important role in automatic screening of viral infections in seeds.

  18. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  19. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  20. A Consistent Radar Altimetry Dataset for Major World Rivers: Extraction Methods and Preliminary Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, S. P.; Durand, M. T.; Tuozzolo, S.; Yi, Y.; Jia, Y.; Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Our group has made several efforts to develop the systematics for processing multiple satellite mission inland altimetry data with the purpose of creating a pre-SWOT climate data record of world's rivers greater than 900m in width. The project is a component of a NASA MEaSUREs (Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments) project undertaken by UCLA, Princeton U., NASA/GSFC and Ohio State Univ. The first method developed allows for the identification of measurements that represent the target river through height filtering and is based on USGS flow data from 105 gauges on rivers with watersheds over 20,000 km2. Proximal topographic variations led to some contamination of the radar returns. We were able to identify them using the previously mentioned height filter, and correlated their frequency with near-river topographic indices. Significant efforts have also been made to detect river ice using only radar backscatter. Over 631 Landsat images were processed and given an ice cover designation then compared with measured backscatter profiles; demonstrating that isolating a one- to-one relationship between ice and backscatter will be challenging. An additional focus of the group has been automation of detecting altimeter/river intersections as well as the creation of "virtual stations" or masks for data extraction at those locations. Using RivWidth parameters to generate polygons and a raster proximity based intersection detection methods have both shown promising results for automation of this process. This project will soon be producing validated climate data records in the form of geocentric river height changes, both in terms of scale of the study area and access to previously unmonitored regions. Once established, these methods will also be applicable to the study of future satellite cycles. Preliminary river height change data products have been produced for the Mississippi, St Lawrence, Yukon, Mackenzie, and part of the Ganges

  1. Microbial screening for quinolones residues in cow milk by bio-optical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appicciafuoco, Brunella; Dragone, Roberto; Frazzoli, Chiara; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Alberto; Ferrini, Anna Maria

    2015-03-15

    The use of antibiotics on lactating cows should be monitored for the possible risk of milk contamination with residues. Accordingly, Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are established by the European Commission to guarantee consumers safety. As pointed out by Dec 2002/657/EC, screening is the first step in the strategy for antibiotic residue control, thus playing a key role in the whole control procedure. However, current routine screening methods applied in milk chain still fail to detect residues of quinolones at concentrations of interest. This paper reports the findings of a new bio-optical method for the screening of quinolones residues in bovine milk, based on E. coli ATCC 11303 growth inhibition. The effect of blank and spiked cow milk samples (aliquots equivalents to 0.8%, v/v) is evaluated in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHb) and MHb enriched with MgSO4 2% (MHb-Mg) inoculated with the test strain at the concentration of 10(4)CFU/mL. The presence of quinolones inhibits the cellular growth in MHb, while this effect is neutralized in MHb-Mg allowing both detection and presumptive identification of quinolones. Growth of the test strain is monitored at 37 °C in a Bioscreen C automated system, and Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm is recorded every 10 min after shaking for 10s. Growth curves (OD vs. time) of E. coli ATCC 11303 are assessed in milk samples, with and without quinolones, and their differences in terms of ΔOD (ΔOD600nm=ODMHb-Mg-ODMHb) are calculated. The presence of quinolones is detected by the cellular growth inhibition (OD vs time, none increase in the value OD) and presumptively identified through the increase of the slope of ΔOD600nm curve (ΔOD vs. time), after about 3h of incubation. The detection limit for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin is at the level of MRL, for marbofloxacin is at 2-fold the MRL whereas for danofloxacin is at 4-fold the MRL. Although the sensitivity of the method could be further improved and the procedure automated, it is a

  2. Powered by DFT: Screening methods that accelerate materials development for hydrogen in metals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kelly M; Chandrasekhar, Nita; Sholl, David S

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Not only is hydrogen critical for current chemical and refining processes, it is also projected to be an important energy carrier for future green energy systems such as fuel cell vehicles. Scientists have examined light metal hydrides for this purpose, which need to have both good thermodynamic properties and fast charging/discharging kinetics. The properties of hydrogen in metals are also important in the development of membranes for hydrogen purification. In this Account, we highlight our recent work aimed at the large scale screening of metal-based systems with either favorable hydrogen capacities and thermodynamics for hydrogen storage in metal hydrides for use in onboard fuel cell vehicles or promising hydrogen permeabilities relative to pure Pd for hydrogen separation from high temperature mixed gas streams using dense metal membranes. Previously, chemists have found that the metal hydrides need to hit a stability sweet spot: if the compound is too stable, it will not release enough hydrogen under low temperatures; if the compound is too unstable, the reaction may not be reversible under practical conditions. Fortunately, we can use DFT-based methods to assess this stability via prediction of thermodynamic properties, equilibrium reaction pathways, and phase diagrams for candidate metal hydride systems with reasonable accuracy using only proposed crystal structures and compositions as inputs. We have efficiently screened millions of mixtures of pure metals, metal hydrides, and alloys to identify promising reaction schemes via the grand canonical linear programming method. Pure Pd and Pd-based membranes have ideal hydrogen selectivities over other gases but suffer shortcomings such as sensitivity to sulfur poisoning and hydrogen embrittlement. Using a combination of detailed DFT, Monte Carlo techniques, and simplified models, we are able to accurately predict hydrogen permeabilities of metal membranes and screen large libraries of candidate alloys

  3. Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to investigate about female knowledge of breast cancer and self-reported practice of breast self-examination in Iran. Methods This was a population-based survey carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on demographic status, history of personal and family breast problems, subjective knowledge about breast cancer covering its symptoms, the screening methods and practice of breast self-examination (BSE. A trained female nurse interviewed each respondent. Analysis included descriptive statistics and the Chi-squared test where necessary. Results A total of 1402 women were interviewed. The mean age of respondents was 43.4 (SD = 14.4 years; most were married (85%, and without any personal (94% and family history (90% of breast problems. It was found that 64% of the respondents were familiar with breast cancer and 61% (n = 851 believed that 'the disease is relatively common among women in Iran'. Most women (44% perceived a painless mass as a breast cancer symptom. Overall, 61% of the respondents stated that they knew about breast cancer screening programs and most indicated that electronic media (television 34% and radio 14% were their source of information. Only 17% of women said that 'they were conducting regular breast self-examination'. The main reason for women not doing breast self-examination was due to the fact that they did not know how to do it (64%. The findings indicated that performing breast self-examination is significantly related to: age, marital status, education, knowledge of breast cancer and knowledge about breast cancer screening programs (p Conclusion This descriptive study provides useful information that could be utilized by both researchers and those involved in public health programmes. The findings indicated that the women awareness of breast cancer warning signs

  4. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgari E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Evgenia Gourgari,1 Elias Spanakis,2 Adrian Sandra Dobs3 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR, obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have. Keywords: IR, OGTT, obesity, hyperandrogenism, anovulation, BMI, insulin resistance, PCOS

  5. Chronic kidney disease screening methods and its implication for Malaysia: an in depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almualm, Yasmin; Zaman Huri, Hasniza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR 60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Laurie W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5% were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%. In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%. Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  7. Review:Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; RAMAN Harsh; ZHANG Guo-ping; MENDHAM Neville; ZHOU Mei-xue

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley.

  8. Screening and confirmatory method for benzodiazepines and hypnotics in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Concheiro, Marta; Cirimele, Vincent

    2005-06-10

    A procedure is presented for the screening of 17 benzodiazepines and hypnotics in oral fluid after collection with the Intercept(R) device by LC-MS/MS (alprazolam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, bromazepam, clobazam, diazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem). The method involves extraction of 0.5 mL of oral fluid (previously stored in the Intercept blue buffer) treated with 0.5 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 8.4) in the presence of 5 ng diazepam-d(5) used as internal standard, with 3 mL of diethyl ether/methylene chloride (50/50) and separation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of quantification for all benzodiazepines and hypnotics range from 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL. Linearity is observed from the limit of quantification of each compound to 20 ng/mL (r(2)>0.99). Coefficients of variation at 2 ng/mL, measured on 6 points range from 4 to 8% for all drugs, except zopiclone (34%). Extraction recovery, measured at the same concentration was higher than 90%. Ion suppression was evaluated for each compound and was lower than 10% for all drugs except zopiclone (93%). These results were found suitable to screen for 17 benzodiazepines in oral fluid and detect them at very low concentrations, making this method suitable for monitoring subjects under the influence.

  9. A choice-based screening method for compulsive drug users in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Augier, Eric; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-07-01

    We describe a protocol for screening compulsive drug users among cocaine self-administering rats, the most frequently used animal model in addiction research. Rats are first trained on several alternating days to self-administer either cocaine (i.v.) or saccharin-sweetened water (by mouth)--a potent, albeit nonessential, nondrug reward. Then rats are allowed to choose between the two rewards over several days until the preference stabilizes. Most rats choose to stop using cocaine and pursue the alternative reward. Only a minority of Wistar strain rats (generally 15%) persist in taking the drug, regardless of the severity of past cocaine use and even when made hungry and offered the possibility to relieve their physiological need. Persistence of cocaine use in the face of a high-stakes choice is a core defining feature of compulsion. This choice-based screening method for compulsive drug users is easy to implement, has several important applications, and compares well with other methods in the field.

  10. Prospective memory tasks: a more sensitive method for screening cognitive impairment in ALS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive change is prevalent in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but still lack a widely accepted and sensitive screening method. In this study, we try to find a sensitive screening battery for detecting subtle cognitive deficits in patients with ALS. Methods Eighty consecutive ALS patients and 57 matched normal controls underwent the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, the verbal fluency test (VFT, the Stroop Color Word Interference Test (CWT, and the prospective memory (PM tests, including event-based (EBPM and time-based (TBPM. Results The patients did not differ from the controls in the MMSE, the VFT and the CWT. By contrast, statistically significant differences were found in the PM tests (EBPM: P=0.043; TBPM: P Conclusions Prefrontal lobar dysfunction does exist among ALS patients and may spread from the medial to the lateral region. The PM tests seem more sensitive in ALS patients with frontotemporal dysfunction than are the classical cognitive measures.

  11. [Contamination level of aflatoxin B1 in lotus seeds rapid screening by indirect competitive ELISA method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xian-feng; Dou, Xiao-wen; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and cost-effective indirect competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed to rapidly screen the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in lotus seeds, and the results were confirmed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( UFLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibration expressed a good linearity ranging from 0. 171 to 7. 25 µg · L(-1) for AFB, with R2 > 0.978. The medium inhibitory concentration( IC50 ) for AFB1 was 1.29 µg · L(-1), the recovery for AFB1 was 74.73% to 126.9% with RSD lotus seeds samples and the results indicated that the contents of AFB, in samples 1-15 were in the range of 1. 19- 115. 3 µg · kg(-1) and in 40% of the samples exceeded the legal limit(5 µg · kg(-1)), while the contamination rate of AFB, in samples 16-20 was 40%. Pearson correlation coefficient(r) reached 0.997 for AFB1 content in the samples detected by ic-ELSIA and UFLC-MS/MS methods. The results proved that the developed ic-ELISA method is simple, sensitive and reliable, and can be used for rapid and high-throughput screening of AFB1 in lotus seeds

  12. Toward the discovery of functional transthyretin amyloid inhibitors: application of virtual screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carlos J V; Mukherjee, Trishna; Brito, Rui M M; Jackson, Richard M

    2010-10-25

    Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by stabilization of the native form of the protein transthyretin (TTR) is a viable approach for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy that has been gaining momentum in the field of amyloid research. The TTR stabilizer molecules discovered to date have shown efficacy at inhibiting fibrilization in vitro but display impairing issues of solubility, affinity for TTR in the blood plasma and/or adverse effects. In this study we present a benchmark of four protein- and ligand-based virtual screening (VS) methods for identifying novel TTR stabilizers: (i) two-dimensional (2D) similarity searches with chemical hashed, pharmacophore, and UNITY fingerprints, (ii) 3D searches based on shape, chemical, and electrostatic similarity, (iii) LigMatch, a new ligand-based method which uses multiple templates and combines 3D geometric hashing with a 2D preselection process, and (iv) molecular docking to consensus X-ray crystal structures of TTR. We illustrate the potential of the best-performing VS protocols to retrieve promising new leads by ranking a tailored library of 2.3 million commercially available compounds. Our predictions show that the top-scoring molecules possess distinctive features from the known TTR binders, holding better solubility, fraction of halogen atoms, and binding affinity profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to rationalize the utilization of a large battery of in silico screening techniques toward the identification of a new generation of TTR amyloid inhibitors.

  13. A screening method for prioritizing non-target invertebrates for improved biosafety testing of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jacqui H; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Barraclough, Emma I; Malone, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a screening method that can be used during the problem formulation phase of risk assessment to identify and prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk analysis with any transgenic plant. In previously published protocols for this task, five criteria predominated. These criteria have been combined by our method in a simple model which assesses: (1) the possible level of risk presented by the plant to each invertebrate species (through measurements of potential hazard and exposure, the two principal criteria); (2) the hypothetical environmental impact of this risk (determined by the currently known status of the species' population in the ecosystem and its potential resilience to environmental perturbations); (3) the estimated economic, social and cultural value of each species; and (4) the assessed ability to conduct tests with the species. The screening method uses information on each of these criteria entered into a specially designed database that was developed using Microsoft Access 2003. The database holds biological and ecological information for each non-target species, as well as information about the transgenic plant that is the subject of the risk assessment procedure. Each piece of information is then ranked on the basis of the value of the information to each criterion being measured. This ranking system is flexible, allowing the method to be easily adapted for use in any agro-ecosystem and with any plant modification. A model is then used to produce a Priority Ranking of Non-Target Invertebrates (PRONTI) score for each species, which in turn allows the species to be prioritized for risk assessment. As an example, the method was used to prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk assessment of a hypothetical introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac-expressing Pinus radiata trees into New Zealand.

  14. Pharmacy diabetes care program: analysis of two screening methods for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, I; Mitchell, B; Clarke, P; Brillant, M; Dienaar, R; Hughes, J; Lau, P; Peterson, G; Stewart, K; Taylor, S; Wilkinson, J; Armour, C

    2007-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy. A random sample of 30 pharmacies were allocated into two groups: (i) tick test only (TTO); or (ii) sequential screening (SS) method. Both methods used the same initial risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with one or more risk factors in the TTO group were offered a referral to their general practitioner (GP). Under the SS method, patients with risk factors were offered a capillary blood glucose test and those identified as being at risk referred to a GP. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these approaches was assessed. A total of 1286 people were screened over a period of 3 months. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes was significantly higher for SS compared with the TTO method (1.7% versus 0.2%; p=0.008). The SS method resulted in fewer referrals to the GP and a higher uptake of referrals than the TTO method and so was the more cost-effective screening method. SS is the superior method from a cost and efficacy perspective. It should be considered as the preferred option for screening by community based pharmacists in Australia.

  15. A new method for the calculation of Sommerfeld screening parameter 1 in x-ray spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U D Misra; S Chaturvedi

    2001-06-01

    The paper describes a new method for the calculation of the Sommerfeld screening parameter 1. It requires neither the knowledge of the energy separations of spin doublet levels nor is it based on the application of the Hertz law. The only data required for the calculation are the experimental energy values of the level concerned for the series of elements belonging to the same subshell in which the element in the question is situated. As an illustration the values of 1 are calculated for the 1, 2 and 3 levels for elements belonging to the 4 subshell and these are found to be in excellent agreement with those published earlier by Gokhale and Misra. The method brings out the constancy of 1(23)-1(1) in a natural way and may thus be regarded as providing theoretical explanation of the Hertz law.

  16. Using pre-screening methods for an effective and reliable site characterization at megasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Kalisz, Mariusz; Stalder, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness of prescreeningmethods for an effective characterization of pollutedsites. We applied a sequence of site characterization methodsto a former Soviet military airbase with likely fuel and benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contaminationin shallow...... groundwater and subsoil. The methods were (i)phytoscreening with tree cores; (ii) soil gas measurements forCH4, O2, and photoionization detector (PID); (iii) direct-pushwith membrane interface probe (MIP) and laser-induced fluorescence(LIF) sensors; (iv) direct-push sampling; and (v)sampling from soil...... and from groundwater monitoring wells.Phytoscreening and soil gas measurements are rapid and inexpensivepre-screening methods. Both indicated subsurfacepollution and hot spots successfully. The direct-push sensorsyielded 3D information about the extension and the volume ofthe subsurface plume. This study...

  17. A rapid screening method for heavy metals in biological materials by emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, E C; Sadler, P A

    1981-06-02

    A semi-quantitative screening method for heavy metals in biological material is described. The metals are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and potassium sodium tartrate. The solutions are adjusted to pH 4 and then extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase is evaporated onto a matrix mixture of lithium fluoride and graphite. The sample is analysed by direct current arc emission spectroscopy using a 3 metre grating spectrograph. The spectra are recorded on a photographic plate. The method is developed on aqueous and spiked samples and then applied to in vivo samples containing toxic levels of heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to check standard concentrations and to monitor the efficiency of the extraction procedure.

  18. SPLICEFINDER - a fast and easy screening method for active protein trans-splicing positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Zettler

    Full Text Available Split intein enabled protein trans-splicing (PTS is a powerful method for the ligation of two protein fragments, thereby paving the way for various protein modification or protein function control applications. PTS activity is strongly influenced by the amino acids directly flanking the splice junctions. However, to date no reliable prediction can be made whether or not a split intein is active in a particular foreign extein context. Here we describe SPLICEFINDER, a PCR-based method, allowing fast and easy screening for active split intein insertions in any target protein. Furthermore we demonstrate the applicability of SPLICEFINDER for segmental isotopic labeling as well as for the generation of multi-domain and enzymatically active proteins.

  19. A method for rapidly screening functionality of actin mutants and tagged actins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommelaere Heidi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore have developed a method to rapidly screen the folding capacity and functionality of actin variants, by combining in vitro expression of labelled actin with analysis on native gels, band shift assays or copolymerization tests. Additionally, we monitor, using immuno-fluorescence, incorporation of actin variants in cytoskeletal structures in transfected cells. We illustrate the method by two examples. In one we show that tagged versions of actin do not always behave native-like and in the other we study some of the molecular defects of three &bgr;-actin mutants that have been associated with diseases.

  20. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  1. Methods on Identification and Screening of Rice Genotypes with High Nitrogen Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-feng; JIANG Han-yan; LIU Yi-bai; DAI Ting-bo; CAO Wei-xing

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish methods for indentification and screening of rice genotypes with high nitrogen (N) efficiency,N absorption efficiency (NAE),N utilization efficiency (NUE) and N harvest index (NHI) in ten rice genotypes were investgated at the elongation,booting,heading and maturity stages under six N levels in a pot experiment with soil-sand mixtures at various ratios.NAE in various rice genotypes firstly increased,peaked under a medium nitrogen rate of 0.177 g/kg and then decreased,but NUE and NHI always decreased with increasing nitrogen levels.NAE in various rice genotypes ever increased with growing process and NUE indicated a descending tendency of elongation stage>heading stage>maturity stage>booting stage.N level influenced rice NAE,NUE and NHI most,followed by genotype,and the both effects were significant at 0.01 level.In addition,the interaction effects of genotype and nitrogen level on rice NAE and NUE were significant at 0.01 level,but not significant on rice NHI.Because the maximum differences of NAE and NUE were found at the elongation stage,it was thought to be the most suitable stage for identification and screening these two paremeters.Therefore,the optimum conditions for identification and screening of rice NAE,NUE and NHI in a pot experiment were the nitrogen rate of 0.157 g/kg at the elongation stage,low nitrogen at the elongation stage,and the nitrogen rate of 0.277 g/kg at the maturity stage,respectively.

  2. A simple and versatile cloud-screening method for MAX-DOAS retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gielen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a cloud-screening method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements, more specifically using zenith sky spectra and O4 differential slant-column densities (DSCDs. Using the colour index (CI, i.e. the ratio of the radiance at two wavelengths, we define different sky conditions including clear, thin clouds/polluted, fully-cloudy, and heavily polluted. We also flag the presence of broken and scattered clouds. The O4 absorption is a good tracer for cloud-induced light-path changes and is used to detect clouds and discriminate between instances of high aerosol optical depth (AOD and high cloud optical depth (COD. We apply our cloud screening to MAX-DOAS (multi-axis DOAS retrievals at three different sites with different typical meteorological conditions, more specifically suburban Beijing (39.75° N, 116.96° E, Brussels (50.78° N, 4.35° E and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E. We find that our cloud screening performs well characterizing the different sky conditions. The flags based on the colour index are able to detect changes in visibility due to aerosols and/or (scattered clouds. The O4-based multiple-scattering flag is able to detect optically thick clouds, and is needed to correctly identify clouds for sites with extreme aerosol pollution. Removing data taken under cloudy conditions results in a better agreement, in both correlation and slope, between the AOD retrievals and measurements from other co-located instruments.

  3. DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2016-11-10

    Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Results Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemann–Pick type C disease. Conclusion We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between existing

  4. Which screening method is appropriate for older cancer patients at risk for malnutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenring, Elizabeth; Elia, Marinos

    2015-04-01

    The risk for malnutrition increases with age and presence of cancer, and it is particularly common in older cancer patients. A range of simple and validated nutrition screening tools can be used to identify malnutrition risk in cancer patients (e.g., Malnutrition Screening Tool, Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form Revised, Nutrition Risk Screening, and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool). Unintentional weight loss and current body mass index are common components of screening tools. Patients with cancer should be screened at diagnosis, on admission to hospitals or care homes, and during follow-up at outpatient or general practitioner clinics, at regular intervals depending on clinical status. Nutritional assessment is a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, anthropometrics, and physical examination often conducted by dietitians or geriatricians after simple screening has identified at-risk patients. The result of nutritional screening, assessment and the associated care plans should be documented, and communicated, within and between care settings for best patient outcomes.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  6. To determine the eficacy of DIPSI as a method to screen GDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi K.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Our study supports the concept of universal screening and the use of DIPSI recommended 75g OGCT for screening and diagnosis of GDM. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4193-4195

  7. Eliciting women’s cervical screening preferences: a mixed methods systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Brianne; Van Katwyk, Susan Rogers; El-Khatib, Ziad; McFaul, Susan; Taljaard, Monica; Wright, Erica; Graham, Ian D.; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background With the accumulation of evidence regarding potential harms of cancer screening in recent years, researchers, policy-makers, and the public are becoming more critical of population-based cancer screening. Consequently, a high-quality cancer screening program should consider individuals’ values and preferences when determining recommendations. In cervical cancer screening, offering women autonomy is considered a “person-centered” approach to health care services; however, it may imp...

  8. RADAR: A novel fast-screening method for reading difficulties with special focus on dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Ioannis; Andreadakis, Vassilios; Selimis, Vassilios; Kalaitzakis, Michail; Bachourou, Theodora; Kaloutsakis, Georgios; Kymionis, George D; Smirnakis, Stelios; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words. It is an open question whether it is possible to harness these distinctive oculomotor scanning patterns observed during reading in order to develop a screening tool that can reliably identify struggling readers, who may be candidates for dyslexia. Here, we introduce a novel, fast, objective, non-invasive method, named Rapid Assessment of Difficulties and Abnormalities in Reading (RADAR) that screens for features associated with the aberrant visual scanning of reading text seen in dyslexia. Eye tracking parameter measurements that are stable under retest and have high discriminative power, as indicated by their ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, were obtained during silent text reading. These parameters were combined to derive a total reading score (TRS) that can reliably separate readers with dyslexia from typical readers. We tested TRS in a group of school-age children ranging from 8.5 to 12.5 years of age. TRS achieved 94.2% correct classification of children tested. Specifically, 35 out of 37 control (specificity 94.6%) and 30 out of 32 readers with dyslexia (sensitivity 93.8%) were classified correctly using RADAR, under a circular validation condition (see section Results/Total Reading Score) where the individual evaluated was not included in the test construction group. In conclusion, RADAR is a novel

  9. An end-point method based on graphene oxide for RNase H analysis and inhibitors screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Fan, Jialong; Peng, Lan; Zhao, Lijian; Tong, Chunyi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    As a highly conserved damage repair protein, RNase H can hydrolysis DNA-RNA heteroduplex endonucleolytically and cleave RNA-DNA junctions as well. In this study, we have developed an accurate and sensitive RNase H assay based on fluorophore-labeled chimeric substrate hydrolysis and the differential affinity of graphene oxide on RNA strand with different length. This end-point measurement method can detect RNase H in a range of 0.01 to 1 units /mL with a detection limit of 5.0×10(-3) units/ mL under optimal conditions. We demonstrate the utility of the assay by screening antibiotics, resulting in the identification of gentamycin, streptomycin and kanamycin as inhibitors with IC50 of 60±5µM, 70±8µM and 300±20µM, respectively. Furthermore, the assay was reliably used to detect RNase H in complicated biosamples and found that RNase H activity in tumor cells was inhibited by gentamycin and streptomycin sulfate in a concentration-dependent manner. The average level of RNase H in serums of HBV infection group was similar to that of control group. In summary, the assay provides an alternative tool for biochemical analysis for this enzyme and indicates the feasibility of high throughput screening inhibitors of RNase H in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified methods for screening cowpea cultivars for manganese leaf-tissue tolerance. [Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemeier, A.H.; Horst, W.J. (Univ. of Hannover (West Germany))

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) dark brown speckles on old leaves are typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and indicate Mn sensitivity of leaf tissue. Induction and subsequent quantification of brown Mn speckles in leaf tissues were used to screen cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance using three different techniques: (i) leaf cuttings cultured for 22 days in solution culture with 20 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}, (ii) leaf rings mounted on leaves of intact plants and filled with 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4} for 5 days, and (iii) leaf disks floated for 3 days on 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}. Density of brown speckles differed considerably among the six cultivars tested, and was not related to the Mn concentrations of the leaf tissues. There were close relationships between genotypic Mn-toxicity symptom expression and depression of dry matter production of the cultivars at high Mn supply in a long-term sand culture experiment. The floating leaf-disk method is particularly suited for screening large numbers of cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance because it requires only 3 days. The ranking of the cultivars for Mn tolerance was highly correlated to Mn tolerance of intact plants.

  11. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  12. Accuracy analysis of the Null-Screen method for the evaluation of flat heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Xochihuila, P.; Huerta-Carranza, O.; Díaz-Uribe, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we develop an algorithm to determinate the accuracy of the Null-Screen Method, used for the testing of flat heliostats used as solar concentrators in a central tower configuration. We simulate the image obtained on a CCD camera when an orderly distribution of points are displayed on a Null-Screen perpendicular to the heliostat under test. The deformations present in the heliostat are represented as a cosine function of the position with different periods and amplitudes. As a resolution criterion, a deformation on the mirror can be detected when the differences in position between the spots on the image plane for the deformed surface as compared with those obtained for an ideally flat heliostat are equal to one pixel. For 6.4μm pixel size and 18mm focal length, the minimum deformation we can measure in the heliostat, correspond to amplitude equal a 122μm for a period equal to 1m; this is equivalent to 0.8mrad in slope. This result depends on the particular configuration used during the test and the size of the heliostat.

  13. Screening and confirmatory methods for the analysis of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins by CE with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Téllez, Helena; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel; Chicharro, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    A simple analytical scheme for the screening and quantification of zearalenone and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol, is reported. Extracts from maize flour samples were collected by supercritical fluid extraction and afterwards, they were analyzed by CE with amperometric detection. This scheme allowed a rapid and reliable identification of contaminated flour samples according to the reference value established for zearalenone by directive 2005/38/EC (200 microg/kg). The sample screening method was carried out by CZE using 25 mM borate separation buffer at pH 9.2 and 25.0 kV as separation voltage, monitoring the amperometric signal at +700 mV with a carbon paste electrode. In this way, total amount of mycotoxins was determined and samples were processed in 4 min with a detection limit of 12 microg/L, enough to discriminate between positive (more than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins) and negative samples (less than 200 microg/L total mycotoxins). Positive samples were then subjected to CZE separation and quantification of each analyte was done with 50 mM borate running buffer modified with 30% methanol at pH 9.7 and 17.5 kV as separation voltage. Under these conditions, separation was achieved in 15 min with detection limits from 20 to 35 microg/L for each analyte.

  14. Development and evaluation of an improved method for screening of amphetamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindelman, J; Mahal, J; Hemphill, G; Pizzo, P; Coty, W A

    1999-10-01

    We developed a homogeneous immunoassay method to eliminate false-positive amphetamine results caused by cross-reactive substances, including over-the-counter allergy and cold medications. This method uses a neutralizing antibody that binds to amphetamines but does not bind to the labeled amphetamine conjugate used in the assay. The amount of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to reduce the assay signal resulting from authentic amphetamine and methamphetamine, but not the signal resulting from cross-reactants. This concept was implemented using the CEDIA DAU Amphetamines assay on Hitachi 747 and 717 clinical chemistry analyzers. Urine samples were tested using the standard, unmodified reagents in one channel and reagents containing the neutralizing antibody in a second channel. The difference in rate between the two tests was calculated by the analyzer; true-positive samples showed a significantly greater decrease in assay signal in response to neutralizing antibody as compared with false-positive samples. The neutralization method was evaluated in two studies using 448 samples that tested positive in the initial CEDIA DAU Amphetamines screening test. The samples were separated into categories of 154 true-positive samples and 294 false-positive samples based upon a secondary screen with the Abbott FPIA Amphetamines assay followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) testing using the HHS (SAMHSA) cutoff criteria. The CEDIA neutralization test successfully identified all 154 of the GC-MS confirmed positive samples. The test successfully identified as false positive 251 out of the 294 (85.4%) samples that failed to confirm by GC-MS.

  15. Initial periodontal screening and radiographic findings - A comparison of two methods to evaluate the periodontal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornecker Else

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodontal screening index (PSI is an element of the initial dental examination. The PSI provides information on the periodontal situation and allows a first estimation of the treatment required. The dental panoramic tomography (DPT indicates the proximal bone loss, thus also allowing conclusions on the periodontal situation. In this study, the results of both methods in determining the periodontal situation are compared. Methods The clinical examination covered DMF-T, QHI, and PSI scores at four proximal sites per tooth; the examining dentist was unaware of the radiographic finding. Based on the PSI scores, the findings were diagnosed as follows: score 0 - 2 "no periodontitis", score 3 and 4 "periodontitis". Independent of the locality and time of the clinical evaluation, two dentists examined the DPTs of the subjects. The results were classified as follows: no bone loss = "no periodontitis", and bone loss = "periodontitis". Results 112 male subjects (age 18 to 58, Ø 37.7 ± 8 years were examined. Regarding the PSI, 17 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 95 subjects "periodontitis". According to the evaluation of the DPTs, 70 subjects were diagnosed "no periodontitis" and 42 "periodontitis". A comparison of both methods revealed that the diagnosis "no periodontitis" corresponded in 17 cases and "periodontitis" in 42 cases (53%. In 47% (53 cases the results were not congruent. The difference between both methods was statistically significant (p Conclusion The present study shows that the initial assessment of the periodontal situation significantly depends on the method of evaluation.

  16. Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States). Medical Sciences Div.

    1994-10-01

    The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.

  17. The Trial of Drug Discovery using the In-Silico Screening Methods Developed by Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Nakanishi, Isao; Okuno, Yasushi; Minakata, Satoshi; Mikami, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masato; Fukuoka, Yoshitada; Takada, Toshikazu; Sakata, Tsuneaki

    We have recently established Pharmaceutical Innovation Value Chain collaborated by The SOSHO project (http://www.so-sho.jp) and The BioGrid Project (http://www.biogrid.jp/) to accelerate new drug development. The in-silico group calculated the matrices on the interaction between the proteins and chemical compounds, and developed the novel in-silico screening methods, Multiple Target Screening (MTS) and Docking score index (DSI), improving the hit rate of screening a lead compound. We have applied these methods for the two target enzymes; human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) and orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase from human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum (PfOMPDC). The optimizing of HQL-79, one of the known inhibitors for human H-PGDS and the screening of lead compounds for both enzymes are in study.

  18. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness: best practice and current limitations of the screening method and their implications for the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laëtitia; Blanchon, Thierry; Souty, Cecile; Turbelin, Clement; Leccia, Frederic; Varesi, Laurent; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Is there a role for the screening method in estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE)? The answer is yes, but the simplicity of the method used has raised concerns about its validity, and several cautions should be noted. The screening method provides an approximation of influenza VE by comparing the proportion of cases vaccinated (PCV) with the proportion of persons vaccinated (PPV) in the general population. This method has an important disadvantage: VE estimation could be inaccurate if the values for PCV and PPV are drawn from different populations, but it has an important strength, compared with other observational studies, in providing an early indication of VE in the field. Thus, when an infrastructure, such as routine surveillance, is in place to collect robust PCV values, and PPV can be obtained from routine vaccine uptake monitoring systems, the screening method can provide early estimates of influenza VE in target groups.

  20. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence as a screening method for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Mertik, M; Turk, Z

    2009-01-01

    This study further evaluated a computer-based infrared thermography (IRT) system, which employs artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) using a large database of 502 thermal images of the dorsal and palmar side of 132 healthy and 119 pathological hands. It confirmed the hypothesis that the dorsal side of the hand is of greater importance than the palmar side when diagnosing CTS thermographically. Using this method it was possible correctly to classify 72.2% of all hands (healthy and pathological) based on dorsal images and > 80% of hands when only severely affected and healthy hands were considered. Compared with the gold standard electromyographic diagnosis of CTS, IRT cannot be recommended as an adequate diagnostic tool when exact severity level diagnosis is required, however we conclude that IRT could be used as a screening tool for severe cases in populations with high ergonomic risk factors of CTS.

  1. A new screening method for flunitrazepam in vodka and tequila by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesakul, Nararak; Pongampai, Sirintip; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Sudkeaw, Pravit; Tantirungrotechai, Yuthana; Buranachai, Chittanon

    2013-01-01

    A new screening method for flunitrazepam in colourless alcoholic beverages based on a spectroscopic technique is proposed. Absorption and steady-state fluorescence of flunitrazepam and its protonated form with various acids were investigated. The redshift of the wavelength of maximum absorption was distinctively observed in protonated flunitrazepam. An emissive fluorescence at 472 nm was detected in colourless spirits (vodka and tequila) at room temperature. 2-M perchloric acid was the most appropriated proton source. By using electron ionization mass spectrometry and time-dependent density functional theory calculations, the possible structure of protonated flunitrazepam was identified to be 2-nitro-N-methylacridone, an acridone derivative as opposed to 2-methylamino-5-nitro-2'-fluorobenzophenone, a benzophenone derivative.

  2. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Jacky A; Bern, Amy M; Willis, Robert D; Blanchard, Fredrick T; Conner, Teri L; Kahn, Henry D; Friedman, David

    2008-02-15

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation.

  3. Fluorometric method for inorganic pyrophosphatase activity detection and inhibitor screening based on click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kefeng; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Ou; Wu, Xiaoping; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2015-01-06

    A fluorometric method for pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity detection was developed based on click chemistry. Cu(II) can coordinate with pyrophosphate (PPi), the addition of pyrophosphatase (PPase) into the above system can destroy the coordinate compound because PPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of PPi into inorganic phosphate and produces free Cu(II), and free Cu(II) can be reduced by sodium ascorbate (SA) to form Cu(I), which in turn initiates the ligating reaction between nonfluorescent 3-azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes to produce a highly fluorescent triazole complex, based on which, a simple and sensitive turn on fluorometric method for PPase can be developed. The fluorescence intensity of the system has a linear relationship with the logarithm of the PPase concentration in the range of 0.5 and 10 mU with a detection limit down to 0.2 mU (S/N = 3). This method is cost-effective and convenient without any labels or complicated operations. The proposed system was applied to screen the potential PPase inhibitor with high efficiency. The proposed method can be applied to diagnosis of PPase-related diseases.

  4. Proteomic screening method for phosphopeptide motif binding proteins using peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofk, Heather R; Wu, Ning; Cantley, Lewis C; Asara, John M

    2011-09-02

    Phosphopeptide binding domains mediate the directed and localized assembly of protein complexes essential to intracellular kinase signaling. To identify phosphopeptide binding proteins, we developed a proteomic screening method using immobilized partially degenerate phosphopeptide mixtures combined with SILAC and microcapillary LC-MS/MS. The method was used to identify proteins that specifically bound to phosphorylated peptide library affinity matrices, including pTyr, and the motifs pSer/pThr-Pro, pSer/pThr-X-X-X-pSer/pThr, pSer/pThr-Glu/Asp, or pSer/pThr-pSer/pThr in degenerate sequence contexts. Heavy and light SILAC lysates were applied to columns containing these phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated (control) peptide libraries respectively, and bound proteins were eluted, combined, digested, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a hybrid quadrupole-TOF mass spectrometer. Heavy/light peptide ion ratios were calculated, and peptides that yielded ratios greater than ∼3:1 were considered as being from potential phosphopeptide binding proteins since this ratio represents the lowest ratio from a known positive control. Many of those identified were known phosphopeptide-binding proteins, including the SH2 domain containing p85 subunit of PI3K bound to pTyr, 14-3-3 bound to pSer/pThr-Asp/Glu, polo-box domain containing PLK1 and Pin1 bound to pSer/pThr-Pro, and pyruvate kinase M2 binding to pTyr. Approximately half of the hits identified by the peptide library screens were novel. Protein domain enrichment analysis revealed that most pTyr hits contain SH2 domains, as expected, and to a lesser extent SH3, C1, STAT, Tyr phosphatase, Pkinase, C2, and PH domains; however, pSer/pThr motifs did not reveal enriched domains across hits.

  5. SUDOSCAN: A Simple, Rapid, and Objective Method with Potential for Screening for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Selvarajah

    Full Text Available Clinical methods of detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN are not objective and reproducible. We therefore evaluated if SUDOSCAN, a new method developed to provide a quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of sudomotor function can reliably screen for DPN. 70 subjects (45 with type 1 diabetes and 25 healthy volunteers [HV] underwent detailed assessments including clinical, neurophysiological and 5 standard cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs. Using the American Academy of Neurology criteria subjects were classified into DPN and No-DPN groups. Based on CARTs subjects were also divided into CAN, subclinical-CAN and no-CAN. Sudomotor function was assessed with measurement of hand and foot Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC and calculation of the CAN risk score. Foot ESC (μS was significantly lower in subjects with DPN [n = 24; 53.5(25.1] compared to the No-DPN [77.0(7.9] and HV [77.1(14.3] groups (ANCOVA p<0.001. Sensitivity and specificity of foot ESC for classifying DPN were 87.5% and 76.2%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC was 0.85. Subjects with CAN had significantly lower foot [55.0(28.2] and hand [53.5(19.6] ESC compared to No-CAN [foot ESC, 72.1(12.2; hand ESC 64.9(14.4] and HV groups (ANCOVA p<0.001 and 0.001, respectively. ROC analysis of CAN risk score to correctly classify CAN revealed a sensitivity of 65.0% and specificity of 80.0%. AUC was 0.75. Both foot and hand ESC demonstrated strong correlation with individual parameters and composite scores of nerve conduction and CAN. SUDOSCAN, a non-invasive and quick test, could be used as an objective screening test for DPN in busy diabetic clinics, insuring adherence to current recommendation of annual assessments for all diabetic patients that remains unfulfilled.

  6. SUDOSCAN: A Simple, Rapid, and Objective Method with Potential for Screening for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Cash, Tom; Davies, Jennifer; Sankar, Adithya; Rao, Ganesh; Grieg, Marni; Pallai, Shillo; Gandhi, Rajiv; Wilkinson, Iain D; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical methods of detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are not objective and reproducible. We therefore evaluated if SUDOSCAN, a new method developed to provide a quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of sudomotor function can reliably screen for DPN. 70 subjects (45 with type 1 diabetes and 25 healthy volunteers [HV]) underwent detailed assessments including clinical, neurophysiological and 5 standard cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs). Using the American Academy of Neurology criteria subjects were classified into DPN and No-DPN groups. Based on CARTs subjects were also divided into CAN, subclinical-CAN and no-CAN. Sudomotor function was assessed with measurement of hand and foot Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC) and calculation of the CAN risk score. Foot ESC (μS) was significantly lower in subjects with DPN [n = 24; 53.5(25.1)] compared to the No-DPN [77.0(7.9)] and HV [77.1(14.3)] groups (ANCOVA p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of foot ESC for classifying DPN were 87.5% and 76.2%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.85. Subjects with CAN had significantly lower foot [55.0(28.2)] and hand [53.5(19.6)] ESC compared to No-CAN [foot ESC, 72.1(12.2); hand ESC 64.9(14.4)] and HV groups (ANCOVA p<0.001 and 0.001, respectively). ROC analysis of CAN risk score to correctly classify CAN revealed a sensitivity of 65.0% and specificity of 80.0%. AUC was 0.75. Both foot and hand ESC demonstrated strong correlation with individual parameters and composite scores of nerve conduction and CAN. SUDOSCAN, a non-invasive and quick test, could be used as an objective screening test for DPN in busy diabetic clinics, insuring adherence to current recommendation of annual assessments for all diabetic patients that remains unfulfilled.

  7. Instrument to screen cases of pervasive developmental disorder: a preliminary indication of validity Instrumento para rastreamento dos casos de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento: estudo preliminar de validação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pinato Sato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate into Portuguese, back-translate, culturally adapt and validate a screening instrument for pervasive developmental disorder, the Autism Screening Questionnaire, for use in Brazil. METHOD: A sample of 120 patients was selected based on three groups of 40: patients with a clinical diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder, Down syndrome, or other psychiatric disorders. The self-administered questionnaire was applied to the patients' legal guardians. Psychometric measures of the final version of the translated questionnaire were tested. RESULTS: The score of 15 had sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 95.5% as a cut-off point for the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder. Internal validity for a total of 40 questions was 0.895 for alpha and 0.896 for KR-20, ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 for both coefficients. Test and retest reliability values showed strong agreement for most questions. CONCLUSIONS: The final version of this instrument, translated into Portuguese and adapted to the Brazilian culture, had satisfactory measurement properties, suggesting preliminary validation proprieties. It was an easy-to-apply, useful tool for the diagnostic screening of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder.OBJETIVO: Tradução, retro-versão, adaptação cultural e validação do Autism Screening Questionnaire para a língua portuguesa e para o seu uso no Brasil. MÉTODO: Foi selecionada uma amostra inicial de 120 pacientes, encaminhados de duas clínicas privadas e uma pública, divida em três grupos de 40 pacientes distintos: pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de transtornos globais do desenvolvimento ou transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento; de síndrome de Down e de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. O questionário foi aplicado aos responsáveis legais dos pacientes seguindo os padrões de um questionário auto-aplicável. As medidas psicométricas do questionário traduzido, na sua versão final, foram

  8. 清远市273份HIV抗体初筛阳性标本与确证结果分析%Analysis on preliminary screening and confirmed results in 273 HIV antibody positive samples in Qingyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远玲; 詹巧莉; 罗文玲; 朱劲涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解清远市人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体初筛实验与确证实验结果符合率,为提高实验室HIV抗体检测技术提供依据.方法 对清远市2010-2011年经酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)初筛的273份标本HIV抗体阳性及可疑阳性的结果与确证实验的结果进行比较分析.结果 273份标本,经蛋白印迹(WB)试验确证HIV-1阳性257例,占94.14%;不确定9例,占3.3%;阴性7例,占2.56%.筛查阳性与确证阳性总体符合率为94.14%,确证条带gp160、gp120、p24出现率均有95%以上;出现8条以上条带的有166份,出现率为64.59%.结论 初筛试剂检测HIV抗体与WB确证试验的检测结果符合率较高,但判断HIV抗体阳性或艾滋病必须经WB试验确证,以排除假阳性.%[ Objective]To understand the coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed test in Qingyuan City, provide a basis for improving the HIV antibody examination technology. [ Methods ] The ELISA results of preliminary screening (273 HIV antibody positive samples and probable positive samples) in Qingyuan City from 2010-2011 were compared with the results of confirmed test. [Results]In 273 HIV antibody positive samples of screening, 257 cases were confirmed by Western blot (WB) test, which accounted for 94.14% , while 9 (3. 3% ) cases were uncertain and 7 (2. 56% ) cases were negative. The total coincidence rate of screening and confirmed test for positive cases was 94. 14%. The occurrence rate of gpl60, gpl20 and p24 reactive bands was over 95%. 166 cases had more than 8 bands in WB test (64. 59% ). [ Conclusion] The coincidence rate of HIV antibody screening and confirmed WB test is high. However, HIV antibody positive cases and AIDS cases must be confirmed by WB test to exclude false positive reaction.

  9. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  10. Performance of the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening Using Different Stool-Collection Devices: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Young; Suh, Mina; Baik, Hyung Won; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Lee, Chan Wha; Oh, Jae Hwan; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-11-15

    We are in the process of conducting a randomized trial to determine whether compliance with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer screening differs according to the stool-collection method. This study was an interim analysis of the performance of two stool-collection devices (sampling bottle vs conventional container). In total, 1,701 individuals (age range, 50 to 74 years) were randomized into the sampling bottle group (intervention arm) or the conventional container group (control arm). In both groups, we evaluated the FIT positivity rate, the positive predictive value for advanced neoplasia, and the detection rate for advanced neoplasia. The FIT positivity rates were 4.1% for the sampling bottles and 2.0% for the conventional containers; these values were significantly different. The positive predictive values for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.4 to 25.6) and 12.0% (95% CI, -0.7 to 24.7), respectively. The detection rates for advanced neoplasia in the sampling bottles and conventional containers were 4.5 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0) and 2.4 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 0.0 to 5.0), respectively. The impact of these findings on FIT screening performance was unclear in this interim analysis. This impact should therefore be evaluated in the final analysis following the final enrollment period.

  11. A colony multiplex quantitative PCR-Based 3S3DBC method and variations of it for screening DNA libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang An

    Full Text Available A DNA library is a collection of DNA fragments cloned into vectors and stored individually in host cells, and is a valuable resource for molecular cloning, gene physical mapping, and genome sequencing projects. To take the best advantage of a DNA library, a good screening method is needed. After describing pooling strategies and issues that should be considered in DNA library screening, here we report an efficient colony multiplex quantitative PCR-based 3-step, 3-dimension, and binary-code (3S3DBC method we used to screen genes from a planarian genomic DNA fosmid library. This method requires only 3 rounds of PCR reactions and only around 6 hours to distinguish one or more desired clones from a large DNA library. According to the particular situations in different research labs, this method can be further modified and simplified to suit their requirements.

  12. UV-visible spectroscopy method for screening the chemical stability of potential antioxidants for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Dustin; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Stewart, S. Michael; Wilson, Mahlon; Garzon, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    A novel method based on UV-visible spectroscopy is reported for screening the chemical stability of potential antioxidant additives for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and the chemical stabilities of three CeOx samples of varying crystallite sizes (6, 13, or 25 nm) are examined. The chemical stabilities predicted by this new screening method are compared to in-situ membrane electrode assembly (MEA) accelerated stress testing, with the results confirming that this rapid and inexpensive method can be used to accurately predict performance impacts of antioxidants.

  13. Evaluation of the Compact Dry VP method for screening raw seafood for total Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Teramura, Hajime; Mizuochi, Shingo; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Compact Dry VP (CDVP) is a ready-to-use method for enumerating Vibrio parahaemolyticus in food. The presterilized plates contain a culture medium comprising peptone, NaCl, bile salts, antibiotics, chromogenic substrates, and polysaccharide gum as a cold water-soluble gelling. After diluting raw seafood samples in a phosphate-buffered saline solution, a 1-ml aliquot was inoculated onto the center of the plate and allowed to diffuse by capillary action. Blue-green colonies forming on the plates were counted after 18 to 20 h of incubation at 35 degrees C. A total of 85 V. parahaemolyticus strains (62 tdh+ strains and 23 tdh- strains) were studied for inclusivity, 81 (95.3 %) of which produced blue-green colonies. When 97 strains (14 strains of Vibrio spp., 33 strains of coliform bacteria, and 50 strains of noncoliform bacteria) were assessed for exclusivity, 10 strains of Vibrio spp. produced non-blue-green colonies, and 87 strains failed to grow. The CDVP and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) methods were compared with the use of four different types of raw seafood that were inoculated with four different V. parahaemolyticus strains. For raw tuna and oysters, the FDA-BAM colony lift method was used, whereas the FDA-BAM most-probable-number method was used for salmon and scallop. The linear correlation coefficients between the CDVP and FDA-BAM methods were 0.99 for fresh raw tuna, 0.95 for fresh raw oysters, 0.95 for frozen raw salmon, and 0.95 for frozen raw scallops. These results suggest that the CDVP method is useful for screening raw seafood for V. parahaemolyticus.

  14. Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

    2012-12-15

    Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts.

  15. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  16. Screening method for the detection of a range of nitrofurans in avian eyes by optical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Colin S., E-mail: colin.thompson@afbini.gov.uk [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Veterinary Sciences Division, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Traynor, Imelda M.; Fodey, Terence L.; Crooks, Steven R.H.; Kennedy, D. Glenn [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Veterinary Sciences Division, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    An immunobiosensor assay was developed for the multi-residue screening of a range of nitrofuran compounds in avian eyes. A polyclonal antibody which binds at least 5 of the major parent nitrofurans was raised in a rabbit after inoculation with a nitrofuran mimic-protein conjugate. Sample homogenates were extracted into 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and subjected to clean-up by solid phase extraction and micro-centrifugation prior to biosensor analysis. Validation data obtained from the analysis of 21 fortified samples has shown that the method has a detection capability (CC{beta}) of less than 1 ng eye{sup -1} for nitrofurazone (NFZ). In addition, cross-reactivity data and the analysis of a smaller number of fortified samples have shown that the method will also detect a range of other major parent nitrofurans including furazolidone (FZD), furaltadone (FTD), nitrofurantoin (NFA) and nifursol (NFS). Intra-assay variation (n = 10) was calculated at 12.9% and 10.1% at concentrations of 1 ng eye{sup -1} and 2 ng eye{sup -1} NFZ respectively. Inter-assay variation (n = 3) was determined to be 10.8% and 4.7% at the same NFZ concentrations respectively. The cross-reactivity profile and validation data for the detection of these nitrofurans are presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of a small number of incurred samples using the developed method.

  17. A review on the advance of experimental assay methods and models in drug screening   %药物筛选模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟娟; 杜冠华

    2001-01-01

    The experimental models for drug screening are very important points in drug discovery. Although the drug screening techniques have been developed, such as high throughput screening (HTS), the screening assay methods (models) still limited drug discovery. In present paper, advanced animal models, cell assays and molecular methodology used for drug discovery were reviewed. The characteristics and requires of the assay methods used for drug discovery in HTS were also discussed.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  19. From CBCL to DSM: A Comparison of Two Methods to Screen for DSM-IV Diagnoses Using CBCL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Nicole P. C. M.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Coolen, Jolanda C.; van Aarle, Edward J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The screening efficiency of 2 methods to convert Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessment data into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses was compared. The Machine-Aided Diagnosis (MAD) method converts CBCL input data directly into DSM-IV symptom criteria. The…

  20. From CBCL to DSM: A Comparison of Two Methods to Screen for DSM–IV Diagnoses Using CBCL Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, N.P.C.M.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De; Coolen, J.C.; Aarle, E.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The screening efficiency of 2 methods to convert Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessment data into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses was compared. The Machine-Aided Diagnosis (MAD) method converts CBCL input

  1. From CBCL to DSM: A Comparison of Two Methods to Screen for DSM–IV Diagnoses Using CBCL Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, N.P.C.M.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De; Coolen, J.C.; Aarle, E.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The screening efficiency of 2 methods to convert Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) assessment data into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses was compared. The Machine-Aided Diagnosis (MAD) method converts CBCL input

  2. LC-MS/MS screening method for designer amphetamines, tryptamines, and piperazines in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2010-04-01

    Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, derivatives of well-known designer drugs as well as new psychoactive compounds have been sold on the illicit drug market and have led to intoxications and fatalities. The LC-MS/MS screening method presented covers 31 new designer drugs as well as cathinone, methcathinone, phencyclidine, and ketamine which were included to complete the screening spectrum. All but the last two are modified molecular structures of amphetamine, tryptamine, or piperazine. Among the amphetamine derivatives are cathinone, methcathinone, 3,4-DMA, 2,5-DMA, DOB, DOET, DOM, ethylamphetamine, MDDMA, 4-MTA, PMA, PMMA, 3,4,5-TMA, TMA-6 and members of the 2C group: 2C-B, 2C-D, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, and 2C-T-7. AMT, DPT, DiPT, MiPT, DMT, and 5MeO-DMT are contained in the tryptamine group, BZP, MDBP, TFMPP, mCPP, and MeOPP in the piperazine group. Using an Applied Biosystems LC-MS/MS API 365 TurboIonSpray it is possible to identify all 35 substances. After addition of internal standards and mixed-mode solid-phase extraction the analytes are separated using a Synergi Polar RP column and gradient elution with 1 mM ammonium formate and methanol/0.1% formic acid as mobile phases A and B. Data acquisition is performed in MRM mode with positive electro spray ionization. The assay is selective for all tested substances. Limits of detection were determined by analyzing S/N-ratios and are between 1.0 and 5.0 ng/mL. Matrix effects lie between 65% and 118%, extraction efficiencies range from 72% to 90%.

  3. Identification of imprinted genes using a novel screening method based on asynchronous DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawame, H.; Hansen, R.S.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the process of epigenetic change that occurs during germ cell development that results in either maternal- or paternal-specific gene expression. Identification of imprinted genes is of primary importance to the understanding of imprinting mechanisms and the role of specific imprinted genes in human disease. Recently, it has been established that chromosomal regions known to contain imprinted genes replicate asynchronously. We propose a novel screening method to identify imprinted genes based on replication asynchrony as a marker for imprinted domains. Dividing human cells were pulse-labeled with BrdU and separated into different fractions of S-phase by flow cytometry. A library of late-replicating inter-Alu sequences should be enriched in gene-associated sequences that replicate early on one chromosome and late on the other homologue. Clones were analyzed for replication timing by hybridization to inter-Alu replication profiles. Candidates for replication asynchrony exhibited broad or biphasic replication timing, and these were analyzed for chromosomal location by hybridizations to inter-Alu products from a hybrid mapping panel. Initial screening of 123 clones resulted in 3 asynchronously-replicating clones that localized to single chromosomes. Chromosome 17 and chromosome 19 candidates might be located in regions thought to be imprinted by synteny with mouse chromosomes. A chromosome 15 clone was further characterized because of its possible localization to the Prader-Willi/Angelman locus. This sequence was localized outside the region deleted in Prader-Willi patients, and was found to be expressed in human cell lines. Replication asynchrony for this sequence appears to be polymorphic because cells derived from some individuals indicated synchronous replication. This appears to be the first example of a polymorphism in replication asynchrony.

  4. Preliminary results of Lean method implementation in a pathology lab from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane S. Quetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncologic care shows a growing and unmet demand, and requires the search for alternatives that allow the efficient use of limited resources, the building of autonomy, and the endeavour for continuous improvement of processes. In the present work, we present the implementation of Lean philosophy at a pathology laboratory of an oncology hospital. Among the preliminary results, we highlight the redefinition of the dynamics of the staff, and the physical reorganization of the area. Such important changes culminated in an expressive reduction of lead time, even with a significant increase in the monthly load of exams.

  5. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  6. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting.

  7. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  8. Developing the clinical components of a complex intervention for a glaucoma screening trial: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. No randomised controlled trials have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of glaucoma screening for reducing sight loss. It is unclear what the most appropriate intervention to be evaluated in any glaucoma screening trial would be. The purpose of this study was to develop the clinical components of an intervention for evaluation in a glaucoma (open angle screening trial that would be feasible and acceptable in a UK eye-care service. Methods A mixed-methods study, based on the Medical Research Council (MRC framework for complex interventions, integrating qualitative (semi-structured interviews with 46 UK eye-care providers, policy makers and health service commissioners, and quantitative (economic modelling methods. Interview data were synthesised and used to revise the screening interventions compared within an existing economic model. Results The qualitative data indicated broad based support for a glaucoma screening trial to take place in primary care, using ophthalmic trained technical assistants supported by optometry input. The precise location should be tailored to local circumstances. There was variability in opinion around the choice of screening test and target population. Integrating the interview findings with cost-effectiveness criteria reduced 189 potential components to a two test intervention including either optic nerve photography or screening mode perimetry (a measure of visual field sensitivity with or without tonometry (a measure of intraocular pressure. It would be more cost-effective, and thus acceptable in a policy context, to target screening for open angle glaucoma to those at highest risk but for both practicality and equity arguments the optimal strategy was screening a general population cohort beginning at age forty. Conclusions Interventions for screening for open angle

  9. An Enhanced Sampling Strategy for High-Dimensional Models: Do We Really Need to Maximize Sample Spread for Efficient Parameter Screening Using the Method of Morris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Y. P.; Martinez, C. J.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2015-12-01

    Improved knowledge about fundamental physical processes, advances in computing power, and a focus on integrated modeling has resulted in complex environmental and water resources models. However, the high-dimensionality of these models adds to overall uncertainty and poses issues when evaluating them for sensitivity, parameter identification, and optimization through rigorous computer experiments. The parameter screening method of elementary effects (EE) offers a perfect blend of useful properties inherited from inexpensive one-at-a time methods and expensive global techniques. Since its development EE has undergone improvements largely on the sampling side with over seven sampling strategies developed during the last decade. These strategies can broadly be classified into trajectory-based and polytope-based schemes. Trajectory-based strategies are more widely used, conceptually simple, and generally use the principle of spreading the sample points in the input hyper-space as widely as possible through oversampling. Due to this their implementation have been found to be impractically time consuming for high-dimensional cases (when # input factors > 50, say). Here, we enhanced the Sampling for Uniformity (SU) (Khare et al., 2015), a trajectory-based EE sampling scheme founded on the dual principle of spread and uniformity. This new scheme - enhanced SU (eSU) is the same as SU except the manner in which intermediate trajectory points are formed. It was tested for sample uniformity, spread, sampling time, and screening efficiency. Experiments were repeated with combinations of the number of trajectories and oversampling size. Preliminary results indicate that eSU is superior to SU by some margin with respect to all four criteria. Interestingly, in the case of eSU oversampling size had no impact on any of the evaluation criteria except linear increament in sampling time. Pending further investigation, this has opened a new avenue to substantially bring down the

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Biomarkers of Human Gut Microbiota Selected via Iterative Sure Independent Screening Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Cai

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes, which is a complex metabolic disease influenced by genetic and environment, has become a worldwide problem. Previous published results focused on genetic components through genome-wide association studies that just interpret this disease to some extent. Recently, two research groups published metagenome-wide association studies (MGWAS result that found meta-biomarkers related with type 2 diabetes. However, One key problem of analyzing genomic data is that how to deal with the ultra-high dimensionality of features. From a statistical viewpoint it is challenging to filter true factors in high dimensional data. Various methods and techniques have been proposed on this issue, which can only achieve limited prediction performance and poor interpretability. New statistical procedure with higher performance and clear interpretability is appealing in analyzing high dimensional data. To address this problem, we apply an excellent statistical variable selection procedure called iterative sure independence screening to gene profiles that obtained from metagenome sequencing, and 48/24 meta-markers were selected in Chinese/European cohorts as predictors with 0.97/0.99 accuracy in AUC (area under the curve, which showed a better performance than other model selection methods, respectively. These results demonstrate the power and utility of data mining technologies within the large-scale and ultra-high dimensional genomic-related dataset for diagnostic and predictive markers identifying.

  11. NMR-based screening method for transglutaminases: rapid analysis of their substrate specificities and reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimba, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Kei-ichi; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro

    2002-03-13

    Incorporation of inter- or intramolecular covalent cross-links into food proteins with microbial transglutaminase (MTG) improves the physical and textural properties of many food proteins such as tofu, boiled fish paste, and sausage. Other transglutaminases (TGases) are expected to be used in the same way, and also to extend the scope of industrial applications to materials, drugs, and so on. The TGases have great diversity, not only in amino acid sequence and size, but also in their substrate specificities and catalytic activities, and therefore, it is quite difficult to estimate their reactivity. We have developed an NMR-based method using the enzymatic labeling technique (ELT) for simultaneous analysis of the substrate specificities and reaction rates of TGases. It is quite useful for comparing the existing TGases and for screening new TGases or TGases variants. This method has shown that MTG is superior for industrial use because of its lower substrate specificity compared with those of guinea pig liver transglutaminase (GTG) and red sea bream liver transglutaminase (FTG). We have also found that an MTG variant lacking an N-terminal aspartic acid residue has higher activity than that of the native enzyme.

  12. A screening method for the optimal selection of plate heat exchanger configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for determining the best configuration(s of gasketed plate heat exchangers is presented. The objective is to select the configuration(s with the minimum heat transfer area that still satisfies constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop of both fluids, the channel flow velocities and the exchanger thermal effectiveness. The configuration of the exchanger is defined by six parameters, which are as follows: the number of channels, the numbers of passes on each side, the fluid locations, the feed positions and the type of flow in the channels. The resulting configuration optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of the exchanger heat transfer area and a screening procedure is proposed for its solution. In this procedure, subsets of constraints are successively applied to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal solutions. Examples show that the optimization method is able to successfully determine a set of optimal configurations with a minimum number of exchanger evaluations. Approximately 5 % of the pressure drop and channel velocity calculations and 1 % of the thermal simulations are required for the solution.

  13. Euler Technology Assessment program for preliminary aircraft design employing SPLITFLOW code with Cartesian unstructured grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  14. GC/MS screening method for phthalate esters in children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Keh-Chuh; Gill, Modan; Garbin, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    Phthalate esters are commonly added into polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as softeners to make the plastic material flexible. Phthalates are suspected cancer-causing agents and possible teratogens; they have been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as the underdevelopment of reproductive organs in humans and animals. Public safety concerns about human exposure to phthalates are on the rise because they do not chemically bond to PVC and leach from the material over time. Following the lead of the European Union and Japan in restricting the use of certain phthalates, a legal limit of 0.1% in children's toys was established by the California State Legislature (AB-1108). In addition to its mission to protect public health and the environment from toxic harm, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has been delegated the role of lead agency for consumer product safety. To support DTSC's Green Chemistry activities, the Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Mobile Laboratory Team has developed an on-site screening method to monitor phthalates in children's toys. This method is simple, fast, and effective, with ample sensitivity to quantify the 6 restricted phthalates in children's toys at 100 ppm (limit of quantitation = 100 microg/g) which is 10 times lower than the legal allowable level of 0.1%. Additionally, the method has a high throughput capability and enables testing of approximately 6-10 samples per day, depending on the complexity of the sample matrix and concentration. This method is designed to survey the 6 phthalates in children's toys and other consumer products for compliance with the threshold of 0.1% (1000 ppm).

  15. Screening and confirmatory method for multiclass determination of 62 antibiotics in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Simone; Dusi, Guglielmo; Giusepponi, Danilo; Pellicciotti, Simona; Rossi, Rosanna; Saluti, Giorgio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Galarini, Roberta

    2016-01-15

    A multiclass method for screening and confirmatory analysis of antimicrobial residues in muscle has been developed and validated, according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Sixty-two antibiotics belonging to ten different drug families (amphenicols, beta-lactams, diamino-pyrimidine, lincosamides, macrolides, pleuromutilins, quinolones, rifamycins, sulfonamides and tetracyclines) have been included in the method. After the addition of an aqueous solution of EDTA, the minced muscle was extracted with acetonitrile/water mixture and, later, with pure acetonitrile. The extract was evaporated and redissolved in ammonium acetate buffer prior to LC injection. Instrumental determination was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid high resolution mass analyser (LC-HRMS/MS) operating in positive electrospray ionization mode. Chromatographic separation was optimized on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3.0 mm, 2.7 μm) with gradient using methanol and water containing 0.1% of formic acid as mobile phases. The method was validated in bovine muscle in the range 3.3-150 μg kg(-1) for all antibiotics; for some compounds with MRL higher than 100 μg kg(-1), the validation interval has been extended until 1500 μg kg(-1). The studied performance characteristics were selectivity, linearity, precision, trueness (recovery), decision limits, detection capabilities, detection and quantification limits. Satisfactory quantitative performances were obtained for all the analytes. Ruggedness tests demonstrated the applicability to swine and poultry muscle, too. Finally the wide participation in proficiency tests allowed to investigate in deep the method performances.

  16. Novel method for separation and screening of lubricant-degrading microorganisms and bacterial biodegradation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jiang; Hui Qi; Xianming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid increase of lubricant consumption, oil contamination becomes more serious. Biotreatment is an important method to remove oil contamination with some advantages. In this study, acclimatized oil-contaminated soil and used lubricating oil were sampled to isolate lubricant-degrading strains by several methods. 51 isolates were obtained and 24-well plates were employed to assess bacterial potential in high-throughput screening. The method was noted for the prominence of oil–water two-phase system with saving chemicals, shortening cycles and lessening workloads. In order to decrease inaccuracy, subculture and resting cells were inoculated into mineral salt medium with 200μl oil in well plates for the cultivation at 37 °C for 5 and 7 days, and the biodegradation potential was characterized by the changes of oil film and cell density. With appropriate evaluation by shaking flask tests, 5 isolates were retained for their potentials with the maxi-mum biodegradation from 1500 to 2200 mg · L−1 and identified as Acidovorax citrul i, Pseudomonas balearica, Acinetobacter johnsoni (two isolates with different biodegradation potentials) and Acidovorax avenae using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Also, lipase activity was determined using indicator titration and p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) methods. The results indicated that only p-NPP was successful to test lipase activity with the range of 1.93–6.29 U · ml−1. Although these five strains could degrade 1000 mg · L−1 lubricating oil in 158–168 h, there existed distinct difference in enzyme activity, which demonstrates that lipase activity could not be used as the criterion to evaluate microbial biodegradation potential for petroleum hydrocarbons.

  17. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  18. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  19. An open source based high content screening method for cell biology laboratories investigating cell spreading and adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Schmandke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adhesion dependent mechanisms are increasingly recognized to be important for a wide range of biological processes, diseases and therapeutics. This has led to a rising demand of pharmaceutical modulators. However, most currently available adhesion assays are time consuming and/or lack sensitivity and reproducibility or depend on specialized and expensive equipment often only available at screening facilities. Thus, rapid and economical high-content screening approaches are urgently needed. RESULTS: We established a fully open source high-content screening method for identifying modulators of adhesion. We successfully used this method to detect small molecules that are able to influence cell adhesion and cell spreading of Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts in general and/or specifically counteract Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion and cell spreading. The tricyclic anti-depressant clomipramine hydrochloride was shown to not only inhibit Nogo-A-Δ20-induced cell spreading inhibition in 3T3 fibroblasts but also to promote growth and counteract neurite outgrowth inhibition in highly purified primary neurons isolated from rat cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated a high content screening approach that can be used in any ordinarily equipped cell biology laboratory employing exclusively freely available open-source software in order to find novel modulators of adhesion and cell spreading. The versatility and adjustability of the whole screening method will enable not only centers specialized in high-throughput screens but most importantly also labs not routinely employing screens in their daily work routine to investigate the effects of a wide range of different compounds or siRNAs on adhesion and adhesion-modulating molecules.

  20. A meta-analysis: is low-dose computed tomography a superior method for risky lung cancers screening population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cuiping; Liu, Zilong; Zhu, Fen; Li, Shanqun; Jiang, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has been proposed to be a new screening method to discover lung cancers in an early stage, especially those patients who are in a high risk of lung cancer. The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically review the effect of LDCT on screening for lung cancers among the risky population who are older than 49 years old and with smoking exposure. We searched randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) about comparing LDCT and chest X-ray or usual caring from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge and SpringerLink databases (January 1994 to September 2013). Nine RCTs met criteria for inclusion. Screening for lung cancer using LDCT resulted in a significantly higher number of stage I lung cancers [odds ratio (OR) 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-2.47], higher number of total lung cancers (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43) than the control. Four of the nine studies indicated that the screening method did not decrease all-cause mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.02), but decreased lung cancer-specific mortality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Five studies showed that LDCT had higher false-positive rates (OR 8.7, 95% CI 7.43-10.19) than the group of control. Among the risky population, LDCT screening find out more stage I lung cancers and total lung cancers compared with chest X-ray or no screening, and also shows advantages in decreasing lung cancer-specific mortality, but the screening method does not decrease all-cause mortality and have a higher false-positive rates in diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An effective method for controlling false discovery and false nondiscovery rates in genome-scale RNAi screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2010-10-01

    In most genome-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screens, the ultimate goal is to select siRNAs with a large inhibition or activation effect. The selection of hits typically requires statistical control of 2 errors: false positives and false negatives. Traditional methods of controlling false positives and false negatives do not take into account the important feature in RNAi screens: many small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may have very small but real nonzero average effects on the measured response and thus cannot allow us to effectively control false positives and false negatives. To address for deficiencies in the application of traditional approaches in RNAi screening, the author proposes a new method for controlling false positives and false negatives in RNAi high-throughput screens. The false negatives are statistically controlled through a false-negative rate (FNR) or false nondiscovery rate (FNDR). FNR is the proportion of false negatives among all siRNAs examined, whereas FNDR is the proportion of false negatives among declared nonhits. The author also proposes new concepts, q*-value and p*-value, to control FNR and FNDR, respectively. The proposed method should have broad utility for hit selection in which one needs to control both false discovery and false nondiscovery rates in genome-scale RNAi screens in a robust manner.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  3. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  4. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  5. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  6. Developing a powerful In Silico tool for the discovery of novel caspase-3 substrates: a preliminary screening of the human proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyash Muneef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspases are a family of cysteinyl proteases that regulate apoptosis and other biological processes. Caspase-3 is considered the central executioner member of this family with a wide range of substrates. Identification of caspase-3 cellular targets is crucial to gain further insights into the cellular mechanisms that have been implicated in various diseases including: cancer, neurodegenerative, and immunodeficiency diseases. To date, over 200 caspase-3 substrates have been identified experimentally. However, many are still awaiting discovery. Results Here, we describe a powerful bioinformatics tool that can predict the presence of caspase-3 cleavage sites in a given protein sequence using a Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM approach. The present tool, which we call CAT3, was built using 227 confirmed caspase-3 substrates that were carefully extracted from the literature. Assessing prediction accuracy using 10 fold cross validation, our method shows AUC (area under the ROC curve of 0.94, sensitivity of 88.83%, and specificity of 89.50%. The ability of CAT3 in predicting the precise cleavage site was demonstrated in comparison to existing state-of-the-art tools. In contrast to other tools which were trained on cleavage sites of various caspases as well as other similar proteases, CAT3 showed a significant decrease in the false positive rate. This cost effective and powerful feature makes CAT3 an ideal tool for high-throughput screening to identify novel caspase-3 substrates. The developed tool, CAT3, was used to screen 13,066 human proteins with assigned gene ontology terms. The analyses revealed the presence of many potential caspase-3 substrates that are not yet described. The majority of these proteins are involved in signal transduction, regulation of cell adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, integrity of the nucleus, and development of nerve cells. Conclusions CAT3 is a powerful tool that is a clear improvement over

  7. Screening of Transgenic Soybean Transformed by Means of Pollen-tube Using Kanamycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuzhen; XU Pengfei; ZHANG Dayong; LIN Shifeng; LI Wenbin; HAN Yingpeng; YANG Chuanping

    2006-01-01

    Kanamycin was used to screen T0 seeds of the variety Dongnong 46 transformed by means of and 2 positive plants were gotten combined with Gus dyeing and PCR detection. It is proved that this method is economic and effective in preliminary screening the transgenic plants.

  8. Rapid Screening Method for Detecting Ethinyl Estradiol in Natural Water Employing Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalder Nogueira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 17α-Ethinyl estradiol (EE2, which is used worldwide in the treatment of some cancers and as a contraceptive, is often found in aquatic systems and is considered a pharmaceutically active compound (PhACs in the environment. Current methods for the determination of this compound, such as chromatography, are expensive and lengthy and require large amounts of toxic organic solvents. In this work, a voltammetric procedure is developed and validated as a screening tool for detecting EE2 in water samples without prior extraction, clean-up, or derivatization steps. Application of the method we elaborate here to EE2 analysis is unprecedented. EE2 detection was carried out using differential pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP AdCSV with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE in pH 7.0 Britton-Robinson buffer. The electrochemical process of EE2 reduction was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates. Electroreduction of the hormone on a mercury electrode exhibited a peak at −1.16±0.02 V versus Ag/AgCl. The experimental parameters were as follows: −0.7 V accumulation potential, 150 s accumulation time, and 60 mV s−1 scan rate. The limit of detection was 0.49 μg L−1 for a preconcentration time of 150 s. Relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The method was applied to the detection of EE2 in water samples with recoveries ranging from 93.7 to 102.5%.

  9. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees’ well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37 in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market’s departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers’ well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288, we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities.

  10. Rapid Screening Method for Detecting Ethinyl Estradiol in Natural Water Employing Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    17α-Ethinyl estradiol (EE2), which is used worldwide in the treatment of some cancers and as a contraceptive, is often found in aquatic systems and is considered a pharmaceutically active compound (PhACs) in the environment. Current methods for the determination of this compound, such as chromatography, are expensive and lengthy and require large amounts of toxic organic solvents. In this work, a voltammetric procedure is developed and validated as a screening tool for detecting EE2 in water samples without prior extraction, clean-up, or derivatization steps. Application of the method we elaborate here to EE2 analysis is unprecedented. EE2 detection was carried out using differential pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP AdCSV) with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in pH 7.0 Britton-Robinson buffer. The electrochemical process of EE2 reduction was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates. Electroreduction of the hormone on a mercury electrode exhibited a peak at −1.16 ± 0.02 V versus Ag/AgCl. The experimental parameters were as follows: −0.7 V accumulation potential, 150 s accumulation time, and 60 mV s−1 scan rate. The limit of detection was 0.49 μg L−1 for a preconcentration time of 150 s. Relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The method was applied to the detection of EE2 in water samples with recoveries ranging from 93.7 to 102.5%. PMID:27738548

  11. Evaluation of a Rapid Method for Screening Heat Stress Tolerance Using Three Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hai An; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Won Je; Lee, Byung Cheon; Chung, Namhyun; Kang, Chon-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2017-07-19

    Thermotolerance in plants is a topic of concern given the current trends in global warming. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid and reproducible screening method for selection of heat stress-tolerant wheat varieties to expedite the breeding process. We tested the robustness of the screen in three Korean wheat cultivars, "BackJung", "KeumKang", and "ChoKyeong". We showed that 4-day-old seedlings of "KeumKang" had the highest survival rates after a 45 °C treatment for 20 h. Moreover, the ability to retain chlorophyll and antioxidant activity was also highest in "KeumKang". The increase in malondialdehyde content in "ChoKyeong" indicated that this cultivar showed the greatest damage after heat stress. Collectively, our results showed that "KeumKang" is the most heat-tolerant cultivar of the three examined. In conclusion, the most reliable and rapid screening method in our investigation was survival rate examined at lethal temperature.

  12. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...... complementation of any spurious recessive mutations in the library strain, facilitating attribution of the observed phenotype to the documented gene deletion and dramatically reducing false positive results commonly obtained in library screens. The systematic hybrid LOH method can be applied to virtually any...

  13. CEM V based special cementitious materials investigated by means of SANS method. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragolici, A. C.; Balasoiu, M.; Orelovich, O. L.; Ionascu, L.; Nicu, M.; Soloviov, D. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lizunov, E. I.; Dragolici, F.

    2017-05-01

    The management of the radioactive waste assume the conditioning in a cement matrix as an embedding, stable, disposal material. Cement matrix is the first and most important engineering barrier against the migration in the environment of the radionuclides contained in the waste packages. Knowing how the microstructure develops is therefore desirable in order to assess the compatibility of radioactive streams with cement and predict waste form performance during storage and disposal. For conditioning wastes containing radioactive aluminum new formulas of low basicity cements, using coatings as a barrier between the metal and the conditioning environment or introducing a corrosion inhibitor in the matrix system are required. Preliminary microstructure investigation of such improved CEM V based cement matrix is reported.

  14. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  15. 结核分枝杆菌模拟抗原的筛选及初步应用%Simulation antigens screening from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its preliminary clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽蓉; 乐军; 刘建芳; 韩敏; 杨景卉; 陈晋

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a new clinical diagnosis method of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by ESAT-6and CFP-10 peptide library screening of M. Tuberculosis antigen simulation. METHODS A random peptide library was designed and synthesized based on the sequences of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 protein. M. Tuberculosis antigen-specific analog peplides were screened by y-interferon release tests, the working concentration was also determined. RESULTS Three specific analog peptides were obtained after several rounds of screening, including P1MG, P8NV, and P11LD, with the sensitivity of 93. 3%, 90. 0%,80. 0% respectively; all the specificity was greater than 90%. The concentration of the working concentration is 2 jug/ml. The three analog peptides worked as the original stimulus in detecting y-interferon release when they were mixed in the equal levels. The preliminary clinical validation study showed that the sensitivity was 95. 3%, and specificity was 96. 2%. CONCLUSION By using the mixed analog peptide antigen which were designed, selected, prepared based on protein ESAT-6 and CFP-10 sequence, it is expected to establish a new method of clinical diagnosis of M. Tuberculosis.%目的 通过对甲期分泌抗原-6(ESAT-6)及培养基滤过蛋白-10(CFP-10)肽库的结核分枝杆菌模拟抗原的筛选,旨在建立一个临床鉴别诊断结核分枝杆菌感染的新方法.方法 基于蛋白ESAT-6和CFP 10的序列,随机设计合成一组1 9肽库,通过γ-干扰素释放试验筛选特异性结核分枝杆菌抗原模拟多肽,并研究确立其工作浓度.结果 经过多轮筛选获得3条特异性模拟多肽,分别是P1MG、P8NV、P11LD,灵敏度分别为93.3%、90.0%、80.0%,特异性均>90.0%;工作浓度均为2 μg/ml;将3种模拟多肽等浓度混合作为刺激原,初步临床验证试验表明,其灵敏度为95.3%,特异性为96.2%.结论 基于蛋白ESAT-6和CFP-10的序列设计、筛选、制备的混合型模拟多肽抗原,有望建立一种

  16. Preliminary Study on Machining Condition Monitoring System Using 3-Channel Force Sensor Analyzed by I-kaz Multilevel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutting tool wear is one of the major problems affecting the finished product in term of surface finish quality, dimensional precision and the cost of the defect. This paper discusses the preliminary study on machining condition monitoring system using force data captured using 3-channel force sensor. The data were analyzed by I-kaz multilevel method to monitor the flank wear progression during the machining. The flank wear of the cutting insert was measured using Moticom magnifier under two different operational conditions in turning process. A 3-channel Kistler force sensor was assembled to hold the tool holder to measure the force on the cutting tool in the tangential, radial and feed direction during the machining process. The signals were transmitted to the data acquisition equipment, and finally to the computer system. I-kaz multilevel method was used to identify and characterize the changes in the signals from the sensors under two different experimental set up. The values of I-kaz multilevel coefficients for all channels are strongly correlated with the cutting tool wear condition. This preliminary study can be further developed to efficiently monitor and predict flank wear level which can be used in the real machining industry.

  17. Preliminary Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System: Task 2.1.1: Evaluating Effects of Stressors – Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-11-15

    Possible environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term effects. An understanding of risk associated with likely interactions between MHK installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help reduce the level of uncertainty and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. As a first step in developing the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), PNNL scientists conducted a preliminary risk screening analysis on three initial MHK cases - a tidal project in Puget Sound using Open Hydro turbines, a wave project off the coast of Oregon using Ocean Power Technologies point attenuator buoys, and a riverine current project in the Mississippi River using Free Flow turbines. Through an iterative process, the screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in all three cases were the effects of the dynamic physical presence of the device (e.g., strike), accidents, and effects of the static physical presence of the device (e.g., habitat alteration). Receptor interactions with these stressors at the four highest tiers of risk were dominated by marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and birds (diving and non-diving); only the riverine case (Free Flow) included different receptors in the third tier (fish) and the fourth tier (benthic invertebrates). Although this screening analysis provides a preliminary analysis of vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with MHK installations, probability analysis, especially of risk associated with chemical toxicity and accidents such as oil spills or lost gear, will be necessary to further understand high-priority risks. Subject matter expert review of this process and results is required and is

  18. Transmission rates, screening methods and costs of MRSA--a systematic literature review related to the prevalence in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tübbicke, A; Hübner, C; Kramer, A; Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S

    2012-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections represent a serious challenge for health care institutions, which is inherent in the combination of prevalence, transmission rates and costs. Furthermore, performing an MRSA screening requires information on the complex system of effectiveness, accuracy and costs of different screening methods. The purpose of this study was to give an overview of parameters with decisive significance for the burden of MRSA and the selection of a specific MRSA screening strategy. A systematic literature search for peer-reviewed health economic studies associated with MRSA was performed (from 1995 to the present). Eighty-seven different studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary outcomes included the prevalence of MRSA, MRSA transmission rates, performance characteristics of MRSA screening methods, costs for pre-emptive isolation precautions and costs per MRSA case. The prevalence rates reported for all inpatients (1.2-5.3 %) as well as for inpatients with risk factors or patients in risk areas (3.85-20.6 %) vary greatly. The range of cross-transmission rates per day reported for patients with MRSA in isolation is 0.00081-0.009 and for carriers not in isolation is 0.00137-0.140, respectively. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 91.09 and 95.79 %, respectively. Culture methods show an average sensitivity of 89.01 % and an average specificity of 93.21 %. The turn-around time for PCR methods averages 15 h, while for the culture method, it can only be estimated as 48-72 h. This review filtered important parameters and cost drivers, and covered them with literature-based averages. These findings serve as an ideal evidence base for further health economic considerations of the cost-effectiveness of different MRSA screening methods.

  19. A bivariate binormal ROC methodology for comparing new methods to an existing standard for screening applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2007-03-01

    Validating the use of new imaging technologies for screening large patient populations is an important and very challenging area of diagnostic imaging research. A particular concern in ROC studies evaluating screening technologies is the problem of verification bias, in which an independent verification of disease status is only available for a subpopulation of patients, typically those with positive results by a current screening standard. For example, in screening mammography, a study might evaluate a new approach using a sample of patients that have undergone needle biopsy following a standard mammogram and subsequent work-up. This case sampling approach provides accurate independent verification of ground truth and increases the prevalence of disease cases. However, the selection criteria will likely bias results of the study. In this work we present an initial exploration of an approach to correcting this bias within the parametric framework of binormal assumptions. We posit conditionally bivariate normal distributions on the latent decision variable for both the new methodology as well as the screening standard. In this case, verification bias can be seen as the effect of missing data from an operating point in the screening standard. We examine the magnitude of this bias in the setting of breast cancer screening with mammography, and we derive a maximum likelihood approach to estimating bias corrected ROC curves in this model.

  20. Properties of ZnS:Cu,Cl Thick Film Electroluminescent Devices by Screen Printing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. S.; Yoo, S. H.; Chang, H. J. [Dankook University, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    The ZnS:Cu,Cl thick film electroluminescent devices with the stacking type(separated with phosphors and insulator layers) and the composite type (mixed with phosphor and insulator materials) emission layers were fabricated on ITO/glass substrates by the screen printing methods. The optical and electrical properties were investigated as functions of applied voltages and frequencies. In the stacking type, the luminance was about 58 cd/m{sup 2} at the applied voltage of 400Hz, 200V and increased to 420 cd/m{sup 2} with increasing the frequency to 30Hz. For the composite type devices, the threshold voltage was 45V and the maximum luminance was 670 cd/m{sup 2} at the driving condition of 200V, 30Hz. The value of luminance of the composite type device showed 1.5 times higher than that of stacking type device. The main emission peak was 512 nm of bluish-green color at 1 Hz frequency below and shifted to 452 nm in the driving frequency over 5Hz showing the blue emission color. There were no distinct differences of the main emission peaks and color coordinate for both samples. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  1. IN SEARCH OF A FAST SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTING THE MALINGERING OF COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amada Ampudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forensic settings demand expedient and conclusive forensic psychological assessment. The aim of this study was to design a simple and fast, but reliable psychometric instrument for detecting the malingering of cognitive impairment. In a quasi-experimental design, 156 individuals were divided into three groups: a normal group with no cognitive impairment; a Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI group; and a group of informed malingerers with no MCI who feigned cognitive impairment. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC analysis of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM, and of several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III revealed that the WMS-III was as reliable and accurate as the TOMM in discriminating malingerers from the honest. The results revealed that the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the WMS-III Auditory Recognition Delayed of Verbal Paired Associates subtest was similar to the TOMM in discriminating malingering from genuine memory impairment. In conclusion, the WMS-III Recognition of Verbal Paired Associates subtest and the TOMM provide a fast, valid and reliable screening method for detecting the malingering of cognitive impairment.

  2. Development of RNAi method for screening candidate genes to control emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais B; Rieske, Lynne K; J Duan, Jian; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba R

    2017-08-07

    The ingestion of double-strand RNAs (dsRNA) targeting essential genes in an insect could cause mortality. Based on this principle, a new generation of insect control methods using RNA interference (RNAi) are being developed. In this work, we developed a bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to an invasive forest and urban tree pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis). EAB feeds and develops beneath the bark, killing trees rapidly. This behavior, coupled with the lack of a reliable artificial diet for rearing larvae and adults, make them difficult to study. We found that dsRNA is transported and processed to siRNAs by EAB larvae within 72 h after ingestion. Also, feeding neonate larvae with IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) or COP (COPI coatomer, β subunit) dsRNA silenced their target genes and caused mortality. Both an increase in the concentration of dsRNA fed and sequential feeding of two different dsRNAs increased mortality. Here we provide evidence for successful RNAi in EAB, and demonstrate the development of a rapid and effective bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to screen additional genes.

  3. A simple, novel and high efficiency sap inoculation method to screen for tobacco streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresha, S; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Balol, Gurupada B; Keshavareddy, G; Rangaswamy, K T; Udayakumar, M

    2012-10-01

    A rapid and efficient sap inoculation method for tobacco streak virus (TSV) was developed in sunflower. Sap from TSV-infected sunflower plants was freshly extracted in phosphate buffer and diluted serially from 10(-1) to 10(-8). Two-day old seedlings of sunflower were injured at the meristem and immersed in the sap for 10 min, maintained at 20 °C for 2-3 days and shifted to greenhouse. The surviving seedlings in the respective sap dilution were scored for symptoms of sunflower necrosis disease (SND). SND symptoms were seen in 80 % of the seedlings inoculated with a sap dilution of 10(-5). ELISA and RT-PCR analysis of coat protein and movement protein of TSV confirmed SND symptoms. The methodology was also found to be reproducible when the sap from the infected plants was inoculated onto healthy plants. The main aim of the study was to develop a primary screening strategy for the selection of transgenics developed for SND resistance. This methodology can also be extended for the analysis of resistance against other viruses.

  4. Label-free high-throughput screening via mass spectrometry: a single cystathionine quantitative method for multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Tom G; Choi, Bernard K; Geoghagen, Neil S; Jensen, Kristian K; Luo, Qi; LaMarr, William A; Makara, Gergely M; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Ozbal, Can C; Xiong, Yusheng; Dufresne, Claude; Luo, Ming-Juan

    2009-10-01

    Label-free mass spectrometric (MS) technologies are particularly useful for enzyme assay design for drug discovery screens. MS permits the selective detection of enzyme substrates or products in a wide range of biological matrices without need for derivatization, labeling, or capture technologies. As part of a cardiovascular drug discovery effort aimed at finding modulators of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), we used the RapidFire((R)) label-free high-throughput MS (HTMS) technology to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for CBS activity. The in vitro assay used HTMS to quantify the unlabeled product of the CBS reaction, cystathionine. Cystathionine HTMS analyses were carried out with a throughput of 7 s per sample and quantitation over a linear range of 80-10,000 nM. A compound library of 25,559 samples (or 80 384-well plates) was screened as singlets using the HTMS assay in a period of 8 days. With a hit rate of 0.32%, the actives showed a 90% confirmation rate. The in vitro assay was applied to secondary screens in more complex matrices with no additional analytical development. Our results show that the HTMS method was useful for screening samples containing serum, for cell-based assays, and for liver explants. The novel extension of the in vitro analytical method, without modification, to secondary assays resulted in a significant and advantageous economy of development time for the drug discovery project.

  5. Evaluation of latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium for the detection of oxacillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (ORCoNS (Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoekoer M. Dzen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS are recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection, especially in neonates and patients with indwelling prosthetic devices. The CoNS resistance rate to oxacillin has been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of oxacillin resistance is essential in order to determine the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed to prove that latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of oxacilllin resistant CoNS (ORCoNS. Latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium compared with the conventional method was conducted in this study toward 30 clinical isolates of CoNS for the detection of ORCoNS. Mc Nemar test was used to analyze the data. The study result revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in terms of ORCoNS detection between the latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium on the one hand, and the conventional method on the other. It is concluded that latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of ORCoNS. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:228-32Keywords: nosocomial infection, rapid detection, mecA gene

  6. In-Vitro Anti fungal Screening of Embelia Ribes Plant Extract through EUCAST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjesh G Rathi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the Embelia ribes plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test method like EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing M27-A2 Protocol.Antifungal screening of Embelia ribes not studied in detail and not extended to the different spectrum of fungal which are causing human diseases. Thus different types of extracts were prepared using different solvents and TLC characterized. Assays were performed in 96 well plates and detection was carried out with colorimetric plate reader at 530nm.To obtain the MIC50 with the help of the graph pad prism software.The petroleum ether extract, solvent ether extract and methanol extract had low MIC50 values against the Candida species than the other species. Solvent ether extract and petroleum ether extract were highly effective against the c.albicans (MTCC NO 183 with the 65 mg/L and 32mg/L MIC50 values. The methanol extract were more active against c.albican (MTCC NO 183 species with 300-500 mg/L MIC50 value. The solvent ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, potassium embelate and Embelin have reported the MIC50 values in range of 800-1600 mg/L against c.tropicalis (MTCC NO 184 and c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744. The petroleum ether extract and potassium embelate was found to have MIC50 between range 300-700 mg/L against c.parapsilosis (MTCC NO 1744 and a.fumigatus (MTCC NO 2550 .Other extracts required higher concentrations against c.parapsilosis and a.fumigatus. Water extract was found to have MIC50 values greater than 2000 mg/L against all fungus. Most of the results for the Embelin could not obtain by EUCAST method due to having higher fluctuation in results.

  7. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  8. Rapid screening of anti-infective drug products for counterfeits using Raman spectral library-based correlation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loethen, Yvette L; Kauffman, John F; Buhse, Lucinda F; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2015-11-07

    A new spectral library-based approach that is capable of screening a diverse set of finished drug products using only an active pharmaceutical ingredient spectral library is described in this paper. This approach obviates the need for a comprehensive drug product library, thereby streamlining the use of spectral library-based tests for anti-counterfeiting efforts, specifically to target finished drug products containing the wrong active ingredient or no active ingredient at all. Both laboratory-based and portable spectrometers are used in the study to demonstrate the usefulness and transferability of the spectral correlation method for field screening. The spectral correlation between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and finished drug product spectra is calculated using both full spectral analysis and targeted spectral regions analysis of six types of antimalarial, antibiotic and antiviral products. The spectral regions were determined using a moving window spectral correlation algorithm, and the use of specific spectral regions is shown to be crucial in screening finished drug products using only the active pharmaceutical ingredient spectrum. This comprehensive screening spectral correlation method is tested on seven different validation samples from different manufacturers as those used to develop the method, as well as simulated counterfeits which were prepared to mimic falsified drugs containing no active ingredient. The spectral correlation method is successful in correctly identifying 100% of the authentic products and simulated counterfeit samples tested.

  9. A simple and effective plating method to screen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under various redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Youngsoon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Holoman, Tracey Pulliam

    2010-09-01

    Agar plates with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) layer have been used to screen for microorganisms that degrade PAHs, leaving clear zones around colonies; however, there are several problems with previous methods such as undesired contamination in the fume hood and difficulty in controlling the amount of PAH on the plates. In this study, we developed a modified screening method to address the drawbacks encountered with previous screening methods. A uniform white layer of PAHs was generated by spreading PAHs dissolved in volatile solvents over a surface of solidified agar medium, followed by the evaporation of the solvents. An inoculation was then performed by spreading a molten agar medium containing microbial samples over the solidified agar medium with a PAH layer. Subsequently, the white PAH layer migrated to the surface of the molten agar medium. This essential modification enabled us not only to solve problems of the previous screening methods but also to prepare an agar plate with a PAH layer without a complicated experimental scheme in the anaerobic chamber. After solidification of the molten agar medium and incubation of the plates, clear zones were successfully detected around colonies with aerobic and anaerobic PAH-degrading microbial cultures.

  10. Method with high-throughput screening potential for antioxidative substances using Escherichia coli biosensor katG'::lux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienaho, Jenni; Sarjala, Tytti; Franzén, Robert; Karp, Matti

    2015-11-01

    A new method is described for the rapid real-time screening of antioxidative properties using a recombinant Escherichia coli DPD2511 biosensor. This microplate technique, without time-consuming pre-incubations and handling, has potential for a high-throughput search of bioactive compounds. Special emphasis was given to obtaining highly reliable and repeatable results.

  11. Screening for hearing and visual loss among elderly with questionnaires and tests : which method is the most convincing for action?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, JAH; De Bock, GH; Schaapveld, K; Springer, MP

    2000-01-01

    Objective - To examine the extent to which self-report and performance-based measures identify the same people, and also whether one of these methods any more than the other induces the general practitioner (GP) to offer a patient help? Design - Comparison of tests and questionnaire in a screening

  12. Screening for hearing and visual loss among elderly with questionnaires and tests : which method is the most convincing for action?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, JAH; De Bock, GH; Schaapveld, K; Springer, MP

    2000-01-01

    Objective - To examine the extent to which self-report and performance-based measures identify the same people, and also whether one of these methods any more than the other induces the general practitioner (GP) to offer a patient help? Design - Comparison of tests and questionnaire in a screening p

  13. A PiggyBac-based recessive screening method to identify pluripotency regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Guo

    Full Text Available Phenotype driven genetic screens allow unbiased exploration of the genome to discover new biological regulators. Bloom syndrome gene (Blm deficient embryonic stem (ES cells provide an opportunity for recessive screening due to frequent loss of heterozygosity. We describe a strategy for isolating regulators of mammalian pluripotency based on conversion to homozygosity of PiggyBac gene trap insertions combined with stringent selection for differentiation resistance. From a screen of 2000 mutants we obtained a disruptive integration in the Tcf3 gene. Homozygous Tcf3 mutants showed impaired differentiation and enhanced self-renewal. This phenotype was reverted in a dosage sensitive manner by excision of one or both copies of the gene trap. These results provide new evidence confirming that Tcf3 is a potent negative regulator of pluripotency and validate a forward screening methodology to identify modulators of pluripotent stem cell biology.

  14. [Performance of different methods of estimating risk screening for chromosomal anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avătăjitei, Maria-Cristina; Moscalu, Mihaela; Martiniuc, Violeta; Onofriescu, M

    2012-01-01

    In the last 10 years, several studies have been carried out on additional ultrasound markers in the first trimester of pregnancy in order to improve detection rate of fetal numerical chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy) and to reduce the rate of false-positive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of various recommendations for which amniocentesis was performed followed by FISH testing in the diagnosis of aneuploidy. These evaluations were conducted in order to determine whether ultrasound aspects are associated with fetal aneuploidy and to estimate the risk level of individual markers using probability estimation analysis. The study has been carried out at the Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology "CuzaVodă" Iaşi, at the Laboratory of cytogenetic--prenatal diagnosis, during January 2004-December 2011, on a target group of 1406 pregnant women. As part of this study, 1411 amniocentesis were performed. increased efficiency of screening for fetal aneuploidy in the first trimester of pregnancy is obtained through combined method (maternal age over 35 years, increased nuchal translucency and the presence of double test risk) which has 100% detection rate and a rate false-positive result of 0%. The efficiency of this method is provided also by the relatively high risk (RR = 17.2) and its specificity (Sp = 100%). Making the assessment following the study false positive rate, it appears that a good method of risk assessment for aneuploidy is the combined evaluation of increased nuchal translucency (NT) with maternal age over 35 years (specificity 99.5%, a detection rate of 40% false positive rate of 0.45% and a relative risk of 7.09 for the presence of aneuploidy). The achievement of a correct prenatal diagnosis and the increase of the method efficiency, requires a correct selection of cases with aneuploidy risk assessment, based on the results of ultrasound and biochemical (double test risk) investigations correlated with

  15. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  16. Using video games for volcanic hazard education and communication: an assessment of the method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.

  17. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  18. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    MUNARI, F. M.; de-Paris,F.; Salton, G.D.; Lora,P.S; Giovanella, P.; Machado, A.B.M.P.; Laybauer, L.S.; Oliveira, K.R.P.; C. Ferri; Silveira, J.L.S.; Laurino,C.C.F.C; Xavier, R.M.; Barth,A.L.; S Echeverrigaray; Laurino, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women a...

  19. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  20. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.